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CHAPTER 1

HEALTH, SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENT

HIRA (Hazard Identification and Risk Assesment)

Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis (HIRA) is a collective term that

encompasses all activities involved in identifying hazards and evaluating risk at

facilities, throughout their life cycle, to make certain that risks to employees, the
public, or the environment are consistently controlled within the organizations
risk tolerance. It is a process of defining and describing hazards by characterizing

their probability, frequency and severity and evaluating adverse consequences,

including potential loses and injuries. HIRA is based on routine activities such as
daily, weekly, or monthly. The activities include the poduction process or

operating process in plant. Below is the schematic of steps to determine HIRA.

Based on the hazard probability and severity information that we have

obtain, we can now make a Risk Assemsment, a quantitative or qualitative

determination of risk related to sequences of actvities. The value of risk itself can
be calculated by multiplying the quantitative value of hazard severity with the
amount of its probability within certain amount of time. The equation to calculate
risk (R) is provided below.
Risk = Hazard Severity x Hazard Probability
Based on calculation above, we must know the value of each variables to
get the R value. To calculate the hazard probability, we will write down the
parameter and the estimated occurance per periode to specify the level of
probability to high, medium, or low.
Table X.X Hazard Probability
Parameter

Unllikely (1)

Likely (2)

Hazard
probability

1-2 times every


100 periods

3-5 times every


100 periods

Most Likely (3)


Above 5 times
every 100
periods

We have to also determine the severity of damaged that will be caused by


the risks. The severity will be classified into low damafe, medium damage, and
high damage. The parameters for the severity is determined by who would be
affected by the risks, incuding human resources, productivity, and environment.
The hazard severity table is provided below.
Table X.X Hazard Severities
Parameter

Human
Resources

Productivity

Environment

Low (1)

Medium (2)

No injuries

Minor injury,
still able to do
work after

Production still
on schedule
(losses under
25%)
No significant
damage, can be
removed/cleaned
in less than a
month

Production
reduces
significantly
(loses 25-50%)
Minor damage.
Requires 1-6
months to fully
remove the
pollutant.

High (3)
Fatal injury
(involves
bleeding,
fracture, fainting
and other body
malfunction, and
death)
Production stops
(loses 50-100%)
Fatal damage.
Requires more
than 6 months to
fully remove the
pollutant.

After we specify the parameter to determine the values of each variables,


er can make the risk matrix below. The value of risk (R) this matrix is calculated
by utilizing the equation that has been defined above.
Table X.X Risk Matrix
Metrics
Unlikely (1)
Likely (2)
Most Likely (3)

Low (1)
1
2
3

Medium (2)
2
4
6

High (3)
3
6
9

The colours above have different meaning. Below is the specification of


each colors:
Colour

Type
Safe

Specification
The process will continue even after the risk

Moderate

happened
We have to pay attention to the variable to

High

maintain the process intensively


The process has to be stopped if this risk
happens

So, after we identify the hazard effect, the hazard probability, and the
metric of risk, we can make the HIRA analysis. Below is the HIRA specification.

Table X.X HIRA of Herbal Anti-bacterial Hand and Body Lotion


Activity

Raw materials
storing

Raw materials
mobilization

Operating storage
vessels

Hazard
Potency

Hazard Effect

Severity
Level

Probability
Level

Risk

Expiration

Loss of raw
materials

Medium
(2)

Likely (2)

Moderate
(4)

Air
contamination

Raw materials
contamination

High (3)

Most Likely
(3)

High (9)

Spilled or
scattered

Loss of raw
materials

Medium
(2)

Likely (2)

Moderate
(4)

Exposure to
laborer

Minor injuries

Medium
(2)

Most likely (3)

High (6)

Spilled or
scattered when
charging

Loss of raw
materials

Low (1)

Most likely (3)

Moderate
(3)

Overload

Loss of raw
materials

Medium
(2)

Likely (2)

Moderate
(4)

Leakage

Loss of raw

Medium

Likely (2)

Moderate

Action
(Prevention or
Countermeasures)
Neat organization of the
inflow and usage of raw
materials (raw material
scheduling)

Final Risk
(After
action)

Isolating storage room

High (6)

Professional laborer,
bigger capacity of loading
cart, locked cart, addition
of Standard Operational
Procedure, Hire
Supervisor
Usage of PPE, addition of
Standard Operational
Procedure
Professional laborer,
addition of Standard
Operational Procedure
Professional laborer,
addition of Standard
Operational Procedure,
Hire Supervisor
Routine checking and

Safe (2)

Safe (2)

Safe (2)

Safe (2)

Safe (2)
Safe (2)

Operating
electrical related
equipments

Operating filling
equipment

materials

(2)

(4)

Labor contact

Minor injuries

Medium
(2)

Likely (2)

Moderate
(4)

Short circuit

Fire

High (3)

Unikely (1)

Moderate
(3)

Leakage

Loss of raw
materials

Medium
(2)

Likely (2)

Moderate
(4)

Overpressure

Damaged
Equipment

High (3)

Unlikely (1)

Moderate
(3)

Overheating

Damaged
Equipment

High (3)

Unlikely (1)

Moderate
(3)

Labor contact

Major injuries

High (3)

Unlikely (1)

Moderate
(3)

Unstacked
bottle assembly

Unfilled bottles

Low (1)

Likely (2)

Moderate
(3)

Underfilling

Products

Low (1)

Likely (2)

Safe (2)

maintenance, Hire
Supervisor
Usage of PPE, addition of
Standard Operational
Procedure
Usage of certified and
good quality wires,
addition of fire
extinguisher
Routine checking and
maintenance, Hire
Supervisor
Better equipment material
and automated control
system
Better equipment material
and automated control
system
Usage of PPE, addition of
Standard Operational
Procedure, available
emergency services in
plant
Automated bottle
assembling system
addition
Hire product quaity

Safe (2)

Safe (2)

Safe (2)

Safe (2)

Safe (2)

Safe (2)

Safe (1)
Safe (1)

Overfilling

Operating
capping
equipment
Monitoring and
operating the
equipment
system control

cannot be sold
Products
cannot be
capped

assessor
Low (1)

Likely (2)

Safe (2)

Unlikely (1)

Safe (2)

Labor contact

Minor injuries

Medium
(2)

Unstacked
bottle assembly

Uncapped
bottles

Low (1)

Likely (2)

Safe (2)

Broken button

Production is
not optimal

Medium
(2)

Unlikely (1)

Safe (2)

Broken wires

Production is
not optimal

Medium
(2)

Unlikely (1)

Safe (2)

Pipe leak

Loss of
products

Medium
(2)

Likely (2)

Moderate
(4)

Pipe corrosion

Contamination
of products

High (3)

Most likely (3)

High (9)

Medium
(2)

Likely (2)

Moderate
(4)

Monitoring the
pipeline

Product
mobilization to

Slipped and
Fall

Minor injuries

Routine checking and


maintenance
Usage of PPE, addition of
Standard Operational
Procedure
Automated bottle
assembling system
addition
Professional laborer,
Routine checking and
maintenance
Professional laborer,
Routine checking and
maintenance, buy good
quality wires
Better quality of piping,
addition of control valve,
Routine checking and
maintenance
Better quality of piping,
addition of control valve
and alternative flow
system
Usage of PPE, addition of
Standard Operational

Safe (1)

Safe (1)

Safe (1)

Safe (1)

Safe (1)

Safe (2)

Moderate
(4)
Safe (2)

truck
Scattered
products

Product
distribution

Loss of
products

Medium
(2)

Likely (2)

Moderate
(4)

Major Injuries

Medium
(2)

Most likely (3)

High (6)

Delayed
product
distribution

High (3)

Most likely (3)

High (9)

Loss of
products

Medium
(2)

Most likely (3)

High (6)

Fall

Major Injuries

Medium
(2)

Likely (2)

Moderate
(4)

Equipment not

Contamination

Medium

Most likely (3)

High (6)

Accident

Cleaning the
equipment

Procedure, available
emergency services in
plant
Professional laborer,
addition of Standard
Operational Procedure,
Bigger trasnsporting cart,
Hire Supervisor
Not only one chaffeur,
organize shift the
distribution schedule is
not too packed, distribute
in working hours
Better organization in
distribution schedule, not
only one truck, determine
alternative distribution
scenarion
Prepare excess number of
products to replace the
damaged ones
Usage of PPE, addition of
Standard Operational
Procedure, available
emergency services in
plant
Professional laborer,

Safe (2)

Moderate
(4)

Moderate
(4)

Moderate
(4)

Safe (2)

Moderate

Cleaning the
office

Waste treatment

cleaned
thoroughly

of materials

(2)

Slip and fall

Minor Injuries

Medium
(2)

Likely (2)

Moderate
(4)

Broken system

Contamination
of the
environment

High (3)

Unlikely (1)

Moderate
(3)

Leakage

Contamination
of the
environment

High (3)

Most likely (3)

High (9)

Labor contact

Major injuries

High (3)

Likely (2)

High (6)

addition of Standard
Operational Procedure,,
Hire Supervisor, Periodic
quality assurance
Usage of PPE, addition of
Standard Operational
Procedure, available
emergency services in
plant
Professional laborer,
addition of Standard
Operational Procedure,,
Hire Supervisor, Routine
checking and maintenance
Better piping materials,
alternative scenario of
waste treatment, CSR,
addition of Standard
Operational Procedure,,
Hire Supervisor, Routine
checking and maintenance
Professional laborer,
addition of Standard
Operational Procedure,
Usage of PPE

(4)

Safe (2)

Safe (2)

Moderate
(4)

Safe (2)

Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), AIChE. 2008. Guidelines for Hazard
Evaluation Procedures, 3rd Edition. Wiley-American Institute of Chemical
Engineers.
Laird Wilson and Doug McCutcheon. 2000. Industrial Safety and Risk Management,
1st Edition. Canada: University of Alberta Press.
Trevor Kletz. 2006. Hazop and Hazan, 4th Edition. Institution of Chemical
Engineers.
US Department Labour. Global Harmonized System. www.osha.org. Accessed on
May, 12th 2013.