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Economics and Finance Review Vol. 3(10) pp.

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A FRAMEWORK TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DEVELOPMENT


BANKS: THE BUILDING PROCESS
Francisco Roberto Pinto
Universidade Estadual do Cear (Brazil)
Programa de Ps-Graduao em Administrao
E-mail: roberto.pinto@uece.br
Charles Ulises De Montreuil Carmona
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Brazil)
Programa de Ps-Graduao em Administrao
E-mail: carmona@ufpe.br
ABSTRACT
After identifying a theoretical lack in organizational performance evaluation models, the authors propose a
framework to evaluate development banks performance, putting focus on effectiveness, i.e., focusing the
effective influence of funding operations on the development indicators.
Keywords: Framework; Organizational Performance; Development Bank Evaluation; Effectiveness
INTRODUCTION
Since the early development of management sciences, the organizational performance has been a concern. The
development of performance evaluation models has been an important part of the theoretical field in
organizational strategy. This, in turn, aims adequacy of organizational action to the needs and expectations of
organizations action environment, aiming to survival and growth.
Every organization was born to fulfill a purpose and therefore such compliance is their mission. The
organizations performance evaluation models, in almost all cases, are based on efficiency and efficacy and does
not consider the effectiveness. These performance evaluation models do not verify if organizations are fulfilling
its mission. Thus, one can say that the verification of compliance with its mission is the best way to verify the
performance of an organization. In the case of development banks, its mission is to improve the levels of
economic and social development in a given area or region, without compromising the environment. That is
what we can call effective accomplishment of its mission.
A development bank can be efficient, achieving better financial returns for the funds invested. This can also
demonstrate efficacy by meeting deadlines and targets established applications. However, it can be ineffective,
i.e., not positively influencing the economic and social development and/or to contribute in a negative way, as in
cases where their funding can encourage environmental degradation.
Therefore, it is necessary evaluate the performance of development banks focusing on improvements in the
indicators of economic and social development, with environmental preservation at the same time.
There are not many studies for assessing organizational performance with focus on effectiveness, especially for
development banks. No matter the fact that there are some jobs containing the word effectiveness in their titles,
we found only one study with this focus (Laurenceson & Chai, 2001). In fact, that authors evaluated four
Chinese state-owned banks, but in an economic environment distinct of our economic system.
The lack of a model for the assessment of development banks performance focused on effectiveness is the
problem in which the solution of this study intends to contribute. The research question: Which characteristics
would have a model of performance evaluation for development banks, focusing on effectiveness?
The main objective of this work is to build and present a framework for evaluating the performance of
development banks, with focus on the effectiveness of these institutions.
The relevance of this contribution is to direct research efforts for building analytical tools in the form of models
for assessing organizational performance based on effectiveness and provide a specific example of framework
applied to development banks, with the purpose of assisting in the construction of other models. Moreover,

Economics and Finance Review Vol. 3(10) pp. 08 19, August, 2014
Available online at http://www.businessjournalz.org/efr

ISSN: 2047 - 0401

models born from this framework will allow for the fine-tuning of development banks actions, addressing the
best allocation of resources toward the achievement of outcomes sought.
1. EVALUATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
The best relationship between resources allocated and the results obtained is in the base of whole science of
management. Hence, the organizational performance evaluation models are developed side by side with the
organizations theory development and is incorporated to studies of strategy, with significant contributions from
approaches that seek to advance models, from simple result recordings until the evaluation of the satisfaction of
stakeholders (Amirkanyan, Kim & Lambright, 2013).
Efficiency, efficacy and effectiveness are dimensions that represents the main taxonomy of organizational
performance (Hayajneh, 2013). Efficiency indicates the rationality of processes, in order to get more and better
results with fewer resources. It is possible to find many performance evaluation models focused in this
dimension, some of them endowed with sophistication, such as those using the methodology of Data
Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Among these are those developed by Banker and Morey (1986) and Fizel and
D'Itri (1997), as well as newer ones such as Rouse and Harrison (2010) and Samoilenko and Osei-Bryson
(2013).
Efficacy considers the completion of projects, achieving goals and meeting deadlines. Acting in this dimension,
there are various models, including those designed to analyze banks. Some of them use standard treatments, less
sophisticated methods, such as models Management by Objectives and the Balanced Scored Card (BSC). The
latter is more current. The studies of Manandhar and Tang (2002), Chen and Chen (2008) and Al-Najjar and
Kalaf (2012) are in that set.
Organizational effectiveness, in turn, relates to the achievement of what is expected, the fulfillment of the main
purpose of the organization and its mission. Unfortunately, the models of evaluating organizational performance
rarely include this dimension, in spite of the warnings from authors, such as Hayajneh (2013) who comments
that effectiveness should come first in assessing the performance of an organization.
These three dimensions of performance appear in the seminal work of Venkatraman and Ramanujan (1986).
Therefore, this approach is no longer new because that paper has three decades of its publication.
Evaluate only financial and financial/operational performances is not enough to understand organizational
performance fully. This requires verification of organizational effectiveness as the border of organizational
performance assessment, this being especially true for public organizations, the organizational group in which
the development banks are.
The most proper performance measurement, here discussed, is justified on two dimensions of importance: a)
more appropriate models for evaluating performance will improve their level of contribution to the welfare of
societies, especially in developing countries, such as Brazil; b) these models will allow better orientation and
reorientation of strategies for improving the control of the results of development actions.
2. DEVELOPMENT BANKS PERFORMANCE
It is not easy to put focus on the effectiveness when evaluating the performance in a conventional bank, because
of the expectations and needs of its stakeholders are not clear and the interests of these stakeholders suffer many
variations, according to the business environment. When considering efficiency and effectiveness, it is difficult
to design an evaluation model widely applicable. In this kind of evaluation, each group whether analysts,
rating agencies, consultants or managers makes its choice about the set of indicators, according their interests
at that moment (ECB, 2010).
This process is not the same for the development banks, whose purpose is well known. For them, defining the
indicators of measuring their performance is less difficult. As mentioned, since they are official financial agents,
the development banks have a mission to contribute to economic and social development of a given space,
without contributing to environmental degradation.
Besides the cited paper (Laurenceson & Chai, 2001), it was not possible to find other model of performance
evaluations for development banks that focus on the effectiveness (if indeed improvement of development levels
happens).

Economics and Finance Review Vol. 3(10) pp. 08 19, August, 2014
Available online at http://www.businessjournalz.org/efr

ISSN: 2047 - 0401

Although it is possible to find many studies focused on efficiency (rational use of resources) and efficacy
(achievement of goals and deadlines in the funds application), as are examples the studies of Chhikara and Rani
(2012) and Araujo (2012).
One can group the publications of development banks performance evaluation in two sets: institutional reports
and papers of researchers.
Institutional teams or consultants are responsible for the institutional reports. On the other hand, the published
papers are the result of researches, most of which have academic purpose. In both groups, it is possible to
confirm that the performance assessment put focus on efficiency and capability. In some, the economic and
social outcomes are registered, but not correlated with funding activities, as a way to identify cause and effect
relationships.
The group of reports brought us some examples to design the Table 1.
Table 1: Institutional Performance Reports of Development Banks
INSTITUTIONS
Asian Development
Bank (ADB)

Asian Development
Bank (ADB)
African Development
Bank (AfDB)

African Development
bank (AfDB)

TITLE
Special evaluation study on project
performance management in the
Asian Development bank and its
projects in developing member
countries
Project Performance and the
Project Cycle
A Roadmap for improving
performance on aid effectiveness
and promoting effective
development: turning
commitments into action
Evaluation of the African
Development banks economic
and sector work (2005-2010)
Boletim de Desempenho

Banco Nacional de
Desenvolvimento
Econmico e Social
(BNDES) - Brazil
Source: elaborated by the authors

YEAR

FOCUS

2003

Specific evaluation of each


project, using the PPMS
(Project Performance
Management System)

2008

Project management, the


achievement of goals
Achieving the goals
established in List of Paris
Indicators and Targets1

2010

2011

2012

ESW - Performance
indicators pre-defined for a
particular country or sector
Quantitative records of
operations, accounting and
financial information

Several studies from researchers indicate their dedication and expertise in designing performance evaluation
models for development banks. Differently to what happens to commercial banks, the focus is not on efficiency,
i.e., not to put focus on the performance measures based on the relationship between financial results and
amounts invested, liquidity ratios and other measures of the same type.
Even so, these studies do not include economic and social indicators that indicate improvements generated from
development actions, since they put focus on efficacy, especially.
There are well-formulated researches, with well-developed methodologies that evaluate the development banks
performance. However, as stated previously, these studies did not use the economic and social indicators to
measure the development of banks performance. It means not focused models in accomplishing the mission of
these banks.

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Economics and Finance Review Vol. 3(10) pp. 08 19, August, 2014
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The Table 2 shows some examples.


Table 2: Studies on the Performance Development banks
AUTHORS

TITLE

Kilby

Supervision and performance:


the case of World Bank projects
O BNB como Banco de
Desenvolvimento e Banco de
Crdito Agrcola: desempenho,
mudanas, desafios.
What Do Development banks
Do? Evidence from Brazil,
2002-2009

2000

Management of funded projects

2010

Evolution of the numbers contained


in the operating and financial and
accounting information

2012

Performance of funded companies


and the influence of external factors

Measuring Efficiency of Public


Sector Banks in India by using
Data Envelopment Analysis: a
study
Araujo
Anlise do desempenho
financeiro e social das
instituies de microcrdito
brasileiras (Doctorate Thesis).
Source: elaborated by the authors

2012

Efficiency with optimized resource


allocation

2012

Financial efficiency and social


effectiveness

Carvalho e
Tepass

Lazzarini, S.G.,
Musacchio, A,
Bandeira-deMello, R &
Marcon, R.
(2012)
Chhikara e Rani

YEAR

FOCUS

As mentioned, these studies do not measure the impacts of the action of development banks from indicators of
economic, social and environmental development. If one observes three standouts among the development
banks the German Development Bank (Kreditanstalt fr Wiederaufbau - KfW), the Korean Development
Bank (KDB) and the Development Bank of Japan (DBJ) it is possible to observe that their assessment
methods also do not consider the effectiveness of their actions.
The KfW express its effectiveness as direct benefits generated by projects developed (KfW, 2009). Its model
aims to answer four questions:
1. What resources are deployed and how? Project Measures (INPUT):
2. What capacities/potentials are created? Project Results (OUTPUT):
3. How does the target group utilize the potential created? Attaining Project Objectives (OUTCOME):
4. What is the development benefit? Attaining Overall Objectives (IMPACT):
Even accepting that the Bank adopted methods of results measurement directly in society, it is seen that it does
not use indicators of performance that reveals economic and social development, but it records the level of
success of each project itself.
The House of Commons, from the Parliament of the United Kingdom (2013), comments that the model uses by
KfW mainly measures the targeted loans per year and the impact achieved by the funding results, for example,
jobs created, reductions of pollutant emissions and volume of investments generated. However they comment
because of the goals differ between projects, it is difficult to make comparisons.
The reports of the Korean Development Bank (KDB) present operating results (KDB, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012,
2013). Despite this, there is no historical data about economic and social development indicators.
Similarly, the Development Bank of Japan (DBJ) emphasizes operational information down to the level of
applications in the sectors of the economy, including investments in health and the environment (e.g. DBJ, 2010,
2011, 2012).
Having the focus on economic indicators is consistent with the claim that Laurenceson & Chai (2001), when
they said that the best criterion for evaluating the performance of a state bank is its contribution to economic
growth. More than this, the framework here designed incorporates the social dimension. Unfortunately, the

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Economics and Finance Review Vol. 3(10) pp. 08 19, August, 2014
Available online at http://www.businessjournalz.org/efr

ISSN: 2047 - 0401

model cannot add the environmental dimension that was included in the ideal model because of the incomplete
historical data of ecological data.
The various indicators (dependent variables) used in the framework can represent the results of economic and
social development. This study chose the indicators progressively. First, there was a general conception; second,
the optimal construction; and then, the possible model. It was very difficult to find reliable records and complete
temporal series for all dependent variables. Above all, it is necessary to discuss about the indicators choosing in
the evaluation of a development bank.
3. WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT AND ITS INDICATORS
3.1. Concept of Development
In its most common sense, the word development refers to the idea of growth or improvement. When it comes to
development of a society, the concept encompasses economic and social aspects, but also relates to special
dimensions, such as historical, geographical, environmental, educational, cultural and informational, among
many others.
Therefore, when one talks about development, it is necessary to discuss this concept indeed. That is not a
concept largely accepted, because of the controversies under both aspects: theoretical and political-ideological.
This is a complex and ambiguous matter (Summer & Tribe, 2008).
Conceio, De Paula and Anau (2010) comment that each development conception involves assigning relevance
to a given set of indicators. Changing this conception, results in changing the list of priority indicators, as well
the fonts and the statistical treatment of the data available.
Given the breadth of issues to be considered in understanding what is development primarily economic
growth; social welfare; consumption growth; equal treatment and opportunities for citizens; improving
education indicators, health and wealth distribution each set of indicators has been developed to meet the
specific needs of each theoretical study process concepts .
Despite this diversity of concepts in general, Summer and Tribe (2008) identify three conceptions of
development. The first conception has a historical and long-term perspective, considering the development as
Furthermore, the concept of sustainable development bases the understanding of development, as accepted in
this paper.
To simplify the understanding used here, sustainability has three dimensions: economic, social and
environmental (Elkington, 2001, Aligleri, Aligleri & Kruglianskas, 2009, Carvalho, 2012). Clearly, the
understanding of development will affect any evaluative study of a Development Bank, due to the construction
or choice of indicators. Also in this article, there is a complete interpretation of what is and what should be
development, including ideological issues, as stated. In the following section, we discuss about Development
indicators.
3.2. Development Indicators
Development indicators are important when making private investment decisions and in the formulation of
public policies. They play an important role in indicating directions for innovation and tracking results
(Conceio, De Paula & Anau, 2010).
The development concept adopted and the chosen indicators are fundamental to the quality of life of a particular
society, though not in itself but by the phenomena about which provide information. Siedenberg (2003, p. 53)
says:
Too often, indicators are presented as a statistical value itself, distorting the meaning of the concept:
one indicator expresses something it is not, i.e. it expresses only partially certain aspects; it is only a
sort of representative of a certain aspects of a much more complex reality: the thermometer that
records and measures the feverish state of a person only indicates the temperature at that moment, but
he is not the fever itself. An indicator is therefore only a partial and substitutive measure.
One can understand the responsibility of defining and choosing such indicators, given that they are, at the same
time, public heritage instruments and control instruments available for use by the society.
The most used indicators to measure economic development are: inequality indicators reduction, such as the
Gini coefficient2; Gross Domestic Product GDP, indicators of occupancy (Pires et al., 2009a, 2009b);

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Economics and Finance Review Vol. 3(10) pp. 08 19, August, 2014
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employment, payrolls and average salary indicators (Sousa, Soares & Pereira Neto, 2009; Gonalves, Sousa,
Maciel, Viana & Nottinghan, 2012); the value added to the income of the population, income per capita and
electricity consumption (Gonalves, Sousa, Buso & Balsadi, 2011).
The most frequently used indicators for social development are those related to health, education, occupation
and income (PNUD, 2014; FIERJ, 2014) , the infant mortality rate and life expectancy at birth, education
indicators, the Gini coefficient and the proportion of people below the poverty line (IPECE, 2012) and housing
indicators (Ramos, 2013 ). Of course, some social indicators belong to the group called bigger is better and
others are in the group smaller is better, which can be understood from their own denominations (IPECE, 2012:
7).
Some indexes are results of combinations, as the Human Development Index (HDI) and its derivative Municipal
Human Development Index (PNUD, 2014), as well the FIRJAN Municipal Development Index (FIRJAN,
2014), which concentrate information on income, education and health similarly to the HDI.
The most important environmental indicators are those relating to levels of air, water and soil pollution. Among
the former, the highlights were the levels of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, mainly due to the burning of
fossil fuels. In the second group are more frequent measurements of chemical substances (usually by effluents)
and organic contaminants (from sanitation problems). The main causes of soil pollution are the sanitation
problems, solid waste (garbage, paper, plastic and metal), and chemicals contaminants (from fertilizers,
pesticides and herbicides).
Of course, these indicators are in the group smaller is better.
From the list of pollutants, it is easy to understand why the incentive to economic activity may result in
environmental degradation. Therefore, these indicators must be part of the ideal assessment model built in this
paper.
4. THE METHOD DESCRIPTION
4.1. The Case Study
We seek an institution able to be the case study, with the intention that the designed framework would be more
than a mere theoretical model and would be more adherent to the operational reality of development banks.
In meetings with the Director of Development of Bank of the Northeast of Brazil (BNB), we obtained the
agreement to discuss with technicians the model design and the capture of funding data. At the time of designing
the initial model, we had two meetings with the Director of Development and two meetings with second level
managers and technical staff.
BNB is a regional development bank under the ownership control of the Federal Government, created in 1952
and installed from 1954.
The search was limited to the territory of operation of the BNB, of course. This means that the geographical area
is composed of the municipalities of the states of Northeastern Brazil, plus the North of the state of Minas
Gerais and the north of Esprito Santo state. Initially, we treated the data as census, not as a sample.
It is necessary to clarify that data was received in aggregate values, organized by county and year of funding,
without being put at risk any banking secrecy. We worked data of CrediAmigo operations and 27 FNE sets of
funding operations. AgroAmigo was not included because it does not yet have sufficiently long temporal series
for statistical treatment.3
4.2. Data Extraction
In the fieldwork for the framework design, data was collected from secondary sources. The amounts financed or
implemented by each funding operations set of BNB in each municipality, by annual totals, were supply by the
Bank itself and received in the second fortnight of October 2013, in digital file.
We acquired the rates of development of each municipality from the Internet. As indicators of economic
development, we choose per capita GDP and total taxes collected in the county, by year, this being a proxy
variable. We obtained the first indicator from web page of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
(IBGE); the second, we obtained from the database of FINBRA, from data available on the National Treasury
website (STN, 2014). As indicators of social development, we gathered from the FIRJAN Municipal

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ISSN: 2047 - 0401

Development Index and their plots (education, health and employment / income) from the website of Federao
das Indstrias do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FIRJAN, 2014).
4.3. Data Treatment
The first step was the standardization of data. We received the data classified by state, municipalities, year and
funding operation type. The states were identified with the usual two letters and municipalities were identified
by their names.
We worked with the official spelling of the IBGE, and added the numeric codes for state and county, intending
to make safe the matching between funding information and the development indicators, obtained from other
sources.
Although the data received from BNB covers the period 1997-2012, it was necessary to establish the period
2000-2010 for data, given the restricted availability of indicators obtained from other sources. The unit of time
was set each year of the period and geographical unit was the municipality, as previously reported.
5. Designing The Framework
The basic assumption is that the strategic decisions of development banks guide its funding operations, which,
in turn, affects the indicators. The evaluation favors the improvement of the system, both in tactical/operational
and strategic terms. This is expressed in the general model (Figure 1), designed from effects to the causes.
Analyzing the data received from the BNB, using descriptive statistics and classification tools, and considering
the general performance model (Figure 1), we classified the funding operations in three groups, by term:
permanent programs, defined term programs and programs to emergencies, variables that form the construct
called funding operations, in the general model.
Figure 1 - General Performance Model of the Effectiveness of BDs
Strategic Decisions

Funding
Operations

Strategic
Redefinitions

Tactic and
Operational
Redefinitions

Economic, Social
and Environmental
Development

Evaluation
Source: elaborated by the authors
Given that strategic decisions are difficult to measure and are reflected in credit operations, it was decided to
conduct the proposed framework considering the constructs funding operations and development indicators,
in what we call General Model of Relationship Between Groups of Variables, in this case the variables that
make up the related constructs shown in Figure 2.

Permanent
Funding
Operations

Economic
Development
Indicators

Defined Term
Funding
Operations

Social
Development
Indicators

Emergency
Funding
Operations

Environmental
Indicators

Development Indicators

Funding Operations

Figure 2 General Model of Relationship between Groups of Variables

Source: elaborated by the authors

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There is no precedence or effect relationship between the categories of variables funding operations and
therefore no hierarchy. Nevertheless, we should assume that the emergency operations are kinds of relief
instruments, towards attending needs in restricted time and space, which no affects the development indicators.
Examples of this are the aids in times of floods or droughts.
In Figure 3, one observes the first conception of the ideal model. As mentioned, we grouped the financing
operations by term (permanent, with defined term and emergencies) and development indicators by type
(economic, social and environmental).
Figure 3 Ideal Framework for Evaluate Development Banks Effectiveness
Economic
Development
Indicators

Permanent
Funding Operations
Defined Term
Funding Operations

Relationship
with delay
t-n

Social
Development
Indicators

Emergency
Funding Operations

Environmental
Indicators

Source: elaborated by the authors


The funded projects require time to mature. Therefore, the arrow linking influential variables (funding
operations) and result variables (the development indicators) shows the necessary calculation of the gap (t-n).
The Ideal Framework illustrates the belief, adopted in this paper, that the performance of a development bank
should put focus on effectiveness, i.e., obtaining good results in economic and social development without
compromising environmental sustainability, correlating funding operations with development indicators and
calculated the lag between the application of resources and achievement of results. The expression t-n represents
the delay calculation, where t is the year of the indicators measurement and n is the number of previous years in
which they gave the granting of credit financing.
From the literature and using the available variables, we defined the development indicators of two dimensions:
economic and social (Figure 4). The model assumes that the funding operations influence the development in
the region where the bank funds the projects. At the same time, unfortunately, we realized that would be
impossible to use the Ideal Framework, because of the unavailability of environmental data, in temporal series
sufficient to allow the necessary numeric treatment.
Therefore, we reduced the Ideal Framework to a new model that we call Usable Framework, in Brazil (Figure
4).
Figure 4 - Usable Framework for Evaluate Development Banks Effectiveness, in Brazil
Per capita GDP
Total Taxes
collected Value

Permanent
Funding Operations
Defined Term
Funding Operations
Emergency
Funding Operations

Relationship
with delay
t-n

Education
Health
Employment and
Income

Source: elaborated by the authors

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We must register that, with Figures 3 and 4, we achieve the objective of this work: to design a framework for
evaluating development banks performance, focusing on effectiveness. It means consider the ability of that
banks operations have influence on the economic and social development.
How thoroughly informed, the model is able to indicate the correlation between funding operations and
development indicators, but also incorporates a time lag between the application of values and changes in
development indicators .
6. FINAL REMARKS
This article aim was to design a model. Therefore, we could not finish with conclusions like statistical or
qualitative findings of a field research.
The framework was designed from the literature and models studied in both types of evaluations found
(development banks reports and researches from specialists), enriched by real data obtained from BNB.
We can answer the start question (What characteristics would have a model of performance evaluation for
development banks, focusing on effectiveness?) as follows: It is possible to build a model for evaluating the
development banks performance, focusing on the effectiveness, despite the difficulties of lack in data.
It is necessary to make correlations between the funding operations and development indicators and, in some
cases; one must use flexibility to find replacements and proxy variables. However, always bearing in mind that
the purpose of this kind of bank is to contribute to the increased rates of development without degrading the
environment.
This model will enable fine-tuning the development policies and will point certain modifications in funding
operations, aiming to control the development indicators within a program that predicts results in numerical and
chronological terms.
Additionally, it is necessary to make some observations for the safer use of the proposed framework.
First, we grouped by term the independent variables, i.e. funding operations; and we grouped by type the
dependent variables, i.e. the development indicators. These groupings indicate that it is possible to make
evaluations in some treatment levels: one can classify the funding operations by term or by economic sector, the
geographical unit can be state, region or country, and so on. According to specific needs of evaluation variables
one can use different combinations.
Secondly, one can observe simultaneous influences between the variables. In cases like this, Hair, J. F, Black,
W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tathan, R. L. (2009) indicate the use of Structural Equation Modelling
SEM. Lisboa, Augusto and Ferreira (2012) corroborated with this meaning when someone is dealing with
exogenous and endogenous variables.
On the other hand, there are rare cases of evaluation of organizational performance using SEM (e.g. Silva, Mota
& Costa, 2007). Therefore, within the instrumental available, it is recommended to use the treatment called
Partial Least Squares / Structural Equation Modelling - PLS / SEM, because it dispenses the requirement that
the data be normally distributed (Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2013).
Finally, we must emphasize that the full use of the idealized model has proved insuperable difficulty, in Brazil,
for lack of secondary data on the environmental situation.
END NOTES
1
List of Paris Declaration Indicators and Targets - document of Paris Declaration, produced in 2005, the
meeting of developed and developing countries, seeking to find solutions to economic imbalances
2
Corrado Gini, the Italian Statistical created this coefficient to measure inequality in general. The use of this
coefficient is more common in the rating of the income distribution.
3
FNE is the Constitutional Fund for Financing the Northeast - constituted with resources tax breaks, supports
economic activities in various lines of credit. CrediAmigo is an urban microcredit, granted under joint and
several liability in small groups. Agroamigo is a rural version of microcredit joint liability.

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