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Sie sind auf Seite 1von 220

^itn;nj

%:-i^:

''''B^..

St OS

1

vv

v.\

WITH PAKTICULAK

KEyiiKT-lIJCE

TO IROK LOSS.

DISSEKTATIOU

SUBMITTED TO THE BOAKD OF UNIVERSITY STUDIES

OF THE JOHIB HOPKINS UUIVSRSITY

BY

PAUL SOUGH AGHE77.

JUHE

1911.

r^

PAKTICULAfi REFEREKCE TO IRON LOSS.

--oOo

COHTEETS.

PAGE.

1.

Introduction

2.

Lletlxods

3.

12

4.

Curves

20

5.

Losses

25

6.

7.

Bearing on Design

53

8.

Distortion

54

9.

Effect of

V.ave

43

Angle

64

10.

Summary

66

11.

Bibliograj^hy

68

12.

Biographical Sketch

72

Intr oduction.

the currents v.ould have a ratio equal to the inverse

condition is shov/n in figure

of turns, and

1-^

1,

This ideal

currents respectively.

In the actual transformer neither of these con-

Hence

t.vo

angle.

the ratio may be less than the ratio of turns, but this

is a condition v/hich is never met in practice.)

fur-

flux density, and therefore the core loss and magnetizing current are functions of the current, so that in

impedance of the instruin. nts connected

-loreover,

^vith

the

the secondary

-3-

deterraine, in part,

or decrease in the impedance connected with the secondary.

v/ill

be shown

Figure

2 shov.s

percent of nominal values.

Figure

shows a

fev/

typical

These curves as well as those for the ratios are -lotted

'For a considerable number of such curves, giving

ii.

T. Kobinson,

6,

1909.

l.o.

28;,

130,

p. 1005,

-4-

lines near full load, and that they rise more rapidly

toward the

lov/

It is an in-

very similar in their general shape.

testing of transformers it had been noticed that many

transformers shov/ed a tendency to turn

up at the extreme

lo.?

dG\vn

instead of

//ith

the difficulties in making measurements of high accuracy

at currents

belovir

of a transformer exhibiting unusual and remarkable char-

acteristics.

rated load to full load.

At ^5 cycles

tlie

/b

of

ratio increases

to a maxiinum at approximately half load and then

^^^rad-

In the 60 cycle curve the total change in the ratio

from 10

'^

-5-

if averaged over the whole range.

'J.'he

'(ib

figure 4.

experimental

"by

tlie

curves in

Since these measurements were made

ildgcTirabe

did not seem to have been observed, and it is gener-

Edgcumbe gave no

6^,

p.

163,

it therefore

1910.

might be theoretical errors in the method of measurement used, or, if not, //.ether some light might not

be thrown upon the nature of the iron losses at such

and upon thoir possible effect on the ratio and phase

Iiany

phase angle involved in different methods of measurement; and the effect of wave form upon ratio.

I'hese

this

v/ith

Z,

Phas e Angle

'I'he

electromotive

opposed; and the resistance of the secondary shunt is

are sho.vn in figure

6,

electromotive forces,

vvhere I2 R^ ^^^

^"^

^^ ^^

'^

^'^^

the

The laethod in use at the Bureau of Standards is to place

the series coil of an electrodynamoraeter in series v/ith

The complete arrangement is shown in figure 7.

zero.

riplit and K^

tlie

adjusted for

condenser is placed in the

A resistance shunted hy a

iiioving

rection

-.vliich

6,

p. 29^, 1909,

Reprint 130.

R-j^iRi;

and

termined.

(^

nonindiictive shunt has been designed for use in

tlie

second-

dry.

8)

vvhioli

figure

etc. ohm.

surfaces on the copper blocks

B B and C C are

thin mica.

tv;o

C C.

numbered studs.

ohrn,

read to 0.00001 ohm.

iJ

studs, and tne end of

Lj^.

L.^

1;^

L-^

millimeter

The capacity is 10 amperes.

It has been foxind that the error introduced by

wViioh may

V.e

taicen

rnothoii

in v/hioh a

* >:iectrotechnischo u S., 30,

p. 468,

19 09.

of tho electrodyni'.'noyoter.

Koblx.rcn*

Trans. Amer

he UBOB

H!i

.?-

dot*^.ctor in ply.ce

electrod3''naniomct?r

oaronoun

30

\)e

This comjriutator

is

drivnn by a syn-

not or and

thvt it may

of an eloctrometor or an

.-neasurod

The

forrt

Thli3

rcc.

A-Tier.

/-ho

have uloo

have also

inBtoad of

suf^^t^ofitod

'ohe

v-.3ed

fisent

t.'.o

measure-

to a null method.

They

-101

^Elec. V;orld, 55, p.

at light load,

rent.

'.vhich

^^\i,

1910.

of double range instruments.

The point has been raised as to whether the tv;o-dyn-

For example, if

v/e

assvaae

introcr.ced 10

-/o

torque in the dynamometer having a sinusoidal current in its

field coil, the ratio of the effective values of the cur-

rents would differ from the ratio of the primary and second-

similar statement

phase angle

.vould

/j.

-11But it is to be noticeu

vvhicli

lii^tw

Liie

rotating commutator

effective values.

aignificanoe whatever.

even though

it

that the

tiie

secondary.

This fol-

coil of a wattmeter but not x'resent in the electromotive

force wave adds nothing to the torque.

This would of

for the ammeter, but the accuracy required in a.c. cur-

the measurement of power.

tliat

required in

ations hold for the electrometer method since they necessarily define the quantities in precisely the same way.

The phase angle does not suffer

tiie

sanie

ambiguity

amometer

t]ie

.anci

correct defini

..Ions nut

theoretically

12-

'.'."hile

error thus introduced into the determination of the phase

error is still too small to be of practical significance

as ,vill bo shown later.

rotating commutator method is that the form factor of the

current wave used should theoretically be knov<n, but here

the specification of practically a sinusoidal v/ave re-

source to the limit of experimental error, and they need

not therefore be considered.

Figure

If

forr'ier.

9

.ve

let

= flux,

ll

= primary current,

1^

= seconoary current,

Eii

-13-

<p

M

= magnetizing current,

=^

= ratio of currents,

g.,

But in order to maintain

tlie

11

in phase vvith

to Ea

_!.

LI,

have

cosd= n I^ +

1-^

Li

sin

+ F

cos

(1)

line of n I^ gives

1^

Squaring

3ind=

(1)

L:

cos(p- F sincp

(2)

I^- = n^ I^^ + 2 n

I;,

(M sin

<p

-^

LI,

F cos

<p

-14'.R =

^

I^

n^

^ ^

sinf h F

(l:

cos f

I.

= ^ (1

^ ^

i:

sin

sinf

li

f

-f

F cos fj

^p^^^^^

F cq sf

(3^

by

tan ^ = M cos f

n I^

I.:

-t

- F si n

sin

f>

-\

(f

(1)

F cos

<f

to n

I_^

cent is required

tan

A-

" " f n I^

JLsin^

(3)

^^^

It has been found that the errors introduced by the ap-

proximations made in the derivation may safely be neglected, unless the measurements are carried to extreme-

iron, etc., introduce uncertainties such as to make the

In case the load is non-inductive,

sin9=

and cos

if

= 1

15-

R - n

1^

(5)

tan

ir

n I^

(6)

in figure 10 from which it is seen that the magnetizing

current

la

very-

little effect upon the ratio, while the core loss will

determine

t}ie

tlie

phase angle

exciting current

,vere

^Proc. Amer. inst

figure 11.

lilec. Eng.,

29_,

p. lidOV,

191u.

on direct current by thro.;ing the switch S.

The priiT^ary

at

up.

to the moving coil, and then to adjust the phase

transformer until the dynaraoraeter sho.-ed no deflection, v.hich indicated that its field was in quadrature

with the primary voltage of the transf orrr.er, and therefore in phase with the magnetizing current.

transformer

v/as

3^ was then

The phase

The dynamometer could be calibrated on alternating car-

^to

the moving

and the total exciting current at

former F are

'dl

shov.-n

The ratio and phase angle

.-.'ere

figures 4 and 5.

and core loss components, together .vith the total excit-

cycles respectively.

of tho transformer.

lli

and 13,

for db and 60

-17-

ITo.

1^0.

amperes.

ohiri.

;ah.

I.:axiinum

"

It v/ill

"

IjG

tlie

25

700.

"

of

'

is

vorable.

'I'he

Of course, the

as for example,

errors

dv.o

to

wave distortion.

A check measureiaent of the ratio by an entirely dif.

f erent

tj:e

iflortiirup

hot

.viro

parator.

I'iie

com-

-IB-

making use of a single potentiometer and a deflection instrument, for holding a direct current through one

alternating current.

.vire v/as

But as it

.vire

v;as

I'he

com-

ratio of f.e

of

hot

t>v'0

t.,o

-.vires

The

tv/o

observation with eye piece and scale so that any difference in the expansion of the

flection of

lel with

t.vo

ti.e

scale.

These

shunts R and

t./o

.vere

two separate battery circuits adjusted to give the same

current.

from alternating to direct current or vice versa.

The

showed no change when the switches were throvm in

ei-^'^or

-In-

direction,

xiie

be .aeasured by the

t./o

resistances ^^ and K^

Two ami.ieters A^ and A^ were

maize

order thut the hot wires should be at the same temperature in both cases; but it is to be noted that the final

ol"

the potentioaeters.

xi

farther pre-

lead to one of the hot wires so that the two wires v/ould

on or off.

to the last figure,

sai-ie

ratio

I

values.

tlie

J*'

forma of

are correct.

losses and the slope of the ratio curve.

4.

^'tn

gle Curves

;nay

be ex^^ressed

]7

where

'ii

ft

(7)

g =

K,

= K 3-

icaxiraum

flux density

a given frequency.

If

c_

current

v.l.en

v/hen q

it ..ill decrease

For by

(5)

the

ratio

K = n

Y-

ratio of turns.

be

as proportional to

ta'-cen

tiie

maximum flux, If S^ is

primary and

E.

F =

n^

and

lii

I;^

nW

A'l

ji

=

3 E

n];V

xrx~B^

e

X Const. = 3 K^

nV*

n^b

Kji

If

lino.

strai.'^ht

then the

.ve

assume

sanie

con-

Formula

(9)

actual value of K.

purpose.

Some interesting relations connecting the shape of

the ratio curve with the exponent,

tion (10).

dl^

To get the curvature

.ve

- ^5 ic

-'

I:i

the curve is nearly horizontal

v/e

^~7-

So that

v/c

= K, (c-^)

(c-3)

1-"^

have

Katio = n

Slope = K

(c-.:)

l,,^-'-

I_"^

Curvature = K (c-_)(c-aj

i^*^""^

fi'om

be given later.

./ill

which enters

.;-)

slopes

dov/n,

The

is con-

cave up, and the curvature decreases with increasing current, - all of v/hich are

VHiilo the case of an assiuned constant exponent

it is quantitatively insufficient for precise measure-

ments,

i.loreovor,

current transformer.

R = n

I^

sin

F GOs <r

(3)

bis

(4)

bis

I ^

tan ^ =

i:

COS

f

n I

-7 3in<?

a

and the iron loss exponent v/ere exactly E, then both the

straight lines,

''^ut

this result

//ould

be expected since

ilL-

t::tj

v.ictiis-ui

vvojld tlien be

.:;c;j.'

equivalent to u c^iuait

ratio and phase angle.*

5

Iron Losses

the exponent

ferentiating

(9)

of

is a true constant;

otherv/ise,

in dif-

with respect

to

_3

v/ould

enter.

W = ZB

will not accurately represent either the hysteresis loss

or the total iron losses, and so it has become customary

to Sj-eak of

tlie

I.';iin-

th'^

of 1.6

it=

transfor.ners, and that not only different kinds of iron

.vith

the induction.

-LJ6-

iicthocla

Ufon the implicite assumption that the e"i)Onent is a

true constant, and hence the valiies obtained are not

v/ith

./ell

sloce of the resulting; curve at various values of 3.

Still considering

a constant,

if

..e

differentiate

sides,

log

77

d (log

c

= ^

d

is

= log

-.7)

IQP:

IC

Log 3

d (log 3)

-7)

(11)

(log B)

tlie

used with ordinary cros;^ section paper.

Equation (11)

-ki7-

dW

d3

"

'.y

at the point.

dB

d3

iniist

is

the diiTiensions or

:i

of the cxirve.

Wn

and

x'hus

11)

but has

be e::fressod

no lon,er a

(

if

-%

<^

tv/o

points

V/

.vhere the

exponent

_z

= Z S^

nov; a

is

(It)

variable.

It oay first

be considered to vary so as to fit the observations

to some sort of a curve, and some writers have even

i'/hich

To consider that we

is nianifestly absurd.

have an exponent

./hich

troduces complications, as

v/ill

a formula containing- a variable coefficient can ac-

,70uld

tjie

exponent as

log

V/

= log

^C

log

dz +

4 Z log B

Differentiating;

li

^-^

ay-

g.i

Jl

d3

Tlie

3 |z

B log

"^

cTB

(16)

lo^^-

slope of the ciirve obtained by plotting

on logari tiunic coordinate paper.

If

2_

V7

against B

is a constant

line, and the slope of the logarithmic curve is the exout if

ponent,

_z

cL,

3 log B

dB

B

(17)

the

sarjo

as the

exponent

methods in common use in the determination of the exponent where the latter varies.

is

;:iethods

is

derivative.

is

:/hat

.vill

not give even the average value of the exponent over the

10^

equation (14) the quantity thus i;iven is

liow

if

v/e

take

ll 1~ ^1 ^^

'^V

^^fr

ii.

very near

-^

Q^. H'

B-^

1."^

^^^

^^^

log Bi

B

^^, -^^^^

^^ ^^^ 1-

ai-

of the percentage cnange in the dependent variable to

the rercentage change in the independent variable.

I'he

in

::iany

sucli as,

for

v/ith

vmfortunate since

it

For

the exponents in some of the theoretical radiation formulas, and it is misleadint,- to e^rpress the relationship in

;vhen the

be en-

:uay

tirely accidental.

It seems, therefore, advisable to liave some simple

expression which

,/ill

shall

Lr, C.

iTor

1:1.

the suggestion of

van orstrand.

this,

term

am indebted to

variation in geometrical curves of the general parabolic foi m and ,ihose e^rponents are of the order of

1

16 the curve y = x~

^ together

""

..ith

renieabered that by equation (10)

is

constant.

1 + 0.1 X

figure 17 the curve y = X

together with the

exponent and the ratio of Variation are plotted.

be seen that when the exponent is

tion is 4.3.

2 the

It .vill

ratio of varia-

tiio

ratio

much like one recently published for the hysteretic exponent for silicon steel at high inductions in which

33-

p. 139,

g-iven',

"l^ut

lyil.

here designated as the ratio of variation.

Very prob-

erscplained

The data

Since the last term in equation (16)

is positive

;/hen

':

t'ir'ure

aiid

helo.v in f injure

17.

t.vo

.vere

either limit, accordini- to circui:istances

^i

more sur-

it

-34-

effect that such a

ii:iethod

in the coefficient.

For sample if

vie

consider the

to determine the coefficient and exponent by this method,

which

is

following results.

dentical

v/ith the

v/e

got the

region also

ti;o

be calculatod

its value

anci

iDa}:

be used in calculating

if

.also

raa3:i;m;m

for

A"

d

y)

(lo.H-

d Uofi y)

d

(log X)

(lor y)

log y =

y =

llov/

^ Q

(log X)^

^

- cd (log X)

log X

-f

log K

.X

log K

K X

be determined, then

y

yo

_ KX^

KXo"

From which

log y

-t

Zo log 3o - log yo

log 3

^.B

36-

and K = 1_

(ly)

the ^5 cycle core loss curve of transformer F (figure

18)

iation over a

\7ide

data deteimined by

Llr.

The cores were of ring stampings or ordinary transformer

order of increasing flux.

The core of transformer S^was ordinary transformer

steel, while that of 3^

v/as a

silicon steel.

The ob-

table

figures 20, ^1, 22 and 23.

calculated by formula (18) ana tne results plotted in

37-

It is

very high values ror both the silicon and the ordinary

steel, while the change in the exponent above 2000 lines

is extremely slight.

II.

38-

Table

-38aTable II ^

_Exp neirts

Flux

39-

course, inde-

ol'

but the exponent is dependent upon the units used for

B although it does not depend upon the units in which

W is expressed.

^B

where

W = K B^

becomes

W = K

(ocB^)^

z

= Kc:t

z

B-L

06,

value.

rffhich

is arranged

B by a constant will change the computed values of

y_.

stant.

-40-

change the

\aiit

in which 3 is expressed

for example

Another difficulty arises in computing the exponent from equation (18) for values of B approaching

unity, is that small errors in the experimentally de-

computed exponent

point of the fxmction representing Z, the denominator

becoming zero.

figures 20 and

kil

In

//

On the whole, the determination or tne actual

It is much

it

41-

is

intervals.

in interpolating over small intervals.

-.vhen

Ivlany

'^Electrotechnische ZS. Lee. 8, 1910

formula to supplant the classical form, using only the

first pov;er and the square of B so as to avoid frac-

tional exponents.

It is of tr.e form

W = a B + o B^

where a and

'-^Lumiere

are constants.

favorably on it.

-42-

variation for iron whose losses folio-/ such a law cannot be greater tnan 2.

dW

= a d B

"17

a 3

--

p_B

B^

^B

-43-

Although Richter's formula may be very useful

density used in commeroial transformer design, it will

evidently not meet the requirements over such wide

^j

Jin figures ^0

ffux/4.

3i

^^

F in figures 18 and

X^

values greater than 2, etc.

I.'oreover,

as our present

6.

To return to tne question of the ratio curve of

;:I,

that if the

less than

'Z ,

-4 4-

universally met

v/ith.

VTe

foregoing investigation of the relation between the exponent and xne ratio or variation, and oT the methods

used in their determination, and we may now find a

xhe

case of a variable exponent if the ratio of variation

(5)

5y equation

the ratio

n + -

where n is the number or turns and F the core loss component of the exciting current.

Ej^,

Eii

F -

I =

En

?,=

Ea""

nff

r;j

(21)

la

R = n +_^_X-

Differentiating

dE

di ^

U,

dW

- 2 W

d l,

l^

1;

i:;

nW

- 2

I2

(22)

since the current is proportional to the flux, this is

the

sar.e

flux.

dv;

dE

dl

_j;^

1-^'

"~r~

"dB"

- 2

(23)

V

Either (22) or (23) shows that the ratio of a current

transformer will rise with increasing current

wlien

the

46-

Ihat the experiinental results obtained from the

measurements of transformer

J?"

figure 4, wit' the curves of the ratio of variation of figures 18 and

2ff

ratio of variation is greater than 2 over the whole range.

In the curve at ^6 cycles the ratio increases to half load

currents and less tnan

2 at

for

lov/

4 7-

Table

III

ratio per ampere.

Secondary-

-48-

With

tlie

The discrepancy at the one point is due to the great

difficulty in obtaining sufficiently accurate determinations of both the ratio and the core loss at the low

loads.

in figure 4.

-i^ftien

the magnitude

b'OT

example

lov;er

In figure d3 the loss and the ratio of variation

1235

gausses.

2 at

2 at

low voltage to

'.'.'hen

-49-

ciirve as would be

passed through a

raaxiinura;

A few

S;^

case has been found in which the phenomenon of the

ratio or transformation increasing with the current was

vvith

transformer P.

.vhose

ratio curve

showed a tendency to turn down instead of up at the extreme low current end of the curves, and although passed

over at the time as possibly due to errors of measurement,

it seems entirely probable that these transformers would

values of

or more.

measurements

density.

v/ere

),

for with

reached with the electrodynamometers used in these

measuremenxs.

and tne core loss at

lov.-

Bulletin,

6 p.

see:

this

magnetic history of the core.

In the case of transfoniier H in v/hich the ratio

was carried to extremely low values of the current, and

yet the ratio curve showed no tendency to turn dov/n.

-51-

Figure H^)

variation is still below 2,

By Sj^ecial manipulation

of load,

hov/

nearly

the same form the ratio and phase angle curves may

take,

coincident.

iron losses at moderate and low flux densities, the data

least nine other observers have reported values of the

Kayleigh, Phil.

:Jag.

3887.

23, p. 225,

iJaurach, Ann. d. Phys

Wild, Electrician,

5_6,

705,

1906.

.Vilson, '..inston and O'Dell,

Proc

548, 1908.

Heed, Elec. Journal.

_7

P* 3^^.

Jan. 1911.

1910.

l-Ing.

30, p.

139,

5'^'

tlian 2.

As in

"exponenf'are reported, the values may be interpreted as

the ratio of variation.

This dependence of the slope of the ratio curve

in regard to methods sometimes used in the ratio de-

termination.

tne dynamometer to be placed in the secondary circuit,

measuring instrument.

get a correction to apply in reducing the values to what

not in circuit, or to reach the same end by determining

to get a "blanfcet correction" to apply to all measure-

ments,

its ratio of variation pass through the value 2, and

Ac-

53-

7.

V/hile

only for the case of noninductlve load, it may be said

inductive load

v.'ill

usually give

in a general qualitative way.

lov/

hysteresis

as tne square of the flux at the low densities used.

Of

less than the hysteresis loss, but experiments on dif-

ratio of variation for the total iron losses would be

It

-54-

angle small.

It would also seem to follov>f that for a given

ratio performance might be better in a transformer

eddy cxirrents, or even by the use of an auxiliary v/inding to be closed through a resistance.

be increased, and hence the change in the ratio result-

would also oe increased, although the curve .vould be

flatter for any given frequency and imi,edance load.

8

There has been a considerable amount of discussion as to whether wave distortion in a current trans-

in 7/hicn tne ratio or phase angle of tho transformer

enters.

and a greatly exaggerated importance

signed to it,

lias

-56-

Trans.

iUner

1909.

Since, if distortion is allowed for, there are

tv/o

pos-

in the determination of the exciting current components,

it was thought advisable to attempt some quantitative

The

and phase angle has already been discussed,

(page

one in v/hich the primary current is non-sinusoidal.

In

curve-tracer be

ir^de

waves separately.

a sinusoidal primary current, taken from a star con-

good waves.

K^.

Kg adjusted to give the same in-phase drop as

as in the method of getting ratio.

.

1-^E

will appear in

l^B.^

The advantage of

a very much larger part of

is

than of

I^ijR^,

and hence it

large quantities.

Stoall amounts

t.vo

of impurities in the

In figure 27 is reproduced an example of the

Rosa curve-tracer.

cycles,

t>

From an analvsis

tJie

data derived

"

"

"

"

"

by dynamoneter

"

"

U.511

observed

"

bth

"

"

"

"

3d

"

"

"

5th

"

"

amp.

0.500

"

0.00496 volt

0.00487

16 %

"

soc. current

"

"

0.13

%

fo

0.03 $

"

1 part in 1,000,000

Distortion due to 5th harmonic in terras of

effective values

part inl^QOOO.OOO

so small an emf. are considerable,

in order

5

58-

in

-.vhich

the enf.

/7

mometer

v/hile a ciirrent

deflection

is

The resulting

the machines were run just out of synchronism, giving a

flect back and forth, following the continuously changing phase relation, the maximum travel either side of the

raeter made three

Only

to the inertia of the moving coil of the dynamometer,

ov.-n.

so that the c):ange3 in deflection would be slow.

The de-

-59-

millimexers.

The distortion found for a

irn;edanoe load, and current is given in table IV.

Table IV.

so

Evidently

far as

/<ave

the

highest figure obtained, and that under severe conditions, being but U.36 % of tne fundamental, and this

for transrormer

Jj',

Ahich

v/as

or errective values by as much as

part in a million.

v/as

con-

having

5 to

secondary, thus eliminating errors due to difference

in the inductances of the shunts.

I'ho

most essential

measured value of the quadrature resultant electromotive

force

(figiu-e 6)

-Bi-

zero.

vv'ould

be no resultant

coil of the dynamometer, and hence any resultant that is

found in

for 1 and

ki8.

For

tvo

separate instruments

ing coil was comj)ensated and the coil set at the position

of zero mutual inducxance.

I'wo

The b ampere coil or the

dynamometer could be thrown in or out of the primary circuit by the switch M, v/hile tho

The procedure was to throw

adjust

Ri;

1.1

being 0',en.

or Q.

change the frequency.

A]^

ea-

il

emf. read on the upper dynamometer.

right

and.

con-

The results which were obtained at a frequency of 38

cycles, are

siiovvn

in table V.

Table V.

Transformer

K

"

S-j^

"

Wave Form

ZQ'/o

dimple

2056

peak

2C^ dimple

20^0

peak

In phase

In quadrature.

0.00050

0.00017

21

51

77

28

32

33

Total

-63We may concludo fron the results of these determinationa of the magnitudes or the distortion introduced by

current transformers

it

does

in the most unfavorable case, and that with

'.Then

we

SO^b

of third

that in no practical case can the distortion be detected by

its introducing errors into

tlie

available

It also follows that there is no appreciable dif-

ference in tne ratio of transrormation whether it be defined as the ratio of the mean effective values of the

part or the secondary; and hence there can be no objection

no.v

rotating commutator

v/ith a

-64-

9.

'iThile,

ratio appreciably.

for::aer,

I'his

the methods then in use, if the distortion was large.

^

of transformer J, which is a high grade instrument, with

loads.

The curves are very nearly parallel, and the ratio at the

of third harmonic

iiO

the value with a sine curve, while v/ith the large impedance

in the secondary the corresponding change is only 0.15

fo

distortion.

^

At

The relative accuracy

less.

ol'

the measureinonts

v/as

0.02 %.

The dimpled wave raises the ratio and the peak v;ave

predict, since a dimpled wave increases the iron losses

value of eraf., as has been shovvn by Lloyd and others.

'''This

Bulletin,

5,

p. 381, 1909.

small.

',7ave

form

20

peak

fo

Phase angle

33.8'

sine

35.0'

20 % dimple

35.6'

range, as near as could be told, that is, half a minute,

to a minute.

/igain,

It is too small to be of any practical significance,

'"itli

certainty.

66-

is very sl.-nilar to that of small changes in frequency,

is

prac-

tice.

Summary

10.

1.

',7hile

rent,

it

v/itn

increasing cur-

The ratio and xho phase angle performance

2.

.iiay

core.

In general the slope of tne ratio curve may be

3.

qualitatively predicted from the value of the Steinmetz exponent if the latter he assumed to be constant.

la'ff

4.

v.'idoly

The slope of

tlie

67-

coordinate paper.

It is proposed that this logarithmio slope,

or

variation.

exponent

The methods now in use for determining the "ex-

'.Y

= B^, unless

z^

is a constant.

The

ratio of variation.

The wave form of the secondary of a current trans-

rormer may

"be

as the distortion within the transformer is entirely

negligible

Thile tne errect of variations in wave form on

ratio and phase angle may be detected by accurate

measurements. It as too small to be of practical importance, being of the same order of magnitude as the

effect of small changes in frequency.

-68-

9,

error, so that the accuracy attainable is decidedly

Bibliography.

11.

bibliography of the current transformer, but it is believed that all the more importajat papers are included.

1.

CAilPBELL, A.

Phil. Mag. 52, 271, 1896.

2.

SCHROTTKE, P.

Ueber Drehfeldmessgerfithe.

(Current transforners are discussed on page 665)

3.

'TIIJDSE,

E. L.

Elec. Journal,

L.

4.

CU5.TIS,

5.

DRY3DALE, C. V.

ji.

I,

p. 4tl,

1904.

Some measurements on phase dis-

Electrician, pp. 726 and 703, 1906.

ey-

6.

DRYSDALE, C. V.

7.

MAKO,;'EK,

7ki6,

7B3

iyu6.

J.

A.

8.

Eleo,

9.

HARIIAK, E. S.

'.Torld,

51, p. 1044,

1908.

DRYSDAIE, C, V.

10.

EDGCU1.1BE,

11.

LLOYD,

K.

G.

LI.

Elec.

12.

Y/hat

V.'orld,

is

Bull.

13.

rJur.

Standards,

j6,

p. 1,

1909.

The determination of

6,

p. ii81,

to. 130.

1909, Keprint

-70-

14.

OivlICH,

E,

electrome"cers zu

'

echselstronmessxaigen,

Electrotocimische l-eitsciirift

(A diacua-

of the current transformer is given on page

468)

15.

ROBIKSOU, L. T.

transformers

Trans. Amer

1909.

16.

TOBEY, K.

Vi'.

Discussion, p. 1040.

appa rat us

17.

\7ERNICKE, G.

L!essinstruraente, p. 59.

Braxinsoiiweig, 1909.

18.

STERZEL, K. A.

(Viev/eg u.

Stromwandler

flir

Sohn)

'./echselstrom-

Leistungsmessungen

Electrotechnische I.'eitschrift

19.

GEKKIK

7i'.

Sur les

30, p. 489,

'

1909

-vi-

ae.

YOUL'G, A. P.

transformer.

Jour. Inst. E. E. 45, p. 670, 1910.

21.

CAluPBELl,

A.

p.

22.

217)

BARBAGEIATA, A.

23.

EDGCULCBE, K.

llotes on

instrument transfcrmers.

24.

LAWS, F, A.

instrument transformers.

Elec. VTorld, 55, p. 223, 1910.

25.

SHAKP,C. H. and

CHAV.'Jj'OKD.

VJ.

'.V.

Some recent

Proo. Amer. Inst. Elec. Eng. 29, p. 1207,

1910.

}

26.

series transformers.

Elec. V/orld, 57, p. 234, Jan. 26, 1911.

-72-

Blographioal Sketoh.

Agnew was born July 3, 1881 in Hillsdale Comity, Michigan, ana was prepared for college in the local high

year at

tiie

:.:ichigan State

formal College.

In January

li.

L. in June 1901.

at Monroe and Pontiac, Michigan successively.

In Feb-

of Standards, '"/ashington, being assigned to the section

in which work he is at present employed, his official po-

student

v/as

During the

enrolled as a graduate

Physics and r.^thernatics, maintained at the bureau, under

.73-

Zahra,

In February 1910 he entered the Johns Hopkins University,

choosing Physics as his principal subject under Professor Ames and Applied Jfilecxricity and Mathematics as

Cohen respectively.

^y

V;,-.

.:.

<.

,! Vector

Ditit;raa.

Qii

ox

of Cuxreai

Nonlnduotivj Load,

Inauctive Load,

'

.IGGQJ

jo40JoduiO'5

>ifrart

Cxponeni-

1o Full

Uoad

Sec,

FOLD OUT

FOLD OUT

1

<o ru

Load

kM^^^*^^

^*^

\

v^

X\

1^

^:

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