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In 1970, the state government of Jammu and Kashmir established its own education board and
university. Education in the state is divided into primary, middle, high secondary, college and
university level. Jammu and Kashmir follows the 10+2 pattern for education of children.

Sports like cricket, football are famous along with sports like golf, skiing, water sports and
adventure sports. Srinagar is home to the Sher-i-Kashmir Stadium, a stadium where international
cricket matches have been played.[129] The first international match was played in 1983 in
which West Indies defeated India and the last international match was played in 1986 in which
Australia defeated India by six wickets. Since then no international match have taken place in the
stadium due to the prevailing security situation.

Before the insurgency intensified in 1989, tourism formed an important part of the Kashmiri
economy. The tourism economy in the Kashmir valley was worst hit. However, the holy shrines
of Jammu and the Buddhist monasteries of Ladakh continue to remain popular pilgrimage and
tourism destinations. Every year, thousands of Hindu pilgrims visit holy shrines of Vaishno Devi
and Amarnath, which has had significant impact on the state's economy.[119] It was estimated in
2007 that the Vaishno Devi yatra contributed 4.75 billion (US$75 million) to the local economy
annually a few years ago.[120] The contribution would be much more now as the numbers of
visitors have increased considerably. Foreign tourists have been slower to return. The British
government still advises against all travel to Jammu and Kashmir with the exception of the cities
of Jammu and Srinagar, travel between these two cities on the Jammu-Srinagar highway, and the
region of Ladakh.

Hari Singh had ascended the throne of Kashmir[9] in 1925 and was the reigning
monarch at the conclusion of British rule in the subcontinent in 1947. One of the
conditions of the partition of India imposed by Britain was that the rulers of
princely states would have the right to opt for either Pakistan or India or remain
independent. In 1941, Kashmir's population was 77.06% Muslim, 20.46% Hindu,
1.37% Sikh, 1.01% Buddhist, and 0.10% Uspecified Others.[10]
On 22 October 1947, locals and tribesmen backed by Pakistan invaded Kashmir.

The Maharaja initially fought back but appealed for assistance to

the Governor-General Louis Mountbatten, who agreed on the condition that the
ruler accede to India.[13] Maharaja Hari Singh signed theInstrument of
Accession on 26 October 1947, which was accepted by the Governor General of
India the next day.[14][15] Once the Instrument of Accession was signed, Indian
soldiers entered Kashmir with orders to evict the raiders. India took the matter to
the United Nations. The UN resolution asked both India and Pakistan to vacate
the areas they had occupied and hold a referendum under UN observation. The
holding of this plebiscite, which India initially supported, was dismissed by India
because the 1952 elected Constituent assembly of Jammu and Kashmir voted in
favour of confirming the Kashmir region's accession to India.[16] The United
Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) was deployed
to supervise the ceasefire between India and Pakistan. UNMOGIP's functions
were to investigate complaints of ceasefire violations and submit findings to each
party and to the U.N. secretary-general. Under the terms of the ceasefire, it was
decided that both armies would withdraw and a plebiscite would be held in
Kashmir to give Kashmiris the right to self-determination. The primary argument
for the continuing debate over the ownership of Kashmir is that India did not hold
the promised plebiscite. In fact, neither side has adhered to the U.N. resolution of
13 August 1948; while India chose not to hold the plebiscite, Pakistan failed to
withdraw its troops from Kashmir as was required under the resolution. India
gives the following reasons for not holding the plebiscite:

Art and Crafts of Jammu and Kashmir

The state of Jammu and Kashmir is famous the world over for its unique and splendid work of
art and crafts. Travel through even the remotest parts of the state will give an insight into the
world of art and craft in Jammu and Kashmir. Just about everything that is seen in Jammu and
Kashmir has some kind of art work done on it. The most prominent is the embroidery work on
the shawls and the cloths of Kashmiri people are very mesmerizing to be not noticed. You will
also see the work of magic in wood works, steel wares, Papier-mache.

Textile Works
Shawls are the most famous offering of textile works from Jammu and Kashmir. The final
product is definitely impressive, but the method by which they are produced is equally
interesting. Even in the era of power looms, people of the state prefer making their textiles the
traditional way. The shawls are made of a special wool, called the Pashmina that is extracted
from the Kel goat. The shawls are then formed in two ways. In one way the weaving is done on
the loom itself and in other, the embroidery is done by hand after looming. The embroidery that
is done in J&K is called Kasida. In embroidery, use of exquisite colored threads is done to make
designs of Chinar leaves, mythological figures or landscape designs. J&K also have become
famous for its silk quality and quantity. In fact silk products are exported from J&K in huge
amount. Main clothes that are made of silk are sarees, ladies suits and head coverings.

Papier Mache
Papier Mache is another form of handicraft that has brought J&K wide acclaim from all regions
of the world. To make Papier Mache objects, the process is very long and tedious. First the
paper is soaked in water till the time it completely dismantles. The paper is then mashed and is
mixed with an adhesive solution. The pulp is then molded into desired shape and is dried. The
outlay of the object is now ready. Now is the time for artisans to color it and draw intricate and
brilliant designs on it. The product is now ready to hit the market.

Wood Carvings
Wood Carving industry has grown by leaps and bounds in the last few years in J&K. In fact,
wood carving industry of J&K is the most famous in entire country. The Walnut wood is

considered the best wood for carvings. Not only because it is readily available, but even after
excessive carvings, the wood retains its strength. The main attraction of woodcarvings is the
woodwork on the ceiling of the rooms. The technique for this work is immensely complicated
and the end product is equally mesmerizing. This kind of woodcarving is called Khatam Band.
Woodcarving can also be seen on chairs, tables, jewelry boxes and on any thing and every
thing that is made of woods.