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MCB 3103 VIBRATION LAB REPORT
SEMESTER MAY 2015
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FREE & FORCE VIBRATION


GROUP NAME: GROUP T2
No
1.

Name
ARIAN AYATI

ID No
17059

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

ALIAH AZLIN BINTI AZIZUDDIN


CLEMENT WELLEY@SINAWAT
FATIN NABILA BINTI JAMALUDDIN
MUHD AMMAR BIN ABDUL WALI
MOHD FAREID FAREEZ BIN ISMAIL

17605
17655
17526
17394
17650

ABSTRACT
In this experiment, there are two types of vibration system being done which are
undamped free vibration and damped free vibration. Free vibration system meaning that after

an initial force or disturbance, the system was left to vibrate on its own and no external force
was subjected on the system. If no energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other resistance
during oscillation, the vibration is known as undamped vibration. If any energy is lost in this
way, however, it is called damped vibration. In many physical systems, the amount of
damping is so small that it can be disregarded for most engineering purpose. However,
consideration of damping becomes extremely important in analyzing vibratory systems near
resonance.
The system set up for this experiment is the basic cantilever beam with a spring is
attached on the top of the beam. For undamped free vibration system, the lengths of the lever
arm, a for hanging the spring of the cantilever beam were set differently for total of 5 times
with 3 different stiffness of the spring. The different in length and spring stiffness could result
in different behaviour of the vibration system so that the experimental value of natural
frequency obtained was different for each set of test to be compared with the theoretical
natural frequency calculated.
Meanwhile, for damped free vibration system the spring stiffness and lever arm length
for spring, a was set constant but the lever arm length for damper, b was set differently with
3 different lengths. With damper attached on the system, the energy of the system will be lost
during the oscillation and it may behave differently when the damper length is different.
Therefore, the damped frequency for the 3 tests of damped free vibration system could be
analyzed and thus, it might help to illustrate the effect of damping on the system. For the
design engineer, it is very crucial for them to consider the mechanical vibration of a structure
to avoid from any catastrophic failures. This would happen if the structure is excited at its
resonance frequency; the damping is low and excessive of vibrations.

OBJECTIVES
The objective of this experiment was to:

Compare the theoretical natural frequency for various constants and lever arms with

the values obtained by measurement.


Illustrate the effect of damping on the decay behaviour.
THEORY

FREE AND UNDAMPED OSCILLATION


If the body vibrates with internal forces and no external force is included, it is further
during vibrations if there is no loss of energy due to friction or resistance, it is known as
undamped free vibration. Consider the relation for the frequency of spring mass system in
vertical position as in figure below.

Figure 1: The relation for the frequency of spring mass system in vertical position
Consider vertical spring mass system as shown,
Let

= static deflection of spring


K = spring constant (stiffness)
m = mass of body
W = weight of body = mg

From figure above,


mg = K.(A)
Let mass be displaced by distance x from its equilibrium position and then released, so after time t
seconds,
Restoring force = W-K(+x)

dx

m dt

dx

m dt

dx

m dt
From (A)

mg = K

= W-K(+x)

= W-K-Kx

= mg-K-Kx

dx

m dt

= -Kx

dx

m dt

Kx=0(B)
x= A sin t + B cos t

dx
dt

=- x

Putting in (B)

m ( 2 x ) + Kx=0

2 =

f=

K
m

K
m

1
2

K
M

For this experiment, setting up the equation of motion involves forming the equilibrium of the
moments about the pivot point O of the beam

M 0=J 0 =F c a

The spring force

Fc

is the result of the deflection

x and spring constant c (c was used as

spring constant instead of K for this experiment)

Fc =cx=c a

The mass moment of inertia of the beam about the pivot point is

J 0=

mL
3

This gives the equation of motion in the form of the following homogeneous differential equation

3 c a3
=0
m L2

The solution obtained takes the form of harmonic oscillation with natural angular frequency and
natural frequency f .

02 =

3 c a3
1
3 c a3
,
f
=

2
2
2
mL
mL

The period is

T =2

m L2
2
3 ca

It becomes apparent that the period natural frequency can easily be adjusted by way of lever arm

a of the spring.

FREE AND UNDAMPED OSCILLATION


Setting up the equation of motion again involves forming the equilibrium of moments about
the pivot point O of the beam. In this case, allowance is additionally made for a velocityproportional damper force

Fd

with the lever arm b .

M 0=J 0 =Fc aF d b

The damper

Fd

results from the velocity

dx
dt

and the damper constant d. For small

angles, the velocity can be formed from the angular velocity and lever arm b.
Fd =d=d b

This gives the equation of motion in the form of the following homogeneous differential
equation

d 2 d b2 d c a2
+
+
=0
d2 t 2 J 0 dt J 0

Or more general terms with y =L as the path of the recorder


+2 D 0 y +02 y =0

With D as degree of damping and 0


D=

as natural angular frequency

d b2
c a2
, 02 =
2 J 0 0
J0

The solution takes the form of decaying harmonic oscillation with the initial deflection
y ( t )=

0
y 0 eD t sin ( d t+ )
d
0

With frequency
d=0 1D2

It becomes apparent that no further oscillation is possible with D>1. The natural angular
frequency d approaches zero.

PROCEDURE
A. FREE AND UNDAMPED OSCILLATION
1. The following combination are tested
Table 1: Data Tabulation of Free and Undamped Oscillation
Experiment
Spring No,
Lever arm a (mm)
constant c (N/mm)
1
1, 0.84
680
2
1, 0.84
580
3
2, 1.44
580
4
2, 1.44
530

y0

3, 3.09

530

2. Spring as per table were fitted and were secured with lock nuts
3. Beam is horizontally aligned.
Weight of the beam, m = 1.68 kg
Length of the beam, L = 700mm
4. Stylus and start record are inserted
5. Recorder stopped
6. Experiment was repeated with other springs and lever arms.

B. FREE AND DAMPED OSCILLATION


1. Spring 1 is mounted, c = 0.84 N/mm at a = 650mm and secured with lock nuts.
2. Beam is horizontally aligned.
3. The following combinations are tested.
Table 2: Data Tabulation of Lever Arm B
Experiment
Lever arm b (mm)
1
230
2
330
3
430
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Damper was fitted as per table above.


Stylus is inserted
Recorder started
The beam is deflect using hand and allowed to come to rest
Recorder stopped
Experiment was repeated with different damper setting and lever arm.
DATA COLLECTION

A. FREE AND UNDAMPED OSCILLATION


Table 3: Geometric Dimension of the Beam
Length of Beam, L
(mm)
Weight of Beam,
m (kg)
Lever Arm, a
(mm)

700

700

700

730

730

1.68

1.68

1.68

1.68

1.68

650

500

500

300

300

Spring Constant, c
(N/mm)

0.84

0.84

1.44

1.44

3.09

RESULTS
Table 4: Data for Free & Damped Oscillation Analysis
Spring Constant, c = 0.84 N/mm
1.

Refer Graph in the appendix.

Lever Arm, a = 650 mm


Theoretical Natural Frequency, f0 = 5.72 Hz
Calculated Natural Frequency, f = 5.00 Hz
Spring Constant, c = 0.84N/mm

2.

Refer graph in the appendix

Lever Arm, a = 500 mm


Theoretical Natural Frequency, f0 = 4.40 Hz
Calculated Natural Frequency, f = 5.00 Hz
Spring Constant, c = 1.44 N/mm

3.

Refer graph in the appendix

Lever Arm, a = 500 mm


Theoretical Natural Frequency, f0 = 5.76 Hz
Calculated Natural Frequency, f = 5.00 Hz
Spring Constant, c = 1.44 N/mm

4.

Refer graph in the appendix

Lever Arm, a = 300 mm


Theoretical Natural Frequency, f0 = 3.32 Hz
Calculated Natural Frequency, f = 5.00 Hz
Spring Constant, c = 3.09 N/mm

5.

Refer graph in the appendix

Lever Arm, a = 300 mm


Theoretical Natural Frequency, f0 = 4.86 Hz
Calculated Natural Frequency, f = 5.00 Hz

B. FREE AND DAMPED OSCILLATION


Table 5: Data for Free & Damped Oscillation Analysis
1. Refer Graph in the appendix.

Lever arm, b = 100 mm


Degree of Damping, D = 0.0041 rad/s
Theoretical Damped Frequency, d = 34.49
rad/s

2. Refer graph in the appendix

Lever arm, b = 300 mm


Degree of Damping, D = 0.0265 rad/s
Theoretical Damped Frequency, d = 34.48
rad/s

3. Refer graph in the appendix

Lever arm, b = 550mm


Degree of Damping, D = 0.0817 rad/s
Theoretical Damped Frequency, d = 34.37
rad/s
CALCULATION

A. FREE AND UNDAMPED OSCILLATION


Table 6: Percentage of Error of Undamped Frequency

Experiment
1
2
3
4
5

Frequencies of Undamped Oscillation


Experimental Data
Theoretical
Period, T (s)
Frequency, f (Hz)
Frequency, f (Hz)
0.2
5.00
5.72
0.2
5.00
4.40
0.2
5.00
5.76
0.2
5.00
3.32
0.2
5.00
4.86

Percentage of
Error (%)
12.58
13.64
13.19
50.60
2.88

SAMPLE CALCULATION (EXPERIMENT 1)


Theoretical Natural Frequency:
=

1 3 c a2
2 m L2

2
1 3 ( 840 )( 0.65 )
=
=5.72 Hz
2 (1.68 ) [ ( 0.70 )2]

Calculated Natural Frequency:


f 0=

f 0=

1
T
1
=5 Hz
0.2

Percentage of Error:
Percentage error ( ) =

Percentage of error ( ) =

TheoreticalExperimental
Theoretical

5.725.00
100=12.58
5.72

B. FREE AND DAMPED OSCILLATION


Table 5: Percentage of Error of Damped Frequency
Experiment
1
2
3

Experimental

Theoretical

Damped

Damped

d
Frequency,
25.13
25.13
25.13

d
Frequency,
34.49
34.48
34.37

Percentage of
Error (%)
27.14
27.12
26.88

SAMPLE CALCULATION (EXPERIMENT 1)


i.

EXPERIMENTAL

Logarithmic Decrement:
=ln

x1
x2

1.70
= 0.030
1.65
=ln

Damping Ratio:
=

( 2 )2+ 2

0.030
=0.0048
( 2 )2+ 0.0302

Natural Frequency:
n=

2
T

n=

2
=25.13 rad /s
0.25

Damped Natural Frequency:


d=n 1 2
d=25.13 10.0092 =25.13 rad /s

ii.

THEORETICAL

Mass Moment of Inertia of the Beam:


J o=

m L2
3

J o=

( 1.68)( 0.73)2
=0.298424 kg .m2
3

Natural Angular Frequency:


o=

o=

c a2
Jo
(840)(0.65)2
=34.49rad /s
0.298424

Degree of Damping:
2

D=

db
2 J o o

D=

(8.44)(0.10)2
=0.0041 rad /s
2(0.298424)(34.49)

Theoretical Damped Frequency:


d=o 1D2
d=34.49 10.00412=34.49 rad / s

iii.

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR

Percentage error ( ) =

TheoreticalExperimental
Theoretical

Percentage error ( ) =

34.4925.13
100=27.14 07
34.49

DISCUSSION
A. FREE AND UNDAMPED
In this experiment there were three types of springs that had been tested and no
damper had been used. All the springs have different spring coefficient and labelled as spring
1, 2 and 3. So, there were 5 tests that had been carried out by us in order to investigate
undamped phenomena. This means that the load on spring decreases when the distance
between spring and fixed mount increase or became longer. As a matter of fact, it also can be

1 3 c a2

=
known from the formula of natural frequency,
2 m L2

where the lever arm, a

increases the natural frequency also will increased.


Besides that, from experiment 2 and 3 there were similarity in length of lever arm but
different in spring coefficient. From here it can be seen that when the stiffness of spring
increases, the natural frequency as like natural angular frequency also will increase. It can be
proven from the formula where the higher the stiffness of the spring, the higher the natural
frequency happened.

Apart from that, in the calculation there was a percentage different between the
theoretical calculated values on natural frequency and experimental values. Here we can
conclude that our result of experiment had effected by some disturbance. As the instruments
being so sensitive with the vibration, the wind factor in the lab might be the one of the
disturbance. The little amount of the wind can affect the result. Moreover, the springs also not
in good condition due to overuse and this affect its constant so the result will be not so
accurate. The beam also might not place horizontally completely so that the spring will not
completely in vertical state. This will causes the imbalance condition and then effect the
oscillation of the cantilever beam.
B. FREE AND DAMPED
In this experiment, the same springs and the damper had been used. So, the spring
coefficient was same in each experiment and the numbers of experiments were 3 in total.
Here, the position of damper on the lever arm was being manipulated. Then, the varieties in
position of damper on the lever arm affected the frequency of the oscillations. If the viscous
damper placed further from the fixed mount, then the period of oscillation will be shorter as
the result the less frequency happened. As the length of lever arm increases, the degree of
damping also increases.
The graph showed the behaviour of free vibration with viscous damper in cantilever
beam. From the graph, it shown that the shorter the length of lever arm the longer the period

for the system to reach stability state.. It can be concluded that the rate of losing or absorbing
energy is higher when the distance between viscous damper and fixed mount is farther.
There were a few errors in this experiment. One of them is human error. The force
from student on the lever arm during experiments is not same in every experiment. So, this
affected the result. Also, the mass of viscous damper affect the oscillations. Moreover, the
wind factor also disturbs the experiment and affects the result. And the last, the external
vibration nearer to the experiment affect the result too.

CONCLUSION
In the theory for the free and undamped oscillation, the natural frequency is higher
when the distance between spring and fixed mount is longer. It means that the load on spring
decrease when the distance between spring and fixed mount increase or became longer. In
another way, when the lever arm length increases, the natural frequency also increases while
the spring constant is fixed. As for free and damped oscillation, the longer the lever arm
length, the shorter the period of oscillation occurred and the degree of damping as well as the
result of smaller in frequency. Also, in free and damped oscillation, the longer the distance of
the viscous damper on lever arm, the lower the effect of damping on the decay behaviour.
In a nutshell, the objectives of the experiment were completely achieved. The
theoretical natural frequencies of various constants are compared to experimentally obtained
values of damped and undamped free vibrations. Also, the effect of damping on the decay
behaviour of the vibration is shown through the aid of graphs and calculations.