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UNIVAN MARITIME (H.K.

) LIMITED
FLEET OPERATION MANUAL
CARGO OPERATIONS REEFER VESSELS

Section 11
Cargo section

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Date 18.12.2009
SECTION 11.0

UNIVAN MARITIME (H.K.) LIMITED

Issue 1

FLEET OPERATION MANUAL

SECTION 11.0

Description
Date
Cargo section reefer vessels

Rev. No.

No of
Pages
1

11.1

General information

18.12. 09

11.1.1

Voyage planning

18.12. 09

11.1.1.1

Charterers instructions

18.12. 09

11.1.1.2

Notice of readiness

18.12. 09

11.1.1.3

Statement of facts

18.12. 09

11.1.1.4

Bills of lading

18.12. 09

11.2

Cargo handling

18.12. 09

11.2.1

Preparation of cargo space

18.12. 09

11.2.1.1

Cleaning

18.12. 09

11.2.1.2

Deodorizing

18.12. 09

11.2.1.3
11.2.1.4

Scuppers

18.12. 09

Gratings

18.12. 09

11.2.1.5

Side shoring

18.12. 09

11.2.1.6

Fans and ventilation

18.12. 09

11.2.1.7

Fresh air fans

18.12. 09

11.2.1.8

Thermometers

18.12. 09

11.2.2

Pre cooling checks

18.12. 09

11.2.2.1

Cargo holds

18.12. 09

11.2.2.2

Brine systems

18.12. 09

11.2.2.3

Direct expansion system

18.12. 09

11.2.3

Loading of cargo

18.12. 09

11.2.3.1

Stowage

18.12. 09

11.2.3.2

Checks during loading period

18.12. 09

11.2.3.3

Cargo stowage in hatch coamings

18.12. 09

11.2.3.4

Engine room bulkhead

18.12. 09

11.2.3.5

18.12. 09

11.2.3.6

Different temperatures between non insulated


decks
Different temperatures between insulated decks

18.12. 09

11.2.3.7

Pulp temperatures

18.12. 09

11.2.4

General Carriage requirements

18.12. 09

11.2.4.1

Cargo instructions

18.12. 09

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Date 18.12.2009

CARGO OPERATIONS REEFER VESSELS

Section

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UNIVAN MARITIME (H.K.) LIMITED

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FLEET OPERATION MANUAL

SECTION 11.0

11.2.4.2

Description
Carrying temperatures

Date
18.12. 09

Rev. No.
0

11.2.4.3

Reduction period / time

18.12. 09

11.2.4.4

General Cargo care during voyage

18.12. 09

11.2.4.5

Relative humidity

18.12. 09

11.2.4.6

Machinery breakdowns

18.12. 09

11.3

Carriage of chilled cargoes

18.12. 09

11.3.1

Deciduous cargoes

18.12. 09

11.3.1.1

Types of fruits

18.12. 09

11.3.1.2

Cargo hold preparation

18.12. 09

11.3.1.3

Pre cooling

18.12. 09

11.3.1.4

Loading stowage of cargo

18.12. 09

11.3.1.5

Pre cooled cargo

18.12. 09

11.3.2

Banana Cargoes

18.12. 09

11.3.2.1

Preparation of cargo spaces

18.12. 09

11.3.2.2

Ventilation during ballast passage

18.12. 09

11.3.2.3

Pre cooling

18.12. 09

11.3.2.4

Requirement during loading periods

18.12. 09

11.3.2.5

Part cargoes

18.12. 09

11.3.2.6

Fan speeds

18.12. 09

11.3.2.7

Brine /refrigerant circulation

18.12. 09

11.3.2.8

Fresh air ventilation during voyage

18.12. 09

11.3.2.9

Reduction period

18.12. 09

11.3.2.10

Heating of cargo holds

18.12. 09

11.3.3

Citrus cargoes

18.12. 09

11.3.3.1

General information

18.12. 09

11.3.3.2

Cargo hold preparation

18.12. 09

11.3.3.3

Pre cooling

18.12. 09

11.3.3.4

Loading / Stowage of cargo

18.12. 09

11.3.3.5

Palletized cargoes

18.12. 09

11.3.3.6

Pulp temperatures

18.12. 09

11.3.3.7

Carrying temperature

18.12. 09

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Date 18.12.2009

CARGO OPERATIONS REEFER VESSELS

Section

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No of
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11

UNIVAN MARITIME (H.K.) LIMITED

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Description

SECTION 11.0

11.3.3.8

Fan speeds

Date
18.12. 09

11.3.3.9

Fresh air ventilation during voyage

18.12. 09

11.3.3.10

Relative humidity

18.12. 09

11.3.4

Potato cargoes

18.12. 09

11.3.4.1

Cleaning and ventilation

18.12. 09

11.3.4.2

Pre cooling of cargo space

18.12. 09

11.3.4.3

Heating of Cargo holds

18.12. 09

11.3.4.4

Condition of cargo at loading

18.12. 09

11.3.4.5

Pulp temperatures

18.12. 09

11.3.4.6

Frost damage to cargo

18.12. 09

11.3.4.7

Stowage

18.12. 09

11.3.4.8

Ventilation and carrying temperature

18.12. 09

11.3.4.9

Fresh air ventilation during the voyage

18.12. 09

11.3.4.10

Chemical treatment of cargo

18.12. 09

11.4

Carriage of Frozen cargoes

18.12. 09

11.4.1

Frozen cargoes (general)

18.12. 09

11.4.1.1

Cargo condition at loading

18.12. 09

11.4.1.2

Pulp temperatures

18.12. 09

11.4.1.3

Stowage

18.12. 09

11.4.1.4
11.4.1.5

Loading at high ambient temperatures

18.12. 09

Carrying condition

18.12. 09

11.4.1.6

Fan speeds

18.12. 09

11.4.1.7

Fresh air systems

18.12. 09

11.4.1.8

De frosting of air coolers

18.12. 09

11.4.1.9

Relative humidity

18.12. 09

11.4.1.10

Ozone

18.12. 09

11.4.2
11.4.2.1

Fish cargoes

18.12. 09

Precooling

18.12. 09

11.4.2.2

Stowage

18.12. 09

11.4.2.3

Tuna

18.12. 09

11.4.2.4

Squid

18.12. 09

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Date 18.12.2009

CARGO OPERATIONS REEFER VESSELS

Section

REV 0

Rev. No.
0

No of
Pages

UNIVAN MARITIME (H.K.) LIMITED

Issue 1

FLEET OPERATION MANUAL

SECTION 11.0

11.4.2.5

Description
Loading Temperatures

Date
18.12. 09

Rev. No.
0

11.4.2.6

Cargo damage

18.12. 09

11.4.2.7

Cargo hold temperatures

18.12. 09

11.4.2.8

Carrying conditions

18.12. 09

11.5

Carriage of special cargoes

18.12. 09

11.5.1

Loading of fruits for USA

18.12. 09

11.5.1.1

General information

18.12. 09

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CARGO OPERATIONS REEFER VESSELS

Section

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GENERAL INFORMATION

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SECTION 11.1

11.1 GENERAL INFORMATION


11.1.1

VOYAGE PLANNING

11.1.1.1 Charterers Instructions


11.1.1.1.1
On receiving the Charterers instructions for the
forthcoming voyage, the Master is to ensure that the
instructions are made clear to and understood by
respective departments. If any instructions are not clear,
then the Master is to revert to charterers immediately for
clarification.
11.1.1.1.2
The Ships Management Team is to ensure that
there are sufficient reserves of refrigerant, calcium chloride,
etc onboard for the proposed voyage.
11.1.1.2 Notice of Readiness
1.1.2.1 Refer to General Instructions, Section 12.3.1
11.1.1.3 Statement of Facts
1.1.3.1 Refer to General Instructions, Section 12.3.4.
11.1.1.4 Bills of Lading
1.1.4.1 Refer to General Instructions, Section 12.6.

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Date 18.12.2009
SECTION 11.2

11.2 CARGO HANDLING


11.2.1

PREPARATION OF CARGO SPACES

11.2.1.1 Cleaning
11.2.1.1.1
Refrigerated cargoes may only be loaded into clean
cargo spaces. It is therefore most important that all spaces are
maintained in a clean and fresh condition.
11.2.1.1.2
Normal cleaning would consist of sweeping the decks,
bulkheads and gratings to remove all traces of dust and debris.
It is particularly important that any remains of previous
refrigerated cargoes are cleaned up and that no rotting fruit or
other products are left under gratings or on exposed surfaces.
Some cargoes leave quite a mess which can only be properly
cleaned up by washing down all surfaces, this is most effectively
done using high pressure water washing equipment with
appropriate detergents.
11.22.1.1.3
At intervals of about every three months cargo spaces
and fan rooms are to be sterilized after cleaning and washing. A
sterilizing chlorine based chemical is best applied using a spray
gun. It is most important that during this procedure the
underside of the deck gratings are well treated as this area is a
good breeding ground for moulds which would otherwise spread
and affect cargo.
11.2.1.2 Deodorizing
11.2.1.2.1
Occasionally the holds might have a strong smell from a
previous cargo (particularly after salted fish), which is difficult to
get rid of by normal washing, ventilating and ozonizing.
11.2.1.2.2
One simple but efficient method of deodorizing the holds
is as follows:
(i)

Sweep and clean the holds as much as possible in the


ordinary way and remove all garbage, dust etc. In order
to obtain the best effect the holds should be dry before
starting this special treatment.

(ii)

The active ingredient to be used is Hydrogen Peroxide;


H O, which is available in most ports in a concentration
of about 33% and in packagings from 5 to 60 litres.
Higher concentration is not available since the liquid
then would be extremely dangerous. In order to obtain
the best effect of a treatment we would advise you to
buy fresh Hydrogen Peroxide when needed.

(iii)

With the aid of a paint or spray gun a 6% solution of

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SECTION 11.2

peroxide in fresh water is to be sprayed on decks,


gratings and bulkheads. The treatment is most effective
when the air temperature is around 20oC. After about
one hour the solution is no longer active and the hold
should be washed with fresh water. Should there still be
smell, repeat the procedure.
11.2.1.2.3 We want to stress the importance of a careful handling of the
peroxide as it is of a dangerous nature. The peroxide should
not be in concentrations above 6%.
Hazards posed by hydrogen Peroxides:
1) TLV/TWA 1
2) STEL/ - 77 ppm for 30 mins
3) Vapours of Hydrogen Peroxide are irritating, less than 52%
causes temporary irritation and above 52% may cause
blisters and eye damage.
In order to avoid irritation of the skin wash off the solution
immediately with fresh water. We recommend the use of
rubber gloves and protective goggles.
11.2.1.3 Scuppers
11.2.1.3.1
Refrigerated spaces are equipped with scuppers to drain
off any water. These scuppers will be situated in the cargo area,
usually on the port and starboard outboard sides, near the
forward and / or aft bulkhead. Further scuppers are placed in the
fan space in the condensate tray which lies underneath the air
coolers. Scupper pipes running from upper decks discharge any
drain water into bilge wells, the pipe ends incorporating either
goose necks or flaps to stop any back flow. Scuppers from orlop
decks will always be fitted with non-return valves in order that
water tight integrity is maintained should shell plating in way of
the bilge well be breached.
11.2.1.3.2
Prior to loading, a check must be made on each scupper
to ensure it is clear of any debris and will drain away water. It is
good practise, particularly when hold temperatures below 0 oC
are to be maintained, to pour a bucket of well dissolved calcium
chloride brine into each scupper to ensure it remains ice free.
11.2.1.4 Gratings
11.2.1.4.1
Nearly all modern reefer vessels are designed with what
is known as a vertical air flow system, that is, circulating air is
blown through holes or slots in the deck and passes vertically
upwards through the cargo to be then drawn back to the fans via
a space under the deckhead. It follows then that the actual deck
of the cargo space on which the cargo is loaded is a false deck
covering a plenum space. This false deck is constructed from
panels made either from special plywood or, in some cases,

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SECTION 11.2

aluminium - these panels are called gratings.


11.2.1.4.2
It is essential for a smooth cargo operation that the
gratings are maintained in good condition. They must be
inspected and any necessary repairs effected after each voyage.
11.2.1.4.3
When effecting repairs to plywood gratings it is generally
a false economy to renew anything less than half a board.
Always ensure that adequate stocks of spare gratings and
bearers are maintained onboard.
11.2.1.4.4
On vessels where the gratings are not fixed to the tween
deck hatch covers these have to be removed by ship's crew
before opening the tween decks. In order to avoid loss of time
when replacing them the gratings should be clearly colour coded
or otherwise marked.
11.2.1.5 Side Shorings
11.2.1.5.1
Semi permanent side shoring may be fitted on vessels
engaged in carrying predominantly palletized cargoes.
Depending on the cargo to be loaded, palletised or break bulk,
the side shorings should be raised or lowered as necessary.
11.2.1.5.2
Semi-permanent side shorings should always be stowed
against the ship's side when not in use for palletised cargoes.
They should not be removed without first contacting the Fleet
Manager for approval.
11.2.1.6 Fans and Ventilation
11.2.1.6.1
As part of a general inspection and operation check prior
to loading, carry out a visual inspection of all circulation fans
checking that all fans are working, running in the correct
direction, with no unusual noises that might indicate imminent
bearing failure.
11.2.1.6.2
Check that no hindrances to air flow exist in any side
ducting, particularly in way of ship's side doors where duct
boards may not have been repositioned correctly. Check also
that any rat grids are not blocked with litter or debris.
11.2.1.7 Fresh Air Fans
11.2.1.7.1
Fresh air fans situated in deck houses not only supply air
into the cargo spaces but also draw air out. Hence when fruit
cargoes are carried, an adequate exchange of air is continuous
to stop any build up of CO2 or other volatiles that fruit produce.
11.2.1.7.2
Ensure the fresh air fans and distribution trunking are in
good order. Ensure that any dampers or plugs for sealing

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SECTION 11.2

ventilation ducts or trunking are in good order as in the event that


frozen cargoes are carried then no fresh air can be allowed to
enter the refrigerated spaces as this would lead to rapid frosting
up of the air coolers.
11.2.1.8 Thermometers
11.2.1.8.1
Electrical distance thermometers are usually fitted in all
refrigerated spaces. Not only do these thermometers monitor
delivery and return air temperatures but particular probes
installed in the cargo spaces can be used to measure
temperatures within the cargo cartons.
11.2.1.8.2
Probes monitoring delivery and return air temperatures
are vitally important to good outturn of cargo. Their position must
be correct and their accuracy checked by ice tests at regular
intervals - usually every six months. Results of ice tests are to
be recorded in the vessels calibration file.
11.2.1.8.3
It is very seldom that shippers require hold thermometers
to be inserted into boxes and these probes should be secured in
their storage boxes or dismantled to stop possible theft by
stevedores. The exception is for USDA cargoes which is dealt
with under Section 11.5
11.2.2

PRE-COOLING CHECKS

11.2.2.1 Cargo Holds


11.2.2.1.1
Pre-cooling of the vessel's holds is often required
especially when pre-cooled fruit or frozen commodities are to be
loaded. If only a part cargo is to be loaded, you should of course
only pre-cool the holds/decks agreed upon.
11.2.2.1.2
If dunnage is to be used for loading of pre-cooled cargo
such dunnage to be pre-cooled if possible in order to avoid
damage to the cargo.

11.2.2.2 Brine Systems


11.2.2.2.1
A check should be made that all baffles and doors are
open (or closed as the case may be) to ensure correct air
circulation.
Particular attention must be paid to the baffles across the shell
doors.
11.2.2.2.2
Check that the air cooler isolating valves are in the
correct position (open), that they are free in movement and that
there are no leaking glands. Ensure that any flow control valves

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SECTION 11.2

are functioning properly. Check that there are no brine leaks,


that the scuppers are clear and that the drip trays are clean.
11.2.2.2.3

Seal the scuppers with brine.

11.2.2.2.4
Start up the necessary compressors having first checked
power availability. Increase capacity manually to 100% then
switch to automatic operation. Check refrigerant levels in
receivers and evaporators.
11.2.2.2.5
Select the required pre-cooling temperatures on the
control panel. Brine temperatures should not normally be more
than 5 deg. C below required air delivery temperatures.
Once the brine temperature has been reduced, progressively
start the fans.
11.2.2.2.6
Carry out a visual check in all fan spaces - that the fans
are running correctly and that cooling is progressing normally.
11.2.2.2.7
Switch on temperature recorders/data logger and set any
alarm limits.
11.2.2.2.8
If frozen cargoes are to be loaded ensure that the risk of
frozen drip tray scuppers is eliminated by sealing those scuppers
with brine. Then insert wooden plugs into the scuppers and
cover with calcium chloride flakes.
11.2.2.2.9

Continue pre-cooling up to the time cargo is loaded.

11.2.2.3 Direct Expansion Systems


11.2.2.3.1
Ensure that no refrigerant leaks exist on any of the air
coolers or associated fittings.
11.2.2.3.2
Check that any stop valves on flow control regulators are
open or functioning as necessary.
11.2.2.3.3
Check that drip trays are clean and that scuppers are
clean and sealed with brine.
11.2.2.3.4
Ensure no refrigerant leaks on the refrigeration
compressors or ancillary plant and that adequate refrigerant
charge is in plant.
11.2.2.3.5
Start any condenser cooling water pumps and ensure
proper flow through the required condensers.
11.2.2.3.6

Line up the air coolers with appropriate compressors.

11.2.2.3.7

Check that adequate electrical supply is available, switch

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SECTION 11.2

on control circuits and start progressively the refrigeration


compressors.
11.2.2.3.8

Put on line any data logging or monitoring equipment.

11.2.2.3.9
It must be remembered that with direct expansion
systems any drop in evaporation pressure will result in an
immediate drop in temperature which could be detrimental to
cargo under certain circumstances. Particular attention should
therefore be paid to ensuring the proper operation of control
equipment to obviate any severe fluctuations of off coil air
temperatures.
11.2.3

LOADING OF CARGO

11.2.3.1 Stowage
11.2.3.1.1
When we or shippers consult you on different stowage
alternatives we would ask you to consider them very carefully
with regard to stability, trim etc. If you find our suggestions
unworkable do not only answer "no" but please give us your own
ideas of the best stowage. If you think that you have a better
solution to a problem than that which is suggested please always
give your views.
11.2.3.2 Checks During Loading Period
11.2.3.2.1
Note the temperatures of the cargo spaces immediately
prior to opening. Record the date and time when loading in each
space commences in the Deck Log Book.
11.2.3.2.2
Allow cold brine to circulate through the air coolers and if
possible run the fans at reduced speed.
11.2.3.2.2
Make sure that the delivery air temperatures in the fan
spaces never drop below the required carrying temperature.
11.2.3.2.4
Take pulp temperatures of the cargo as per the
Company instructions and check the stowage is correct allowing
for proper ventilation. Do not allow stowage to block return air
flow under deckheads or allow stowage in front of any return air
grids.
11.2.3.2.5
Full refrigeration must be started with the cargo fans on
full speed once a deck is closed after completion, if possible
even earlier. Cooling should also be started during any long
intervals in loading.
11.2.3.2.6
Record delivery and return air temperatures immediately
after each deck is closed.

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SECTION 11.2

11.2.3.2.7
Any shock treatment programmes for banana cargoes
are to be carried out as per shippers instructions. A note
(printout) should be made at the time when the required
minimum temperatures are reached.
11.2.3.2.8
It is imperative that cargo temperatures are reached as
quickly as possible if a good outturn is to be achieved. Use all
available brine pumps and as many compressors as necessary
to obtain the required delivery air temperatures. Under no
circumstances are temperatures to fall below those stipulated in
the shippers instructions.
11.2.3.3 Cargo Stowed in Hatch Coamings
11.2.3.3.1
Special attention must be paid to the stowage in the
hatch coamings. The cargo must be stowed in such a manner
that a free circulation of air is safeguarded. This can be
achieved by an ample usage of dunnage, especially in order to
leave enough space against the coamings and to prevent this
space from being blocked when the ship is moving at sea.
11.2.3.3.2
As the hatch coamings are not normally efficiently
insulated and have reduced ventilation we recommend the use of
dunnage or stepping back between the cargo and the hatch
coamings to avoid a heat bridge being formed.
We
recommended a minimum clearance of 500 mm for this purpose.
11.2.3.3.3
Cartons may also be placed at such an angle to the
hatch coaming so as only a corner of the carton touches the
coaming thereby forming air pockets between the carton and
coaming and dunnage can be avoided.
11.2.3.4 Engine Room Bulkheads
11.2.3.4.1
Dunnage should always be used between cargo and
bulkheads to the engine room, steering gear room and tanks if
these bulkheads are not separately cooled by air circulation.
11.2.3.5 Different Temperatures between Non Insulated Decks
11.2.3.5.1
Occasionally two different temperatures may be required
even though the deck separating the chambers is not insulated.
This can be achieved provided that each deck is served by a
separate cooling unit and has its own coolers and fans.
11.2.3.5.2
The maximum allowable difference between decks is 5
deg C and the following conditions must be fulfilled:
(i)

The upper chamber is the warmest, as long as fresh air


has been used in both chambers.

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(ii)

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SECTION 11.2

If no fresh air is needed in the lower chamber of the two,


the upper chamber may be the coldest.

11.2.3.5.3
Difference in temperature may cause condensation
under the non-insulated deck with consequential damage to the
cargo, if these conditions are not observed.
11.2.3.6 Different Temperatures Between Insulated Decks
11.2.3.6.1
If you are requested to load fruit or other cooled
commodities in a separate insulated unit, but in the same hatch
as frozen commodities such as frozen fish, it is of course
important that the insulation between the units is absolutely tight.
If not, we suggest that you improve the insulation around the
hatch opening in those decks, forming separate insulated units.
11.2.3.6.2
When chilled cargo is carried on one side of a deck and
frozen on the other, the hatch cover has to be specially tightened
to avoid contamination.
First the hatch cover has to be battened down by screws or
wedges in order to make the packing as tight as possible. Then
special tightening is to be applied. The following alternatives are
suggested:
(i)

Plastic sheets (about 0.1 mm thick) are to be placed


over joints and openings of the hatch covers and taped
to the deck with Ramnek Marine Tape (manufacturer
Diplomatic Marine Inc., Houston 20100, Travis Street,
telex USA (910) 881 5090 ). Normal tapes of other
makes do not adhere to a wet steelplate.

(ii)

Before the hatch cover is closed, the gratings closest to


the hatch opening are to be removed. When the hatch
cover is closed and battened down tarpaulins
overlapping each other are to be laid out covering the
hatch cover and deck, so that all joints of the cover and
between deck and cover are fully covered.
Laths of approx. 10 x 50 mm (possibly sawed from
plywood sheets) are to be placed alongside on ships
with the Robson system and athwartships on ships with
the STAL system, over the tarpaulins. The laths should
be placed from the edge of the tarpaulin and with 3-4
rows inwards. Then the gratings should be placed on
these laths pressing the tarpaulin against the deck and
hatch cover thus preventing air leakage between the
two decks.

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SECTION 11.2

11.2.3.7 Pulp Temperatures


11.2.3.7.1
When loading, the pulp temperature in the cargo has to
be checked on the quay. At least three samples should be
drawn from the cargo intended for each compartment. Samples
should be drawn when the loading commences, before closing
the hatch cover and in between as many times as is deemed
necessary.
11.2.3.7.2
When loading precooled cargo from trucks, the pulp
temperature in each truck should be taken before any cargo is
allowed to be taken onboard the ship.
11.2.3.7.3
During discharging the pulp temperature is to be checked
in each compartment upon opening, when it is half discharged
and once again shortly before completion of discharge.
11.2.3.7.4
To obtain a correct temperature, the thermometer should
be into the pulp for at least 2 minutes. Fruit samples penetrated
by a thermometer should always be disposed of. When
measuring the pulp temperature of hard frozen produce, a hole
should first be made using a drill or gimlet into which the steel
probe of the thermometer is inserted. On no account are glass
thermometers to be used.
11.2.3.7.5
All pulp temperatures are to be recorded in vessels Deck
Log Book.
11.2.4

GENERAL CARRIAGE REQUIREMENTS


11.2.4.1 Cargo Instructions
11.2.4.1.1
Written instructions on temperature, ventilation, CO2
content must be obtained from the Charterers/Shippers (via the
Agents) at the loading port. The instruction must clearly mention
on whose behalf the instructions are given. If instructions are not
obtainable, always contact the Fleet Team, in the meantime
follow the relevant commodity instruction in this Manual.
11.2.4.2 Carrying Temperature
11.2.4.2.1
An expression used in the carriage of refrigerated
cargoes is the carrying temperature, which normally is the same
as the hold temperature. For banana cargoes, however, the
carrying temperature is always the delivery air temperature. For
other cargoes the Shippers have to state where the carrying
temperature is to be measured.
11.2.4.2.2
To help obviate misunderstandings, definitions of the
applicable temperatures are as follows:

Delivering air temperature - this is self-explanatory in that it is the


temperature of the air coming from the coolers and being delivered to the

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cargo. It is the only temperature that the vessel's personnel can actively
control.

Return Air Temperature - the temperature of the air having passed


through the cargo and returning to the coolers. Frequently citrus shippers
state only return air temperature in their temperatures orders - return air
temperature can be controlled but only by regulating the delivery air
temperature.

Pulp Temperature - the temperature of the cargo being loaded taken by


inserting a spear thermometer.

Critical Temperature - the temperature below which the product will suffer
irreversible damage such as freezing or chilling.
11.2.4.3 Reduction Period/Time
11.2.4.3.1
The reduction periods or times are to be calculated for all
cargoes. If the cargo consists of bananas, the reduction periods
are to be calculated according to Charterers instructions.
11.2.4.3.2
For all other cargoes, the reduction time in each deck is
the time required from the completion of the loading in that
particular deck until the required carrying temperature for the
particular cargo is reached, either delivery air, return air or cargo
hold temperature. This time to be inserted in the refrigerating
report.

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SECTION 11.2

11.2.4.4 General Cargo Care During Voyage


11.2.4.4.1
Temperature logs must be taken every four hours
on those vessels fitted with data loggers and at least twice
daily on other vessels.
11.2.4.4.2
The Master and Chief Engineer should read the
printouts or temperature log sheets daily. If these reports
show incorrect temperatures the Master/Chief Engineer will
take appropriate action if the situation warrants, Head
Office should be informed by cable/telex.
11.2.4.4.3
A responsible officer should periodically inspect the
cargo (daily in the case of bananas) and take random pulp
temperatures. Should the smell of ripe bananas be noticed
during these inspections, the Master must be duly
informed. Every endeavour must be made to ascertain the
reason for the ripe smell and eventually to judge the
number of ripes or "turners" in each deck.
11.2.4.4.4
Make sure that the delivery air temperature or the
temperatures in the fan spaces never drop below the
required carrying temperature.
11.2.4.4.5
The application of fresh air shall be carried out as
per shippers instructions.
11.2.4.4.6
All fan spaces should be inspected daily and a
check made to see that the scuppers are clear, that no
brine leaks are present and that all fans are running
correctly.
11.2.4.4.7
When apples or similar cargoes are carried with a
brine temperature below 0 oC. keep the air coolers clear by
regular de-frosting. Use brine or calcium chloride flakes to
stop ice build up in the drip trays and scuppers.
11.2.4.5 Relative Humidity
11.2.4.5.1
Normally it is not possible to control the relative
humidity in a refrigerated cargo hold. If the outdoor
temperature is higher than that of the cargo room and a
certain amount of fresh air is to be supplied the dew point
of the fresh air is almost always reached at the coolers.
This fact results in condensation on the coolers and
consequently a high relative humidity in the circulating air
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cannot be avoided.
11.2.4.5.2
The relative humidity will normally vary between 85
and 95% and it is almost impossible to achieve a lower
relative humidity than 85% as long as the outdoor
temperature is more than 5 deg C warmer than that of the
cargo hold. It is sometimes possible to reduce relative
humidity slightly by increasing the difference between the
cooling medium and the offcoil air temperature. The offcoil
air temperature is fixed for a given product and cannot be
reduced however if the brine or evaporation temperature is
reduced - some heating will result but humidity of offcoil air
will be reduced.
11.2.4.6 Machinery Breakdowns
11.2.4.6.1
In the case of a breakdown of the refrigerating plant
or generators which in one way or another results in an
insufficient capacity and inability to maintain correct
carrying temperatures in one or more decks you must cable
us immediately and keep us informed about the nature and
the extent of the breakdown. You also must keep us
informed of any changes in the hold temperatures during
the breakdown.
11.2.4.6.2
In the case of a breakdown of the generator plant
which results in an insufficient electric supply to enable
both the main engine and refrigerating plant to run
simultaneously priority must be given to the refrigerating
plant.
This means that the main engine has to be stopped as
soon as circumstances allow. At sea where there is no risk
involved in leaving the ship adrift this should be done
immediately. In such case the refrigerating plant is to be
kept running at the required capacity.
11.2.4.6.3
In narrow waters the ship should be anchored until
the electric capacity is sufficiently restored to run both
refrigerating plant and main engine again.

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11.3.0

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SECTION 11.3

CARRIAGE OF CHILLED CARGOES

11.3.1

DECIDUOUS CARGOES

11.3.1.1 Types of Fruits


11.3.1.1.1
Deciduous fruit is the fruit from trees changing their
leaves yearly. The predominant commodities are apples and
pears, but grapes and plums are also covered by these
instructions.
11.3.1.2 Cargo Hold Preparation
11.3.1.2.1
Before arrival at the loading port the cargo holds are to
be thoroughly cleaned, ventilated and carefully ozonized. Ozone
is used to achieve clean and fresh air, free from smell. When the
ozone equipment is in operation, the hatches as well as fresh air
inlets must be closed. The cargo hold fans should be run at low
speed. Should you wish to use the ozone equipment during the
cargo voyage, YOU MUST CONTACT THE FLEET TEAM FOR
APPROVAL.
11.3.1.2.2
If ozone equipment is not available, the access hatches
are to be kept open, weather permitting. Cargo and fresh air
fans to be operated at maximum capacity. During unfavourable
weather conditions, the fresh air system is to be used at
maximum capacity and the cargo hold fans to be run.
11.3.1.2.3
This airing and/or ozonizing is especially important if the
vessel has carried other commodities than "deciduous" fruit
before the deciduous loading.
11.3.1.2.4
Mould and similar growth on deck or gratings etc may
delay the loading considerably. Such mould must be washed
with a solution of "Cleanship Santizer" manufactured by Euroclean
Marine Chemicals alternatively with a 0.5% solution of Sodium
Orthophenyl Phenate (S.O.P.P) or equivalent.
11.3.1.2.5
Painting of decks must be avoided shortly before loading
operations and paint containing a bitumen base must be fully
dried at least two weeks before loading.
11.3.1.3 Pre-Cooling
11.3.1.3.1
Pre-cooling instructions should be obtained from the
Agents at the loading port, including what temperature should the
cargo spaces be on arrival and for what period of time this
temperature should have been kept.
11.3.1.3.2
If no other instructions are given the cargo holds should
be precooled to 0 oC which temperature has to be reached at
least 24 hours before commencement of loading.

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11.3.1.4 Loading/Stowage of Cargo


11.3.1.4.1
During breaks in the loading operations all spaces
containing cargo must be closed and the cargo hold fans and
refrigerating machinery run at the most suitable capacity in
accordance with the shippers recommendations.
11.3.1.4.2
If possible, apples and pears should not to be stowed in
the same chamber except on direct instructions from the
Charterers/Shippers and IN SUCH CASES THE FLEET TEAM
IS TO BE ADVISED SOONEST.
11.3.1.4.3
When the loading in a deck is completed refrigeration
must commence at once. The cooler coils shall be defrosted
carefully just before hatch closing for every deck, to achieve a
cooling down of the cargo as quickly as possible.
11.3.1.4.4
Spaces must be ventilated by use of fresh air and the
CO2 content is to be kept below 1% (grapes 0.5%).
11.3.1.4.5
The fans to be run at full speed during the cooling down
period. When the carrying temperatures are reached the fan
speed is to be adjusted to 45-60 air circulations per hour. A
humidity of 85% is to be aimed at.
11.3.1.4.6
Cargo hold fans are normally to be operated at full speed
during the whole voyage. However, when carrying temperatures
are reached the fans sometimes can be slowed down according
to special instructions.
11.3.1.5 Pre-Cooled Cargo
11.3.1.5.1
Cooled cargoes, such as apples and oranges are
sometimes loaded in precooled condition, sometimes directly
from the growing areas or packing houses, in the latter case with
a temperature around that of the outdoor air.
11.3.1.5.2
A precooled parcel should, if possible not be stowed
together with a non precooled parcel in the same deck.
11.3.2

BANANA CARGOES

11.3.2.1 Preparation of Cargo Spaces


11.3.2.1.1
During the outward voyage (ballast voyage), the cargo
holds are to be cleaned, given fresh air and/or ozonized
carefully.
11.3.2.1.2
During periods when the ozone equipment is in
operation, the hatches as well as fresh air inlets must be closed.
Fans in the holds should be operated at low speed during
ozonizing. Ozone must never be applied to a banana cargo
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during the voyage.


11.3.2.2 Ventilation During Ballast Passages
11.3.2.2.1
On the ballast voyage, if ozone equipment is not
available, the hatches are to be kept open, weather permitting.
11.3.2.2.2
Cargo and fresh-air-fans, are to be operated at the
maximum capacity.
11.3.2.2.3
At times when the hatches have to remain closed owing
to unfavourable weather conditions, the fresh-air-system is to be
operated at maximum capacity and the cargo hold fans are to be
run.
11.3.2.2.4
This airing and/or ozonizing is very important, especially
if the vessel has carried other commodities than bananas during
the previous voyage.
11.3.2.3 Pre-cooling
11.3.2.3.1
Pre-cooling is only to be performed when specially
advised. If no other instruction is given, the cargoholds are to be
precooled to 10 oC, which temperature has to be reached at least
12 hours before the loading commences.
11.3.2.3.2
When the loading commences, the delivery air
temperature must immediately be raised to the temperature
required during the forthcoming voyage.
11.3.2.4 Requirements During Loading Period
11.3.2.4.1
During loading, the cargo hold fans should be operated
at slow speed with the refrigerant or brine flow to the cooling
batteries kept running.
11.3.2.4.2
The delivery air temperature must not be lower than the
delivery temperature asked for during the forthcoming voyage.
11.3.2.4.3
When a deck is loaded to about 50% capacity, the fan
speed as well as the refrigerant or brine circulation is to be
increased to give the requested delivery air temperature.
11.3.2.4.4
As soon as the deck is fully loaded, fan speeds are to be
increased to full speed, the delivery air temperatures reduced to
the temperatures requested (see respective voyage instruction).
11.3.2.4.5
The less time that elapses from the completion of loading
a deck until the delivery temperature is obtained, the better the
cargo will turn out.
11.3.2.5 Part Cargoes

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11.3.2.5.1
Should a deck not be completely filled with cargo, the
cargo must be spread out over the whole area of the gratings.
However, for a shorter voyage other steps may be taken to
ensure a good circulation through the cargo (eg cover the empty
grating area with tarpaulins).
11.3.2.6 Fan Speeds
11.3.2.6.1
The cargo hold fans are to be operated at maximum
speed during the whole voyage.
11.3.2.7 Brine / Refrigerant Circulation
11.3.2.7.1
It is very important that the largest possible amount of
refrigerant or brine is circulated through the cooling batteries, at
the temperature producing the delivery temperature requested,
within shortest possible period.
11.3.2.7.2
The refrigerant or brine temperature is not to be reduced
below the level required in order to achieve the delivery
temperature requested. Temperatures below 0 oC (32 oF) should
be avoided, if possible.
11.3.2.7.3
When the temperature of the delivery air is steady on the
level requested, the refrigerant or brine temperature is to be
raised to the highest level at which the requested delivery
temperature can be maintained.
11.3.2.8 Fresh Air Ventilation During Voyage
11.3.2.8.1
The fresh air ventilation is to be started as soon as the
cooling down period is over but not more than 24 hours after the
loading is finished in the respective cargo spaces.
11.3.2.8.2
The baffles are to be opened and any existing fans to be
started and the amount of fresh air adjusted to 2-3% per minute if
the vessel has equipment for this control. Otherwise full fresh air
ventilation is to be maintained throughout the voyage unless
such action affects the control of the delivery air temperature in
which case we are to be informed.
11.3.2.8.3
Should a cargo show an abnormally large percentage of
ripening or turning bananas, the supply of fresh air is to be
increased provided that the increased supply of fresh air does
not jeopardise the control of the delivery temperature.
11.3.2.8.4
If there is the slightest suspicion that the quality of the
bananas being loaded is unsatisfactory, it is essntial that fresh air
is given as early as possible. In such a case, advise the Fleet
Team immediately.
11.3.2.9 Reduction Period
11.3.2.9.1

The reduction period is the time required in each deck to

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reduce the temperature of the return air to 4 oF (2 oC) above the


delivery temperature requested, calculated from the time when
the particular deck is finally closed after completion of loading.
11.3.2.9.2
The length of the reduction period is to be calculated for
each deck and the average of these values applies as reduction
period for the cargo and this value is to be inserted in the
refrigerating report.
11.3.2.9.3
It is important that the temperatures are brought down as
quickly as possible and the reduction period should not exceed
36 hours.

11.3.2.10

Heating of Cargo Holds

11.3.2.10.1
When the bananas are discharged in areas where a cold
climate is prevailing, the cold outdoor air might seep into the hold
causing the temperature in the hold to drop below the delivery
temperature requested for the cargo.
11.3.2.10.2
In such cases it is advisable to run the fans at slow
speed and circulate the brine or refrigerant so that the delivery
air temperature ordered for the voyage is kept.
11.3.2.10.3
In these instances the pulp temperatures have to be
watched carefully in order to avoid a drop below the requested
delivery temperature.
11.3.2.10.4
At very low temperatures during the voyage (-10oC or
lower) it is possible that the fresh air fed into the cargo hold is
cold to the extent that even the delivery air temperature drops
below the requested values. In such instances the brine of
refrigerant must be heated so that the correct delivery
temperature is kept.
11.3.2.10.5
The amount of fresh air must not be reduced until all
heating facilities are maximally utilised.
11.3.3

CITRUS CARGOES

11.3.3.1 General Information


11.3.3.1.1
The most common citrus fruits carried in reefer vessels
are oranges, lemons and grapefruit.
11.3.3.1.2
Most citrus fruit have a strong smell which may very
badly influence certain other cargoes such as meat, fish, butter,
eggs, etc. Thus special care must be taken that vitiated air from
citrus loaded decks is kept from leaking into any deck loaded
with such sensitive commodity.
11.3.3.2 Cargo Hold Preparation
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SECTION 11.3

11.3.3.2.1
The cargo holds should be thoroughly cleaned, ozonised
and aired during the ballast passage. All planned spaces for
loading are to be completed prior to commencement of loading.
11.3.3.3 Pre-Cooling
11.3.3.3.1
Pre-cooling is not always required by the Charterers but
the holds should always be pre-cooled to required temperature
when pre-cooled fruit is loaded.
11.3.3.3.2
When no specific instructions regarding pre-cooling are
given, advice in this respect is to be obtained from the
Charterers.
11.3.3.4 Loading / Stowage of Cargo
11.3.3.4.1

Refer to Sections 11.2.3 and 11.2.4.

11.3.3.4.2
The appearance of cartons is especially important in the
sale of fruit. Therefore where it is necessary to separate different
ports and / or cargo of varying marks do not use paint or marker
pens. Any separation necessary should be done by using
coloured separation nets.
11.3.3.4.3
To prevent chafing of the cartons which would affect the
marketability of the fruit, it is important that a tight stowage is
achieved.
11.3.3.4.4
Materials for securing the cargo including air bags, if not
already onboard should be supplied by the Charterers. When air
bags are supplied from ashore make sure that air guns are also
supplied to enable the air bags to be inflated from the vessels
deck low pressure air line.
11.3.3.4.5
Oranges and lemons may be stowed together.
Grapefruit, where possible, should be stowed separately but
where necessary could be stowed with lemons. In such a case
the lemons are carried at the grapefruit temperature.
11.3.3.4.6
Many ports now use electric pallet jacks in the cargo
holds for loading and discharging of the cargo. It is therefore
very important that the gratings are in good condition and level
so that the operation of the pallet jacks is not impeded.
11.3.3.4.7
Where pallet jacks are used the ship's crew should be
especially vigilant for any damages to the gratings caused by the
stevedores operating the jacks. Any damages should be entered
on the company "Stevedores Damage" form and presented to
the stevedores for acceptance of damage at the earliest
opportunity.
11.3.3.5 Palletised Cargoes
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CARRIAGE OF CHILLED CARGOES

SECTION 11.3

11.3.3.5.1
Citrus cargoes are often loaded on pallets which sit on
top of the vessel's gratings. In such a case to maintain a tight
stow the vessel's semi-permanent side shorings (where fitted)
are to be erected prior to arrival at the loading port.
11.3.3.5.2
Where the vessel is not fitted with side shorings the
pallets are to be tightly secured by means of dunnage or air bags
to prevent movement of the pallets in rough weather.
11.3.3.5.3
This is especially important in cargo spaces towards the
bow and stern of the vessel where due to the lines of the vessel
the holds may not be square. If the pallets are allowed to move
in such spaces considerable damages will occur to the ship's
side insulation and to the cargo.
11.3.3.5.4
The Master/Chief Officer is to ensure that the Charterers
arrange for palletised cargoes to be properly secured at their
cost.
11.3.3.6 Pulp Temperature
11.3.3.6.1
Unless advised otherwise follow general instructions
given in Section 11.2.3.7.
11.3.3.6.2
Any fruit tested is not to be put back into the carton as it
will decay and affect the remaining fruit.
11.3.3.7 Carrying Temperatures
11.3.3.7.1
Citrus fruits are generally carried at a certain temperature
observing that the delivery air must not drop below a somewhat
lower temperature. The difference between the lowest permitted
delivery air temperature and the return air temperature is
normally between 2 deg C and 5 deg C.
11.3.3.7.2
Late harvested citrus fruits may require a lower carrying
temperature than the earlier cut fruit.
In such case the
Charterers have to give special instructions.
11.3.3.7.3
The usual accepted carrying temperatures for citrus fruits
are as follows:-

Fruit

Oranges

Return
Temperature
o
C

Lowest
Delivery
o
C

3 - 10

0 - 5

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CARRIAGE OF CHILLED CARGOES

SECTION 11.3

Grapefruits

10 - 16

6 - 10

Lemons

5 - 14

3 - 10

Mandarins

2 - 6

1 - 4

Tangerines

0 - 4

0 - 2

Limes

8 - 10

6 - 8

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SECTION 11.3

11.3.3.7.4
Temperatures are however dependent on variety
and maturity and the vessel should always obtain written
temperature instructions from Charterers. Should the
vessel not receive written instructions, the Fleet Team
should be immediately informed.
11.3.3.8 Fan Speeds
3.3.8.1 The cargo hold fans are to be operated at maximum speed
during the whole voyage.
11.3.3.9 Fresh Air Ventilation During Voyage
11.3.3.9.1
Unless advised otherwise by the Charterers, it is
normal to keep the CO2 content in the cargo spaces below
0.1% which entails supplying a quantity of fresh air per
hour equivalent to between two and two and one half times
the cargo spaces by volume.
11.3.3.10

Relative Humidity

11.3.3.10.1
Normally kept at 85 - 90% but some cargoes such
as mandarins are stated as 75 - 80%. Keep humidity at the
higher level unless Charterers written instructions state
otherwise. If lower humidity level is requested, contact the
Fleet Team for advice.
11.3.4

POTATO CARGOES

11.3.4.1 Cleaning and Ventilation


11.3.4.1.1
Before arrival at the loading port, the holds are to
be thoroughly cleaned, ozonized and properly ventilated so
that neither gas nor smell exists.
11.3.4.2 Pre-Cooling of Cargo Spaces
11.3.4.2.1
Precooling of holds is not necessary unless the
outside temperatures is above +20 oC In case of higher
temperatures, have the holds precooled to +10 oC 24 hours
prior to arrival in the loading port.

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SECTION 11.3

11.3.4.3 Heating of Cargo Holds


11.3.4.3.1
During winter time when temperatures below 0oC
can be expected, the cargoholds are to be heated to +10
o
C/+15 oC at least 24 hours prior to loading and great care
must be taken to keep the hold temperatures above +5 oC
during the loading.

11.3.4.4 Condition of Cargo At Loading


11.3.4.4.1
Potatoes are normally shipped in bags and are not
precooled. The potato bags must be dry and reasonably
clean, free from potato moth and their caterpillars, moulds
and mechanical injuries. Wet stained bags is a sign of soft
rotten potatoes.
11.3.4.5 Pulp Temperatures
11.3.4.5.1
The pulp temperature in the potatoes must be
checked most carefully and noted during low outside
temperatures. It must not be below 0oC in which case the
freezing risk is great. The freezing point for potatoes is 0.5/ -1.0 oC.
11.3.4.5.2
With low outside temperatures, there is a risk of
cold air in the bottom of a deck if the fans are not running
and it is thus recommended that the fans are run at a slow
speed during loading.
11.3.4.6 Frost Damage to Cargo
11.3.4.6.1
If the outside temperature is below +2 oC at loading
or during transportation to the ship, the potatoes may be
frostbitten and care must be taken to ensure that no
frostbitten potatoes are loaded.
11.3.4.6.2
Frostbitten potatoes have a sweet taste and may
be soft which is the first stage of becoming rotten.
11.3.4.6.3
Should the potatoes become slightly frostbitten this
damage may possibly be cured if they are kept stored at
10-20oC for a period. The length of the period depends on
grade of damage and temperature kept. The damage is
cured when the sweet taste of the potatoes no longer can
be noticed. Severe frost bite cannot be cured.
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SECTION 11.3

11.3.4.7 Stowage
11.3.4.7.1
The potatoes are to be stowed in a way that makes
it possible for the cooling air to penetrate the cargo. A tight
and safe stow with complete coverage of the gratings will
thus achieve the most accurate cooling.
11.3.4.7.2
A stowage with every second layer fore an aft and
the others athwartships is recommended and stowage
more than ten bags high (50 kilo bags) should be avoided.
11.3.4.7.3
If Shippers/Charterers demand higher stowage,
please note that if the cargo is fixed on FIOS terms, the
responsibility is normally theirs and not the Owners, if the
condition of the cargo gets deteriorated for this reason.
THIS FACT SHOULD BE POINTED OUT TO
EVERYBODY CONCERNED BEFORE A HIGHER
STOWAGE OF THE BAGS IS COMMENCED.
11.3.4.7.4
If you are at all doubtful about what has been
agreed for your cargo or if the cargo is fixed on a higher
stowage you should contact this office.
11.3.4.7.5
Dunnage in the cargo is not allowed and walking on
the bags should be avoided.
11.3.4.8 Ventilation and Carrying Temperature
11.3.4.8.1
The cargohold fans are to be run at full speed until
the carrying temperature is reached and thereafter they are
to be run at 2/3 or 1/2 speed until three or four days prior to
discharging when the temperatures are to be raised.
11.3.4.8.2
Carrying temperature for table potatoes is usually
stated by the Shippers and may vary somewhat, but is
normally about +5 oC. Seed potatoes are carried at various
temperatures which are to be specified by the Shippers for
each cargo.
11.3.4.8.3
The carrying temperature is to be measured in the
return air and care should be taken that the delivery air is
never allowed below +3 oC for table potatoes or +5 oC for
seed potatoes unless otherwise stated by the Shippers.
11.3.4.8.4

Three or four days before the vessel's arrival at the

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SECTION 11.3

discharging port (or before the discharging starts) the cargo


temperature (i.e the pulp temperature in the potatoes) is to
be raised to about the outside temperature expected during
the discharging to avoid condensation on the potatoes.
Some Shippers may not want this rise in temperature so
check with them first on this point.
In the event
temperatures are to be increased then heat is to be applied
at full fan speed and by using the defrosting system.
11.3.4.8.5
As potatoes are very sensitive to light, the cargo
hold lighting has to be kept switched off during the whole
voyage.
11.3.4.9 Fresh Air Ventilation During Voyage
11.3.4.9.1
Fresh air to be given only in small amounts.
Principally a volume of fresh air equal to the empty deck's
volume should be blown into the deck every 24 hours, ie
the air in each deck should be renewed once per 24 hours.
If more fresh air is blown in, there is a risk that too much
moisture is introduced and the cargo becomes wet and
starts to mould.
11.3.4.9.2
Raising temperature by means of fresh air is not
allowed. However, when the temperature in the cargo is
raised above the outside dew point, fresh air may be given
especially if the discharging is delayed.
11.3.4.10

Chemical Treatment of Cargo

11.3.4.10.1
Most cargoes of TABLE potatoes are treated with
sprout retarding chemicals. As these chemicals may have
an undesirable effect on SEED potatoes, it is of utmost
importance that the holds are carefully washed down after
having discharged TABLE potatoes in case it should
happen that a cargo of SEED potatoes is to be loaded
directly afterwards.
Note
The foregoing instructions in this section only apply to
potatoes carried under refrigeration. For potatoes carried
"ventilated stowage" separate instructions apply.

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CARRIAGE OF FROZEN CARGO

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SECTION 11.4

11.4 CARRIAGE OF FROZEN CARGOES


11.4.1

FROZEN CARGOES (GENERAL)

11.4.1.1 Cargo Condition At Loading


11.4.1.1.1
Frozen cargoes are always to be loaded in a frozen
condition with a pulp temperature no higher than -12 oC.
11.4.1.1.2
Prior to loading, checks are to be made that the
commodities are hard frozen and that the packings are in
good condition. Cargo, which is found to be soft or has
damaged packings is to be refused. In such cases, advise
the Fleet Team and the local agent immediately/
11.4.1.1.3
Cargo showing signs of having been refrozen must
never be accepted without remarks in the Bills of Lading.
Signs of refrozen cargo are:-

Blood-stained clothing of the carcass;


Blood-stained and/or wet and deformed cartons.

11.4.1.1.4
Before making remarks in the Bills of Lading, the
Master is to advise the Fleet Team.
11.4.1.2 Pulp Temperature
11.4.1.2.1
During both loading and discharging, pulp
temperatures of the cargo are to be taken and recorded at
least once an hour. Pulp temperatures should be taken
both in the middle of the commodity and just below the
surface and recorded separately. A daily summary of the
pulp temperatures is to be recorded in the Deck Log Book.
11.4.1.2.2
Cargo with a pulp temperature warmer than -12 oC
for fish and -10 oC for meat must not be loaded without
applying to the Fleet Team by telex or facsimile.
Permission may be given provided that the cargo is hard
frozen and the packings are in good condition so a close
inspection by the ships personnel is essential.
Should loading be permitted, any suspect cargo is to be
stowed away and separated from correctly frozen cargo.

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SECTION 11.4

11.4.1.3 Stowage
11.4.1.3.1
When loading frozen commodities where there is
any risk that the different parcels could freeze together and
stop the air circulation around the cargo, you must ensure
ample space is provided within the cargo to enable the air
to circulate.
In such cases we recommend the use of 1" x 1" dunnage
in one row vertically through the cargo in the centerline if
the Robson air circulating system is installed and 2" x 2"
dunnage on the bulkhead most distant from the cooler
room when the system is ductless.
11.4.1.3.2
With regard to the carriage of frozen carcasses, we
have experienced moving cargo, particularly in those
compartments with open space. This has resulted in
damage to the carcasses, such as broken legs etc.
Therefore the cargo in those compartments only partially
loaded should be adequately secured.
11.4.1.4 Loading in High Ambient Temperatures
11.4.1.4.1
Damage is often caused to frozen cargo by a high
outside air temperature combined with a slow cargo
operation. This type of damage is accentuated especially
in vessels with big hatches.
11.4.1.4.2
We draw the attention of all Masters to this problem
and would suggest that in order to avoid such damage in
the future, the following precautions are taken:
(i)

Frozen cargo should be protected against direct


sunlight by tarpaulins and/or other adequate
methods.

(ii)

When the outdoor temperature is high only the


hatch section(s) required for the cargo operation
shall be open in order to avoid unnecessary
leakage of hot air into the hatch.
Hold
temperatures must be closely watched!

(iii)

If, in spite of the above precautions, a risk still


remains for serious cargo damage, the hatch is to
be closed and the refrigeration system turned on.
This must, however, be done in close co-operation
with the Agent/Shipper. In those instances when

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SECTION 11.4

these precautions cause a delay to the Ship,


advise the Fleet Team by telex or telephone
immediately.
(iv)

Whenever problems arise due to high outdoor


temperatures during loading or discharging, do not
hesitate to consult the Fleet Team.

11.4.1.5 Carrying Conditions


11.4.1.5.1
Charterers'/Shippers' carrying instructions should
be obtained and carefully followed.
11.4.1.5.2
If not advised otherwise the delivery air
temperature in a completed deck should be set at 1 deg C
below the requested carrying temperature soonest after
closing of the hatch. This delivery air temperature should
be kept until the return temperature reaches ordered
carrying temperature.
11.4.1.5.3
Upon completion of loading, the refrigeration plant
must be utilised to the highest possible capacity.
11.4.1.5.4
The brine temperature is to be kept as close as
possible to the delivery air temperature.
11.4.1.6 Fan Speeds
11.4.1.6.1
The fans must be operated at maximum speed
combined with the lowest possible brine temperature and
highest possible brine circulation until the temperature in
the holds has reached the carrying temperature and the
reduction time is terminated. This of course will be subject
to vessels design characteristics - if this heat gain caused
by fans on maximum speed causes difficulties in reaching
required delivery air temperatures, then switch fans to 2/3
or 1/2 speed.
11.4.1.6.2
In hatches where part of the cargo has been loaded
at warmer temperature than - 15 oC fans are to be operated
at maximum speed for 48 hours after termination of
reduction time.
11.4.1.6.3
Once reduction time is reached, to avoid drying of
the cargo, reduce the fans to the lowest possible speed
and keep the brine temperature as close as possible to the
necessary delivery temperature. For frozen cargoes the
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SECTION 11.4

delivery temperature is normally as much as 2 to 3 deg C


below the stipulated carrying temperature.
11.4.1.6.4
As neither smell nor gas is produced by frozen
cargoes, no supply of fresh air must be given.
11.4.1.7 Fresh Air System
11.4.1.7.1
All dampers and plugs for sealing off the ventilation
ducts must be in closed position prior to commencement of
cooling down period.
11.4.1.7.2
If any fresh air is allowed to enter the ventilation
system, this will cause a rapid build up of frost on the air
coolers.
11.4.1.8 Defrosting of Air Coolers
11.4.1.8.1
During loading periods and for the first week after
completing a hatch, the frost build up on the air coolers can
be considerable. Defrosting therefore must be on a regular
basis but generally not more than once per day.
11.4.1.8.2
When defrosting, endeavour to defrost the coolers
in the lower decks first, working upwards to the top decks.
This will prevent the ingress of fresh air into decks which
have been defrosted when carrying out inspection of the air
coolers.
11.4.1.8.3
Do not allow personnel to enter any fan spaces
unnecessarily to prevent increased frosting of the air
coolers.
11.4.1.8.4
After defrosting, a visual inspection of each air
cooler must be made. At this time, the scupper plugs are
to be removed to allow the draining of the drip trays under
the coolers. Replace the plugs after brine sealing the
scuppers and cover with calcium chloride flakes.
11.4.1.9 Relative Humidity
11.4.1.9.1
The relative humidity should be kept at about 9095%. The temperature of the refrigerant of brine in the
coolers in the holds is to be kept as close to the desired
cargo hold temperature as possible in order to avoid too
low a relative humidity of the air, which causes drying of the
cargo, resulting in loss of weight and a dry surface on the
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commodity.
11.4.1.10

Ozone

11.4.1.10.1
Should odour develop in the cargo holds, small
quantities of ozone may be used to eliminate the odour,
BUT ONLY AFTER OBTAINING OUR APPROVAL. Ozone
must not be used for butter.
11.4.2
FISH CARGOES
11.4.2.1 Precooling
11.4.2.1.1
Start precooling of the holds about 48 hours before
arrival at the loading port. The precooling temperature -20
o
C, is to be reached at least 24 hours before arrival.
11.4.2.1.2
In order to maintain the low temperature as long as
possible during loading when the outdoor temperature is
high, all decks are to be precooled even if the loading is
only to take place in the lower decks. This is not required
when the outdoor temperature is low.
11.4.2.2 Stowage
11.4.2.2.1
The vessel will be furnished with all details such as
quantities to be loaded each port, combination prospects (if
any) and the stowage proposal. The vessel is to either
confirm the stowage plan or give comments/objections as
soon as possible.
11.4.2.2.2
As changes often occur, the vessel will receive
updated details from time-to-time as the loading
progresses.
11.4.2.2.3
Once a stowage plan has been agreed upon, it
should not be changed without prior consultation with
shippers.
11.4.2.2.4
Parcels loaded by different Shippers may be
stowed in the same deck but with careful separation. Very
often the cartons are insufficiently marked and therefore
extra separation may be required.
11.4.2.2.5
Each consignment to be block stowed in order to
simplify separation and to avoid sorting during discharge.
11.4.2.2.6
Where tuna is carried in bulk, the various parcels
are to be separated by means of secondhand fish nets or
similar (consult with local agent) and marked with the name
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SECTION 11.4

of the Shipper / Consignee using a large plywood label.


11.4.2.2.7
In order to avoid damage to other cargo that is
stowed in the same hatch as tuna, a bulkhead of dunnage
and/or boards should be built between the two types of
cargo. These bulkheads will also secure the "tuna" cargo
and thereby reduce damage both to the "tuna" cargo and
the hold in case of heavy weather.
11.4.2.2.8
fish.

Fish in bulk must not be stowed on top of cartoned

11.4.2.2.9
Whenever possible, "tuna" should be stowed close
to the cooling batteries thus protecting this cargo best
possible during the discharging.
11.4.2.2.10
Fish is packed in various types of cartons, also in
plastic bags without an outer carton. The most common
size of packages is designed to hold about 10 kilos, or a
larger one holding about 20 kilos (two 10 kilo packages).
11.4.2.2.11
When the cargo is produced by Japanese trawlers,
the quantity is indicated in "net" or "casetons" which
consists of 50 standard cartons (cases) of a nominal weight
of 20 kilos each regardless of actual weight.
These 50 cartons are stowing about 75 cb ft and a "net"
merely represents the volume instead of the weight. The
actual weight of one "net" is generally varying between
1,100 - 1,400 kilos.
11.4.2.2.12
When the cargo is not produced by Japanese
trawlers, the quantity is expressed in metric tons net actual
weight. The stowage factor is then 65 - 70 cb ft per mton
net.
11.4.2.2.13
Gross weight will only be given whenever there is a
risk that the dead weight of the vessel is not sufficient. In
case you fear that deadweight problems might occur, you
are requested to let the Fleet Team know without delay.
11.4.2.2.14
Particular attention must be paid to the fact that the
stowage factor, calculated per gross ton, can be as low as
50 - 55 cbft/ton, especially in the Canary Islands for squid
during the winter period.

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SECTION 11.4

11.4.2.3 Tuna
11.4.2.3.1
All fish stowed loose in bulk in the ship's holds is
called "tuna" although other species than tuna such as
black marlin, swordfish and sharks are often included.
11.4.2.3.2
As "tuna" is loaded without any wrapping, the net
and the gross weight are the same. In the Bill of Lading the
gross weight is to be reflected.
11.4.2.3.2
The stowage factor for "tuna" is about 80 cb ft per
ton except when loading a homogeneous cargo of skipjack
or yellowfin tuna which stows about 65.
11.4.2.4 Squid
11.4.2.4.1
Frozen squid is mostly shipped as frozen blocks
without wrapping of any kind, so called naked blocks.
When loading naked blocks from fishing boats note that
the cargo is to be blockstowed, interlocked and at least the
two blocks on top to be turned upside down to prevent
drying out.
11.4.2.4.2
Squid blocks are easily melted by wind and
sunshine. Extreme care must be taken to prevent the
blocks from sunshine and strong winds during loading and
discharging. Temperature and weight of the cargo to be
noted during loading.
11.4.2.4.3

Stowage factor of squid is about 60/65 cb ft mton.

11.4.2.5 Loading Temperatures


11.4.2.5.1
Please first read Section 11.4.1.1.
11.4.2.5.2
In the event that cargo is accepted despite being
warmer than -12 oC, then it should be loosely stowed and
separated from the surrounding cargo by means of
dunnage. This will allow cool air to flow around and
through the cargo thus preventing a warm pocket in the
stow.
11.4.2.5.3
Pulp temperatures are to be taken continuously
during the loading/discharging of the cargo (see Section
11.4.1.2).
11.4.2.5.4
When loading fish, the following is to be recorded
and retained onboard:

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(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Issue 1

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SECTION 11.4

Detailed information about the condition of each lot


or part of lot.
Temperature of each lot or part thereof.
Remarks on cargo.
Shippers/Consignee of cargo.

This information is of utmost importance when possible


claims are to be settled.
11.4.2.6 Cargo Damage
11.4.2.6.1
If cartons or corners of cartons are broken, then
warm air can reach the fish whilst the cargo is waiting to be
loaded.
11.4.2.6.2
A responsible member of the crew is to be
assigned to examine the condition of the cargo throughout
the loading to ascertain if there is damage to the frozen
block, such as dented or melted corners, or if the entire
content has been affected.
11.4.2.6.3
In the event that cargo of deteriorated quality is
found by shore surveyors during the discharge, then the
Master and/or the Chief Officer must examine the suspect
cargo and forward a written report to the Fleet Team giving
the vessels views and reasons for the deteriorated quality.
The report should include the vessels comments on how to
prevent similar occurrences in the future.
11.4.2.7 Cargo Hold Temperatures
11.4.2.7.1
The hold temperatures are to be carefully
monitored during the loading/discharging and if
exceptionally high, cargo operations are to be stopped and
the holds cooled down - refer to Section 11.4.1.4.
11.4.2.8 Carrying Conditions
11.4.2.8.1
The carrying temperature is the return air
temperature. Carrying temperature of fish, squid and tuna
is equal to your ship's Classification temperature.
11.4.2.8.2
As soon as the deck is closed the hold temperature
must be lowered as fast as possible to the temperature for
which the ship is classified.
11.4.2.8.3 Shippers quite often give instructions regarding carrying
temperature e.g. "minus 20 centigrade or lower". The
vessel is to disregard all such instructions and maintain a
carrying temperature equal to classification temperature
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as above. The vessel should immediately advise the


Fleet Team of any such instruction, so that we can
discuss it with the Shipper.

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11.5.0

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SECTION 11.5

CARRIAGE OF SPECIAL CARGOES

11.5.1

LOADING OF FRUIT FOR USA (USDA)

11.5.1.1 General Information


11.5.1.1.1
The import of fruit and vegetables into the US is
governed by the provision of the Fruit and Vegetables
Quarantine Regulations No 56, Title 7, Section 319.56-2.
These rules were adopted by the United States Department of
Agriculture (USDA) for the control of fruit imported to the US
and cargoes of fruit to the USA can only be loaded on USDA
approved ships. Such ships must be able to prove that the
cargo has been maintained at a certain temperature during a
minimum number of days in accordance with the USDA
regulations.
11.5.1.1.2
The purpose of the USDA control is to prevent various
flies and other bugs to enter the US. "The Mediterranean fruit
fly", "The Mexican fruit fly", "The Queensland fruit fly" and flies
of the Anastrepha family fall into this category. These flies and
their eggs die after a certain period of time at a certain
temperature. All fruit imported into the US which might be
exposed to the risk of carrying these flies must during a specific
period of time be stored at the required temperature level
during the sea voyage to the US or after discharge in US in
reefer warehouses ashore. This procedure is called "cold
treatment".
11.5.1.1.3
All USDA approved vessels must be equipped with
thermographs for the recording of temperature against time.
The thermographs register temperatures in 4-9 different places
in every hold at least once every hour. USDA has issued very
precise instructions as to how such a thermograph installation
must be constructed.
11.5.1.1.4
In the event that the vessel is scheduled for a USDA
cargo, the Fleet Team is to be advised, when full instructions
will be forwarded to the vessel.

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