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NAVAL AIR TRAINING COMMAND

NAS CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS

CNATRA P-1289 (Rev. 08-09)

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

FLIGHT TRAINING INSTRUCTION


T-45 STRIKE AND IUT
2009

FLIGHT TRAINING INSTRUCTION


FOR
AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING
T-45
P-1289

iii

HOW TO USE THIS FTI


This Flight Training Instruction (FTI) is your textbook for the Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM)
stage of your Jet Pilot Training and is the source document for all procedures related to ACM. In
addition, it includes suggested techniques for performing each maneuver and making corrections.
Use your FTI to prepare for and afterward to review lessons and flights. This information will
help you effectively prepare for lessons: know all the procedures in the assigned section(s),
review the glossary, and be prepared to ask your instructor about anything that remains unclear.
Then you can devote your attention to flying the T-45A. After a flight, review the FTI materials
to reinforce your understanding and to clarify any difficult maneuvers or procedures.
Note that this FTI also contains information on emergencies related to this stage. This section of
the FTI amplifies but does not supplant the emergency procedures information contained in the
T-45A NATOPS manual.
Reading requirements for flight procedures lessons (lectures) are listed in Appendix A, "Lesson
Preparation," along with the course learning objectives. The end-of-stage exam will be based on
these objectives. Complete the required reading prior to each lesson (lecture).

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LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES


Dates of issue for original and changed pages are:
Original...0...15 Feb 07 (this will be the date issued)
Revision1007 Oct 09
TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES IN THIS PUBLICATION IS 176 CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING:

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COVER

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LETTER

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1-1 1-132

2-1 2-2

3-1 3-4

A-1 A-9

A-10 (blank)

B-1 B-4

C-1 C-7

C-8 (blank)

D-1 D-3

D-4 (blank)

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INTERIM CHANGE SUMMARY


The following Changes have been previously incorporated in this manual:
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REMARKS/PURPOSE

The following interim Changes have been incorporated in this Change/Revision:


INTERIM
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REMARKS/PURPOSE

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ENTERED
BY

DATE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
HOW TO USE THIS FTI............................................................................................................ iv
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES................................................................................................... v
INTERIM CHANGE SUMMARY............................................................................................. vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... vii
TABLE OF FIGURES............................................................................................................... viii
INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................... x
CHAPTER ONE - BASIC AERODYNAMIC REVIEW....................................................... 1-1
100. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 1-1
101. BACKGROUND ......................................................................................................... 1-2
102. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS .................................................................. 1-3
103. ENERGY MANEUVERABILITY.............................................................................. 1-4
104. TURN PERFORMANCE NUMBERS........................................................................ 1-9
105. T-45 GOUGE NUMBERS ........................................................................................ 1-10
106. APPLIED EM CONCEPTS....................................................................................... 1-11
107. MANEUVERING OUR AIRCRAFT........................................................................ 1-11
108. 1 V 1 ACM................................................................................................................. 1-17
109. 1 V 1 ACM EXECUTION......................................................................................... 1-20
110. DEFENSIVE ACM.................................................................................................... 1-49
CHAPTER TWO - SAFETY/EMERGENCY CONSIDERATIONS ................................... 2-1
200. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 2-1
CHAPTER THREE - SELF-TEST .......................................................................................... 3-1
300. INTRODUCTION N/A ............................................................................................... 3-1
APPENDIX A - GLOSSARY................................................................................................... A-1
A100. GLOSSARY ............................................................................................................... A-1
SYMBOLOGY ....................................................................................................................... A-9
APPENDIX B - STUDY RESOURCES FOR ACMFP ......................................................... B-1
APPENDIX C 2 V 1 ACM COMM SCRIPT ...................................................................... C-1
APPENDIX D - INDEX............................................................................................................ D-1

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TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1 Aerodynamic Forces Acting Upon an Aircraft in Flight ........................ 1-1
Figure 1-2 Angle Of Attack.......................................................................................... 1-2
Figure 1-3 Turn Rate Advantage Comparison .......................................................... 1-4
Figure 1-4 Generic E/M Diagram................................................................................ 1-6
Figure 1-5 Turn Performance - 10,000 Feet ............................................................... 1-9
Figure 1-6 Vertical Maneuvering - The Egg............................................................. 1-12
Figure 1-7 Flight Path Overshoot.............................................................................. 1-13
Figure 1-8 3/9 Line ...................................................................................................... 1-14
Figure 1-9 Pursuit Curves .......................................................................................... 1-22
Figure 1-10 Control Zone Entry................................................................................ 1-24
Figure 1-11 Bubble Entry........................................................................................... 1-25
Figure 1-12 Attack Window Entry............................................................................ 1-27
Figure 1-13 Misaligned Turn Circles ........................................................................ 1-28
Figure 1-14 Offensive Break Turn Evaluation......................................................... 1-30
Figure 1-15 Flat Scissors ............................................................................................ 1-32
Figure 1-16 Rolling Scissors....................................................................................... 1-34
Figure 1-17 Rolling Scissors Positions....................................................................... 1-36
Figure 1-18 Snap Shot Drill ....................................................................................... 1-40
Figure 1-19 Flat Scissors ............................................................................................ 1-43
Figure 1-20 Rolling Scissors....................................................................................... 1-44
Figure 1-21 Starting Inside The Bubble.................................................................... 1-46
Figure 1-22 Break Turn Exercise .............................................................................. 1-48
Figure 1-23 Angle Off-Tail Recognition ................................................................... 1-52
Figure 1-24 Attacker Bubble Entry........................................................................... 1-53
Figure 1-25 Misaligned Turn Circles ........................................................................ 1-55
Figure 1-26 Flight Path Overshoot............................................................................ 1-57
Figure 1-27 Flat Scissors ............................................................................................ 1-59
Figure 1-28 Rolling Scissors....................................................................................... 1-60
Figure 1-29 Snap Guns Exercise................................................................................ 1-66
Figure 1-30 Flat Scissors ............................................................................................ 1-67
Figure 1-31 Rolling Scissors....................................................................................... 1-68
Figure 1-32 Starting Inside The Bubble.................................................................... 1-69
Figure 1-33 Break Turn Exercise .............................................................................. 1-71
Figure 1-34 One-Circle Flow...................................................................................... 1-76
Figure 1-35 Two-Circle Flow ..................................................................................... 1-77
Figure 1-36 Vertical Merges ...................................................................................... 1-78
Figure 1-37 ACM Environment................................................................................. 1-80
Figure 1-38 Fighter Nose High vs Opponent Hi/Level/Lo ...................................... 1-85
Figure 1-39 Fighter Nose Low vs Opponent Hi/Level/Lo ....................................... 1-86
Figure 1-40 Fighter Level vs. Opponent Hi/Level/Lo.............................................. 1-87
Figure 1-41 Butterfly Set ............................................................................................ 1-90
Figure 1-42 Multi-Switch Scenario.......................................................................... 1-104
Figure 1-43 Multi-Switch Scenario.......................................................................... 1-107
Figure 1-44 Multi-Switch Scenario.......................................................................... 1-108

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Figure 1-45
Figure 1-46
Figure 1-47
Figure 1-48
Figure 1-49
Figure 1-50
Figure 1-51
Figure 1-52
Figure 1-53
Figure 1-54
Figure 1-55
Figure 1-56
Figure 1-57
Figure 1-58
Figure 1-59
Figure 1-60
Figure 1-61
Figure 1-62
Figure 1-63
Figure 1-64

Multi-Switch Scenario.......................................................................... 1-109


Disengagement Bugout (Hawk)........................................................... 1-112
Counterflow .......................................................................................... 1-113
Counterflow Exercise........................................................................... 1-114
Counterflow Free Fighter 90-Degree Checkpoint............................. 1-114
VFQ Setup (Skull) ................................................................................ 1-117
VFQ Bandit Flow .............................................................................. 1-118
Knock It Off Flow (Tiger) ................................................................... 1-119
VFQ Overall Flow to Fox-2 .............................................................. 1-121
BVR Bandit Abeam the Section (Hawk) ......................................... 1-123
BVR Bandit In-Plane/In-Phase Two-Circle Flow .......................... 1-124
Classic Two-Circle Flow ...................................................................... 1-125
Free/Engaged Fighter Initial Move (Hawk)....................................... 1-126
BVR One-Circle Flow (Hawk) ............................................................ 1-127
BVR Fighters Use Threat Information (Hawk) ......................... 1-127
BVR Late Fighter Maneuver (Hawk).............................................. 1-128
BVR Late Fighter Maneuver Unknown Bandit Target.............. 1-128
BVR Bandit Switch Post-Merge (Hawk)......................................... 1-129
BVR Bandit Unseen Entry (Hawk).................................................. 1-130
BVR Counterflow Defensive ............................................................ 1-130

Figure A-1 Symbology ................................................................................................. A-9

ix

INTRODUCTION
This Flight Training Instruction (FTI) is your textbook for the Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM)
stage of your Jet Pilot Training and is the source document for all procedures related to ACM. In
addition, it includes suggested techniques for performing each maneuver and making corrections.
Use your FTI to prepare for lessons and flights and afterward to review. In order to effectively
prepare for lessons you should: know all the procedures in the assigned sections, review the
glossary, and be prepared to ask your instructor about anything that remains unclear. You can
then devote your attention to flying the T-45. After a flight, review the FTI materials to reinforce
your understanding and to clarify any difficult maneuvers or procedures.
Note that this FTI also contains information on emergencies related to this stage. This section of
the FTI amplifies but does not supplant the emergency procedures information contained in the
T-45 NATOPS manual.
Undeniably, 1 v 1 Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) training is fun, but there are a number of
other reasons why it is important that strike-fighter aircrew continue to study and train in 1 v 1
air combat.

Combat Lessons Learned Despite operating in an era of all-aspect, beyond visual


range missiles, history has continuously proven that the majority of air battles are
fought and won in the visual arena. Even in the largest furball or multi-plane
engagements, for that brief moment when the decision is made to engage an
opponent, we are involved in a 1 v 1 engagement. Strike-fighter aircrew MUST be
proficient at 1 v 1 ACM to minimize time-to-kill and ensure they leave merges
unscathed.

Develops Fundamental Tactical Skills Through ACM we are allowed to practice


briefing, debriefing; stick, rudder and throttle mechanics and tactical decisionmaking. The development of these core tactical skills and the confidence we gain in
maneuvering our aircraft throughout its flight envelope improves our ability to
perform and maintain situational awareness in other strike-fighter missions.

The fundamental tactics and maneuvers of air combat have changed little in the last 70 years. In
this stage, we will introduce the classic fighter versus fighter maneuvers and discuss how to
employ them in staged and dynamic situations. It is incumbent upon all strike-fighter aircrew to
have a sound understanding of 1 v 1. The 1 v 1 ACM discussion will use a building block
approach, progressing from basic aerodynamic review, to a look at the capabilities of our aircraft
and to a 1 v 1 game plan development and execution.

Baron Manfred von Richthofen, the infamous Red Baron of World War I, once described the
basic scope of air combat maneuvering (ACM) as fighter pilots roving in an area allotted to
them, spotting an enemy, attacking, and shooting him down. The mission statement is grossly
over-simplified when you take into account all the principles of today's section engaged
maneuvering, along with modern technology and sophisticated weapon systems. The statement
does, however, point out two key concepts in ACM: 1) the basics of ACM have not changed
since the early days of aviation, and 2) a fighter pilot must maintain constant aggressiveness for
success.
As you move through ACM, you will expand on the basic tactical maneuvers learned in
TacForm. You will first review the basic performance of low/high yo-yos and displacement rolls,
and then be introduced to additional basic ACM maneuvers. Unlike previous blocks, your
success will be gauged not on how well you perform particular maneuvers, but on how well you
integrate them with tactics and strategies to win one-versus-one against an enemy. Finally, you
will be introduced to coordinating your flying with a wingman and practicing section engaged
maneuvering against a single bandit. What you learn here will go with you throughout your
career in tactical aviation.
By the time you complete ACM, you will not be an expert. That happens only in time through
constant coaching, practice, and experience. Next to CQ, ACM probably will be your most
demanding phase of flight training, requiring immense concentration and attention to your
instructors. You must go beyond just mastering the procedures and concepts presented in the
classroom or simply applying them in the air. ACM is in many ways an art form - the ultimate art
form of aviation. How well you assimilate those principles, maneuvers, tactics, and strategies
will depend upon an open mind and your willingness to never give up.

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CHAPTER ONE
BASIC AERODYNAMIC REVIEW
100. INTRODUCTION
The forces acting on an aircraft in flight are thrust, weight, lift and drag (Figure 1-1). The
interactions and changes between these forces define the motion of an aircraft through the air.

Figure 1-1 Aerodynamic Forces Acting Upon an Aircraft in Flight


During ACM, because thrust is usually at the maximum (MRT or Full Afterburner) and weight
change is negligible at any given moment, thrust and weight will be considered constant during
the aerodynamics review. This leaves the aerodynamic forces of lift and drag as the primary
variables to consider when analyzing an aircraft's maneuvering performance.
We will introduce some definitions for our discussion.
1.

LIFT - Lift is created by the resulting pressure differential as air flows over a wing.

2.
Coefficient of Lift (CL) - A non-dimensional constant that is based on the shape of the
wing. It is a function of angle of attack (AOA), which is the angle between the airfoil chord line
and the relative wind. Figure 1-2 depicts the relationship between CL and AOA.

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Figure 1-2 Angle Of Attack


As AOA is increased, lift is also increased up to CLMAX. The steep drop in CL at high AOA's
indicates the point at which a portion of the wing stalls. CLMAX occurs at 21 units AOA. At the
lift limit the aircraft will be in heavy buffet. Lift and performance quickly diminish when pulling
beyond CLMAX.
101. BACKGROUND
1. Lift versus Drag (L/D) - The ratio between CL and CD is the lifting efficiency of the wing
and is dependent on AOA. This ratio is maximized at L/DMAX, which in jet aircraft corresponds
to maximum endurance AOA. L/DMAX for the T-45 is 14 units. A more efficient wing (greater
L/D ratio) at all AOA's results in better performance throughout the flight envelope.
2. Total Drag - The forces of drag acting on an aircraft are a combination of induced, parasitic
and Mach Drag and act parallel to the relative wind.
3.
Induced Drag (Dl) - A direct by-product of lift and is associated with wingtip vortices. In
general, induced drag is the predominant drag contributor at lower airspeeds. At higher
airspeeds, when pulling high g, the Dl curve flattens and DI may actually become the
predominate form of drag.

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4.
Parasitic Drag (Dp) - Drag created by skin friction and frontal area. Parasitic drag increases
with external stores loading (higher drag count) and is more pronounced at higher airspeeds.
5. Mach Drag (Dm) - Since air accelerates over an airfoil to produce lift, the local velocity will
become supersonic at some free airstream Mach number less than 1.0 IMN. This airspeed is
defined as critical Mach (Mcr). At Mcr, drag sharply increases due to local shock wave formation
across the airfoil.
102. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
Aerodynamic theory is an important tool and you need to have a working understanding of your
aircraft's performance characteristics. Applying a basic knowledge of aerodynamics, the pilot
must be able to identify and compare the factors that will have the greatest influence on tactics.
These include:
1.

Wing loading

2.

Instantaneous g

3.

Thrust-to-Weight

4.

Sustained g

5.

Acceleration

6.

Turn Rate

7.

Turn Radius

Knowing where these factors are optimized for the aircraft and that of the adversary's should
have a direct impact on how to fight.
Turn Rate - The rate at which an aircraft changes direction in its plane-of-motion (POM). Higher
g available, especially at lower airspeeds, will increase the turn rate of an aircraft. Turn rate
differences as low as 1 degree per second are tactically significant.
Figure 1-3 shows three comparisons between two aircraft turning at different rates. In this
example, when fighter B's turn rate is 1 degree per second greater, the positional advantage after
360 degrees of turn is 24 degrees. Furthermore, with 3 and 6-degree turn rate advantages; the
positional advantage is 84 and 216 degrees after 360 degrees of turn respectively. Over time, just
a few degrees per second advantage can result in a huge positional advantage.

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Turn Radius - Turn radius is the distance that an aircraft displaces in a turn. An aircraft that can
pull high g at low airspeeds will have a small turn radius. Moving towards the right side of the
Turn Performance diagram (increased airspeeds), the turn radius rapidly increases. To minimize
separation between aircraft and keep a fight collapsed, attempt to remain towards the left side of
the diagram.

Figure 1-3 Turn Rate Advantage Comparison


Acceleration - To maximize acceleration, we need to minimize drag and maximize thrust. Our
practical application of this is achieved by selecting MRT and unloading at 0 g. If 0 g is good, is
-1 g better? The answer is no because -1 g actually creates lift in the opposite direction thus
developing induced drag.
Total Energy - The total energy of an aircraft is a combination of potential energy (altitude) and
kinetic energy (airspeed). Due to different weights and configurations of various aircraft, it is
more useful to apply derivations of Total Energy - Specific Energy and Specific Excess Power for accurate maneuver performance comparison.
Specific Energy (Es) - ES is defined as total energy divided by aircraft weight expressed in units
of feet.
Specific Excess Power (PS) - By deriving the change in ES over time, aircraft performance can be
related to energy. In other words, the energy gained or lost can be determined for the
performance. PS depends on the relationship between thrust and drag. If thrust is greater than
drag, then PS is positive and energy is added. If thrust is less than drag, then PS is negative and
energy is bled. PS also allows the pilot to measure an aircraft's ability to pull g's and transfer
energy into turn performance. Comparing aircraft at various performance parameters (turn rate
and radius as a function of airspeed and g) and the corresponding PS values give an indication of
how an engagement might evolve.
103. ENERGY MANEUVERABILITY
Energy maneuverability (EM) is a comparison technique initially developed by Major John R.
Boyd, USAF and Mr. T. P. Christie in 1966 to explain what had been observed in Southeast Asia
between the F-4C and MIG-21C and to provide a game plan for F-4 aircrew. EM must be used in

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conjunction with other comparison techniques to fully develop a winning game plan. An EM
diagram charts the specific maneuverability of an aircraft based on its energy state. From the EM
diagram we can derive many useful ACM parameters.
1.

Corner Speed

2.

Minimum Instantaneous Turn Radius

3.

Maximum Energy Addition Rates

4.

Turn Rate Capability: Instantaneous and Sustained

5.

Turn Radius Capability: Instantaneous and Sustained

6.

Load Limit

7.

Lift Limit

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The EM diagram (Figure 1-4) is only accurate for a specific altitude, configuration and power
setting. However, in the T-45 that is typically around 10,000 ft, clean at MRT. Your fleet
airplane will take into consideration the use of high lift devices (maneuvering slats and flaps) as
well as combat weapons loads.

Figure 1-4 Generic E/M Diagram

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The lift limit line is indicative of slow speed handling, and effective wing loading. Wing loading
may not be as simple to derive as it used to be because of the modern fighter's tendency to
possess high lift devices, machines, strakes, and other aerodynamic improvements. The T-45,
however, is pretty straightforward. Corner velocity is the lowest airspeed at which maximum "G"
is available and as such equates to the instantaneous best turn the aircraft is capable of
performing. This is not to say that you can be doping along at corner velocity, put the stick in
your lap for a break turn and expect to get 7.33 "G's" from the jet. Note the high Ps value on the
generic diagram. This equates to a large airspeed bleed-off. The T-45 does not necessarily have
this problem. It sustains energy very well, but this equates to a fairly large turn radius. We will
see this when we examine the T-45 Turn Performance diagram. The large turn radius of the T-45
would be a definite detraction in some cases, but in the Training Command you will only fight
other T-45s, so the disadvantage is negated.
Take a look at the Ps = 0 line. Ps = 0 is really only significant on the deck where you can't trade
altitude for airspeed. The peaks of the various lines of constant Ps indicate our best speed for
energy addition.
Lift Limit Line - As discussed earlier, for a given Mach number, lift can only be increased by
increasing AOA to CLMAX before the wing stalls. This lift limit capability is represented on the
maneuvering diagram as the left hand boundary to the maneuvering envelope. At the lift limit,
the aircraft performance and load factor capability are aerodynamically limited.
Limit Load Factor - The available load factor is limited by the structural (maximum g)
capability of an aircraft. This structural limit determines the upper boundary of an aircraft's
performance envelope.
Q-limit - Total dynamic air pressure, or maximum Q, defines the right hand boundary of the
maneuvering envelope.
Ps = 0 Line - One of the most important and overlooked comparison tools on the EM diagram.
The top indicates an aircraft's maximum sustained turn rate. The intersection along the horizontal
axis is the maximum turning and level airspeed the aircraft can sustain.
Corner Airspeed - Corner airspeed is the lowest airspeed at which maximum "G" is available.
For comparison, four parameters should be noted at the aircraft corner velocity:
1.

Turn Rate

2.

Turn Radius

3.

KCAS/KIAS

4.

Bleed Rate

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While the maximum instantaneous turn rates at corner airspeed may appear impressive, realize
that the EM diagram depicts a snapshot in time. In a level, maximum performance turn, airspeed
will quickly decrease.
Best 1-G Acceleration - The best energy addition rate for an aircraft occurs beneath the highest
value positive PS contour depicted on the graph and is normally associated with an airspeed or
Mach number. This corresponds to the velocity where drag is minimized.
Altitude Effects on Maneuverability - For our discussions, we will use a 10,000 ft as a basis
for all our EM discussions. Realize that sustained and instantaneous turn rates will increase
approximately 2-3 degrees/second for every 5,000 ft of altitude loss.

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104. TURN PERFORMANCE NUMBERS


Before considering how to effectively perform our aircraft in the 1 v 1 arena, be absolutely
familiar with the performance of your own machine throughout the flight envelope. Because it
would be impractical to reference an EM diagram throughout the flight envelope, commit some
gouge performance numbers to memory. These numbers are required information. Don't show up
to fight without them.

Figure 1-5 Turn Performance - 10,000 Feet

BASIC AERODYNAMIC REVIEW

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105. T-45 GOUGE NUMBERS


1.

2.

1-10

Target AOA's
a.

Break Turn - 19-21 units

b.

Hard Turn - 17 units

c.

Sustained -Turn 14 units (PS = 0)

d.

Unload - 5-10 units

Airspeeds
a.

Corner Airspeed - 410 KIAS

b.

Max Instantaneous Turn Rate - 410 KIAS at max g

c.

Sustained Turn Rate Band - 300-330 KIAS

d.

Maximum Sustained Turn Rate at 10,000 ft - 230 KIAS

e.

Minimum Radius Airspeed Band - 130-150 KIAS

f.

Minimum Vertical Airspeed - 300 KIAS

g.

Best Acceleration - 0 g

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106. APPLIED EM CONCEPTS


Quickest 180-Degree Turn. To consider our quickest turn, focus on getting our nose turned
around as quickly as possible (Turn Rate). If our best instantaneous turn rate occurs at 410 KIAS
and maximum g, we will start there. When we pull, we want to use whatever altitude we have
above the hard deck to keep our speed up, thus giving us more energy available to obtain a faster
turn rate. This means we will overbank and descend throughout the turn. From 15,000 ft we can
overbank initially to 135 degrees while pulling max g. As we slow and descend we will adjust
our Lift Vector (LV) and nose to avoid hitting the deck while keeping our knots up. We should
pull nibble of buffet until we run out of altitude and hit our best-Sustained Turn rate airspeed
band (230 KIAS/300-330 KIAS) at 10,000 ft.
Smallest 180-Degree Turn. On the deck, we can see that our smallest radius of turn occurs just
below 0.3 Mach, which is around 145 kts. We start there and select MRT. Pull hard enough to fly
145 kts level. This will give you max lift and keep our airspeed in the min. radius band.
107. MANEUVERING OUR AIRCRAFT
Vertical Maneuvering. The following diagram (Figure 1-6) represents another theoretical loop
in the vertical plane at constant TAS and constant indicated g. Unlike a purely horizontal turn,
your turn performance in a purely vertical turn is affected differently depending upon where you
are in the turn.
When the aircraft lift vector is above the horizon (at the bottom of the egg), radial g decreases
because gravity opposes the load factor of the aircraft, resulting in a larger turn radius and a
lower turn rate. When the lift vector is below the horizon (at the top of the egg when the fighter
is inverted), radial g increases because gravity assists the load factor and lift, resulting in a
smaller turn radius and faster turn rate. When the aircraft is pure vertical (side of the egg) the
load factor is parallel to the horizon and, therefore, equals radial g, indicating an intermediate
turn performance. So when your lift vector (load factor) falls below the horizon, gravity assists
your turn performance.

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Figure 1-6 Vertical Maneuvering - The Egg


Tactical Vertical Fight. No longer do we need excessive airspeed to perform a simple loop.
While some techniques vary, the T-45 can generally go over the top with any speed 300 KIAS or
greater. As we come over the top, we need to keep an eye on our airspeed. As it approaches 100
KIAS, it's prudent to think about engine conservation and select idle. If we start some vertical
move at airspeeds less than 300, we should probably consider some attitude less than pure
vertical. REMEMBER, IF WE SLOW BELOW 85 KIAS, WE ARE NO LONGER FLYING
AND ARE THUS A TARGET TO GET KILLED.
You should have seen some techniques to execute vertical maneuvering on your OCF syllabus.
In general, smooth maneuvering will help us to preserve our energy and still allow us to reorient
our LV to keep the pressure on the bandit.

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Vertical Extension. Especially versus aircraft where the thrust-to-weight ratio is less than 1:1, a
vertical extension can give you a significant advantage when used properly. In the T-45, in a
vertical fight, typically the first aircraft to go nose down will lose. Thus, extending in the vertical
can give you an offensive advantage and the opportunity to get some rear quarter shots.
However, we need to remember that if we extend vertically, we may be showing tail aspect to
the bandit. The vertical extension should only be used if the bandit's nose is not a threat.
Another concern for the vertical extension is our 85 kts KIO number. We can only extend long
enough to avoid being nose high less than 85 KIAS. Therefore, we need to nudge the nose out
prior to seeing 85 KIAS or the fight is over.
Reversal Techniques. Before we discuss reversal techniques we need to understand the
circumstances leading up to the reversal.
A flight path overshoot (Figure 1-7) occurs anytime the offensive aircraft flies through the
defensive aircraft's flight path at or aft of the defensive aircraft's 3/9 line. A 3/9-line overshoot
occurs anytime the attacker flies from aft of the defender's 3/9 line to in front of the defender's
3/9 line (a.k.a. flying out in front).

Figure 1-7 Flight Path Overshoot

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In close (at or very close to the defender's 3/9 line) flight path overshoots are extremely
significant in that an instantaneous reversal by the defender may also cause a 3/9-line overshoot,
possibly resulting in a role reversal. A flight path overshoot that occurs well aft of the defender is
often insignificant because the defender cannot perform a role reversal (Figure 1-8).

Figure 1-8 3/9 Line


If the overshoot occurs at the defender's control point (1 turn radius of the defender's turn aft of
the defender) the attacker will be able to maintain his nose-to-tail separation by continuing his
original turn to the defender's reversal point. By reversing at a control point overshoot the
defender actually helps the attacker solve some of his degrees-to-go problem.
In order for the fighter to take advantage of the Bandits overshoot, three criteria must be
satisfied:
1.

The Bandit must have a High-Track Crossing Rate (>100 kts Vc).

2.

The Bandit must have an In-Close Overshoot (<2,000 ft).

3.
The Bandit must overshoot the fighter's extended 6 (>60 degrees AOT) not just the aft
visual limit.
You should know these criteria like boldface.

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1.

Figure 1-7 depicts a flight path overshoot.

2.

Figure 1-8 depicts an aircraft's 3-9 line.

CHAPTER ONE

3/9 Line Overshoot - If we are defensive and we see somewhere, somehow we have induced an
overshoot in which the attacker moves ahead of our wingline (forward of abeam), then we
reverse. The attacker has been neutralized or the roles have reversed and we can look to shoot
and bug.
In Close, Flight Path Overshoot - How close is "In Close"? If the overshoot occurs inside the
forward limit of the Control Zone, we will consider it "In Close." We also need high Angles Off
Tail (>60-degree AOT). If the defender does an immediate, aggressive reversal after the
overshoot, he may be able to induce a 3/9 Line Overshoot from this Flight Path Overshoot.
Flight Path Overshoot - As the defender, if we observe a Flight Path Overshoot where the
attacker is in the control zone or aft and we attempt to reverse, we merely help his lag problem
and aid in our own demise.
Techniques - If we decide to reverse, we must do so with speed and precision. We need to get off
our pull (unload) then reverse to reorient our lift vector on/aft of the bandit. Once there, we need
to pull to get our nose up and work into an airspeed band more appropriate for our redefined
fight. We are pulling into a one-circle fight, so 300 kts is probably not the place to be. If we
execute a break turn (21 units) we will bleed while getting our nose position established. If we
are already slow, a nibble of buffet pull might help us preserve some energy for the follow on
merge. LV placement is crucial. If we merely pull up after the decision to reverse, we give
turning room for the bandit to capitalize on. Try to neutralize the bandit's positional advantage,
and then we can set up our bug.
Longitudinal Pull. We will discuss a lot of AOA regimes throughout this FTI. The most
effective AOA will change with airspeed. In FAM's we used a 17-unit pull during the MRT. At
300 kts this 17-unit pull makes the airplane start to vibrate. We called this the "nibble of buffet."
At 150 kts this nibble is felt more around 22 units. The important thing to realize is that the jet is
performing reasonably well in this regime. We describe the break turn as a 19-21-unit pull. This
is generally for a high speed (250 kt +) break. This would feel like heavy or rumble of buffet.
The airplane is rumbling and shaking, but not in pitch buck. There may be some wing rock
associated with this regime. In this regime, the aircraft is rapidly bleeding airspeed. The aircraft
performs well here, but it is costly. There are other AOA's that will give us other performances.
For instance, what happened to 18 units? The wings begin to rumble here and we are bleeding,
but not performing as well as a break turn. In general, if you don't know what to do, nibble of
buffet is a good place to start to maneuver your airplane well.
Unloaded Pushover. When we discuss unloading, it can mean various things. If, while turning,
we decrease our AOA from 17 to 14 units, we are easing our pull and probably accelerating
because the wing has less loading.

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If we want to execute a true unload, the aircraft will feel quite different than what we have been
doing. In general, in the T-45, a good unload will occur at zero g, in almost any attitude. We are
removing the induced drag caused by the wing producing lift. If we feel zero g, then we are said
to be on a ballistic profile so we are basically letting gravity drive the profile of the airplane.
Thus the wing is not producing any lift, thereby not producing much drag, so we are maximizing
thrust. We may use this maneuver to gain knots or maneuver to lag. The AOA tends to move in
the 7-unit regime, well in the heart of the 5-10 units that is usually considered for the unload.

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108. 1 V 1 ACM
ACM Problems
Range - We need separation to employ our weapons. In the Training Command, no weapons can
be employed inside 1,000 ft (for training rules).
Angles - Fuselage alignment will help us maintain an offensive advantage.
Closure - The rate at which range is changing.
ACM Cues
Constantly assess how the ACM problems are changing. Focus on these visual cues when
briefing and flying.
Eyeball Call - Unless we have yardstick up constantly, the eyeball is our only available tool for
determining range in the 1 v 1 arena.
Aspect - The angular position of the adversary's aircraft.
Canopy Position - It is good if the adversary is forward or moving forward on your canopy.
Looking aft or an aft moving adversary is bad.
ACM Tools
By recognizing how the problems are progressing, ACM tools can be applied.
Velocity (V) - The ability to manage the kinetic energy of our aircraft will dictate our ability to
manage closure and range between aircraft.
G - The relationship between "G" and "V" defines an aircraft's performance. How much g is
available and how much is actually used will determine how quickly the aircraft changes its
position relative to the opponent.
Pursuit Curve - Affects range, angles and closure.

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ACM Training Rules. The following ACM training rules apply to all ACM training and shall
be strictly observed. These rules include those found in OPNAVINST 3710.7. Because you will
hear these rules before each flight, their meaning may become just "words." For the most part,
they will be the same rules you hear in the fleet. It is important to note that these rules were
developed over a long period and each is based not only on common sense but also on situations
where pilots were guilty of making serious and even tragic mistakes.
GENERAL
1. BRIEF OUT-OF-CONTROL/SPIN, ENGINE STALL PROCEDURES, AND
CURRENCY - As the student you are responsible for OCF and Engine Stall for the brief. For
Currency, consult the MCG.
2. FACE-TO-FACE BRIEF OF ALL MANEUVERS FOR ALL PARTICIPANTS - ACM is
learned well only through constant practice and experience. Because each experience in ACM is
unique, all aspects of the flights need to be briefed and debriefed thoroughly.
3. ALL AIRCRAFT MUST HAVE OPERABLE UHF AND ICS (MULTI-CREW) AND
MONITOR GUARD - If you are lost comm, proceed with your lost comm procedures.
"G" AWARENESS MANEUVER REQUIRED PRIOR TO ACM - CONFIGURATION
CHANGES OTHER THAN SPEED BRAKES ARE NOT AUTHORIZED - You may not drop
your flaps or gear.
ALWAYS ASSUME THE OTHER AIRCRAFT DOES NOT SEE YOU - You are personally
responsible for collision avoidance AT ALL TIMES.
IF LOST SIGHT, TRANSMIT "LOST SIGHT" AND REMAIN PREDICTABLE. OTHER
AIRCRAFT SHALL ACKNOWLEDGE WITH "CONTINUE" OR "KNOCK-IT-OFF" AS
APPROPRIATE, PROVIDING DIRECTIVE COMM AS NECESSARY FOR SAFETY OF
FLIGHT. ONCE SIGHT IS REGAINED, TRANSMIT "TALLY." Be sure to differentiate
between "Lost sight" and "No joy." "Lost sight" means, "I cannot see anyone, anywhere." It is a
call made strictly to maintain safety. "No joy" responds to your wingman's call that he has
sighted a bandit that you cannot see.
UP-SUN AIRCRAFT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SAFE SEPARATION. IF DOWN-SUN
AIRCRAFT LOSES SIGHT, BREAK OFF THE ATTACK, LAG THE UP-SUN AIRCRAFT
AND BROADCAST "BLIND SUN." If you are in the sun, you are using a tremendously
powerful tactic because it blinds the bandit. But because he is blind, it is your responsibility to
maintain the safe separation. Also, if the weather is hazy, the sun creates a halo when you are
looking down with the sun at your back. If the bandit is in the halo area, he cannot see you.
500-ft BUBBLE AROUND ALL AIRCRAFT. This safety rule applies for training, both in the
Training Command and in the fleet. In the real world, though, you must consider your adversary.
For instance, if you maintain 500 ft on a head-on pass with a bandit who has forward-quarter
weapons, you may be putting yourself directly into his weapons envelope. In the real world,

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know who you will be going up against as much as possible. DO NOT MAKE BLIND LEAD
TURNS - A blind lead turn is when your nose is out in front of the bandit's flight path, and you
can't see the bandit.
MAINTAIN THE ESTABLISHED TREND ON HEAD-TO-HEAD PASSES. WHERE NO
TREND EXISTS, EACH AIRCRAFT SHALL GIVE WAY TO THE RIGHT FOR A LEFTTO-LEFT PASS. TRANSMIT YOUR OWN INTENTIONS. This is simply a rule of the road.
You may have to change this rule in a situation where you do not have enough maneuverability
to pass left-to-left without crossing the bandit's nose, which would put you in a possible head-on
midair. Maintain enough situational awareness to call your intentions long before a possible
midair situation develops. Once the pass is called and acknowledged by both fighters, the
direction will not be changed.
LOW AIRCRAFT IN A HORIZONTAL SCISSORS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SAFE
SEPARATION. NOSE HIGH GOES HIGH, NOSE LOW GOES LOW. TRANSMIT YOUR
OWN INTENTIONS. This will ensure safe separation. Nose low must make way if the high
aircraft departs or somehow can't stay high. Do not delay this call.
MINIMUM RANGE FOR GUNS IS 1,000 ft, NO HEAD ON GUNS (Forward of 3-9 line).
CNATRA WEAPONS ENVELOPES APPLY. See the CNATRA Weapons Envelope in the
TacForm FTI.
IN A DESCENDING FIGHT, THE OFFENSIVE (HIGH) AIRCRAFT SHALL MONITOR
THE DEFENSIVE (LOW) AIRCRAFT'S ALTITUDE AND ATTITUDE AND BREAK OFF
THE ATTACK PRIOR TO EITHER AIRCRAFT BREAKING THE DECK. Typically a "Watch
the Deck" call is sufficient to warn the other aircraft. This is for safety and to continue the fight.
ANYONE CAN CALL A "KNOCK-IT-OFF." AIRCRAFT SHALL MANEUVER TO SAFELY
TERMINATE THE ENGAGEMENT AND ACKNOWLEDGE WITH THEIR OWN "KNOCKIT-OFF."
KNOCK-IT-OFF FOR ANY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING:
1. Dangerous situation/loss of situational awareness. May be due to a/c malfunction/nuisance
light, FOD in cockpit, any other distracter.
2.

Radio failure/loss of ICS. An aircraft rocking wings is an automatic "knock-it-off."

3.

G-LOC experienced or suspected. (Aircrew RTB).

4.
Airspeed less than 85 kts (nose high and decelerating)/departure/out-of-control. Eighty-five
(85) kts nose low and accelerating requires 85 kts, continue call. NATOPS calls for throttle to
idle below 85 kts above 15,000 ft.
BINGO FUEL STATE IS REACHED. Applies in the Training Command as well as out in the
Fleet. You must keep your scan moving.

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INTERLOPER (UNBRIEFED A/C) ENTERS THE ENGAGEMENT AREA.


ENGAGED AIRCRAFT CROSSES THE BORDER OF TRAINING AREA.
ANY TRAINING RULE IS VIOLATED.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES HAVE BEEN MET. This is usually determined by the trunk IP.
ACM WILL BE CONDUCTED IN AN AUTHORIZED AREA ONLY, WITH A 10,000-FT
AGL HARD DECK.
Weather
As stated earlier, you will not consider weather conditions as part of your tactical repertoire until
you face a real bandit. But it warrants remembering that you can effectively use clouds, haze, or
other weather phenomena to gain or regain the advantage.
ACM WX mins:
-

5 miles visibility with a defined horizon

15,000 ft between broken/overcast layers

1 nm horizontally and 2,000 ft vertically from all clouds

ACM may be conducted above broken/overcast layer provided the highest layer is below 7,000 ft
AGL for solo events and 8,000 ft AGL for dual events. The flight lead will then establish the
hard deck 5,000 ft above that layer and all A/C will acknowledge the new hard deck.
109. 1 V 1 ACM EXECUTION
We will take a building block approach and break the ACM discussion into the following parts:

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Offensive ACM

Defensive ACM

High Aspect ACM

Three-Plane ACM

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Offensive ACM
Objectives
The ultimate goal of Offensive ACM, as in all ACM, is to kill the adversary as quickly as
possible. If this primary goal is not achieved, ensure a positional advantage is maintained for
follow-on weapons employment. Finally, if time to kill is up or you are losing the advantage,
separate prior to becoming neutralized. Simply put, the goals of Offensive ACM are, in order:
1.

Kill the adversary

2.

Maintain an Offensive Position

3.

Separate prior to being neutralized

Execution
Once a positional advantage has been established and we can say we are offensively
maneuvering our aircraft, then the problem is to efficiently maneuver our aircraft to an effective
firing solution in the minimum amount of time. In classic ACM terms (NOT in the missile age)
that position is the extended 6 o'clock of your opponent at about 1/2 nm with fuselage alignment,
i.e., in the heart of the control zone.
In order to reach that position from our original position of advantage an offensive aircraft needs
to:
1.

Increase/control the nose-to-tail separation (N-T)

(Range)

2.

Reduce the angle off the tail (AOT)

(Angles)

3.

Reduce/control the closure (Vc)

(Closure)

It should be obvious that an offensive aircraft will achieve these goals by using lag pursuit
techniques and out-of-plane maneuvering. The only exceptions to this will be when he is ready to
employ weapons, at which time he will usually maneuver with lead pursuit (missile launch or
gun shot).
When we discuss the specifics of offensive maneuvers, remember what you are trying to
accomplish and how you need to do it. That should enable you to answer any "why?" questions
that may arise. What all this means is that as the offensive aircraft you should:
1.
Employ lead pursuit only for gunshots or when it is necessary to close nose to tail distance.
Be ready to follow a lead pursuit maneuver with a lag pursuit maneuver to reduce Vc and the
AOT developed while flying lead pursuit.

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2.
Utilize pure pursuit (i.e., have your opponent in the HUD field of view) when you are ready
to employ a weapon or possibly, (aspect/range dependent) attempting to enter the opponent's
bubble.
3.
Mainly utilize maneuvers consisting of lag pursuit/out-of-plane techniques in order to
correct back to the control zone or increase range.
Outside The Bubble
Pursuit curves - When maneuvering offensively, the nose of your aircraft (at high airspeed) or
your lift vector (at slower airspeed) is either pointed at, behind, or in front of your opponent.
Depending on where your nose is pointed, you will fly a distinctive pursuit curve in relation to
your opponent. We will discuss these pursuit curves in terms of their effect on angle off tail
(AOT) of your opponent, closure rate (Vc), and nose-to-tail separation (N-T), the key factors to
being able to get to and maintain your position in the control zone.

Figure 1-9 Pursuit Curves

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If your nose/lift vector is pointed out in front of your opponent, you are flying a lead pursuit
curve. Lead pursuit is generally flown during maneuvers designed to decrease N-T or during gun
attacks. Assuming co-speed and inside your opponent's turn circle, lead pursuit will:
1.

Decrease N-T (Range)

2.

Increase AOT (Angles)

3.

Increase Vc (Closure)

If your nose/lift vector is pointed at your opponent, you are flying a pure pursuit curve. Pure
pursuit is generally used only when necessary for employing a weapon (bore sight Fox-2, in the
Training Command). Again, assuming co-speed inside your opponent's turn circle, pure pursuit
will (to a lesser degree than lead pursuit):
1.

Decrease N-T

2.

Increase AOT

3.

Increase Vc

If your nose/lift vector is pointed behind your opponent, you are flying a lag pursuit curve.
Again, assuming co-speed inside your opponent's turn circle, lag pursuit will:
1.

Increase/maintain N-T

2.

Decrease/maintain AOT

3.

Decrease/maintain Vc

How do we determine where and when to employ the proper pursuit curve? The next sections
will help describe the cues to look for in order to properly enter the bubble.
Bubble Entry
With the information already provided, we will begin to discuss maneuvering in terms of the turn
circle. The turn circle is the basis of ACM, and a thorough understanding of the factors affecting
key turn circle parameters is required. Looking at the diagram below, we see the turn circle of
the aircraft and the radius depicted. Any change in the radius directly affects the size of the turn
circle and the location of the center point of the circle. If an aircraft is performing to its
maximum turn radius capability, or developing its minimum radius turn, it is unable to turn any
tighter. This seems obvious, but it illustrates an important point: An aircraft cannot turn inside
its own bubble. This means that if you are inside another aircraft's bubble you are, at least
momentarily, immune from attack from that aircraft. This is important to note both offensively
and defensively.

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If we put an attacker on the defender's turn circle one turn radius behind it, we could demonstrate
the point we just made. If an aircraft is incapable of turning inside its own bubble, it is equally
incapable of turning to engage an aircraft 1 turn radius behind it if that aircraft is on his turn
circle or bubble if he is max performing. (Figure 1-10)

Figure 1-10 Control Zone Entry


If an attacking aircraft can arrive at this point and maintain it, he can control the fight, at least
momentarily. Thus the point 1 turn radius behind an aircraft is referred to as the "control point."
It is important to note that if the attacking aircraft wishes to arrive at this point, he must consider
the effects of his own turn circle in putting himself there.
As an attacker approaches another aircraft, it becomes essential that he recognize where he is in
relation to the other aircraft's bubble. We can begin with an aircraft outside the bubble. Since
the defender cannot prosecute an attack on an aircraft inside its bubble that is the first place the
attacking aircraft will want to go. So, the attacker's first move will be to arrive as quickly as
possible inside the other aircraft's turn, employing a weapon as he does so (if able). The fastest
method to bubble entry, provided you are still low aspect, is to fly pure pursuit. We will notice
initially that the defending aircraft has a relatively slow Track Crossing Rate, that is, the
defending aircraft's relative motion is not drifting very much in our windscreen. We will also
notice that AOT, or aspect change, will be increasing rapidly.
As we approach the defender's bubble, the attacker will notice that the Track Crossing Rate starts
to increase and the aspect change slows (the defending aircraft will also notice an increased
Track Crossing Rate as he watches the attacker. Upon bubble entry (Figure 1-11), the attacker

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must make a lag correction, if required, to remain behind the Post. This may be driving straight
ahead for 2-4 seconds or may require a momentary turn away from the defender. To avoid
pulling in front of the post, the attacker must avoid the temptation of keeping the bandit in his
front windscreen. Once the line of sight rate increases, the attacker should extend wings-level,
aiming for a point just inside of where the defender started his break turn. If the attacker extends
until the bandit is at his 2 or 10 o'clock, he will definitely turn around the post. Note that the
defending aircraft will also see this and use it as information as well. We will continue this lag
pursuit until we have entered the attack window.

Figure 1-11 Bubble Entry


The Attack Window
Attack Window - A three-dimensional window located aft of the defender's post inside his turn
circle. An attacker, who executes a properly timed max performance offensive break turn from
inside this window, will arrive in the defender's control zone with angles, airspeed and closure
under control. The attack window is a position in space and a moment in time. We have
discussed how to get inside the bubble, but what cues tell us when we are in the attack window?

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We are typically around 3,000 ft from the bandit and that equates to one turn radius away. We
can see a rapid line of sight change from the bandit, telling us that we are there. To utilize the
positioning of the attack window, we need to arrive with enough airspeed to pull 21 units and
bleed some excess airspeed to gain an instantaneous turn rate advantage. We need to max
perform the airplane for this rate war. We continue to pull at or below the bandit, using altitude
available, while keeping on our best rate numbers.
Pull To Control Zone
When the bandit has been sufficiently lagged, the attacker should execute a max performance
turn in plane to pull toward the bandit's control zone. After the turn is commenced, the attacker
will notice the bandit's aircraft stabilize relative to his. This is the point where the two aircraft
have essentially the same rate of turn. The N-T distance will be stabilized as well as the AOT.
Most importantly, the attacker is in an offensive position in the aft portion of the bandit's control
zone and the bandit's only move is to continue his turn in the same direction. If the bandit
reverses at this time, he will only help the attacker close the N-T distance and decrease the
degrees-to-go. A smart bandit will stay in the same direction of turn. At this time, the attacker
needs to close the N-T distance in order to employ weapons. The way to close N-T distance is to
maneuver out-of-plane in order to employ lead pursuit. During this "lead pursuit maneuver" or
Low Yo-Yo, the amount of out-of-plane maneuvering is largely dependent on how much altitude
above the hard deck is available.

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Figure 1-12 Attack Window Entry


The attacker should use all available altitude in order to employ lead pursuit. Remember that
maneuvering out-of-plane effectively reduces radius of turn with respect to the vertical. After
establishing lead pursuit, the attacker will come nose on the bandit and will be closing nose to
tail distance. If the distance is still too great for the gun envelope, the attacker may elect to
employ a missile. He will be nose on with less than 40 degrees angle off. The Launch
Acceptability Region (LAR) for the training command IR missile should be recognized;
however, the saying goes, "There's no kill like a guns kill." Simply put, the missile envelope
should be recognized and valid shots should be taken at will (they may "buy" a reaction from the
defender in the form of a break turn), but the idea is to maneuver to a gun envelope. The gun is
the hardest weapon to employ because the envelope is very restrictive and a pilot must execute
good BFM principals to achieve a guns kill. This is why we will perform our maneuvers to arrive
at a firing position within 1,500 ft aft of the opponent in the tracking gun envelope.

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Misaligned Turn Circles


If we are late or weak on our pull to the control zone we may see that we have a flight path
overshoot with low angles off tail. If we panic and attempt to pull inside the bandit's circle, we
will bleed airspeed and hurt our turn rate. So what do we do when we find ourselves nose off, in
lag in a rate fight? We need to be patient and understand how misaligned turn circles (MATC)
will help us (Figure 1-13). Because we are offensive, turning about our own post (not the
bandit's) we will come nose on to bandit as our turns progress. When the opportunity arises, we
need to reorient our lift vector to take advantage of the MATC and shoot or saddle into the
control zone.

Figure 1-13 Misaligned Turn Circles

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Rate War (Offensive)


During the rate war, we are concerned with degrees per second, how fast we can track our nose
around the circle. Unfortunately, the T-45 doesn't exhibit very good rate numbers, however, we
need to understand the Turn Performance diagram to maximize our rate performance.
Offensively, we will have some options during the fight and be able to utilize any airspeed
excursions to suit our attack. According to the diagram we see that our best instantaneous turn
rate is achieved at 410 KIAS while pulling the lift limit (it's near 7.3 g's). Our best tactical turn
rate is an airspeed band 300-330 KIAS. This isn't to say that we can't pull from 330 to 250 and
get some good instantaneous turn rate, but once settled at 250, we are stuck with few options to
maneuver in the vertical and poor acceleration.
Once established in the rate war, maneuver the jet to get on our rate numbers. These change
under different situations. Here are some examples:
1.
Overshoot/Lag - We are stuck in lag; our nose is not threatening the bandit. We need to
increase our rate and let MATC do their magic. We can pull some lead and increase our rate by
using gravity to help us keep our airspeed while we increase our AOA. Essentially this appears
like a low yo-yo.
2.
High Aspect/Lead - If we maneuver too aggressively, we need to maintain our offensive
advantage. Our nose is a threat, but an overshoot is pending. If we try to slow our closure with
power/airspeed, we can save the overshoot, but follow-on ACM will be difficult. If we use lag
pursuit, we can keep our rate numbers up while remaining offensive. This can be accomplished
in a few different ways.
-

Tight Range/Low AOT - A simple unload will increase our radius such that we will
not pull inside the bandit. This can also help to increase our airspeed if necessary,
usually used when in-close/time critical situations.

In Control Zone - Reorienting our lift vector outside the bandit's turn will result in
reducing our closure; unfortunately it will also increase AOT so we will need to
pull some lead soon after to reorient our nose into a weapons envelope.

Outside Control Zone - A full wings-level lag maneuver is sometimes warranted.


This is essentially another control zone entry requiring an offensive break turn to
align fuselages.

Redefining the Rate War


Unfortunately, the T-45 is not a good platform to redefine the rate war in the vertical. It lacks the
performance to either rate the nose quick enough or climb sufficiently to avoid being shot.
Therefore, redefining the rate war may mean inducing your own overshoot or simply
disengaging.

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If the defender chooses to redefine our two-circle fight to something else, we need to recognize
the change and maintain our offensive advantage while fighting our best fight. For example, if
the bandit reverses in a two-circle fight, we may get a quick shot while transitioning to a onecircle fight. It's probably useful to get the nose up to exchange our rate energy for potential
energy in our one-circle fight. Then we need to fight our best flats.
Starting from Inside the Defender's Bubble
When you have entered the turn circle (or "bubble"), you will notice the defender's aircraft begin
to move laterally relative to you. This is called a Line of Sight rate increase. It signifies that you
have entered the defender's bubble. Now you can begin to manage AOT and N-T distance.

Figure 1-14 Offensive Break Turn Evaluation


When entering the defender's turn circle, the attacker must execute some type of lag maneuver in
order to decrease his AOT and degrees to go. Ideally, he will recognize the indicators of entering
the defenders bubble and will respond appropriately.

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Refer to the turn circle diagram earlier in this instruction (Figure 1-9). If you are able to
recognize entering the opponent's bubble (by noticing an increase in Line of Sight rate), you
should proceed to a point that causes you to turn around the "post" of his turn circle. Turning in
front of the post is a huge ACM error. You will know if you have turned in front of the post if
the bandit is easy to keep in your windscreen and the Angle off is increasing. You will be
thinking that you could employ a gun snap shot, but the next thing you will see is an in-close
flight path overshoot, and maybe even a 3/9 overshoot. To avoid pulling in front of the post, the
attacker must avoid the temptation of keeping the bandit in his front windscreen. Once the Line
of sight rate increases, the attacker should extend wings-level, aiming for a point just inside of
where the defender started his break turn. If the attacker extends until the bandit is at his 2 or 10
o'clock, he will definitely turn around the post. When the bandit has been sufficiently lagged, the
attacker should execute a max g turn in plane to pull toward the bandit's control zone.
Defender Redefines
If we induce our own overshoot, or the bandit merely tries to redefine the fight, his only option
will probably be a one-circle/flat scissors fight. If he chooses to go aggressively nose low with
the altitude available, you should be able to counter by going nose low and keeping the fight a
two-circle fight. If the bandit goes nose high you have some options. With sufficient turning
room, you may achieve a shot as the reversing bandit pulls through your HUD. However, if we
are tight or very fast, this may increase our closure and neutralize our advantage. In a tighter
fight, we need to start thinking one-circle early after the reversal and start working a radius fight
quickly. This usually means getting the nose up and maneuvering our lift vector to keep us
behind the bandit. A nibble/break turn to get the nose up, then a smooth reorienting of the lift
vector towards the bandits control zone should be sufficient. Be mindful of ROE while pulling
aft, as a closure problem may have occurred. Safety is paramount.
Offensive Deck Transitions
As we head downhill in most of these engagements, it's prudent to consider the fight we are in
and predict how we will arrive on the deck. We need to think ahead so we can get to the deck in
the best parameters to kill the bandit. In general, our one-circle engagements will not be near the
deck; however, we need to consider some altitudes with respect to our flats. If a bandit decides to
exit a one-circle fight, the deck will be a consideration as we chase him down. We have a
minimum Split S altitude that we need to be aware of, which may hinder our LV placement on
the bandit. If we transition to a two-circle fight from the flats, we have limited altitude to
accelerate and get into our rate numbers.
Similarly, if we are chasing a bandit around in a two-circle fight, we can look ahead to determine
how we would like to arrive at the deck. If we are slow, we may need to ease our pressure to get
into our rate band on the deck to ensure that we are max performing the airplane. This may mean
giving up a few angles to get our airspeed up, but we will reap the benefits as the fight
progresses. This is called an Energy-Rate Deck Transition and it allows us to use the altitude
between our aircraft and the deck to convert altitude into turn rate and airspeed. Use the 10

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degree rule (3,000 ft/30 degrees, 2,000 ft/20 degrees, 1,000 ft/10 degrees) to maximize turn rate
and keep energy package while transitioning to the deck. Basically, use 10 degrees nose low for
every 1,000 ft above the deck.
If we have the available altitude and airspeed we can use it above the deck to arrive low with a
great positional advantage. This is called a Positional Deck Transition. For instance, if we have
the altitude to get one real nice, aggressive nose low (yo-yo) just above the deck to arrive nose
on the bandit at 10,000 ft, we can do that to really pressure him, possibly driving him into the
deck. We are basically using the altitude between our aircraft and the deck to take away angles
for ourselves.
Flat Scissors
The flat scissors (Figure 1-15) results from an in-close horizontal overshoot. Because you would
never offensively enter a horizontal scissors on purpose, several situations force you to enter one:
1.

A delayed or poorly performed lag maneuver

2.

Following a Snap or Raking guns attempt

3.

Follow-on from a rolling scissors

Figure 1-15 Flat Scissors


The horizontal scissors is a slow-speed, high-AOA radius fight (one-circle) where both fighters
are trying to minimize their respective turn radii. Both the fighter and the bandit will be trying to
minimize their turn radius to gain a positional advantage.
Remember positional advantage based on the 3/9 line? The aircraft behind will be winning.

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Both aircraft will also be attempting to decrease their downrange travel by performing a series of
S turns. This effect of weaving in and out, or "scissoring" gives this fight its name. If both
aircraft are flying at the same speed, one flying in a straight line and the other turning, the
turning aircraft will eventually end up behind the other. The attacker should attempt to get inphase with the defender on the defender's 6 o'clock. He should do this by a series of early/lead
turns, eventually aligning fuselages.
Kinetic energy is transferred to potential energy by using the vertical to help control your
airspeed and downrange travel. Because the T-45 does not bleed airspeed very well, the initial
reversal back into your opponent will be very nose high and will require an overbank in order to
avoid parking the nose too high. A modified rolling scissors could possibly be entered, but in
these ACM hops the idea is to learn to fly a flat scissors. After the overbank, both fighters will be
oriented in a nose high, climbing (one-circle fight). Each will turn into each other attempting to
flush the other out as stated in the above paragraph. The two aircraft will cross flight paths at
some point. It is imperative that the student initiates the ROE for each flight path crossing
(high/low).
The bandit will attempt to force you into his forward quarter by aggressively establishing himself
nose high and repositioning lift vector behind you. You have the advantage of initiating your
one-circle entry earlier than the bandit and gaining whatever lateral turning room that existed
between you when you began your nose-high maneuver. Get your wings under you and get the
nose tracking up, while banking to reposition lift vector behind the bandit. As you pull to get
your nose up, kick in full rudder in the direction of the bandit to get your LV oriented. Adjust
your attitude as your airspeed reaches 140-150 KIAS. As we fly slower, the angle of bank we
can use diminishes. As our airspeed slows, the amount that we can pull behind the bandit
decreases, thus the radius increases again. Review the Turn Performance Diagram to confirm
this. A good rule of thumb is the airspeed over 100 kts is the max usable AOB (e.g., 150 kts ~ 50
degrees). This is not to say that we can't exceed this AOB, but our nose will slice and we will
accelerate. As our airspeed increases, so does our radius.
Once you are behind the bandit's wingline, reverse and attempt to align fuselages while
maintaining nibble of buffet, around 22-24 units AOA (this is called an early turn). As a general
rule when you are on or aft of the bandit's 3/9 line and your nose is on him, you should start your
reversal. A reversal forward of the 3/9 line (in front of the post) may allow you a snap shot;
however, in reversing early you will decrease the nose-to-tail separation and potentially be less
than 1,000 ft (min Gun range). If no nose-to-tail exists, reverse as you cross the bandit's flight
path. This will allow you to continue to pull aft of the bandit for a longer period of time and keep
your turn radius tight.
At this point you should be established in a flat scissors with your aircraft at slow speeds and
High AOA. During your reversals and subsequent maneuvering, utilize rudder and back stick to
maintain optimum performance while monitoring your aircraft's attitude, airspeed, and AOA.
You may find yourself wanting to overbank the aircraft to gain a quick advantage. By doing this,
you will find it harder to keep the nose above the horizon, which means you will have to execute
reversals with more rudder. Additionally, with your nose below the horizon, airspeed will
increase leading to the tendency to use excessive back stick. Increased backstick pressure beyond

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the optimum performance level will bleed off energy. The combination of these errors will
increase your radius to a point where you not only lose some advantage, but you may even end
up defensive. During these attempts, do not compromise your offensive advantage. Sustained
Flat Scissors: 10-15 degrees nose up, 30-45 degree AOB and 130-150 kts.
Rolling Scissors
The rolling scissors (Figure 1-16) results from an in-close vertical overshoot and is usually a
product of a successful counter to a Barrel Roll Attack (BRA). The scissors develops into a
series of horizontal and vertical overshoots.
Offensively, if you find yourself in a "roller," you have made a mistake, which means you must
strive to remain offensive or disengage at the earliest opportunity. A rolling scissors is not a
desirable maneuver for an attacker because it limits opportunities for weapons employment.

Figure 1-16 Rolling Scissors


To practice this maneuver, set up by executing a BRA from a medium-angle perch. As you start
your conversion over the top of the barrel roll, the bandit hard turns into you to create a
horizontal overshoot. Before you can adjust for the horizontal overshoot, the bandit will pull up
to create a vertical overshoot as he performs a BRA against you. Continue your barrel roll and

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place your lift vector on the bandit or slightly aft. To do this, we must pirouette at the right time
and use the correct mechanics. Pull across the top until the bandit is either beneath you or he is
coming up. This will ensure proper nose attitude after our pirouette. Next, pull the power to idle
and use coordinated stick and rudder to place the LV on or slightly aft of the bandit. Then, get
the power back up to MRT and begin a 21 unit pull. Selection of idle during the pirouette will
slow your airspeed increase and give you a smaller turn radius at the bottom. Continue to roll and
pull with the LV on the bandit until the nose reaches 30-35 degrees. Once we have achieved our
nose high attitude, we can roll to put the LV in front of the bandit while continuing our 21 unit
pull. This will effectively cut the top of your egg off and allow you to get fuselage alignment.
Finally, we will execute the pirouette as before and continue the fight. It is important to not let
the nose drop until the pirouette. This will preserve altitude and turning room.
Your goal is to execute the scissors perfectly and capitalize on any mistake the bandit makes. To
stay offensive in a rolling scissors, use the three-dimensional environment to control your energy
effectively by:
1.

Proper LV placement

2.

Properly controlling your AOA

3.

Trading airspeed for altitude to reduce your forward vector

4.

Coordinate LV changes with nose attitude to use the vertical to your advantage

In all this, you are trying to stay behind the bandit. A key determinant in winning the roller is to
strive to get your nose up when you are at the bottom before the bandit can get his nose down
when he is at the top, and vice versa. If you can continually do this without sacrificing your
position, you are then gaining the advantage you need to win in a rolling scissors. You must
understand that it is the steepness of your climbs and dives that will determine your horizontal
movement more than your absolute speed differential. Control your acceleration based on the
bandit's position relative to you. To maintain your advantage, control your airspeed gain in the
pullout. Keep your lift vector on, or aft of, the bandit throughout the maneuver except when you
are trying to align fuselages or when you want to reduce your forward vector. To align fuselages,
use lead pursuit and a smooth nibble/rumble of buffet over the top.
Radial g (Figure 1-17) affects your "picture" of being offensive, neutral, or defensive at various
points in the maneuver. You will experience several optical illusions. At the top, your slower
airspeed and radial g give you a smaller turn radius, while your greater airspeed at the bottom
causes a larger turn radius. As a result, relative position of the aircraft alone does not determine
actual advantage.

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Figure 1-17 Rolling Scissors Positions


If you are neutral with respect to the bandit, at the bottom you are ahead the bandit, while at the
top you are behind of him. In Figure 1-17, compare the bottom aircraft with the top middle
aircraft.
Because a rolling scissors is a slow-speed fight with predictable flight paths and poor shot
opportunities, you or the bandit will look for an opportunity to disengage. The only appropriate
time to disengage is from the top of the roller. It helps to be aware of this to time your
disengagement or to anticipate when the bandit may decide to disengage. Should the bandit
attempt to disengage from the top of the roller, roll off your vertical climb early to reduce
airspeed loss and minimize nose-to-tail separation. Pull for a shot and remain in-phase using a
combination of Lead and Lag. Put the LV below the bandit and use altitude to gain energy and
turn rate.
Ideal airspeed at the bottom of the roller is 250-275 kts (basically something less than vertical
airspeed for the average student). If both the fighters are countering each other correctly, they
will be required to keep their airspeed slow to avoid becoming defensive. In a full engagement, a
fighter with tactical vertical airspeed should take it vertical as this will further minimize his turn
radius with respect to the "God's eye view." As with the flat scissors, the goal for an offensive
fighter is to kill the opponent (hopefully quickly).

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For most aircraft with less than a one-to-one thrust-to-weight ratio, the rolling scissors is a
descending series of barrel rolls because of the heavy use of the vertical. To successfully roll
through the bottom and continue in the rolling scissors, you will need approximately 2,500 ft
above the hard deck with proper LV placement. Students should use about 4,000 ft as the
minimum altitude to continue in the roller. As you approach the deck, one or both of you must
either flatten the roller, convert the maneuver to a flat scissors, disengage, or be scraped off the
deck.
Converting a roller to a flattened scissors reduces the vertical separation. This conversion usually
occurs when you run out of altitude to continue your offensive pursuit. Flattening the scissors
will work to your advantage only if your energy state has not deteriorated below that of the
bandit's. If his energy is greater than yours, he can generate sufficient vertical displacement for
subsequent rolls instead of flattening his scissors, thus forcing you out in front.
Assuming your energy packages are at least equal, flatten the scissors after reaching the top by
continuing to roll through more rapidly or reverse at the top after the horizontal overshoot
occurs. Put your lift vector slightly in front of the bandit to both shallow your slice turn and miss
the deck. If the bandit rolls through without being aware of an altitude problem, he will hit the
deck. However, if he is aware of the altitude and your tactic, he will be forced to put his lift
vector out in front, resulting in reordering the relative geometry.
A roller can be converted to a flat scissors anytime, but it must be converted when altitude
becomes a factor. Typically, flattening a roller results in a horizontal scissors if the bandit
follows through on your tactic. If you decide to convert a normal rolling scissors to a flat
scissors, remain nose-high at the top of the roller and continue to pull back toward the bandit to
generate an overshoot. Instead of rolling through the vertical, reverse nose-high and pull back
toward the bandit's six forcing him out in front of your position, resulting in a flat scissors.
Should you decide to enter the flat scissors during a normal roller, you will be bleeding off a
tremendous amount of energy. If the bandit is smart, he will convert his kinetic energy to
potential energy by going vertical and, more than likely will get an offensive advantage on you.
Bug Recognition/Counter
It's critical to recognize the bandit's bug as soon as possible, for many reasons. The most
important is because you want to kill the bandit, not let him run away. Early recognition allows
you to keep more airspeed up and reorient your LV to cut him off. Generally, the bug will go
opposite of where the fight was going. If your flats were progressing south, the bug will go
northerly. It will also go out our tail, which will make keeping sight an issue. It's imperative that
we not lose sight; since we may give away all of our offensive advantage and get ourselves
killed. We need to take whatever altitude we have and convert it to airspeed, typically with a
nibble of buffet pull. LV placement should be leading the bandit's nose, especially if he is in a
turn where we can use radius to close the range effectively.

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In the roller, the bandit will try to bug from the top, so we need to get our nose in his direction as
we come across the bottom and try to keep our kts up as we pull to get nose on. It's imperative to
stop climbing and use the altitude for airspeed without hitting the deck.
In general:
1.

MRT, Unload

2.

Get nose low

3.

Nibble of buffet pull

4.

LV in front

TACADMIN
To establish proper habit patterns and to expedite the ACM sorties, the following procedures will
be utilized. The admin portion of the flight (i.e., departure and RTB) will be conducted just as
your flights were in the TacForm stage. The SNA will join-up, be put into cruise, and then put
into combat spread during the climb once established in the a climb. Once you have been put into
cruise, you may perform the initial steps of the combat checklist. Once established in combat
spread your lead will initiate the g-warm. The lead initiates the comm. Following the g-warm,
climb or descend to 14,000 ft, capture 300 kts and maintain assigned heading. The combat
checklist should be completed, (Master Arm "on," Tape in AUTO/ON,) and Wing will initiate a
"fenced in" call, i.e., "Hawk 2 fenced in, (g's) and (fuel)." Lead responds, "Hawk 1, fenced in,
(g's) and (fuel)."
The section will use combat spread maneuvering to position itself in the operating area when the
checks are complete. It is imperative that you are ready to "fight" the moment you call that you
are "fenced in." Often times the Snapshot Drill will be conducted enroute to your particular
working area. Once established in a clear area with required weather minima, the section can
begin 1 v 1 ACM.
Upon the conclusion of each set, the IP in your jet (on dual hops) or the Bandit (on solos) will
call a "Knock It Off." The bandit lead will echo the call and add a heading, i.e., "Hawk 1, knock it
off 270." You will echo the Bandit lead's call with your call sign and the heading, i.e., "Hawk 2,
knock it off 270." The priorities, in order, for you as the fighter following the knock it off are:
1.

Maintain sight

2.

Hard turn to the knock it off heading, deconflict as required

3.

Capture 300 kts and bearing line

4.

Climb to appropriate altitude

5.

G's and fuel with general SA and on hdg/brg line in 300 kts climb.

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The Wing will initiate all g's and fuel calls. You do not have to wait until you are established on
the PADS for the next set, however, do not sacrifice a sound lookout doctrine for expediency.
Typically, once established on the KIO heading with overall SA and climbing at 300 kts, we can
check our gas and g's. The Bandit lead will set up the geometry for the follow on sets. Your job
is simple; maintain whatever heading the Bandit has assigned you while getting into position,
airspeed as appropriate and be at the proper altitude. Often times the Bandit will need to check
the flight to a new heading (for geometry, area management, etc.) Echo the new heading, utilize
a hard energy sustaining turn and get there. If the set starts at 250 kts you will maintain 300 kts
until you are told to slow by the lead. Then do what ever it takes to stay in position as the A/C
slow down.
We will accept slight deviations from the PADS not to exceed the following:
1.

Position:

10 degrees of bearing line

2.

Altitude:

200 ft

3.

Distance:

.1 nm

4.

Speed:

10 kts

When we are within these parameters, we can call "Speed and Angels." The Lead will initiate the
call when he feels the wingman is in a good position.
Snap Shot Drill (SSD)
-

P Abeam

A 14,000 ft

D .8 1.0 nm

S 300 kts

The snapshot drill is a cooperative maneuver designed to teach employment of the gun at high
angles off. The snap shot is used when attacking at medium to high angles off in an attempt to
achieve a quick kill, thereby precluding subsequent maneuvering.
The aerial gun was the first weapon employed in dog fighting and still remains the most difficult
weapon to use in the ACM arena. In a tracking shot, the attacker has aligned fuselages and can
put the maximum amount of ordnance on the defender with angles, airspeed and closure under
control. The snap shot is a quick opportunity shot. It is employed with high angles off, high track
crossing rate and high closure. Obviously, because of the more difficult nature of this type of
shot, the attacker must abide by a few rules in order to set this up.

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In order to simplify this, as the shooter in the guns weave, you must accomplish three basic
things.
1.

PLANE OF MOTION

2.

RANGE

3.

LEAD

Plane of Motion is the most important parameter to solve for and it is also the easiest parameter
for the bandit to break and deny the shot.

Figure 1-18 Snap Shot Drill


The SSD will be set up at 300 kts and 14,000 ft. The two aircraft will be in combat spread, level,
and 1.0 nm, with the shooter being aft of the target's beam by 10 degrees. Once the g-warm is
completed, the wingman will initiate the fenced in call with g's and fuel. The Lead will initiate

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the "Speed and Angels" call when he feels wing is in a good position. The lead will initiate the
"In" call for each engagement, regardless if he is offensive or defensive. The comm will be
"Hawk 1, in target," "Hawk 2, in shooter." The student will be the shooter on his offensive ACM
hops, and the target on his defensive ACM hops.
The two aircraft will turn in towards each other. This is a cooperative maneuver, so whoever is
the target will pull/float to place the shooter at his 10 or 2 o'clock and hold him there. When the
shooter calls "Trigger down, snap," the target should evaluate what the nose position of the
shooter is, and then reverse his turn to complete a shackle turn. The trigger down call should
be made at the same time as the trigger squeeze. The snap call is made when the target is
going through the pipper. This is immediately followed by an evaluation of the shot. You can
call many things: "Fuselage," "Canopy," or "Missed Hi/Lo." The more specific, the better for a
debriefing tool.
Generally, eight snapshots are accomplished, but there can be more. On the last four snapshots,
the instructor will call, "Hawk 1, in target/shooter, maneuvering." During these, the target jet
will attempt to maneuver out of the bullet stream and avoid getting shot. To do this, the target
will put his wingtip on the attacker and maneuver out-of-plane. Even though the target is
defending, he also must be able to complete the turn and keep the geometry tight.
The shooter can execute one of two types of snap shot attacks. The timing and the comm are the
same in both attacks. The first type (and the more difficult type) is the reversal. During the
reversal type, the attacker rolls into the target then reverses his turn to get slightly in-phase with
the target. This is usually done to close excessive nose to tail distance. The AOT will naturally
be less than 90 degrees. There are problems with this method including: the belly-up turn, the
timing and pipper settling. The shooter should reverse when he sees the Line of Sight rate
increase. The trigger should be down for about 1 second prior to the target passing through the
pipper for a 1,000-ft solution. This equates to squeezing the trigger 1 pipper width prior to the
bandit passing through the pipper.
The second type of attack is the "pull-through." During this, the attacker initially rolls towards
the other aircraft and stays in the same direction of turn, dragging the pipper through the target.
The shooter should squeeze the trigger when the target passes the canopy bow. This will allow
the bullets to be at 1,000 ft by the time that the aircraft crosses the gun bore line. The shooter can
execute either type of attack, though the pull-through method is a better choice for high Angleoff, minimum range shots like the Snapshot drill sets up. Plane of Motion is solved by noting
how far above the horizon or reference the bandit's aircraft is. Next, we need to maneuver to put
our pipper the same distance above the horizon or reference and then smoothly continue our pull.
Make large corrections for POM early by overbanking/underbanking to get the pipper in the
bandit's POM and then continue pulling in. To do all this, you need to quickly scan the bandit
and then look back at your symbology. Keep your scan moving and make smaller corrections as
range decreases.
To solve Range, we need to vary our pull towards the bandit, as necessary, to have the bandit
filling about 3/4 of the pipper as he passes through it. This is difficult because you will be
scanning back and forth between the bandit and pipper to determine how you should pull/float.

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We will not use the bandit filling the pipper because the bandit is not showing us pure planform;
if we made this range happen, we would be inside 1,000 ft. Some good gouge is that the bandit's
wingspan should fill about half of the pipper when he is at your canopy bow. If you see that this
is not going to happen, you should ease/tighten your pull to compensate.
Lead is the last parameter we need to solve for. This is done by understanding that we need to
account for about 1 second: 1/3 second for bullet time of flight, 1/3 second for gun spool up time
and 1/3 second for pilot reaction time. A good rule of thumb for Lead is to pull the trigger when
the bandit crosses the canopy bow and hold it down until he passes through/above/below the
pipper.
When turning in, the shooter should comply with the steps listed above. In short, the shooter
needs to get on the same plane of motion, and squeeze the trigger early enough to have bullets
hitting the defender when he crosses the shooter's nose. The shooter should pull inside the
target's turn and in-plane with the target. The comm for the shooter is, "Trigger down . . . snap."
While the trigger is down, the bullets are spraying in front of the target. The call "snap" should
be made when the target flies through the pipper. If the target does not fly through the pipper,
then the appropriate "missed hi" or "missed low" call should be made.
If it appears as though the shooter will be violating the "no forward quarter gun shots forward of
the 3/9 line" or "1,000-ft min gun shots" training rule, then either aircraft can call "Skip it" with
ROE if appropriate and the shooter aircraft will maneuver to effect a safe pass and the drill will
continue following the reversal. Also, if the shooter cannot take the shot due to excess angles or
minimum range, he can call "No shot, angles" or "No shot range" as appropriate. Standard knock
it off procedures apply.
Flat Scissors
-

P - Abeam

A 14,000 ft

D 0.8 1.0 nm

S 250 kts

We begin the flat scissors (Figure 1-19) right after the snapshot drill because the two are entered
the same way. The lead will call, "Hawk 1, in target/shooter flats." On the student offensive
ACM hops, the student will pull inside and attempt a snapshot. The defender should deny the
snapshot by putting his near wingtip on the attacker and pulling out-of-plane. The defender
recognizes the attacker's high AOT and impending overshoot, as well as track crossing rate, and
reverses his turn into the attacker. This creates one-circle flow and therefore the aircraft with the
smallest turn radius will have the advantage.

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Figure 1-19 Flat Scissors


The comm for the Rules of Engagement (ROE) will simply be, "Hawk 2, high/low." The lead
will call his intentions and the two aircraft will cross no closer than 500 ft. It is imperative that
the student calls his intentions before his nose starts to point in towards the lead's aircraft. On
your initial ACM sorties the bandit will not be flying textbook airspeeds during the flats. He will
more than likely be flying faster than optimal. Use this knowledge to your advantage by flying as
close to a textbook flats as you can so that the airspeed advantage is in your favor.
Each subsequent cross will be called out as in the first one. Eventually the fight will come to a
logical conclusion. Ideally the fighter gets a good snapshot/gunshot, or the defender executes a
successful bug out. The student should remember his game plan depending on which role he
started with. For the offensive hops, the student should stick in the fight, striving for a valid gun
or missile. When a bug is attempted, the chasing fighter will maneuver to a weapons solution
using LV placement and altitude for turn rate. The offensive fighter will call "Fox-2" when
achieving a valid shot. The defender can do one of two things. If the bug attempt looks poor, he
can break back into the offensive aircraft and create two-circle flow. This should be done prior to
the shot (>40 degrees AOT), if able, to prevent a valid shot. If the defender assess his bug to be
valid, he can allow the "Fox-2" call. The defender will then call out his airspeed followed by the
offensive aircraft calling out his airspeed. Both fighters will then write down the called airspeeds
and an assessment of shot range. This information will then be used in the debrief for bug/shot
assessment.

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Rolling Scissors
-

P Offensive Fighter medium angle perch

A 16,000 ft

D - .4 - .5 nm

S 250 kts

The offensive fighter will begin by executing a Barrel Roll Attack on the defensive (lower)
fighter. Offensively, the student will need to maneuver first to start the maneuver. The bandit
will clear you to begin maneuvering. The wingman will respond with "2" and begin maneuvering
nose high and rolling towards lead. At the same time, the defensive fighter will counter the
Barrel Roll Attack by pulling level across the horizon, then pulling up when the high fighter
overshoots the flight path. This will create a vertical overshoot. The "roller" will continue from
there to a logical conclusion (Figure 1-20).

Figure 1-20 Rolling Scissors

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6,000-FT Perch Set


-

P Right/Left Perch (45 degrees AOT)

A 15,000 ft def/16,000 ft off

D .8 1.1 nm

S 300 kts

This will look very much like the beginning of the gunsight tracking in the TacForm phase.
Perch sets teach bubble entry for an offensive fighter and the counters to an attack for a
defensive fighter.
The Lead will check the flight to put you on the 45-degree perch. Use an MRT 17 unit pull to the
called heading. Each aircraft will call Speed and Angels on (Figure 1-21). For example, "Hawk
1, Speed and Angels" "Hawk 2, Speed and Angels." The bandit will then call "You're cleared in"
to indicate that you can start the engagement. The attacking fighter should roll in, execute a hard
turn with the Lift Vector on the bandit, point his nose at the defender, and call "Fox-2."
Whenever we call a missile shot, we will pull the trigger. The bandit will then break and call
"Chaff, Flares, Continue." Remain wings level for 2-4 seconds, driving towards the bandit's
point of departure. This should correspond to the LOS racing off, which is also the visual cue for
Attack Window entry.

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Figure 1-21 Starting Inside The Bubble


Then roll to put lift vector on/below the Bandit and pull to "heavy buffet," this is an offensive
break turn, use lead and lag to control nose to tail. Generally, the power remains at MRT. The
bandit will recognize the threat and execute a nose low break turn in the direction of the attacker
due to the airspeed being significantly less than corner speed. The primary goal of the attacker is
to achieve guns tracking on the bandit, not a continuous set of high/low yo-yo's. Follow-on
missile shots may also be taken secondarily. Another logical goal of the attacker is to stay
offensive by managing angles off, nose-to-tail, and closure to stay in the vicinity of the "control
point" or "control zone." If the attacker makes a big enough mistake, i.e., flight path and 3/9 line
overshoot at a high track-crossing rate, the bandit will be able to either neutralize or become
offensive on the attacker.
The set will go to a logical conclusion and a knock-it-off will be called after the training
objectives have been satisfied.

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Break Turn Exercise


-

P Abeam

A 15,000 ft def/16,000 ft off

D .8 1.0 nm

S 300 kts

The Break Turn Exercise is performed last during the offensive and defensive hops because
generally, once the initial comm and roles of the set are established, any previously practiced
maneuvering can be seen. In other words, the bandit can execute a defensive pitch back in the
vertical or the horizontal and a flat or rolling scissors fight could follow this if the offensive
fighter makes a mistake and overshoots.
The BTX is begun somewhat like the Loose Deuce Exercise in TacForm. The idea is to be able
to talk and fly at the same time. In TacForm, the lead waited to start the maneuver until the
student spoke on the radio. Now, the lead will begin maneuvering regardless of whether the
student is ready. The student who cannot move the aircraft while speaking will be "left behind"
and at a significant disadvantage from the very beginning.
After the "speed and angels" call, the lead will call, "Start the comm." The comm (Figure 1-22)
will be as follows:
Offensive fighter:

"Hawk 1, break left/right, missile in the air."

Bandit:

"Hawk 2."

Offensive fighter:

"Ease your turn, missile defeated."

Bandit:

"Hawk 2."

Offensive fighter:

"Bandit's coming out your right/left 3/9 high."

Bandit:

"Hawk 1, Tally."

Offensive fighter:

"Fox-2."

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Figure 1-22 Break Turn Exercise


The offensive fighter for the hop will begin the comm by calling his wingman to break into the
flight. While executing the comm, at this time the offensive fighter becomes the "bandit" which
explains the need to call the defender's eyes onto the offensive fighter. The offensive fighter will
continue to dig nose low while pulling nibble of buffet and accelerating to between 350-400 kts
and will take a Fox-2 when he achieves nose-on. If he delays pointing at the bandit, he may be
out of range (> 2 nm). If you are blind, standard training rules apply. If you are outside of 2 nm,
call "Fight's on" to begin the engagement. Once the Fox-2 is taken, the bandit will execute a
break turn to defeat the missile. Now the attacker will need to enter the bandit's bubble.
The difference between the two sets is that here the attacker and defender will be at or near
cornering speed and the attacker will also be 3,000 ft outside of the defender's bubble. After the
shot or "Fight's on" call, continue to fly/unload towards the bandit's point of departure for about
5-7 seconds. This will correspond with the LOS rate racing off which is the visual cue for Attack
Window entry. The attacker will need to get 6.5 - 7.0 g's depending on his airspeed to maximize
his turn rate. A smooth application of back stick, rather than a quick snap pull, will avoid
overstressing in most cases. The bandit is actually executing what is known as a "pitch back." If

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he has enough distance he will attempt to have a nose-to-nose merge with the attacker. As long
as the attacker does not delay setting his nose on the point of departure, he will be able to enter
the bandit's bubble. All the visual cues that were present in the perch set will be evident. The
attacker will have to enter the bandit's bubble ensuring he flies behind the "post," attempting to
stay offensive, and hopefully closing to a gun envelope.
The bandit may also elect to break into the vertical to attempt to keep you in lag. If you see this,
fly towards the bandit's point of departure for approximately 2-4 seconds to get your turn circle
underneath the bandit's and fly aft of his post. Due to the T-45's inability to reverse into the
vertical, we are not concerned with a vertical overshoot. That being said, we should pull as
required to take a snap shot on the bandit as we are entering the vertical two-circle fight. After
the shot, keep the 17 unit pull on, but displace your turn circle 10 degrees outside of the bandit's
to ensure flight path deconfliction. Follow the bandit over the top and look to gain energy on the
back side to reenter the bandit's bubble for another snap shot. The point is to threaten the bandit
while maintaining energy for the two-circle vertical fight. From there, the bandit will most likely
redfine into the horizontal plane and look to setup a bug once you approach a firing solution.
The BTX will normally transition between two-circle and one-circle flow. Offensively, we
would like to maintain two-circle flow since that forces the bandit into a predictable flight path
and should provide multiple gun solutions. By not managing our closure, we give the bandit
ample opportunity to transition the fight into one-circle flow increasing his chances of escape.
The BTX will continue to a logical conclusion and be terminated with the standard "knock-it-off"
call once training objectives are achieved. Remember the concept of misaligned turn circles and
be patient.
Conclusion
Offensive ACM will be one of the most fun things you ever get to do. These flights can be made
infinitely more enjoyable when you have a good understanding of ACM concepts and
techniques. This is your first chance to employ the T-45 as an air-to-air weapon versus a hostile
bandit. Keep in mind that your first priority is to KILL the bandit. It is highly recommended that
you pursue as many personal solutions to the ACM problems you will be presented with so you
can build your own kit of tools to use in the jet.
110. DEFENSIVE ACM
Objectives
As you might imagine, priorities change somewhat when you're on the defensive end of an
engagement. Above all else, you need to survive. This will require you to defeat any weapon that
has already been fired and deny the bandit the option of employing others. Your capacity to
perform this important task is seriously diminished the longer that you remain engaged. For this
reason, you must look for opportunities to disengage, or bug out. They will rarely simply appear.
You will, more than likely, have to create them through intelligent defensive ACM.

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Lastly, should the opportunity to gain the offensive advantage present itself, take it only if it will
result in a quick kill. It would take a fairly egregious ACM error for this to happen but it's
possible. It is a whole lot easier to disengage from a dead bandit.
Those of you who are especially aggressive may be wondering why disengagement would be a
higher priority than a role reversal. There may be times that your mission dictates remaining
engaged at all costs. Without a mission imperative, however, look to bug out first. Your odds of
achieving a successful one are a whole lot better.
Like Offensive ACM we have solid objectives as the defender.
1.

Deny/Defeat follow on shots

2.

Survive

3.

Neutralize/become offensive - Kill the bandit.

4.
Bug - We need to separate from this fight. Even if we get a temporary role reversal, it's
time to run. We will minimize our time in the fight, but look to set up the best bug possible.
Execution
Let's discuss defensive maneuvering. Defensive maneuvering is hard work, but well worth the
time and effort because the alternatives are so unpleasant. While reading the following, you must
remember that you cannot fight what you cannot see. In order to accomplish the your goals
defensively,
YOU MUST KEEP SIGHT!
This concept cannot be overemphasized. If you lose sight of the attacker, you will be dead within
30 seconds. These flights will be, at least, twice as tiring as your offensive hops. Be prepared to
exert yourself.
As the defensive aircraft, your ultimate goal is to create the greatest possible in-close flight path
overshoot. A 180-degree out pass (nose to nose) is the best possible result, because at that time
the two aircraft are essentially neutral. You have increased your opponent's AOT to 180 degrees.
You will force this maximum overshoot by:
1.

Decreasing the opponent's N-T (Range)

2.

Increasing the opponent's AOT (Angles)

3.

Increasing the opponent's Vc (Closure)

The defensive aircraft will accomplish this by maneuvering in plane and out-of-phase (turn
direction) with his opponent. The one large exception to this is any gun defense maneuver. For

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this the defensive aircraft needs to maneuver out-of-plane in order to defeat an impending/
existing gun attack. Remember; execute out-of-plane guns defenses only as long as there is an
immediate gun attack threat. Once the attacker's nose comes off, the defensive aircraft must
immediately start maneuvering in plane and out-of-phase. If the defensive aircraft stays in an
out-of-plane maneuver he is giving the offensive aircraft turning room, thereby doing his out-ofplane maneuvering for him.
To execute our defensive ACM objectives we need to do some things as pilots.
1.
KEEP SIGHT/REGAIN SIGHT - You cannot fight what you cannot see. You will lose
sight, but know where to look when you should see the bandit.
2.
Max. Perform our Aircraft - We need to be cognizant of our LV placement and AOA and
airspeed to not only deny shots, but to attempt to separate from the fight.
3.

Avoid the Deck.

As we discuss specific defensive maneuvers, these concepts will make more sense. The point to
remember is that the offensive and defensive aircraft each have different objectives, and are
trying to influence the relative planes of motion differently. Hence, the pilot that most effectively
controls the plane of motion will be able to best achieve his goals.

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Attacker Outside The Bubble


If we find ourselves in the unenviable position of being "jumped" or defensive for some other
reason, we can begin to get some ground back by understanding the geometry of the bubble and
the visual cues that describe it.

Figure 1-23 Angle Off-Tail Recognition


Before an attacking aircraft enters our bubble, we can retrieve angles that the attacker will be
unable to counter. If we begin a break turn and the bandit appears to drift forward on our canopy,
then we know that he is outside of our bubble. We would like to keep our energy up, so when
breaking into the bandit, try to get moving downhill to preserve speed and maximize turn rate.
The moment the movement stops advancing forward, he has entered our bubble. At this point,
continuing a break turn will keep the closure up if the bandit flies a pure pursuit profile.
However, more than likely, the break turn will merely aid in bleeding more airspeed away.
If you are defensive and want to gain angles back, it helps to try to get the bandit outside the
bubble.
Attacker Pursuit Curves
While assessing the bandit's position, you see that he chooses to fly a pure pursuit profile. This
would appear to the defender as a constant sight picture of the nose aspect of his aircraft. If the
attacker flies pure pursuit after he has entered your bubble, continuing to break into him will
increase his closure thus inducing an overshoot. (Remember to execute a guns "D" when
appropriate).

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If the bandit flies a lead pursuit profile, you will see the belly of his airplane as he induces his
own overshoot. He will fly in front of your post and show you a huge flight path overshoot. In
this case, reverse; get a quick gunshot and bug.

Figure 1-24 Attacker Bubble Entry


If the bandit understands ACM, he may elect to fly pure pursuit until he enters your bubble, then
reorient to a lag pursuit curve. You will see this visually because not only will he drift aft, but his
nose will be no threat, he may even ease his angle of bank. He is attempting to maneuver around
the post to the attack window.
Nose attitude assessment will be crucial in determining how we want to fight our airplane. When
the bandit's nose is not a threat, we have more options and can get back into parameters for the
existing fight.

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Assess Attacker's Offensive Break Turn


When the attacker hits the attack window, he should execute a max performance offensive break
turn. There are some visual cues to help you assess the execution of this break turn. You should
see his aircraft bank into you and you will see his nose stabilize or start to come on to you. If the
bandit quickly moves from lag to nose-on or lead, he has done a good pull. If he also gets his
nose down while doing this, he was able to preserve some energy during the pull and he may be
set up for a sustained rate war. If his break turn was weak or late, he will be stuck in lag, giving
you the opportunity to get airspeed back and set up your separation. While you are observing this
whole evolution take place, watch the bandit, WATCH THE DECK and fly your aircraft.
Misaligned Turn Circles
Where this concept helped us as the attacker, it can hurt us as the defender (Figure 1-25). If we
are defensive, two-circle, and the attacker is patient, but nose off, in lag, our time to live could be
short. We know that eventually the attacker will be able to come nose on just based on geometry,
but we can make his shot more difficult if we adjust our pull at the appropriate times. The range
between attacker and defender will vary during the MATC fight. If we attempt to minimize our
separation, we may get somewhere close to a 180-degree pass and be able to extend or bug. If we
are able to get behind the attacker's wing line, we may be able to use MATC to our advantage,
but the attacker will have to make some large BFM errors in order for this to happen.

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Figure 1-25 Misaligned Turn Circles


Rate War (Defensive)
The rate war from the defensive standpoint will involve many variations of AOA and airspeed.
We know we have Best Instantaneous Rate airspeed and Best Sustained Rate, which are where
we would like to be if at all possible. If we are flying our best rate while defensive and the
attacker is not, then our defensive posture will not remain long (this is good).
This basically comes down to a nose assessment exercise. Let's start at lag pursuit.
The bandit has put himself in lag to maintain an offensive advantage. At this point, he is not
shooting us, so we can get some knots back. How do we do that? Either descend while
continuing a nibble of buffet pull, or if on the deck, ease the pull to no less than 14 units (JUST
EASE, DON'T UNLOAD) to accelerate. We will continue to fly our best rate fight evaluating
the bandit the entire time. When we see the bandit's nose coming to bear, begin the break turn.

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If we break into the bandit before his nose comes to bear, we are increasing his closure problem
that he will exacerbate by pulling lead for a gunshot. WE WILL EXECUTE A GUNS D FOR
EVERY PENDING SHOT. When his nose comes on, we D. As soon as his nose is off we will
either continue breaking into him until he overshoots, or if in the control zone or aft, we get back
onto rate numbers. Our break turns should put our LV on the bandit or slightly below whenever
possible. We will be flying various AOA's throughout the fight, so keep your scan moving and
be deliberate.
Remember the T-45 will feel like it's flying through smooth air if we are on our Best Sustained
Rate numbers on the deck. Therefore, a good inside/outside scan to check the Bandit's position,
our altitude, airspeed and AOA will be critical. Our break turns should be the nibble of buffet AT
A MINIMUM, more like heavy buffet.
Redefine/Reverse
The question of when to reverse, or redefine the fight, has been difficult to answer since the
advent of student pilots.
We will start with the easy decisions and move to the harder ones later.
3/9 Line overshoot - If we are defensive and we see somewhere, somehow we have induced an
overshoot where the attacker moves ahead of our wing line (forward of abeam), then we reverse.
The attacker has been neutralized or the roles have reversed and we can look to shoot and bug.
In Close, High Angles Off, Flight Path Overshoot - How close is "In Close"? If the overshoot
occurs inside the forward limit of the Control Zone (<2,000 ft), we will consider it "In Close."
We also need high Angles Off Tail (>60 degrees AOT). If the defender does an immediate,
aggressive reversal after the overshoot, he may be able to induce a 3/9-line overshoot from this
Flight Path Overshoot.
Flight Path Overshoot - As the defender, if we observe a flight path overshoot where the attacker
is in or aft of the control zone and we attempt to reverse, we merely help his lag problem and aid
in our own demise (Figure 1-26).

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Figure 1-26 Flight Path Overshoot


If we decide to reverse, we must do so with speed and precision. We need to get off our pull
(unload) then reverse to reorient our lift vector on/aft of the bandit. Once there, we need to pull
to get our nose up and work into an airspeed band more appropriate for our redefined fight. We
are pulling into a one-circle fight, so 300 kts is probably not the place to be. If we execute a
break turn (21 units) we will bleed while getting our nose position established. If we are already
slow, a nibble of buffet pull might help us preserve some energy for the follow on merge. Lift
Vector placement is crucial here. If we merely pull up after the decision to reverse, we give
turning room for the bandit to capitalize on. We must constantly reposition our LV to give the
bandit as little turning room as possible. The use of speed brakes is a technique that is often
introduced here. The recommendation is to get many different techniques and try to come up
with one that suits you.

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Defensive Deck Transitions


We will discuss how we would like to end up on the deck, ASSUMING WE ARE NOT BEING
SHOT OR HEAVILY PRESSURED BY THE BANDIT.
Prior to arriving on the deck, we need to assess the fight and come up with a game plan. The
important thing to remember is that energy addition on the deck is very difficult and comes with
a heavy price in turn performance. Therefore, prior to arriving on the deck, we need to obtain the
energy package that we desire, making the bandit's job more difficult and our survival more
likely.
One-Circle. Fortunately, in the T-45, we can fight a one-circle fight and gain altitude without
sacrificing much in performance. The important thing to keep in mind is that the T-45 has
marginal nose authority, especially when slow, so if we are close to the deck and slow, allowing
the nose to break the horizon may mean we cannot recover without busting the. If we are fighting
a fully developed flat scissors, MRT and smooth control inputs will give us a positive VSI and
give us more flexibility. If we execute a guns defense aggressively nose low, we need to be
aware of the deck. We need a few thousand feet to salvage a big nose slice. Also, attempting to
bug from the flats is hard enough, if we are near the deck, we have less altitude to use to gain
airspeed impeding our acceleration.
Two-Circle. This is where deck awareness and a good game plan can save your life. When we
are defensive, two-circle approaching the deck, we may need to take whatever altitude remains,
before the bandit takes it away, to arrive at 10,000 ft with a good rate package. This type of deck
transition is called an Energy-Rate Deck Transition and can be used when the bandit is not
threatening you to arrive on the deck with a good rate energy package. For example, if we are at
12,000 ft with 280 KIAS, we need to keep a nibble of buffet pull and descend using the 10
degree rule to accelerate to our Sustained Turn Rate band of 300-330 kts. Thus if the Bandit
doesn't arrive on the deck with a similar airspeed band, he will have to ease his turn to accelerate
which will hurt his rate (good for us). If the bandit is arriving at a weapons solution, we need to
use a Positional Deck Transition and max perform to take angles away and create an angular
and closure problem. This will take away angles from the attacker, but it is done at an energy
penalty.
Roller. The important thing to recall here is our smallest Split S altitude. On average, 5,200 ft
above the hard deck is a good number to remember. If we lack the altitude required to optimize
our LV placement during the roller, it may be time to transition to a one-circle fight, or separate.
This may mean that we will give away a lot of turning room for the bandit initially, but the
following roll, he will have to transition as well, which will help you get some angles back.
Deck Reversal Criteria
In most cases, reversing on the deck will usually help the attacker's gun solution. We would only
reverse on the deck with a significant flight path overshoot that will allow us to neutralize the
attacker or if we are being shot and simply need to redefine to remain unpredictable.

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Flat Scissors Maneuvering (Defensive)


The horizontal scissors (Figure 1-27) is a slow-speed, high-AOA radius fight (one-circle) where
both fighters are trying to minimize their respective turn radii. Both the fighter and the bandit
will be trying to minimize their turn radius to gain a positional advantage.
Defensively, we will be flying our airplane in a similar manner, as before, however, we will be
looking to achieve different goals. We will still be attempting to achieve our smallest radius of
turn, in this case, to neutralize the attacker so we can bug.
The reversal techniques were discussed earlier, but remember to stay out of phase by reversing as
the bandit crosses your 6. Follow these and enter our one-circle fight. Our goals here are
different than when we wanted to kill the other airplane. We are looking to get out-of-phase, to
set up our bug. In order to do this, we need to generate lateral separation after the first merge.
The lateral separation created will be translated into angles off tail at the merge. We create lateral
separation post merge by first assessing the bandit's Lift Vector position. If the bandit does not
have his Lift Vector oriented towards us, we should continue to generate lateral separation. Once
the bandit places his Lift Vector on us, we must honor this by placing our LV on the bandit. If
the bandit were to keep his wings level, and we did the same, we would essentially accomplish a
150-kt bug as the separation increases.

Figure 1-27 Flat Scissors


After the reversal, both aircraft will be situated in a nose high, climbing, nose-to-nose fight (onecircle). Each will turn into each other attempting to flush the other out by minimizing their
respective turn radii. The two aircraft will cross flight paths at some point. It is imperative that
the student calls out his intentions, as stated in training rules, as to whether he will cross high or
low.

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Remember our priorities and look to set up a good bug. Keep sight of the bandit while max.
performing your aircraft. (Read the Separation/Bug chapter at the end of High Aspect ACM.) If a
bug out does not appear successful the student should recognize this and perform a pitch-back
maneuver to deny a missile shot and attempt another close-aboard, 180-degree out pass. The
definition of a successful bugout is 1.5 nm with > 100 kts opening. We will evaluate this by the
attacker calling "Fox-2" when he is in a suspected weapons envelope. The defender will
broadcast his airspeed, and then the attacker will call out his airspeed. The attacker and defender
will then make an assessment of shot range and note both airspeeds to determine whether or not
the missile would have been defeated. The goal for the defensive fighter is to survive as long as
possible and attempt to disengage from or neutralize the fight. Make energy excursions to get out
of phase and create high aspect merges. When you decide to bug, minimize vertical separation
by holding the nose up as you turn towards the bandit. Remember that you can call low from a
high position.
Rolling Scissors Maneuvering (Defensive)
The rolling scissors (Figure 1-28) will generally occur after a flight path and 3/9 overshoots
where the defender has sufficient energy to somewhat use the vertical to stop down-range travel
during his reversal. The comment regarding stopping down-range travel is significant. Note also
that although we set up the rolling scissors with an overshoot in the vertical plane; remember that
this maneuver could be entered after a high-speed overshoot in the horizontal.

Figure 1-28 Rolling Scissors

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As the bandit executes a barrel roll attack on us, we will counter the barrel roll attack by pulling
level across the horizon, when the bandit is over us and aft, pull into the vertical. This will create
a vertical overshoot. Defensively, this is good; the bandit's nose is not an immediate threat so
you have some options about setting up a good bug. Although we don't have the airspeed to go
pure vertical, we want to drive the fight as 'loopy' as possible. This will afford us two advantages
as the defensive aircraft. First, it will generate merges that are more neutral. These merges will
be more vertical, which will give us our second advantage, which will be large attitude
discrepancies, and large airspeed splits from the bandit.
We will achieve this loopy fight through the use of good LV placement and AOA control. We
will maneuver similar to the offensive roller. We will fly lag when appropriate (typically through
the bottom of the roll, when our airspeed is high) and lead to collapse the fight over the top. If we
combine the aggressive use of lead over the top with the selection of idle, we can reduce the
distance between the aircraft, thus solving one of the parameters for the good bug.
The goal for the defensive fighter is to survive as long as possible and attempt to disengage from
or neutralize the fight. Because a rolling scissors is a slow-speed fight with predictable flight
paths and poor shot opportunities, you should look for an opportunity to disengage. Typically,
the appropriate time to disengage is from the top of the roller. It helps to be aware of this to time
your disengagement or to anticipate when the bandit may decide to disengage.
We need to make sure we time the bug correctly. For bug mechanics, see the Separation/Bug
section following this one. The roller will be heading downrange and the bug will end up going
about 135 degrees from that heading, out the bandit's tail. Here, we want to make sure that the
bandit is getting his nose up prior to our attempt to run. Going over the top, we will check to see
that the bandit's nose has broken the horizon, then attempt to run out his extended six, unloading
to the deck. It's imperative that we KEEP SIGHT of the bandit to be able to evaluate the bug. We
will probably need to check turn to put the bandit as close to our six as possible while keeping
sight. In the real world, the bandit will not broadcast when he shoots, so only your eyeball will
tell if you have been successful.
Separation/Bug
We would like to set up the best bug possible. There are some parameters to attempt to achieve.
-

180-degree pass - We want to bug out the bandit's 6 o'clock position. This will give
him the highest angles to traverse to come nose on.

500-ft pass - Any turning room we give outside of this is less he has to turn to come
nose on and could mean an unsuccessful disengagement.

Airspeed/Nose attitude Split - Ideally we would be nose down/accelerating while


the bandit is nose up/decelerating.

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We will rarely achieve all of these goals explicitly. However, if we are close, it can mean a
successful bug and the ability to kill that bandit tomorrow. How far can we deviate from these
parameters and still live? That will change in different situations. For instance, to bug from the
flats, we need to get very close to all three bullets to run. To bug from the roller, we have more
leeway due to the angular difference between fighter and bandit. You will have the opportunity
to see many bugs and should be able to come up with a good sight picture for a good bug
window.
There's no such thing as a bad bug . . . provided you recognize early that you're not going to
make it and alter your game plan. Therefore don't wait for the perfect setup to bug. Go for it and
if it doesn't work, pitch back in and just call it an extension. The separation you gained will be
cumulative in the next overshoot to the flats, increasing your odds of a good bug next time.
In most instances, our bug will not occur at 10,000 ft. Thus our Bug mechanics can stay fairly
consistent.
Left Hand - Even before the merge, we should be at MRT, spooling up the motor or
accelerating.
Right Hand - We need to pull to the bandit's extended 6 o'clock position. Then, since our best
acceleration occurs at zero g, we should unload until we get there. The good thing about this is
that we don't need to look inside the cockpit to do this.
Head - We need to keep sight of the bandit. We will try to get him as close to our 6 o'clock as
we can without losing sight. This is referred to as the "Aft Visibility Limit." It's different for
every person in every jet.
As we extend, we will need to come inside and check the altimeter for the deck and check turn to
sweeten up our bug. We check turn away from the bandit's nose in order to maintain sight of the
bandit, and/or to give him more degrees to turn. Only check turn a maximum of two times. We
use this rule in order to maximize our separation from the bandit. If we continuously turn, we
will arc, thus not maximizing our airspeed and lateral separation. We bug all the way to the deck.
We need to be at 50 ft if possible to maximize our airspeed. The weapons envelopes tell us if we
have accomplished a successful bugout. A good rule of thumb is the rule of 2's; 1 nm with 100
kts opening. In training, we can use A/A TACAN to determine if we have sufficient range and to
get an eyeball call. If there is any doubt, then there is no doubt. We need to pitchback prior to the
bandit's nose becoming a threat using max performance and evaluate the bandit.
Attacker Inside Bubble
We need to start thinking about the nose assessment exercise that develops after this (See Rate
War (defensive)). Assess the bandit's pursuit curve to determine our course of action. If the
bandit flies pure or lead pursuit he will overshoot in some form. We need to try to maximize this
by continuing our break turn until it's time to execute the guns D. If we bleed here, it's OK,
because if we execute the turn correctly, he will overshoot and we will be properly set up for the
one-circle fight.

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If the bandit flies a lag pursuit profile, get on your rate numbers and use the altitude available to
keep them up. This is a nibble of buffet/rumble pull until we can't do it any longer. Get your LV
below the bandit and get your airplane coming downhill.
The thing to remember here is that a hard pull will not get us any angles back from the
bandit, so temper your break turns with some intelligence about the geometry of the follow-on
fight.
Guns Defense
This is fairly easy to explain, but hard to recognize while fighting. In the T-45, the lead required
for a gunshot, as seen in the SSD, appears as a T-45 with a Nose-On aspect. Thus whenever we
see the Bandit nose on, inside 3,000 ft we should be thinking about a Guns Defense. The most
important thing to remember about guns is how difficult a good gunshot is. We practice many
snapshots versus cooperative bandits during the SSD and still miss. Even if you are on the deck
with minimal airspeed, we need to maneuver our airplane whenever we see a pending gunshot.
We have two main objectives while executing the Guns D.
1.

Minimize our target area

2.

Defeat the plane of motion solution

Endeavor to make your airplane as small as possible, this usually means wingtip on the attacker.
This also helps to put our lift vector in a position to alter our plane-of-motion. We need to move
our airplane out of its current path, therefore a weak pull will get us shot, however, a 24-unit
rumbling pull will succeed only in bleeding our airspeed while not moving the aircraft
effectively. A smooth 17-21-unit pull will move the airplane in the quickest fashion. If we find
ourselves slow on the deck, put wingtip on the bandit and pull up. If we are able to execute the
Guns D low, that will help us keep our energy up. As soon as the bandits nose is no longer a
threat, put the lift vector back on the bandit and evaluate the bandit's potential overshoot and get
back on your defensive game plan. If the bandit continues to pull lead for shots, continue to
defend against the shots and keep moving the jet!
Lost Sight Gameplan
Ideally, we would never, ever lose sight. In the unfortunate circumstance that we lose sight, what
do we do? This would be pretty serious in the "real world." In training, we need to think safety
first, so we call "Lost Sight." If we hear another "Lost Sight" or "Blind" from the bandit, we need
to get a KIO and separate via altitude for safety and then execute a rejoin.
If we hear a "Continue" call out of the bandit, then what do we do? Well, the bandit has assumed
safety of flight so we need to continue pulling. If you recall back to offensive ACM you may
remember how difficult it was to execute a good bubble entry on the 6,000-ft perch. It doesn't
really matter which way we pull, we need to start maneuvering the jet aggressively.

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You may have an idea of where the bandit was; maneuver the jet at the nibble to the rumble of
buffet in that direction. As we do this, it will make a more difficult weapons solution for the
bandit as well as moving the bandit further forward on your canopy. After a few seconds, if we
have not regained sight, we need to reorient the lift vector to remain unpredictable and to defeat
the POM of the impending gunshot, if we're lucky. We should move out-of-plane approximately
every 3-5 seconds. The whole time we need to attempt to regain sight by looking at our 5-7
o'clock position from high to level.
If lost sight while on the bug, you must check turn at least one clock code, or 30 degrees, in order
to flush the bandit out from your 6 o'clock. If still no-joy, pitch back, and again, direction isn't as
important as you moving the jet right now. Your general mindset is to deny your control zone to
the bandit.
TACADMIN
The transit on the defensive hops will be the same as the offensive. You are always the wingman
and always responsible for good TACFORM and good positioning for the sets.
SSD
-

P Abeam

A 14,000 ft

D .8 1.0 nm

S 300 kts

The snapshot drill is a cooperative maneuver designed to teach employment of the gun at high
angles off. The snap shot is used when attacking at medium to high angles off in an attempt to
achieve a quick kill, thereby precluding subsequent maneuvering.
The SSD will be set up at 300 kts and 14,000 ft. The two aircraft will be in combat spread, level,
and 1.0 nm with the shooter 10 degrees aft of the target's beam. Once the g-warm is completed
and both aircraft are fenced in, the lead will call that he is setting up for the snapshot drill. As
with all ACM set ups, the drill will begin with "Speed and Angels" calls from both aircraft. The
lead will initiate all the comm, regardless if he is offensive or defensive. The comm will be
"Hawk 1, in Shooter," "Hawk 2, in target." The student will be the target on the defensive hops.
The two aircraft will turn in towards each other. This is a cooperative maneuver, so as the target
you will normally pull to place the shooter at 10 or 2o'clock and hold him there, typically about a
12-14-unit pull. As the Target, you will set the angles and the Shooter will set the range. We may
need to adjust our pull based on the bandit's range and aspect. It's important to be a good target
and fly 0 VSI. When the shooter calls "Trigger down, snap," you should evaluate what the nose
position of the shooter is, and then reverse your turn, pulling as required to get back to abeam as
we reach our maximum separation. Remember, you are the wingman and you must regain 1 nm

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of separation. Generally, 8 snapshots are accomplished, but there can be more. On the last 4
snapshots, the instructor will call, "Hawk 1 in shooter, maneuvering." During these, you will
attempt to maneuver out of the bullet stream and avoid getting shot. To do this, you will put your
wingtip on the attacker and maneuver out-of-plane. Even though you are defending, you also
must be able to keep the geometry flowing. The goal for the defensive aircraft is to get a good
look at what the T-45 looks like when it is in a gun envelope.
Remember the shooter in the guns weave must accomplish three basic things:
1.

Plane of Motion

2.

LEAD

3.

RANGE (1,000-1,500 ft out to 3,000 ft)

Evaluate the size and attitude of the attacking aircraft and get a good Eyeball Call for what the
shot looks like and when things are happening. You will be attempting to defeat the plane of
motion solution that the attacker is presenting. It's better to be early than late, but if you are too
early, the bandit may follow you through your maneuvers.
As the defender during the maneuvering portion of the snapshot drill, your priority is to create
the largest miss margin for the shooter. To do this, you must maneuver early enough to cause
plane of motion problems for the shooter, but not so early that you give the shooter enough time
to correct for it. The easiest way to do this is by defeating the attacker's plane of motion. To
defeat the snapshot, put a wingtip on the shooter (this gives the shooter the smallest possible
target and gets your lift vector to its maximum out-of-plane) and execute a nibble of buffet pull
(17-21 units) for no more than 1-2 seconds. Remember if you go nose low, you will need to start
your defense a little earlier as you have to overbank to get wingtip on. You should roll towards
the bandit if you put opposite wingtip on, as this will decrease time to get wingtip on and allow
you to keep sight. As soon as you hear the bandit's assessment, get your wings under you and
attempt to regain 14,000 ft. As you turn in, it's okay to level off somewhere besides 14,000 ft,
just keep 0 VSI as you turn inbound.
If it appears as though the shooter will be violating the "no forward quarter gun shots forward of
the 3/9 line" or "1,000 ft min gun shots" training rule, then either aircraft can call "Skip it" and
the shooter aircraft will maneuver to effect a safe pass and the drill will continue following the
reversal. Standard knock it off procedures apply (Figure 1-29).

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Figure 1-29 Snap Guns Exercise


Flat Scissors
-

P Abeam

A 14,000 ft

D .8 1.2 nm

S 250 kts

When we are defensive, we will execute the setup just like the SSD (Figure 1-30). We will be a
cooperative target until the bandit's nose approaches (i.e., becomes a factor). We should defeat
the snapshot by putting our near wingtip on the attacker and pulling out-of-plane. This is the
reason for the "flats" call at the initial set-up. As soon as we have defeated the POM of the

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bullets, we need to resume our fight with the bandit by repositioning our lift vector back onto
him and pulling to maximize the overshoot. We will see the high crossing rate and in-close
overshoot and only then will we reverse. If the shot is rangy, we can pull back into the bandit to
deny turning room and ensure the horizontal overshoot.

Figure 1-30 Flat Scissors


Rolling Scissors
-

P Offensive aircraft medium angle perch

A 15 16,000 ft

D .4 .5 nm

S 250 kts

After the speed and angels call, the bandit will call himself in. For the cooperative start, roll 90
degrees AOB and pull level across the horizon until both aircraft are stacked up vertically, then
reverse your turn to begin the roller (Figure 1-31). If you lose your spatial awareness, after the
pass just go LV on the bandit.

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Figure 1-31 Rolling Scissors


6,000-FT Perch
-

P Right/Left Perch (45-degree AOT)

A 15,000 ft def/16,000 ft off

D .8 1.0 nm

S 300 kts

This is your chance to attempt to counter the two-circle attack. Generally speaking, the longer
the range and the more the AOT, the more difficult the geometry is for the bandit. At longer
ranges you will be able to turn more degrees before the bandit enters your bubble. Unfortunately,
the 6,000-ft set puts the bandit right on the bubble.
After a "Speed and Angels" call from both fighters, the lead will come in off the perch. Prior to
the bandit's nose coming to bear, break into him to either keep his missile on the rails or defeat
any shot he fires. The defensive break turn is executed by rolling to put your LV 45 degrees

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(135 degrees AOB) below the horizon and then smoothly pulling to 19-21 units. This will allow
you to use altitude to keep your turn rate up while looking for the bandit to assess his nose. You
should strive to get about 45-50 degrees nose low and then execute a deck transition appropriate
to the bandit's attack. The bandit will most likely arrive in your control zone and attempt a shot.
You need to execute a guns D to defeat the shot and then get right back into your two-circle fight
or redefine. The primary goal of the bandit is to achieve guns tracking on you. You will attempt
to force an in-close overshoot to neutralize the attacker (Figure 1-32). If the bandit makes a big
enough mistake, i.e., flight path and 3/9 line overshoot at a high track-crossing rate, you will be
able to either neutralize or become offensive.
The set will go to a logical conclusion and a Knock-it-off will be called after the training
objectives have been satisfied.

Figure 1-32 Starting Inside The Bubble

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Break Turn Exercise


-

P Abeam

A 15,000 ft def/16,000 ft off

D .8 1.0 nm

S 300 kts

Defensively, this is a great opportunity for us to fine-tune our bug techniques.


When directed to "break right/left," execute an overbanking hard turn with your LV 45 degrees
(135 degrees AOB) below the horizon. Your lead will direct you to ease the pull, simulating the
missile's defeat. Ease your pull to the nibble of buffet while continuing to dig nose low; this will
increase your airspeed. The bandit will call his position to you and your response of Tally has
reset the roles of fighter and bandit. Your priority now is to put the bandit at your aft visibility
limit to maximize the extension without losing sight! A good rule of thumb is to keep turning
nose low until you reach a heading 180 degrees past your start heading. Then get your head out
and find him. As soon as you have the bandit at 5:30 or 6:30, aggressively unload for
kts/extension. If you must check turn to keep sight, do it at 13 or 14 units and get right back on
your unload. Do not arc!
To review, the comm should sound like this:
Lead:

"Hawk 2, break left/right, missile in the air."

Student:

"HAWK 2."

Lead:

"Ease your turn, missile defeated."

Student:

"HAWK 2."

Lead/Bandit: "Bandit's coming out your right/left 3/9 high."


Student:

"HAWK 2, Tally."

Bandit:

"Fox-2" or "Fight's On."

Before the bandit's nose comes onbreak back into him (Figure 1-33). This, combined with use of
expendables (a timely "chaff/flares" call for you), will defeat his shot, if you didn't prevent the
bandit from taking it altogether.

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Figure 1-33 Break Turn Exercise


Your reengagement can take one of two forms. Either a maximum instantaneous break turn
(using all available g consistent with NATOPS), or a maximum performance pull into the
vertical. Keep in mind that max performance can mean one of two things; either the lift limit if
you are below corner or max g if you are above corner. Base your choice on bandit range and
nose position. If range is sufficient to keep the bandit from getting around your post, come back
in nose level to slightly low in the direction of the bandit. If he's at dead six, it doesn't matter
which direction you choose, but then you won't be able to see him, will you?
You are trying to force as neutral a pass as you can possibly get. That means maximum angles
off the tail, minimum lateral separation. If you can achieve this merge with sufficient airspeed
(you should have no lower than 300 KIAS), disengagement will likely be successful. Care must
be taken not to unload into the deck during execution of this bugout - you'll be very close to it.
If the merge is such that a bugout is not possible, your options vary according to the degree of
defensiveness. If the merge is close, a reversal may be a good option. Betting on a delayed
reaction from the bandit, you may be able to force either a climbing one-circle fight or

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potentially a roller (depending on the degree of the vertical overshoot and how long it takes him
to get his nose up). Either of these could afford a better bug opportunity than the continuation of
a two-circle fight.
If the bandit is able to make it around your post, you are very defensive and will be forced to
continue your turn. Energy management is paramount! Don't bleed below your best sustained
turn rate airspeed unless required to keep his nose off! It's possible that the bandit 'sold the farm'
(in terms of energy) to arrive at this point, and the zealous conservation of your knot package
could yield angles for you. Angles lead to overshoots. Overshoots lead to bugouts.
If the bandit has buried his nose on the entry and you are unsure of your ability to generate the
extension required for a 180 out pass, you have the option to pitch back vertical. Execution and
timing are critical here. You need to go early to avoid being shot over the top. You need to
execute a break turn pull and control your lift vector. The lift vector will either be on the bandit
or in front of him if he gives you turning room. The vertical pitchback is difficult to master and
the consequences can be dire.
The BTX will go to a logical conclusion and be terminated with the standard "knock-it-off' call
once training objectives are achieved.
Conclusion
Defensive BFM is extremely difficult. There is no clearer way to describe the position of
straining your neck to see yourself getting shot. However, a solid understanding of our aircraft
and BFM should give you the tools you need to survive should you ever find yourself defensive
in Hostile Territory. This section has described many techniques to try to capitalize on the
mistakes the attacker may make. We need to keep one thing in mind whenever we are defensive
. . . NEVER GIVE UP. Hopefully you will disengage and live to fight another day.

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NOTES

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110.

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

HIGH ASPECT ACM

Up until now, the fights have started with one aircraft in a positional advantage over another. In a
high aspect engagement, BFM concepts take on a new light since no aircraft begins with a
positional advantage and the flow is much less predictable. As both aircraft vie for an advantage,
engagements will normally transition from neutral to defined roles. When this occurs, use the
concepts previously discussed in Offensive and Defensive ACM.
There are several different considerations when approaching high-aspect BFM. First of all, what
sort of merge are you likely to encounter? Here in the Training Command, your neutral sets will
occur from close range (typically inside of 1-1/2 mile) with both fighter and bandit having a tally
of the other. Assuming that neither jet is willing to give away any position advantage at the
merge, you will pass with 500 ft (minimum for training rules) and 180 degrees off the tail. From
here, you will employ all the ACM knowledge that you have acquired to accomplish your goals.
Since your objectives can change given your degree of offensiveness or defensiveness, it is
important to be flexible in your game-plan execution. Among other things, you must keep sight
in this dynamic environment. The bandit will pass the merge and go very close to your 6 o'clock
(your aft visibility limit). You need to regain sight or the end will be quick. Take note of the
environmentals. The quality of visibility and any detractors like the sun or clouds will directly
affect the amount of time and energy you must devote to maintaining sight.
Objectives
A fighter pilot must know how to employ his aircraft 1 v 1 before he moves on to more complex
scenarios. 1 v 1 maneuvering, though not as complex as multi-plane scenarios, is more complex
than any facet of your training to date. With the myriad of forms the 1 v 1 may take, it can be
broken down into two simple choices, and with each, some basic rules. The only two options are:
1.

To extend through the bandit for a subsequent reengagement or total separation, or

2.

To turn with the bandit to achieve the kill.

Once we have determined that we will engage our bandit, we need to accomplish a few goals.
1.

Determine Flow (see Concepts and Definitions for a Flow discussion)

2.

Evaluate the Bandit (How well is the bandit executing his fight?)

3.
Define Roles (Soon Offensive and Defensive roles will appear and we need to execute our
training for those roles)

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In order to execute these objectives, we need to do some basics:


1.

Max perform the aircraft

2.

Keep sight of the bandit

3.

Avoid hitting the deck

High Aspect Concepts


Flow
As you have already seen from your reading, every engagement can be broken down in terms of
the flow that it is generating. One of the keys to gaining an advantage in high-aspect ACM is
driving the fight into flow, which will allow you to exploit your aircraft's performance
characteristics. With similar performing aircraft, recognizing flow first, and then flying your jet
accordingly will achieve the advantage.
1.
One-circle flow (Figure 1-34) occurs when one aircraft reverses at the merge, creating a
fight defined by turn radius. In a one-circle fight, the jet, which can turn the tightest circle, will
achieve positional advantage. When engaged in one-circle flow, you need to collapse your turn
radius as tightly as possible in order to create turning room between you and the bandit. This
means transitioning to an airspeed that is both slower than his and controllable in terms of g
available. 110 KIAS may well be slower than his airspeed, but it affords no ability to turn your
jet and will soon result in the loss of any position advantage gained.

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Figure 1-34 One-Circle Flow


2.
Two-circle flow (Figure 1-35) occurs when both aircraft turn across each other's tail,
forming a fight defined by rate. When engaged in two-circle flow, the jet with the greatest turn
rate will bring the nose to bear first while at the same time, achieving weapons separation. With
your understanding of T-45 performance characteristics, you know that your greatest turn rate
will be achieved at the g limit at approximately 410 KIAS. But you're not going to be able to
maintain this pull for long. Unless time to kill is exceptionally short, the aircraft with the greatest
sustained turn rate will win two-circle fights. When you recognize that the flow is two-circle,
attempt to capture your Tactical Turn Rate airspeed band and make energy excursions as
required to gain angular advantage.

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Figure 1-35 Two-Circle Flow


Controlling Merges
One of the quickest ways to gain positional advantage in a high-aspect engagement is through
the uncountered use of out-of-plane maneuvering. For instance, by flying your jet through a
plane of motion above the bandit's, you collapse your turning circle relative to his. Out-of-plane
maneuvering must be coupled with proper LV placement at the correct time to achieve an
advantage.
By maneuvering out-of-plane below the bandit, you decrease the angles required to travel
(increasing effective turn rate), while collapsing the radius of your turn circle relative to your
opponent's. Of course, if you pull your jet level across the horizon while trying to figure out just
what exactly that 60-degree nose-high bandit is doing, the lesson may be accentuated as you go
defensive. Keep in mind, out-of-plane maneuvering will often be limited by your aircraft's

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performance. Asking too much from your jet will result in a loss of control and a quick
conclusion to the fight. As you maneuver out-of-plane, you will need to assess your game plan
after the next merge.
Vertical Merges
We will discuss the nuances of the neutral merge in game plan development. However,
understanding the effects of the vertical in determining performance is critical. In general,
excessively nose-low attitudes can be aggressively countered through a hefty amount of lead
pursuit, particularly when the nose-low bandit has high airspeed (Figure 1-36). Recognizing his
predictability in this situation gives you the freedom to early turn with aggressive lead pursuit,
while assuring two-circle flow. This is simple because the option to reverse (into one-circle flow
based on radius) does not exist for the jet that buries his nose. If it is you who is approaching a
very vertical merge excessively nose low, you must do damage control. If recognized early
enough, you may be able to maneuver for a shallower merge. If that's not possible, perhaps the
bandit will get too aggressive with the lead, allowing you to flush him out in front with a wingslevel pull to the horizon. If he correctly judges his use of lead, however, you must roll lift vector
on and attempt to spiral the fight to the deck.

Figure 1-36 Vertical Merges

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If you find yourself approaching a merge while climbing and the bandit has a nose down attitude,
you can early turn the bandit prior to the merge and gain angles that are very hard for him to
counter. If the separation is small (~ 500 ft) you can roll 90 degrees off and start your pull to get
your nose on early without busting the 500-ft bubble. This will require a large amount of lead
timing to account for your poor turn rate nose high. Every situation will be different, but you will
begin this early turn well prior to 3-9 line crossing.
Remember, every time you go nose high, eventually you will end up nose low and you need to
look ahead to try to manage the follow on merges generated from aggressive out-of-plane
maneuvering.
Engagement Mindset
Approach each merge with a game plan in mind. At first, it will be difficult to drive the fight the
way you want, with experience, you will be able to drive the fight and spend more time
offensive.
In general, we want to hit each merge with minimum lateral separation (500 ft) and take an initial
cut across the bandit's tail to take out any turning room that may be used against us. More merge
mechanics will be discussed later.
If you are going to fight an aggressive position fight (i.e., one-circle/radius fight), attempt to
influence the merge so as to arrive already established nose high. Reverse at the pass if necessary
to create one- circle flow. Aggressively use out-of-plane maneuvering to collapse your circle
relative to the bandit's.
An uncooperative bandit may not allow you once circle flow by reversing his own direction of
turn following your initial reversal. You may be able to reverse your own turn once more, but by
this time, the range between the jets is sufficient to negate the effects of turn radius (Figure 137). In other words, two-circle conditions exist despite the appearance of one-circle flow. If you
cannot work your game plan now, react to the bandit by establishing a competitive turn rate, and
look for an opportunity to redefine later.
If instead, you approach the merge with an energy-management mind-set, (i.e., Two-circle/rate
fight) work either two-circle flow or extension techniques. Hit the merge with the maximum kts
possible and influence flow by initially turning across the bandit's tail. A nose-low attitude will
be required to capitalize on all that airspeed and g available. Pick up best-sustained turn rate
somewhere in your Tactical Turn Rate airspeed band (300-330 KIAS) and attempt to outrate the
bandit.

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Figure 1-37 ACM Environment


With similar aircraft, the fighter who makes the first error will typically be the loser. In twocircle flow, you keep a higher airspeed and since these fights normally take longer to develop,
they tend to be more forgiving. However, energy management is key. If you arbitrarily give
away airspeed without gaining something in return (whether that be a shot, position advantage or
survival), you will probably find yourself defensive. One-circle flow is much less forgiving of
any mistakes. If you err in an aggressive position fight, you probably won't see a gradual
degradation of the fight. You will more likely go from a neutral or offensive position to a guns
defense within the blink of an eye.

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Finally, don't ever underestimate the importance of sight. A BFM error that gets the other guy to
lose his tally is not an error. You can be the most inept fighter pilot on earth, but if the bandit
doesn't have sight, you'll eventually kill him.
Game Plan Development
In ACM, the head-on pass will be the result of the two combatants turning toward each other
from abeam positions. You must work to make a 500-ft pass happen at the first merge and at all
subsequent merges. Any distance over 500 ft present at the merge is called turning room, which
will most likely be taken by the bandit. If so, as the actual pass happens, the bandit will have less
than 180 degrees to turn in order to get his nose on the fighter. He will start the engagement with
an advantage.
When both aircraft work to make a 500-ft pass at the merge, you will notice that the heading of
both A/C as the merge happens will be about 90 degrees off of the turn in heading. Make sure
you are always working to deny the bandit any advantage at the merge and utilize any turning
room the bandit allows, but do not pass inside of 500 ft at any time.
The aggressiveness of the maneuvering just prior to the pass is critical because it will most often
determine the form the engagement will take. To begin with, never accept a neutral pass. Always
try to achieve an advantage in angles at the pass, that is, attempt an early turn in order to cut
down on the amount of AOT you will have to work off. To achieve this "bite" on the bandit use a
hard turn and plan to pass the bandit at the control point with as many angles as you can get
(making sure to be no closer than 500 ft based on ROE). This is called a check turn and is used to
not only take out turning room at the merge, but to see what the bandit is doing. Since you are
fighting against the same type of aircraft, you can engage in either a rate or radius fight.
There are several basic first moves that can be made. Remember from earlier in this instruction
that your success in a two-circle fight is dependent on achieving the best rate of turn (degrees per
second); it is also a nose-to-tail fight. Winning the one-circle fight is achieved by minimizing
your radius of turn, (which occurs at slower airspeeds.) The radius fight is a nose-to-nose fight.
The best instantaneous turn rate of any fighter is generally achieved at its maneuvering speed.
This is also called "corner speed." The T-45 corner speed is somewhere around 410 kts at 10,000
ft. This is the speed that maximum g can be achieved without over-stressing the aircraft. If 410
kts is maintained, the T-45 will sustain around 14 degrees per second. The main problem that
exists with corner speed is that most aircraft do not have the thrust to weight ratio to maintain the
airspeed without losing altitude. Once the aircraft is at the hard deck, it cannot maintain the same
maximum turn rate without bleeding airspeed. This loss of energy (in either altitude or airspeed)
is a fact of maneuvering a low thrust-to-weight aircraft at corner speed. But any time corner
speed can be maintained (at maximum g); turn rate will be maximized. Once the T-45 is on the
deck, it is unable to lose altitude in exchange for airspeed, so now the best rate of turn it can
maintain is its best-sustained turn rate. This is around 300-330 kts for best sustained Turn Rate
band. It gives an acceptable turn rate (10-11 deg/sec) and the aircraft will be able to sustain
airspeed while on the deck (i.e., not losing energy). One thing about the T-45's sustained turn
rate speed is that it allows the use of the tactical vertical. We can pull straight up after being on

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the deck at 300 kts and make it over the top. You need to be sure not to bleed much below this
airspeed if you are in a nose-to-tail fight or else your turn rate will suffer and you may not have
vertical airspeed at a critical time. The best time to bleed airspeed from 330 kts would be in order
to pull into a gun or missile envelope and employ a weapon. The 330 kts sustained turn gives the
T-45 about 3.5 g's and is not in a "buffet zone." The jet can be pulled to the "edge of buffet,"
which bleeds airspeed in exchange for a turn rate increase (i.e., the nose will track across the
horizon faster), but only to a point. This is called "instantaneous" turn rate. A T-45 pulling at the
nibble of buffet will have a turn rate advantage over another T-45 sustaining 330 kts but the
advantage only exists until the airspeed is bled down to around 230 kts. So, in a two-circle fight,
if the nose is not on the by the time the jet is bleeding through 230 kts, you need to get some
energy back. Pulling the jet on the buffet zone and bleeding airspeed to get this turn rate
advantage could also be called an "energy excursion maneuver," even though pulling from 330
kts to 230 kts takes 5-7 seconds (which is considered slow). Regardless, this energy excursion
maneuver can allow an attacking fighter to increase his turn rate (instantaneously) at the expense
of airspeed to arrive nose-on a bandit. All of this information is displayed on the E-M diagram.
As previously stated, 230 kts does not afford you any energy for excursions, defense or use of
the vertical. You should only bleed to this airspeed if in a two-circle neutral fight ("Lufbery")
and you are trying to make the bandit make a mistake, or gain angles for a shot.
If a nose-to-nose fight ensues, one fighter will have to reverse his turn at the merge. Generally,
the turn radius will decrease with a decrease of airspeed, but only to a point. The good thing
about the T-45 in this case is that the best radius the aircraft can turn for any airspeed is easily
identified. It is basically at the edge of buffet. "Pitch buck" should be avoided, but the buffet
encountered at a slightly decreased AOA is the optimum radius turn the aircraft can perform.
When the airspeed gets slower than 200 KIAS, the buffet threshold will be around 21 units AOA.
The instructor may brief which way he will turn at the merge and ask what you will do in each
case. One of the most important things to remember in any ACM engagement is to have a "game
plan." The pilot who goes into a merge without one will end up reacting to the bandit instead of
forcing his will upon the bandit. Good ACM knowledge and execution skill is imperative to
surviving in multi-plane scenarios.

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NOTES

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Execution
1.

2.

3.

FTR NOSE HI
a.

VS. ADVERSARY UP

b.

VS. ADVERSARY LEVEL

c.

VS. ADVERSARY DOWN

FTR NOSE LOW


a.

VS. ADVERSARY DOWN

b.

VS. ADVERSARY LEVEL

c.

VS. ADVERSARY UP

FTR TURNS LEVEL


a.

VS. ADVERSARY LEVEL

b.

VS. ADVERSARY UP

c.

VS. ADVERSARY DOWN

Fighter Nose High


In general, when we go nose high, we will be collapsing the fight as our airspeed decreases.
(Figure 1-38).
Vs. Nose High - the bandit has chosen to go up with us in one-circle fight. In this case, think like
you have entered a flat scissors and fight a tight radius fight. Lift Vector placement and
AOA/airspeed control will be critical here.
Vs. Nose Level - the bandit is not using altitude to assist his fight. Use it against him by fighting
the one-circle fight aggressively in the vertical, thus collapsing your turn radius with respect to
his and managing your airspeed by climbing. Recognize that you're outside his turn circle, get
back in, then work behind the post, but don't get buried nose low in your pursuit of two-circle
glory. With sufficient turning room, you may be able to turn behind the bandit's post and
transition to a two-circle fight while accelerating in a descent. If not behind the bandit's post, use
good one-circle mechanics: Early turn to get in phase, maintain weapons separation and control
your airspeed and nose attitude.
Vs. Nose Low - If you can reverse and make this a one-circle fight, you will be highly offensive;
if this continues two circles you will be on the losing side of the rate war. It is crucial that you

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make this one-circle fight early. Then transition as stated above. If you don't reverse, you will be
setting yourself up for a vertical merge, a bad vertical merge.

Figure 1-38 Fighter Nose High vs Opponent Hi/Level/Lo


Fighter Nose Low
In general, when we go nose low, we are set up to keep our speed up which is usually best in the
rate war. (Figure 1-39)
Vs. Nose Low - The bandit is working in a rate fight along with you. Your job is Max perform
your aircraft so you are fighting the best rate fight you can. That means, using the available
altitude to keep your kts in the best-sustained rate band as long as possible with the highest AOA
possible. Evaluate the bandit at the follow on merge to see how he did, then adjust your game
plane as necessary. Generally, if he is below you, he may be out rating you.
Vs. Nose Level- If we can maintain the rate fight, we can gain a good advantage on the bandit by
using the altitude that he is giving us. The follow on merge might look strange if he stays up
there, but evaluate his rate fight and continue if he lets you. Delay coming up to meet him until
you have to in order to create a more vertical component at the second merge. Meet him halfway
up and see if he will take the turning room. If he doesn't, by the third merge you will have a big
bite and maybe a shot opportunity.

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Vs. Nose Up - If you can continue in the rate fight you will be highly offensive and facing a
merge with you going nose up (good) versus a bandit going nose down (bad). If the bandit
reverses nose high and you find yourself in a one-circle fight, you need damage control. Get the
nose up aggressively. You may need to bug from this one.

Figure 1-39 Fighter Nose Low vs Opponent Hi/Level/Lo


Fighter Turns Level
In general, going level across the horizon is not a good game plan because you are not
maximizing your jet for any particular fight. It is never a good idea for the fighter to do a level
turn across the horizon unless the deck is a factor. (Figure 1-40)
Vs. Nose Level - Neither aircraft is doing well here. The bandit, whether it's one-circle or two, is
giving you the opportunity to redefine the fight to something more beneficial for us. Recognize
the flow and use the nose to get better performance out of your jet: One-Circle - go nose high,
Two-Circle - go nose low.
Vs. Nose Up - If we are one-circle we are arcing, thus your radius is too large and you will find
yourself defensive quickly. The only saving grace is the follow-on merge, which may give you
the possibility to early turn the bandit if he buries his nose. If we are two-circle, we are probably
a little faster than the bandit, but we aren't max performing our aircraft.

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Vs. Nose Low - If we are in a one-circle fight, we aren't doing too poorly, but we can do better.
If we are two-circle, we are giving away vertical turning room to the bandit and he will have a
chance to fight a better rate fight, we need to start to work downhill and work our rate numbers.
Come down to meet him and make the merge happen.

Figure 1-40 Fighter Level vs. Opponent Hi/Level/Lo


Deck Transitions
It's imperative to identify flow and then fight it as hard as possible. When we are engaged and
the roles are not clearly defined, we must identify the flow and adjust our deck transition
appropriately. If we are working a two-circle fight down to the deck, remember your bestsustained rate numbers and get to the deck with them. That may mean giving up some angles to
achieve this, but it will pay off. This is called an Energy Rate Deck transition. Use the 10-degree
rule to arrive on the deck with a good rate package. We are essentially using altitude to gain
energy.
Once on the deck, we will have more options available to us because our best rate numbers
provide us with the energy required to go pure vertical.
If we feel that we can use a max performance pull to get a shot on the bandit or gain significant
angular advantage, we will use the altitude coupled with aggressive LV placement to transition
to the deck. This is called a Positional Deck Transition; essentially using altitude to gain angles.
This is often risky due to the nature of max performing close to the deck. If used properly, you
will arrive on the deck with angular advantage, but it comes at an energy penalty.

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High Aspect Bug Considerations


Most pilots are aggressive in the BFM environment. We feel the need to pressure the bandit and
stay engaged until we get shot or shoot the bandit. However, we work as a team, and we need to
return our aircraft to the team for further employment. This means we will someday have to run
away, or separate from a fight before having killed the bandit--maybe we got jumped, or were
outnumbered. We will bug at various times:
1.

Whenever we are defensive

2.

At Joker fuel

3.

If we were offensive and are now Neutral

Don't continue to engage in a fight that is degrading for you. Also, it has been proven that the
longer you stay engaged in a fight, the more likely you are to get shot. There are other times
when we will bug, but in the training command, these are the most obvious times.
TACADMIN
SSD
The Snapshot Drill will be set up the same as your previous flights, but you will see both roles.
You will get the opportunity to be the shooter for a few iterations, then the target. It's imperative
to remember a few basics. First, you are the wingman and it's your job to maintain proper
separation during the drill. Second, this is a cooperative drill, so we will help out our wingman
whenever we can.
Neutral Sets
Butterfly

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P Abeam

A 16,000 ft for both aircraft

D 1.0 nm

S 300 kts

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Abeam
-

P Abeam

A 16,000 ft for both aircraft

D 1.5 nm

S 300 kts

Neutral maneuvering is the final stage of Air Combat Maneuvering. After mastering the
offensive attack and the defensive maneuvers necessary to defeat the bandit behind your
wingline, the logical progression is to apply these maneuvers to a more realistic situation.
Neutral maneuvering will be conducted against a single bandit in a permissive environment.
The neutrals will start with the SSD like before but you will see both the offensive side and the
defensive side. You will be the shooter and target. Then you will get to warm up with some set
engagements, typically one offensive and one defensive, but your instructor will work out the
best solution for that day.
Then you will move on to the neutral engagements. There are two types of neutral sets: the
Butterfly set and the Abeam set. The butterfly set (Figure 1-41) is begun with both fighters coaltitude and co-airspeed. Following the speed and angels call, the bandit will call "Take a cut
away" and both aircraft will turn 30 degrees away from each other. When enough separation has
developed, the Bandit will call "turning in" and both aircraft will begin a hard turn in to affect a
neutral merge. As the pass develops, the student will call either "right-to-right" or "left-to-left"
and the Bandit will echo the call. This call should be made before rolling wings level. At the
merge, the bandit will call "Fights On." On the abeam set, after the speed and angels, the bandit
will simply count down "3...2...1, Fight's On" and both aircraft will begin to maneuver.

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Figure 1-41 Butterfly Set


BVR
On your final 1 v 1 neutral flight, you may be introduced to a Beyond Visual Range set. This will
expose you for the first time to what is the most probable scenario for engaging a real-world
bandit. There are countless reasons why you might be forced to a merge, requiring the fighter to
employ ACM for a kill. Follow-on prosecution of bandits who have survived BVR weapons, late
situational awareness of a threat aircraft, or the very likely requirement to positively identify a
bandit by visual means (VID) prior to killing him are all situations which might lead a fighter to
the merge. The degree of offensiveness or defensiveness in a BFM engagement, which results
from a BVR set, is very often determined by who achieves the first "tally." With eyeballs on, a
fighter can maneuver his aircraft as necessary to achieve either an immediate kill or a highly
offensive position on the bandit.
The ability to gain sight is heavily influenced by environmentals (sun angle, haze, cloud decks,
etc.), bandit aircraft size and/or aspect, the volume of the threat sector and aircrew fatigue.
Getting that early "tally" also becomes easier the more you are exposed to this type of set.
Consider all of these as you begin fine-tuning your lookout technique.
If you are able to achieve sight first, you need to take advantage of it. If an immediate shot
opportunity presents itself, take it. If not, move your jet as necessary to either capitalize on the
turning room that exists or create the separation you need. If the bandit is blind, it should be a
quick fight. If he gets sight, evaluate your degree of offensiveness and maneuver accordingly.

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If you find yourself unable to achieve a tally at the merge, keep your airspeed up and start
looking aft. You can't have too much airspeed in this situation. If you pick up the bandit
converting on you, evaluate his range and either counter him defensively or keep on going.
To initiate the engagement, your bandit will direct you to call a CAP (combat air patrol) station.
The CAP stations will be separated by DME along a TACAN radial or through the use of
waypoints. Block altitudes will be defined as those altitudes ending in 0 through 4 and those
ending in 5 through 9. Between 4 and 5 there will be a safe zone. You may not enter the safe
zone altitudes until you have the other fighter in sight. As the fighter, you will always be in the 5
through 9's; the bandit will own 0 through 4's. You will both fly out to your respective CAPS and
call when you are set. The bandit will then call "turning in" and "fight's on." Flow towards the
bandit's CAP while managing your airspeed and listening to the bandit's calls. The bandit will
make simulated Air Intercept Control (AIC) calls to enhance your SA. This may or may not
include altitude. You will be required to scan the threat sector and visually acquire the bandit.
Be in established in your block by 10 nm from the Bandit and make a "10 miles in Block" call.
Any number of things can happen in this engagement, but reference the Three-plane ACM
section to review game plans. If you and the bandit do not visually acquire each other, you will
both make a 180-degree turn towards the same side of the radial/course line and continue back
towards each other.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the training command ACM phase taught here is just the tip of the iceberg, but the
basics you learn will apply to any ACM in your future careers. You will not be a "fighter pilot"
at the end of this phase. You will, however, develop an awareness and familiarity with the
concepts introduced in this instruction. You will be a better pilot. And most importantly, you will
learn the basics to the tools you will use in the fleet.
Three-Plane ACM
Objectives
Section Engaged Maneuvering doctrine is a system by which two aircraft can safely separate
from combat spread, allowing for coordinated, sequential attacks as either a free or an Y,
optimizing mutual support in both offensive and defensive situations. Its major advantages come
from the fact that the tactical capability of two aircraft more than doubles when a section works
effectively together. Employing mutual support throughout an engagement enables a section to
maneuver to engage the bandit, achieve a quick-kill, and then regain section integrity.
Combat spread is a major component of section engaged maneuvering. As you learned in
TACFORM, combat spread increases the visual limits, maneuverability, and weapons
employment of a tactical section. To make combat spread effective, the section must employ
good lookout doctrine through a coordinated search pattern. This way, combat spread provides
the opportunity for early detection of the enemy and makes it more difficult for the enemy to
either detect the section or split it up during the initial phase of an engagement. Once the section
is detected, combat spread forces a single bandit to commit to one fighter or the other.

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The learning objectives that will be emphasized are:


1.

Maintaining mutual support through solid tactical formation

2.

Flying effective Air Combat Maneuvering

3.

Maintaining good tactical communication.

You are developing the skills to fly good tactical formation. As wingmen it is imperative to
always strive to be in combat spread. We will teach you the comm so that by your three plane
solos, you and your wingman will be potently lethal.
The training command 2 v 1 syllabus is designed as a very basic introduction to the multi-plane
ACM environment. Some of the strategies and tactics are not necessarily considered sound
tactical judgment, such as staying on a level plane of motion. Also, the rear-quarter missile
envelope requires a certain amount of timing in order to achieve a quick kill in both the twocircle and one-circle fights. You will be able to expand your abilities in multi-plane ACM later
on in the FRS and the fleet, but the basics learned here will most likely be seen again in some
shape or form.
Strategies/Tactics
Before entering an ACM arena, you must evaluate all of the tactical considerations. One is force
mix - the number and type of friendly vs. opponent aircraft. For training purposes, a 2 v 1
environment is the easiest force mix to learn and use as a building block for future, more
difficult, force mixes in the fleet. What kind of strategies can you use to make a 2 v 1 situation
successful? Consider these:
1.

Use a common set of guidelines and tactics to conduct the engagement.

2.

Force the bandit to commit early.

3.

Above all, attempt to achieve a quick-kill.

A quick-kill seizes the initial offensive posture before the enemy implements his game plan. It
also allows less time for the enemy to gain an offensive position. To achieve a quick-kill, simply
press for the most immediate shot in your first maneuver.
Maneuvering so that your section is out-of-plane and out-of-phase with the enemy will improve
your tactical posture. When you were maneuvering from high cover vs. low cover in
TACFORM, you were maneuvering out-of-plane. A cross turn is an example of out-of-phase
maneuvering.

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Another strategic consideration is to force the bandit to split the section whenever attacked from
outside the section. Refer to the following sections for graphic depictions of these concepts.
It is generally accepted that the outcome of an air-to-air engagement will be greatly influenced
within the first few critical seconds, after visual contact is established.
Although there is no one answer for a given tactical situation, there are certain ingredients that
greatly influence the successful outcome of first move scenarios. The most important ingredient
to any tactical scenario is to have a plan. During the "intercept" phase, the section should have
specific objectives that will aid in developing a sound plan to handle attacks from any quarter.
The section's objectives during the intercept phase are to:
-

deny the enemy a shot

neutralize any advantage the bandit may have

separate the section in phase and plane to prevent being attacked as one unit

strive to establish tally by both fighters

attempt to bracket the bandit in both azimuth and elevation. With this
accomplished, we will force the bandit to commit to one fighter or be able to
commit one fighter on the bandit. Either way we have now defined the roles and
can execute a game plan. We will present you with various scenarios that will
require you to "intercept" the bandit, and execute a plan in order to achieve a kill.

With this accomplished, we will force the bandit to commit to one fighter or be able to commit
one fighter on the bandit. Either way we have now defined the roles and can execute a game
plan. We will present you with various scenarios that will require you to "intercept" the bandit,
and execute a plan in order to achieve a kill.
The 1 v 1 ACM skills you have learned in the two-plane stage will come in handy in three-plane.
However, now you will have to talk while thinking about game plan and strategy in order to
effectively neutralize and control the bandit, eventually getting a kill or bug. Good comm,
executing tactics correctly, and maneuvering the T-45 to its maximum performance (i.e., flying
your best 1 v 1) will ensure success in the 2 v 1 stage. The engagements in this syllabus are not
really three aircraft fighting 1 v 1. Think of it as a 1 v 1 plus 1. One fighter will be engaged with
the bandit and the other will be free and maneuvering for a missile shot.
Execution
Form
These are very busy hops. The quicker we get back into position for the next setup, the better
chance we can complete all the setups. There are four priorities we should follow after a KIO
(knock-it-off).

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Nibble-of-buffet to the KIO heading - with this in mind, if you took the shot and called the
KIO heading, don't blindly go to the KIO heading, but drive back towards a good combat spread
position.
Mutual support - in other words, let's find each other so we don't have a mid-air, and let's get
back into combat spread. Two situations: 1.) As wingman, after the KIO is done (l lead, wing,
bandit), and we're all flowing to the new heading, you should always tell lead your clock position
(right 4, left 7, etc.). When lead hears this clock code, and unless it's 3 or 9 o'clock, he should
automatically check the flight to a new heading to help combat spread. 2.) If lead took the shot,
the only time he should tell his wingman his position is when it is 3 or 9 o'clock. In other words
don't bother saying "lead's at your right 5." Instead say "check it further right to 300, I'll be
coming out your right 3."
Area - Lead checks how we're doing in the area. Generally speaking, even if you've got some
room from the edge of the area, a turn during the climb only costs a little in climb rate. It's much
better to point back to the center in the climb than get all leveled off and ready to go only to
realize you don't have any area left.
G's and Fuel - Student Lead should initiate this after we've had a chance to do the above items.
It's important to get this out following each engagement, but it's not super time critical. In other
words, don't have a near mid-air or bust out of the area while getting your g's and fuel call done
immediately after the KIO.
Be in position before you start the next engagement. We don't have time to waste, so you should
be there before the bandit starts the comm and not have to waste gas saying "standby" as you fix
your TACFORM. Poor position is compounded in most of these scenarios and we'll discuss more
under each engagement's section. Sun angle is obviously a factor too. General rule of thumb:
don't have the sun off the nose for any "Switch" scenarios. For the Multi-switch, put the sun
behind the section or on the bandit side, with the latter being the best. KIO headings are also
important in getting us back into position. You'll read about good headings in each individual
section, but get something out there ASAP and we can update it later. We need to at least get the
jets headed in the same direction.
Following the shot and KIO call with heading, the Lead will initiate the KIO (knock it off)
cadence, which will be echoed by wing and bandit in order. Everyone will keep track of the other
aircraft for collision avoidance. Comm cadence is important for flow and results in 4 KIOs being
recited. (i.e., " F-2, KIO, 270." "Hawk 1 KIO, 270." "Hawk 2 KIO, 270." "Bandit KIO, 270.")
The heading is a reference; it does not mean to turn belly-up two nm away from other members
of the flight to get to the heading. The section must work as a team to arrive in combat spread
after a KIO. Suggestions for check turns to dress the formation may come from the bandit or an
IP in the backseat, but the actual maneuver must be called by the Student lead. As in two-plane,
climb at MRT and 300 kts, keeping other members in sight.

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Flow
There are two types of fights in 2 v 1 that you will encounter and need a plan to defeat. They are
the one-circle radius fight and the two-circle rate fight. You are familiar with both of these types
of engagements. These will be discussed in detail later. For either type of fight, the free fighter
will attempt to get outside of the engagement and proceed in either the same direction (same
flow) or opposite direction (counterflow). These "flows" will both be utilized in the upcoming
engagements.
During a two-circle fight, the engaged fighter is in a nose-to-tail fight with the bandit. In a twocircle fight the engagement remains above the same piece of earth. The engaged fighter can be
either offensive or defensive and the fight may be in either left or right turns. The free fighter
will extend away from the fight and in an opposite direction of turn as the fight, in order to come
around and be able to point and shoot at the bandit. This is known as "counterflow," or "setting
counterflow" because the free fighter is in an opposite direction of turn (or flow); i.e., out of
phase. The engaged fighter must therefore communicate the direction of turn in a two-circle
fight.
In the one-circle fight, the engaged fighter is in a nose-to-nose fight with the bandit. A one-circle
fight is a directional fight. If the one-circle fight is heading north, it will continue north. This is a
radius fight. The engaged fighter must fly his best 1 v 1 and maneuver out-of-plane, minimizing
his turn radius in order to gain a positional advantage on the bandit. A one-circle fight can be
entered at a merge by reversing nose high and back into the bandit to force him to pull up as well
and get slow. Once in the one-circle fight, the engaged fighter must communicate that he is in a
one-circle fight, (or he can say he is in a flats or roller) and he also must say the direction of the
fight since they generally go downrange.
The main goal of both engaged and free fighters is to kill the bandit. To do this the bandit must
be made predictable. The easiest way to keep the bandit in a T-45 predictable is to slow him
down and bleed his energy. Therefore a one-circle fight is the goal of the fighters in most cases.
As stated before, they can be entered into by merging and reversing nose high. Recognizing an
in-close overshoot and reversing nose high into him is another way to enter one-circle flow. In
both cases, it will be up to the fighters to try to influence the flow because the bandit has an
energy game plan (i.e., he doesn't want to get slow). The bandit will probably not reverse at the
merge. He will cross the fighter's tail, attempting to maintain energy in a rate fight. So the
fighters need to think about their game plan and, once executing a one-circle game plan, they
must fly their best 1 v 1 in order to achieve a positional advantage on the bandit. Once the bandit
is defensive, the fighters control the bandit and can kill him with ease. All of the sets depend on
the fighters executing good 1 v 1 ACM. It cannot be emphasized enough.
Roles and Responsibilities
When a section visually detects a bandit in a high-threat environment, the roles of lead and
wingman give way to the designation of "free" and "engaged" fighter. The more rapidly these
roles are designated, the more effective the section can employ its full combat potential. The

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fighter with the initial visual contact, which usually means the one with the best situational
awareness, directs the other fighter and assumes the "tactical lead" role until the section is
engaged.
The priority for which fighter is engaged is:
1.

Most defensive fighter

2.

Most offensive fighter

3.

Fighter in the best position to engage (lead by exception).

Once engaged, the engaged fighter is that member of the section with the best capability either
offensively or defensively to force the bandit into a predictable flight path. It is easier to see how
the engaged fighter with an offensive advantage will force the bandit into a predictable flight
path; however, even a fighter who is maneuvering defensively can force the bandit into an early
commitment and lure him into a predictable flight path, allowing the free fighter to maneuver for
a quick-kill. In either case, this fighter would automatically designate himself as the "engaged
fighter." As an engaged or free fighter, your number one objective is to kill the bandit and when
possible achieve a quick-kill. As an engaged fighter, in addition to forcing the bandit predictable,
you are responsible for maneuvering to bleed the bandit's energy, while denying him a shot
opportunity. Force him to fight your fight, and maintain as high an energy level as possible,
appropriate to the fight you are in.
The free fighter is that member of the section not pressing the bandit but maneuvering for an
offensive position to engage. As the free fighter, your prime responsibility is to kill the bandit.
Additionally, you must keep track of the engaged fighter and the bandit, making sure that you
clear the engaged fighter's and your own six. You must get quickly out-of-plane and out-ofphase, maneuvering to the bandit's blind area while maintaining a high-energy level. Because
you will have better situational awareness, you will most likely be directing the fight. You must
set a plan and provide simple statements of your intentions to allow the section to work as a team
toward the common goal of killing the enemy.
To employ missiles, the free fighter must obtain proper separation and ensure that the engaged
fighter is out of his HUD for obvious reasons.
Comm
Good COMM will always be pursued in tactical aviation because fighters cannot be maneuvered
effectively as a unit without it. It is imperative to be able to communicate in three-plane ACM!
Your wingman needs to know what you are doing, or planning and you need to hear about what
he is executing. A breakdown of comm will most likely result in the bandit having his way with
the fighters. There are many ways to execute good comm between fighters and since this is your
first foray into multi-plane ACM, we have outlined some of the basics to start with. Most of the

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comm in the training command three-plane syllabus is standardized in order to start the sets
smoothly, but comm must also flow throughout the engagement in a logical, informative, and
hopefully concise manner.
Breaking it down to basics, there are two main types of comm in this environment: directive and
descriptive.
Directive comm is meant to get your wingman to look or maneuver his aircraft immediately.
Some examples are "Break left" or "Buster."
Descriptive comm is all of the amplifiers that will build situational awareness. "Bandit right, 3
o'clock" is an example. Once the immediacy of maneuvering our aircraft has passed the comm in
the 2 v 1 stage can be broken down into four parts: Roles, Tallies, Description of Fight, and
Amplifying Remarks.
Basically, you should try to "build a picture" for your partner with comm. First and foremost,
roles must be established. Initially these are established through standardized comm, but as the
engagement continues it will be important to call out any change of roles or to reiterate the roles.
After roles are established, tallies must be communicated. This is the beginning of "picture
building." A "tally, visual" says a lot to a fighter who's engaged defensively. If the free fighter
calls, "tally one," it will be up to the engaged fighter to talk the free fighter's eyes onto both
aircraft. Remember to describe your own position. An example is, "Hawk 1 is on the right (or to
the east) in a left turn." A "blind" call will require the engaged fighter to describe where he is
and what type of fight (one-circle or two-circle), including altitudes, etc. This leads to the next
requirement: description of the fight. The engaged fighter must describe the fight, further
building the picture. Generally, start by identifying nose-to-nose, or nose-to-tail fights. Then
describe whether you are offensive or defensive; this will be done using "Engaged" to convey
that you are offensive and "Defensive" is obvious. In the case of a two-circle fight, the engaged
fighter must call out the direction of turn the engagement is in. In the case of the one-circle fight,
the engaged fighter must describe the direction of the fight. This means North, South, East, West
or a heading, since the one-circle fights transgress downrange. After all this information is
conveyed, amplifying remarks such as game plan and strategies can be added, i.e., "I'm taking
him one-circle," or "Let's work the bug."
TACADMIN
Do not show up to your first three-plane without knowing the comm. You must put in the time
even if it means walking around the parking lot looking foolish. If you can spout it out pretty
well in a quiet room, it will be more difficult in the brief, and nearly impossible during the flight.
You are still held to a standard whether you are boat complete or not. You need to
compartmentalize on busy flights like these. Concentrate on the task at hand. Don't be thinking
about that last engagement when you're supposed to be flying formation. Don't be thinking of
that poor rendezvous when it's time to be flying the ball. And yes, you are still expected to fly a
solid pass even if you are CQ complete.

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The bandit will brief the students with the IP's coming in for conduct approximately 15 minutes
prior to walk. The first three-plane briefing should be two hours prior. The bandit will lead the
flight of 3 like a standard multi-plane flight.
Standard ground procedures apply. Dash 2 will line up on the centerline of the runway while the
lead and dash 3 split their respective sides. The formation should bow so the lead can see all the
participants. Once airborne, dash 2 and dash 3 will join as briefed. Headed toward the area, the
lead will establish the flight at 300 kts on a given heading. He will then pass the Tac lead to dash
2, assume the role of the bandit, and pull up and away from the section. This can be done enroute
to the area or once established in the working area. The Bandit will generally have the flight in
echelon cruise and then detach once the Lead has been passed and acknowledged over the radio.
"Hawk 1" is now the lead and uses his own tactical call sign to maneuver the flight. His
wingman, "Hawk 2" now becomes the new dash 2, and bandit is just "Bandit." All calls outside
the flight to ATC and other aircraft will continue to use the bandit's filed callsign.
The Tac lead will immediately push his wingman into combat spread and start a climb at 98
percent power. Wing will stay in combat spread and continue climbing to 16,000 ft. The flight
will execute a g-warm away from the bandit, fence in, and then the bandit will start the flight's
set-ups. The student lead will initiate the g-warm and execution or each turn will happen when
the bandit says "Bandit." After the g-warm, the student lead will then initiate fencing in with G's
and fuel, followed by wing and then bandit. It is still Tac lead's responsibility to maneuver the
flight for area or to get into better combat spread by using Tac turns or Check turns respectively.
In order to begin each set correctly, the bandit will initiate the set identifying which side of the
section he is on, and what engagement will occur. It is important that all sets start with this exact
comm cadence. The order will be Bandit, Lead, Wing. If one of the fighters does not have
tally/visual (or is not otherwise ready) he should say "standby." An example of this comm
cadence would be as follows: "Bandit, Speed and Angels, on the right for the multi switch."
"Hawk 1, speed and angels" "Hawk 2, Speed and Angels" "Bandit's In." For all setups, the bandit
does not become the bandit until he begins his pull into the fighter. This is when the comm and
maneuvering should start. After each engagement, the student Lead will initiate G's and fuel
followed by Wing and then Bandit.
You must talk and fly at the same time. Pretend the mic switch doesn't work without aileron
input. In other words you should already be moving the jet as you're keying the mic to talk.
Enroute Exercise
The "CALL THE BANDIT" exercise is performed enroute to the operating area or in the area,
giving you practice with directive/descriptive commentary before actually committing your
aircraft in an engagement.

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During this exercise the fighters remain in combat spread and will not maneuver. While you are
flying straight and level, the bandit aircraft will maneuver simulating a "no-switch" engagement
where he engages one aircraft and stays with it. A "single-switch" simulation will follow the first
simulation where the bandit engages one aircraft and then switches to engage the other and end
in one-circle flow.
The fighters fly straight and level in defensive combat spread. The bandit will set up on the
outside of the section approximately 1/2 nm, with 1,000-ft step-up and 45 degrees down the
wingline. Even though the following script is a fairly predictable example, the goal of this
exercise is to respond appropriately according to how the bandit is maneuvering against the
section.
Script for a no-switch engagement: (This example assumes "Hawk 1" is the lead - He will call
"Speed and Angels" and "knock it off" prior to "Hawk 2" for the set-up and knock-it-off.)
Initial setup
Bandit:

"Bandit setting up on Hawk 1, call the bandit, no switch."

Lead:

"Hawk 1, Speed and Angels."

Wing:

"Hawk 2, Speed and Angels."

Bandit:

"Bandit's in."

Bandit pulls in
Wing:

"Hawk 1, break right, bandit right 5."

Lead:

"Tally, Hawk 1, defensive."

Wing:

"Hawk 2 free, pulling for the shot - Fox-2, bandit in trail."

Bandit:

"Bandit, knock it off."

Lead:

"Hawk 1, knock it off."

Wing:

"Hawk 2, knock it off."

Lead:

"KIO Heading"

Script for a single-switch engagement:


Bandit:

"Bandit setting up on Hawk 1, call the bandit, single switch."

Lead:

"Hawk 1, Speed and Angels."

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Wing:

"Hawk 2, Speed and Angels."

Bandit:

"Bandit's in."

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Bandit pulls in
Wing:

"Hawk 1, break right, bandit right 5."

Lead:

"Tally, Hawk 1, defensive."

Wing:

"Hawk 2 free, pulling for the shot."

Bandit switches
Wing:

"Switch switch, bandit's coming to me; right to right."

Bandit:

"Right to right."

Wing:

"Hawk 2 will engage flats 180 (or heading)."

Lead:

"Hawk 1 free, extending."

Wing:

"Hawk 2 confirms flats 180 (or heading)."

Lead:

"Hawk 1 turning in, tally, visual, Fox-2, bandit on the right."

Bandit:

"Bandit, knock it off."

Lead:

"Hawk 1, knock it off."

Wing:

"Hawk 2, knock it off."

Lead:

(who took Fox-2) "KIO Heading."

Wing:

"KIO Heading."

At this point, the bandit will be on the other side of the section. He will set up again on a high
perch and reinitiate the exercise, but in the opposite direction. This gives both fighters a chance
to practice all aspects of the appropriate communications.
You will have a tendency to not maintain combat spread during this exercise. Do not get so
caught up in the comm that you forget to monitor your airspeed and altitude and make
corrections appropriately. You will also find yourself making inappropriate calls because you are
not watching the bandit carefully.

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Common errors:
Not maintaining combat spread. Not maintaining heading and airspeed are the major
1.
culprits.
2.
Calling the ROE wrong. For the head-to-head passes, it's always the other side for this drill.
This will make more sense when you execute the Multi-Switch Exercise.
3.
Weak comm. - Lots of pauses, or just slow and deliberate. Having to think about
everything before saying it.
Rear-Quarter Attacks
In a rear-quarter attack, the bandit attacks from behind and between or outside of the section.
When the bandit attacks from the rear, the section has to be aware that one of three things can
happen. First, when the bandit engages one of the fighters, he may stay with that fighter
throughout the entire engagement. This is a no-switch attack, and once the engaged fighter is
identified, no roles change for either fighter. Second, after the bandit engages a fighter at some
point during the engagement, he disengages from the first fighter and engages the other. This is a
single-switch scenario and forces the fighters to recognize the situation and change roles once
during an engagement. Third, the bandit may switch several times, continuously disengaging
from one fighter and engaging the other when the bandit feels it is to his advantage to do so. This
is a multi-switch scenario, causing any number of role changes between the fighters. Even
though the procedures for each of these scenarios are canned, they represent what can happen in
a real 2 v 1 engagement.
No-Switch Scenario
An attacker may have the advantage of "jumping" the section of fighters and have an offensive
advantage. The bandit may then choose to engage only one fighter, thus freeing the other fighter
to maneuver to achieve a quick kill. If the bandit attacks from outside the section and doesn't
attempt to switch from one fighter, the free fighter can usually kill the bandit after only 90
degrees of turn.
A classic strategy to defeat a bandit attacking from the rear-quarter between the section is to
employ the "Counterflow," where the engaged fighter forces the bandit into a predictable flight
path, while the free fighter maneuvers out-of-phase, going counter to the direction of the fight for
a kill. We will discuss the details of this engagement later, since the maneuver is fundamentally
simple, but difficult to execute.
Single-Switch Scenario
During a 2 v 1 engagement the bandit may engage one fighter, then disengage from that fighter
to engage the other anytime he feels it may be tactically advantageous. Both fighters must remain
aware that this could happen anytime. If he does switch once, the bandit, in effect, forces a single
role change between engaged and free fighters.

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When this scenario is set up, the bandit will attack from the rear quarter, outside the section, and
engage the near fighter. The section will maneuver into the bandit. As the engagement develops,
the bandit spots the free fighter pulling in and pitches off and into the free fighter. At this point,
the roles will switch. If you were the free fighter, you are now the engaged fighter, and vice
versa. The new engaged fighter must tie up the bandit as the new free fighter extends for the
shot.
After the switch, the engaged fighter will call the direction of the fight and maneuver to
gain/deny an offensive advantage. He will attempt to force the bandit in a direction away from
the free fighter. The free fighter will then extend. He must keep SA to the fight following the
switch and begin a nose-low, energy-gaining turn to achieve proper separation and cornering
speed. The free fighter must also gain enough energy to allow him to reengage the bandit, if
necessary, at a high-energy state. Once the free fighter attains proper separation, he will call
tally, visual, or, if he is unable to distinguish between aircraft, he will call the number in sight.
The engaged fighter need not respond unless the free fighter cannot distinguish between aircraft.
If the free fighter does not have a tally visual, the engaged fighter must assist him by calling
direction, altitude, location, and, if need be, the next crossing. Should the free fighter be totally
blind, the engaged fighter may even have to locate and redirect him into the fight. Once the free
fighter has reestablished situational awareness, he will maneuver as necessary to kill the bandit.
Following is an example of the voice comm that would accompany the single-switch scenario.
Free fighter:

"Tiger 2, break left, bandit left 7."

Engaged fighter:

"Tiger 2, Tally, Defensive."

Free fighter:

"Tiger 1 free pulling for the shot." (After seeing the bandit switch) "Switch,switch, Bandit's coming to me, left to left." (Bandit acknowledges)
- "Tiger 1, will engage flats 360."

New free fighter:

"Tiger 2 free extending."

New Engaged fighter: "Tiger 1 confirms flats 360."


Free fighter:

"Tiger 2 turning in, tally visual."

Free fighter:

"Fox-2, bandit on the left."

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The next example of voice comm would occur if the free fighter has only one aircraft in sight
following the extension.
Free fighter:

"Tiger 2, Turning in, Tally one."

Engaged fighter:

"Tiger 1 confirms flats (heading) (altitude)."

Engaged fighter:

"Tiger 1 on the left," or "Standby for the merge, Tiger 1 on the right."

The engaged fighter must pass close with the bandit to ensure visual sighting by the free fighter.
NOTE
We will only talk through the Single-Switch during the CTB, but it
is a stepping stone for the Multi-Switch Exercises.
Keys to Success
The initial free fighter should execute a lift vector on, nose low, nibble of buffet pull (17 units)
towards the bandit. We do this to build lateral separation on the bandit so we're in a good
position to shoot him if able, or to deny turning room from the bandit when he switches off from
our lead. If we've got that lateral separation and we're making our right-to-right pass happen, we
need to use that lateral separation. Just prior to the merge we should begin our entry into the flats
(a.k.a. Early Turn). Don't wait until you pass the bandit to start your entry or that lateral
separation buys you nothing. The 500-ft bubble should happen with you already started nose up
and somewhere near the bandit's 45 to 60-degree bearing line. Lift vector high and aft on the
bandit. Most of the time, the bandit will be the one with the turning room, using it against you.
Take out as much turning room as possible, ensuring no less than 500 ft, and capitalize on the in
close overshoot. Get your nose up while placing your lift vector towards the bandit's control
zone; think Defensive ACM flats entry.
Meanwhile the engaged fighter started moving his jet as soon as he saw the bandit pulling at him.
This should happen simultaneously with the break left call. He should be doing the standard nose
low break turn he learned in two-plane. As soon as you see the bandit switch, which should
mirror the switch call, ease the pull to your best nose low, two-circle turn rate, nibble of buffet
pull. By the way, you should be looking over your shoulder during the break turn and switch. We
call this the extension, however we don't really need to extend. The flats are traveling away from
us and providing us with our weapons separation, so all we really need to do is turn a circle as
fast as we can. Keep your nose below the horizon for your best turn rate until you see the fight
45 to 60 degrees off your shoulder. Now put the lift vector on the fight and pull for the shot.
The engaged fighter needs to be listening up to the free fighter turning in for the shot. Most
likely he will not be tally visual. Always describe yourself, not the bandit. Usually left and right
is better unless the altitude split is significant. If we hear "tally two" and you're close to the
merge, state "standby for the merge". At the merge say "merge, merge, Tiger 1 on the right."

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If tally one, call your side amplified with a "high" or "low" if it applies. If Tiger 1 says he's on
the left and Tiger 2 sees a jet in a right hand turn, he has Tiger 1 in sight (or Tiger 1 is fighting a
very poor flat scissors and going the wrong way).
KIO headings: 90 degrees off the shooter's nose. To make it simple and help the bandit, call the
heading to the same side of the nose as the bandit. "Fox 2 bandit on the left," come 90 left of the
shooter's nose. Then drive yourself to combat spread.
This is the flow for a textbook set-up. With good maneuvering, you can expect to have this type
of offensive posture in the flats.
Multi-Switch Scenario
In defending himself, an experienced bandit will attempt to gain an advantage or to negate your
advantage by switching from one fighter to the other anytime he sees the opportunity or is in a
position where he has no other choice. The engagement begins the same way as a no-switch or
single-switch engagement. The bandit will continually force role changes. A multi-switch
engagement calls for a greater amount of situational awareness (SA) and aggressiveness on the
part of the fighters in order to defeat this tactic. (Figures 1-42 through 1-45)

Figure 1-42 Multi-Switch Scenario

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When this scenario is set up, the bandit will attack from the rear quarter, outside the section.
After one fighter is engaged, the bandit will press the engaged fighter until he spots the free
fighter pulling for a shot. At that point, he pitches off and into the free fighter just as he would in
the single-switch scenario. Roles immediately switch. Just as in the single-switch situation, the
new engaged fighter must tie up the bandit as the new free fighter extends for a shot. At a point
where he thinks it tactically advantageous, the bandit disengages from the engaged fighter and
switches to the free fighter. Again the roles switch. The new engaged fighter must tie up the
bandit as the new free fighter extends for a shot. The new engagement will be a one-circle fight
where the fighter gives up lateral separation at the high aspect merge by turning away from the
bandit and getting the nose up. Hopefully, this will begin with an early turn into the vertical by
the fighter, but this will effectively bait the bandit into a predictable flight path.
We run into trouble when either the bandit or free fighter is "blind" during the switch. In reality,
the bandit would not do this as he is leaving a fight to engage a fighter he cannot see, but during
training we might see this. Also, as the fighter, we might be pitching in on the called heading for
the flats and be "Blind, No Joy." This could occur due to environmentals or due to an inaccurate
heading called out by the wingman. No matter what the reason is, we need to use the proper
procedures to deconflict and keep the fight going. If either a fighter or the bandit is blind, the
aircraft that has sight will maneuver the "blind" jet using comm to make the merge happen. This
comm will be unique to each engagement, but will be similar to "keep your turn in," pause, "keep
your turn in," pause, "wings level," pause, "I'm at your left 10 high." If all that doesn't work, you
can call "merge, merge" as it occurs. If both the fighter and bandit call "blind," then we need to
KIO, as per the cadence, and deconflict with altitude. The bandit will level off and not come
down and the fighter will level off and not come up. This same scenario could happen on a BVR
where someone calls a merge and the other aircraft is "blind." It is imperative that the aircraft
that has sight control the fight and ensure deconfliction.
The free fighter extension responsibilities were described above during the single switch scenario
involving tactics against a one-circle fight.
Tiger 2 is shown in the flats when he sees the bandit head nose low for the switch. He wants to
initially follow the bandit out and then put him off his 3-9 line. Padlock the bandit, because he
will bring your eyes to your wingman. While maintaining sight, we are extending to gain sight.
We're looking for two things before we can turn in for the shot: 1) the merge has happened with
Tiger 1 and the bandit, 2) we are past the merge axis of the fight. Once this has happened, we can
pitch into the fight.
While we're waiting for this to happen, we begin an extension. This is for two reasons: 1) we're
slow, and about to require a good turn rate, so more airspeed is better, and 2) It gets us to the
fight's merge axis just a little bit quicker.
Tiger 1 sees the bandit nose low and hears the call from Tiger 2. He needs to have a 500-ft pass
with the bandit. Tiger 1 will entice the bandit to head east in this scenario by breaking away from
the bandit, thus "baiting" him. He is already giving the bandit 500 ft; therefore, it's imperative
not to have any extra lateral separation. Just prior to the merge, start pulling up so we have a nice
bite nose high at the merge. We have to give the bandit 500 ft to drag him into the flats, but at

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least we can try to negate that with a nose high bite at the merge. We're merging 180 degrees out
with more airspeed than we are accustomed to for a flat scissors. We need that nose high bite at
the merge and good 1 v 1 skills just to stay neutral with the bandit.
From here, we go through another iteration of the bandit switching out of the flats and merging
with the free fighter. This time, however, the free fighter takes a Fox-2, if able, and then calls for
a bug. Call the shot if you have it, but the bandit may call Invalid. Regardless, he will break
back into the threat and setup the high aspect pass. Again, deconfliction is paramount.
If the call is Switch, switch, Bandits coming to you from the left, then you and the bandit
should be in a left turn (you initially), the pass will be a left-to-left, and the fighters can bug
roughly 40-120 degrees left of the merge with the bandit.
From the diagram, Tiger 1 is in the flats when he sees the bandit heading nose low. He makes the
appropriate call, and starts to initially follow the bandit out of the flats. Padlock the bandit,
because he will bring your eyes to your wingman. Youll follow the bandit initially, and then put
him off your 3-9 line. Keep him off your shoulder, check turning as needed, and unloading for
airspeed and separation otherwise. Eventually youll see your partner magically appear. Call
your position to him and gain mutual support. Check the flight further left if needed for combat
spread and to make the bandit turn further for nose on. Do not check the flight the other direction
because it allows the bandit to come nose on quicker.
Meanwhile, Tiger 2 is turning in tally two when he sees the bandit switching. If hes coming to
you from the left, the bandit will be the jet furthest to the left on your widescreen. Aim for a 500ft pass with the bandit laterally, and take out half the altitude vertically. Ideally wed like no
altitude separation, but we dont want to bleed off all our airspeed and be nose high at the merge
when were trying to bug. The bandit will use any lateral separation, so dont give it to him. At
the merge, nose slice across the bandits tail towards the bug heading, then unload. You should
either be in a check turn, or unloading until down to the deck. Be looking for your wingman to
regain mutual support.

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Figure 1-43 Multi-Switch Scenario

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Figure 1-44 Multi-Switch Scenario

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Figure 1-45 Multi-Switch Scenario

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Multi-Switch Scenario
Free fighter:

"Tiger 1, break left, bandit left 7."

Engaged fighter:

"Tally, Tiger 1, Defensive."

Free fighter:

"Tiger 2, free pulling for the shot." (After seeing bandit switch) - "Switch
switch, Bandit's coming to me, Left to Left." (Bandit acknowledges) "Tiger 2, will engage flats 360."

New free fighter:

"Tiger 1 free extending."

Engaged fighter:

"Tiger 2 confirms flats 360."

Free fighter:

"Tiger 1 turning in, tally two."

Engaged fighter:

"Switch switch, Bandit coming to you from the left."

Free fighter:

"Tiger 1, Tally, left-to-left, (Bandit acknowledges) - "Tiger 1, will engage


flats East."

New free fighter:

"Tiger 2 free, extending."

Engaged fighter:

"Tiger 1 confirms flats 090, Joker."

Free fighter:

"Copy Joker, let's work the bug."

Free fighter:

"Tiger 2 turning in, tally two."

New engaged fighter: "Switch, Switch, Bandit coming to you from the left."
Free fighter:

"Tiger 2, Tally, Left to Left, (Bandit acknowledges) " "Bug 040."

Tiger 1:

"Tiger 1, 040; " "Out of the turn, Tiger 1 is at your right 2 o'clock;"
"Bandit's 1 mile in trail, 90 to go, looks like a good bug."

Bandit:

"Bandit concurs."

Bandit:

Bandit, Knock it off."

Tiger 1:

"Tiger 2, Knock if off."

Tiger 2:

"Tiger 2, Knock if off."

Tiger 1:

"Knock it off, 040."

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Tiger 1:

"Tiger 1, Knock if off, 040."

Tiger 2:

"Tiger 2, Knock it off, 040."

Bandit:

"Bandit, knock it off, 040."

Tiger 1:

"Cross turn, Cross turn, Tiger 1 High."

Tiger 2:

"Tiger 2 Low."

After the fighters have assessed that the bug is successful, the bandit will initiate a KIO.
Following the KIO cadence, the fighters cross-turn, purely to help the bandit get back with the
flight. Although the fighters call high and low in the turn, both fighters initially go nose high to
trade airspeed for altitude and then intercept 300 KIAS for the climb. Wingman is responsible for
no less than 500 ft at the pass. If a situation arises in which one fighter is blind, the fighter with
the most SA with initiate the cross turn.
Disengagement/Bugout Considerations
In addition to all that you have learned about disengaging and bugging out previously, you now
have a wingman to consider. To disengage, or to bug out at the most opportune time, keep these
guidelines in mind: 1) establish and maintain visual and tally, and 2) achieve and 3) regain
section integrity as soon as possible after the engagement because maneuvering back to combat
spread will make it possible to engage another bandit, press to a target, or RTB/bug out. (Figure
1-46)

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Figure 1-46 Disengagement Bugout (Hawk)


To regain section integrity, the free fighter must make his initial call an appropriate magnetic
heading that will ensure separating out the bandit's extended six. Once both fighters have
attained the appropriate separation from the bandit, the fighter with the best SA will call
appropriate check turns, if necessary, to get the section back into combat spread, but no more
than one. After initially separating, if the bandit continues to threaten, the fighter with the best
SA must maneuver the section to deny the bandit a shot, typically through the execution of a
cross turn.
Counterflow
In the Counterflow exercise, the bandit will attack from behind and between the section (Figure
1-47). The tactical lead, whether lead or wingman, calls for the threatened section member to
break. The tactical lead becomes the free fighter and maneuvers in the opposite direction using
an offensive hard turn to achieve counterflow with a vertical split. One of the goals of this turn is
to get out of phase with the engaged fighter and also take the bandit close aboard to neutralize
him. The engaged fighter calls his role, gets the tally, and fights the best possible 1 v 1
defensively. If the engaged fighter can generate high AOT, the fight may develop into Lufbery,
which would serve to prevent the bandit from maneuvering for a shot while forcing him into a
predictable flight path.

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Figure 1-47 Counterflow


Meanwhile the free fighter calls his role and maintains sight, while he begins an extension
maneuver to gain weapons separation, ensuring that he keeps the fight at his 7 or 5 o'clock
position (Figure 1-48). During his extension, he will ensure that his nose is below the horizon to
quickly achieve maximum acceleration. He then turns back into the fight when the bandit is 90
degrees off the free fighter's heading; generally 2-3 seconds after the merge. He then adjusts his
turn to arrive nose on the bandit's belly after approximately 180 degrees of turn, achieving a 90degree cold-side shot. If the IR missile-shot opportunity is missed, the free fighter maintains
counterflow and extends to maneuver for another shot opportunity while calling "Eagle 1, no
shot". The free fighter needs to be aware that if the bandit gains a tally on him, he may switch off
to neutralize the threat and create a high aspect merge. This will then turn into a one-circle fight
and the switch must be called to inform the engaged fighter of what the bandit is doing. The roles
will swap and the formerly engaged fighter will need to continue, or reverse his turn depending
on geometry, to turn back in and shoot the bandit in the flats.
After the Fox-2 call, the fight is knocked off, via the KIO cadence.

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Figure 1-48 Counterflow Exercise

Figure 1-49 Counterflow Free Fighter 90-Degree Checkpoint

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The first scenario provides an example of the voice comm that would occur as the section
employs the Counterflow tactic during a rear-quarter engagement:
Tactical lead:

"Eagle 2, break left, bandit left 7."

Engaged fighter:

"Tally, Eagle 2, Defensive."

Free fighter:

"Eagle 1 free extending."

Engaged fighter:

"Eagle 2 Defensive, two-circle, left,"

Free fighter:

"Eagle 1 turning in. Tally, visual, Fox-2, bandit in-trail."

Bandit:

"Bandit, knock it off."

Free fighter:

"Eagle 1 knock it off."

Engaged fighter:

"Eagle 2 knock it off,"

Free Fighter:

"Heading."

Engaged fighter:

"Heading."

Keys to Success
The bandit will set-up between the section. On your first flight, he'll tell you which fighter he's
jumping, but after that you need to react to the bandit. As the high wingman you need a good
nose low break turn to vacate the altitude and allow Lead to pass over you for his extension. The
engaged fighter does his best defensive break turn, race to the deck with a good deck transition,
and guns 'D' when needed. Unlike the switch scenarios, we need to extend to get weapon
separation. Once the fight starts, it's anchored around the engaged fighter's post.
Eagle 1 needs to start his turn when he talks, while ensuring he has adequate lateral separation
from both jets (min. 500 ft). Ideally we pass right over the fight after 90 degrees of turn, with our
nose already slightly below the horizon. Now roll wings level and unload/extend. Fly and talk at
the same time, don't wait until you finish the comm to start your extension. Eagle 1 most likely
will not be able to keep sight of the fight during the extension. To maintain sight, the free fighter
would have to arc. Arcing means you pulled past 90, or you are keeping a slight turn in trying to
keep sight. Either is bad for extension. First, you don't get a pure extension away from the fight,
and second, you get an early sight picture. When you arc around the circle you will get planform
on the bandit earlier, which mean less time in your extension and less weapons separation.
While we're extending we need to get sight of the fight. We can do this one of two ways: Either
use wing down/top rudder or take quick peeks at the fight by momentarily overbanking. At
planform, we need a smooth pull to the g limit. The timing is predicated on the bandit and us
max performing our jets. Don't forget to "hook." Looking over your shoulder under heavy g at

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two little specks in the sky is difficult. Focus on the area because as they come nose on they will
tend to disappear. Only one should be nose on at a time, so keep sight of the other jet until they
both come through nose on.
Use the 90-degree checkpoint. After turning approximately 90 degrees, the fight should be off
the shoulder and the bandit should just be nose on. If the bandit hasn't come nose on yet, ease the
pull ever so slightly at the 90-degree checkpoint until he is nose on and then best turn rate until
the shot. By checking progress before going past 90 degrees, we can preserve weapons
separation and adjust timing. If the bandit is past nose on, we're late. So as long as you have a
good extension, erring a little early vice late on the turn in leaves options.
If we realize we have minimal weapons separation, we can ease the pull slightly at the 90-degree
check and let the bandit go a little past nose on. We're accepting that we won't get the good belly
shot, but still hoping to get a valid shot and help out our wingman. By letting the bandit go
slightly past nose on, he is now helping us build a little more weapons separation. We cannot
afford to wait very long after bandit nose on or we won't be in the shot window. Now we need
our best turn rate to get the shot. Stand the throttle up on the final 90 degrees of turn if separation
is a problem. It won't appreciably affect turn rate, but will help slow down closure. Be wary of
your wingman in the HUD field of view on a hot shot. Do not take an invalid shot. If you realize
it's past 40 degrees hot, call "no shot" and then use the KIO cadence.
If you lose sight of the fight on the turn in, you can keep pulling until the 90 checkpoint. If you
have regained sight you can continue. If you do not regain sight, you need to reset the counter.
Essentially just maintain your current heading (assuming you stopped 90 off) until the fight
marches around the circle again and the bandit is once again nose on. This is assuming that you
had proper weapons separation. If you did not, you will need to turn away from the fight and
drive out until weapons separation is achieved. Now it's just like the final 90 degrees of a normal
Counterflow.
KIO heading needs to come out immediately following the shot and the KIO call. For a good
belly shot, a KIO heading 10 to 30 off the shooter's nose and inside the circle works well. If it's a
hot shot or even tail shot, pick a heading 45 degrees or more off the shooter's nose and outside
the fight and have the bandit and engaged fighter reverse their turns. (Examples to follow.) At
least get some heading out there and then fine-tune it when you can reevaluate.
If you have to reset because you do not have sight or are too tight, you might not see the bandit
switching to you. The bandit will supplement your SA as needed. You need to react
appropriately and break into him for two-circle defensive flow or make the merge happen and
turn away from him to create One-circle flow.
The reset can be level or a slightly nose high OOP maneuver to get vertical separation while
denying the bandit a tally. This will also give you some relative angle for look down so you can
get sight of the fight. Arc around the fight with adequate weapons separation so that you can
pitch back in when the bandit comes nose on. This should make sense because we have 90
degrees to go to get the belly shot and the bandit has 90 degrees to go to show it to us.

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In all cases throughout section tactics, the free fighter must gain the proper separation during his
extension to ensure the quickest kill. If the situation arises where the free fighter pulls for a shot
without sufficient lateral separation, the free fighter ends up missing the shot and is forced into
an in-phase engagement with the wingman and the bandit. This is a situation commonly referred
to as a "Daisy Chain," where both fighters are engaged - one offensively and one defensively.
This violates the Engaged Section Maneuvering doctrine of one engaged fighter and one free
fighter. If the offensive fighter is unable to get an immediate shot, he must disengage and
maneuver for separation to reestablish an out-of-phase condition. During his separation he must
keep the fight constantly in sight to avoid exposing his six to the bandit and to maintain
situational awareness for making appropriate tactical decisions.
An abeam attack occurs when the bandit attacks the section from the 2-5 or the 7-10 o'clock
position (Figure 1-50).

Figure 1-50 VFQ Setup (Skull)


We will start with enough separation so the fighter with initial visual contact initiates a hard turn
into the bandit. The inside fighter (eyeball) gets tally and maneuvers for a close aboard pass
attempting to bracket the bandit by forcing him between the section. This bracketing technique
will force the bandit to split his concentration between the fighters, while allowing the fighters to
gain the initial offensive advantage. Employing bracketing is the most basic strategy a section
can employ. Failure to bracket the bandit gives the bandit a better opportunity to maintain sight
and overall situational awareness.
The wingman (shooter) early turns for a shot. After the close aboard pass, the eyeball (now the
free fighter) will extend to set up a Counterflow tactic. The shooter (now the engaged fighter)
will force the bandit into a predictable flight path by maintaining the offensive advantage and
taking shots of opportunity. After separation is accomplished, the free fighter (eyeball) turns
back into the fight and eventually shoots the bandit on the cold side. Once the free fighter is in
position for a shot, it will be necessary to call for the current engaged fighter to pitch off in a
direction that will safely clear him from interfering with the missile shot and to avoid a midair
collision. This situation is especially dangerous if the new free fighter delays his Counterflow
turn and aligns for a rear-quarter shot without calling the engaged fighter off. Failing to do that
immediately sets up the potential for a midair. The following is an example of voice comm
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appropriate in an abeam attack where the fighters can bracket the bandit. However, in this
example, the roles are not immediately defined
Abeam Visual Identification Exercise (Abeam VID)
A number of situations could develop during a visual forward-quarter intercept depending on the
initial move of the bandit. At the pass, the bandit can maneuver in one of three directions:
straight ahead, across the eyeball's tail, or reverse toward the shooter. If the bandit was properly
bracketed, any maneuver other than reversing toward the shooter should result in an immediate
kill (Figure 1-51).

Figure 1-51 VFQ Bandit Flow

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Following is an example of voice comm that would occur during the first scenario of a visual
forward-quarter attack (Figure 1-52):
Engaged fighter:

"Tiger 2, engaged right two-circle, defensive."

Free fighter:

"Tiger 1, free, extending."

Free fighter:

"Tiger 1, Turning in, tally visual/blind."

Engaged fighter:

"Tiger 2, Visual."

Free fighter:

"You're clear."

Free fighter:

"Fox-2, bandit in right hand turn."

Figure 1-52 Knock It Off Flow (Tiger)


Keys to Success
The VFQ is a scenario in which we need to identify and classify the "bogey" as a "bandit" before
we can shoot him. Following the initial setup and after we're in the heat of the fight, it becomes
quite similar to the Counterflow. We have an engaged fighter in a two-circle flow and a free
fighter trying to get weapons separation. The major difference is that the fighters are offensive
vice defensive. This is an important factor when it comes time for the shot. In the Counterflow
we shot the bandit in the trail position. Now we are shooting the bandit out in front of the
engaged fighter. Since it's not wise to have two fighters go belly up to each other fighting the
same bandit, we need to call off the engaged fighter and swap roles.

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The outside fighter begins his hard turn the second the bandit calls, "Start the Comm." He does a
nose slice, nibble-of-buffet (17 unit) pull for 120 degrees. We use 120 degrees to build some
weapons separation. From a good combat spread and a normal bogey set, we say "turn" and start
our turn as we cross the inside fighter's flight path. Now we pull pure pursuit (maintain nose on)
on the bogey until the merge and the "shoot" call. We're looking for a shot just outside of min
range so we can take a valid Fox-2, yet be nice and offensive in the engagement. When you
make the "turn" call, split your scan between the bogey and fighter.
The inside fighter moves the jet and starts the comm again as soon as the outside fighter says,
"Turn." He wants to bracket the bandit, so the pass should be the same as direction of turn (left
turn, left to left pass). We will work on a nice 500-ft pass. Following the merge with the bandit,
lead checks across the bandit's tail about 30 degrees while orienting the LV below the horizon,
then starts an unload and extension.
The engaged fighter's job is to get in-plane and in-phase with the bandit to get a gun solution on
him. It's important to maintain your offensive advantage here to make the bandit continue his
two-circle engagement and bleed him down.
The free fighter now starts the turn in with the same initial mentality as the counterflow. We look
for planform on the bandit and attempt to pull for a cold side shot. We adjust as necessary after
90 degrees, keeping in mind that the bandit is out in front. Once the free fighter has the bandit
committed belly up in the turn, he calls the engaged fighter to "come off left." For a memory aid,
call him off in the same direction you are turning at that time.
These rules must be followed. When the free fighter calls "Tiger 1, turning in, tally/visual," he
sees the fight and takes responsibility for de-confliction. When the free fighter calls the engaged
fighter off, the engaged fighter immediately comes off and then has two responses: 1) "Visual,"
in which de-confliction now transfers to the engaged fighter because he has sight, or 2) "Blind,"
in which case the free fighter still owns de-confliction responsibility and either responds with
"You're clear," provided there is sufficient separation for lead to continue pulling for the shot, or
"KIO, heading" and simultaneously rolling wings level. With good timing and cold side shots,
de-confliction happens laterally and is rarely a problem. The trouble comes when the free fighter
is late turning in and the engaged fighter is already belly up before he can be called off. Now
we've got jets in the same piece of sky and need rapid and appropriate responses to the comm.
Remember; don't stick your nose into a fight when you don't have sight. You can reset this at the
90-degree checkpoint if you lose sight or you are too late turning in to get a valid shot. Your
wingman is offensive so he's not getting shot.
On the KIO, the heading must come out ASAP. Everyone is heading a different direction and
will soon be miles apart. When the engaged fighter is called off, if he called "visual" (or the IP
has sight), for admin purposes resume your turn back towards the fight. This makes it easier to
stick together for the KIO. The free fighter takes the shot, and therefore owns the initial KIO
heading. Initially call a heading 90 degrees outside the turn circle (i.e., 90 degrees more) to put
you and the bandit into combat spread (Figure 1-53).

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Figure 1-53 VFQ Overall Flow to Fox-2


Beyond Visual Range (BVR)
In the real world, fighters are equipped with on-board radar and communicate with ground
control intercept (GCI) radar units for vectors to intercept a bandit long before he could be
visually sighted. During an intercept, the fighters will employ tactics similar to those that you
have learned in the visual forward-quarter exercises, especially ensuring that a single bandit is
always bracketed. Your BVR exercises will be as close as you can get to the real world. Consider
them a graduation exercise, in that everything you have learned up to this point is likely to occur
in these engagements.
The BVR exercise is set up using briefed TACAN radials/DME or waypoints to designate
combat air patrol stations (CAPS - areas of responsibility when on patrol). For safe separation
during no visual contact, you will also use block altitudes. Note the examples below. The goal is
for fighters to choose their block to capitalize on environmentals.
Low Block = 0-4's
High Block = 5-9's
The ROE is that the Bandit must have both fighters in sight to enter the opposing block. The
Fighters must be "Visual" and only one of them needs to be "Tally." The idea being that the
fighter who has "Tally" will lead the "No Joy" fighter to the Bandit.

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To execute the exercise, the bandit and the fighters proceed to their respective CAPS. All aircraft
orbit at their CAPS until called in by the bandit. When bandit calls "Fight's on," all aircraft fly an
in-bound heading/course. When any aircraft gains sight, the engagement begins utilizing all the
strategies you have learned in ACM. Other tactics exist that could handle this situation, but they
are beyond the scope of this FTI and will be introduced to you in the fleet.
Keys to Success
You should see a demo and do prior to your check ride. BVR's can be painful or loads of fun.
Safety is paramount when two solo students are flying around with knives in their teeth. Stay in
your block until tally requirements are met, make timely ROE calls and abide by them, and do
not try to enter a fight without a tally and good situational awareness.
BVR's are set up along a radial or courseline between two CAPS. The CAPS are usually set 1520 miles apart. Whoever gets to the CAP first holds there until the other jet is 15-20 miles away.
You must be established in your block prior to 10 miles. Bandit needs tally of both fighters to
enter the fighter's block, one fighter needs to have a tally, and the other fighter have a visual to
enter the bandit's block. You can still fight in your own block without a tally. The bandit comes
directly up the radial or courseline and calls off DME or range, utilizing a BRA call from a
simulated AIC. The lead fighter should be on the radial/courseline with the wingman offsetting.
The fighters don't need to call off their DME or range. The fighters will usually proceed to
whichever CAP is closer or utilize atmospheric conditions to decide which CAP will be more
beneficial. Ideally you'd like to pick the CAP that the bandit has to squint into the sun to see you.
The wingman should always be offset to the outside of the section with respect to the threat, so
he can look through his lead and towards the threat, provided Lead has an offset in.
It's best to CAP in what is called fighter wing, or TAC wing. Generally speaking this is like a
loose cruise about 500 to 1,500 ft away on a 60-degree bearing line around lead's aircraft. Stay
there until lead rolls out on the final heading, and then push out into spread. As long as one
fighter sees the other on the KIO (we should if someone took a shot), call the visual and start
getting the section headed to the CAP.
There is a difference between Admin lead and Tac lead. Hawk 1 has the Admin lead this entire
flight. Whoever has the best SA at any give time has the Tac lead. For example, Hawk 1 is "no
joy" and Hawk 2 has a "tally." Hawk 2 directs the flight as needed until Hawk 1 gains a "tally."
Don't drill around aimlessly in the area or in a fight just because you're the wingman waiting for
the Admin lead to do something.
Some things to consider:
Mutual Support - don't leave CAP until you have some semblance of combat spread. We're in a
good position with a visual of each other and somewhere near the briefed radial/courseline.
Two fighters tally one - (we can accept one fighter tally and the other with a visual). We need to
see the enemy to effectively fight it. Good lookout doctrine and leaving CAP with good mutual
support helps.

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Establish Roles - They may change several times, but we always need to have an engaged
fighter and a free fighter.
1 v 1 - You need to fight your best jet no matter how many guys are on your side. Don't forget
the skills you've learned.
Comm - You've learned a basic script to give you an idea of what to say in our canned sets.
When one fighter begins to describe what is occurring, a comm flow will usually develop. When
defensive, it's easy to describe your role and what type of fight. If all else fails, use plain
language. The important thing is to have a cadence back and forth, and listen to what your
wingman or lead is telling you.
BVR Scenarios
We cannot possibly discuss every contingency, but these are a few worth mentioning.
The Scenarios
In this situation the fighters have a tally, but the bandit saves himself with a late tally and
maneuver. This can wind up in a few different scenarios. If Hawk 1 overshoots enough that the
bandit reverses, we have a quick flats and then a Fox 2 from Hawk 2 (Figure 1-54).

Figure 1-54 BVR Bandit Abeam the Section (Hawk)


If Hawk 1 is offensive enough and Hawk 2 is still neutral, Hawk 1 is the engaged fighter, and
Hawk 2 needs be the free, extending fighter. Since he can't really afford to reverse out-of-phase
with the bandit's nose in this position, he should start climbing to get out-of-plane. Altitude is
also weapon's separation. Even though Hawk 2 doesn't get out-of-phase, he still has weapon's

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separation in the vertical. The bandit will eventually march around the circle because of his
better turn rate and Hawk 2 can easily keep sight because he's outside the bandit's turn looking
down (Figure 1-55). This makes it easy to see the bandit start coming nose up for the switch. The
timing for the shot will not need to be our normal planform plus 2. When you're slow above the
fight it only takes a couple seconds to point the nose down. Make sure you can get the shot, call
Hawk 1 off and de-conflict, and then idle boards to control closure. In this scenario, just because
the bandit may try a switch, doesn't mean the fighters need to switch. Hawk 1 is Offensive, and
will be even more so if the bandit eases his pull to try switch to Hawk 2. Hawk 2 needs to honor
the bandit's nose, but can just merge and blow through, leaving Hawk 1 engaged even more
offensive.

Figure 1-55 BVR Bandit In-Plane/In-Phase Two-Circle Flow


The fight will rapidly degrade to this scenario because the bandit fights good 1 v 1, and the
fighters tend to fight poorly while they're talking (Figure 1-56). Now we are in what is called a
"daisy chain." We're all going around the circle together and most likely the bandit will continue
to gain ground if something isn't done. Now that Hawk 2 is defensive, he needs to be the
engaged fighter. He does not have the ability to extend from the fight. The only situation this
wouldn't apply is if Hawk 1 is just about to get his pipper on and Hawk 2 is still holding the
bandit off.

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Figure 1-56 Classic Two-Circle Flow


Hawk 1 needs to get out-of-plane and out-of-phase on his extension. Always assess the bandit's
nose before reversing. Time to kill is everything, so recognize the daisy chain right away, and get
the free fighter extending for the quick Fox 2.
Here is the same initial set (Figure 1-57). The bandit will flow to the second fighter he comes to
because he doesn't like to turn in front of a fighter. In the solid line scenario, Hawk 2 puts a
better pull on, so the bandit will actually merge with him first and then flow through to Hawk 1.
This happens even though Hawk 1 was initially closer to the bandit at the initial set.
In the dashed line scenario, Hawk 1 puts the manly pull on so he merges first. The bandit then
flows through to Hawk 2.
This is why it is important to have the "survive first" mentality until we can assess whom the
bandit is trying to engage.

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Figure 1-57 Free/Engaged Fighter Initial Move (Hawk)


In this scenario, everyone gets a late tally and pulls to take out angles (Figure 1-58). This gives a
lead-trail merge. The bandit blows through to Hawk 2 and crosses his tail. Hawk 2 aggressively
reverses to drag the bandit into the flats. Hawk 2 can give Hawk 1 a heads up that he's in trail,
even before the merge happens. Hawk 2 needs to work hard to regain sight of the bandit so he
can confirm the flats.
Hawk 1 merges and crosses the bandit's tail to attempt to keep sight. Since it isn't a canned set
we would start maneuvering out-of-plane until we hear those wonderful words from Hawk 2,
"engaged flats." Now it's time for a nose low slice turn to pull around for the shot utilizing our
best turn rate. If for some reason the bandit reversed to the right at the merge and didn't go into
the flats with Hawk 2, Hawk 1 is still in a position to engage because he crossed the bandit's tail
and should be able to pick him up.

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Figure 1-58 BVR One-Circle Flow (Hawk)


1.

Bandit is tally and begins maneuvering while giving a "threat left 9" call.

2.
The fighters maneuver the jet first, based on the threat call, and then start looking and
talking. We end up with the scenario just alluded to previously. This is good utilization of bandit
information. (Figure 1-59)

Figure 1-59 BVR Fighters Use Threat Information (Hawk)

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This scenario began the same as the previous one; however, Hawk 2 doesn't aggressively
maneuver his jet upon hearing the threat call. Now the bandit rolls in with a nice offensive bite.
If Hawk 2 doesn't start fighting an aggressive, defensive, two-circle fight, he will pay for it by
staying defensive or soaking up a shot. (Figure 1-60)

Figure 1-60 BVR Late Fighter Maneuver (Hawk)


In this scenario, both fighters are slow to react to the threat call (Figure 1-61). It may look like
the bandit will flow to Hawk 2, but it always depends on the angles when the merges happen.
Hawk 2 has more initial separation from the bandit, so he may still be able to get enough of a
pull going that he is able to take out more angles.

Figure 1-61 BVR Late Fighter Maneuver Unknown Bandit Target

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Now the bandit actually has a better bite on Hawk 1, even though he initially merged with Hawk
1, and flowed through to Hawk 2. Once again, survival mentality is key until we can assess the
bandit's intentions. (Figure 1-62)

Figure 1-62 BVR Bandit Switch Post-Merge (Hawk)


Now for the worst case, and most common scenario. The bandit gives a "threat low to high (or
high to low) dead 6" call. This is a classic Counterflow set-up (Figure 1-63). The big difference
is we don't know whom the bandit is going to engage. Fighters need to do an immediate double
break-turn towards each other, keeping safety of flight in mind. Usually one fighter has a weaker
break turn, so the bandit flows to him. Once the fighters safely pass each other, they need to
work hard to gain a tally and see who the bandit is engaging.

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Figure 1-63 BVR Bandit Unseen Entry (Hawk)


By the time we can establish that Hawk 2 is engaged two-circle defensive, a normal Counterflow
extension is impossible (Figure 1-64). Hawk 1 should start getting out-of-plane as soon as he's
established as the free fighter. Remember, weapons separation can be achieved in the vertical.
This makes it easy to eventually get out-of-phase if needed and makes it very clear when the
bandit switches. It also makes it difficult for the bandit to get a tally on the free fighter.

Figure 1-64 BVR Counterflow Defensive

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We cannot begin to discuss all the possible scenarios, but hopefully this will at least give you a
base line to fall back on. The two things that fall apart rapidly when fighters become confused
are 1 v 1 maneuvering and comms.
In general, we want to accomplish a few simple things to execute a good section maneuvering
gameplan:
1.

Establish roles.

2.

Utilize directive and descriptive comm.

3.

Fight your best ACM at all times.

4.

Get Out-of-phase and Out-of-plane.

Knock it Off and Return to Base


The Knock it Off Procedures at the end of the flight will be the same as for the conclusion of
each engagement. Any member in the flight can call Knock it Off (usually being the IP once
training objectives have been met) but the bandit will always initiate the knock it off cadence.
From there, Lead will call "Knock it Off," followed by wingman "Knock it Off." The aircraft with
the most SA (usually the shooter) will call the "Knock it Off, heading." Once the initial heading
is called, all aircraft will begin to turn as required to that heading and gain tally/visual. If you
know an aircraft is blind on you (you are at his six or low/high) call out your position relative to
him and get eyes on. From there, you can work as a flight to get all flight members in sight and
identified. Hawk 1 will initiate the fenced out and Hawk 2 will echo it followed by the bandit.
The bandit will then take the lead back over the radio and then call, "With a cold nose you're
cleared to join." Both fighters will join on him. This will be done by Hawk 1 picking a side and
communicating it and then Hawk 2 will verbally confirm that he is taking the other side. Both
fighters will maneuver as required to stay on their respective sides and execute a running
rendezvous (or as briefed) on the Bandit. If executing a runner, you do not have the option of
underrunning because the other fighter is on the other side. Standard runner FTI procedures
apply. Join up in parade and then wait to be put into cruise after a fuel check from the bandit.
Maintain this position until inside the initial. Crossunder as required to be in echelon right
parade. A standard 4-second break will follow.
Conclusion
Three-Plane ACM is your first real introduction to the kinds of engagements and multi-plane
considerations that you will encounter after you leave the Training Command. These flights
should be fairly challenging, but really fun. Safety is one of the biggest concerns throughout
these flights. The 500-ft bubble, keeping sight, good comm; these will all make or break your
flights and either add to the fun or add to the pain. Apply the basic tenets of 1 v 1, while keeping
up your situational awareness to make these the best flights of your (as yet) brief flying career.

BASIC AERODYNAMIC REVIEW

1-131

CHAPTER ONE

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING


NOTES

1-132 BASIC AERODYNAMIC REVIEW

CHAPTER TWO
SAFETY/EMERGENCY CONSIDERATIONS
200. INTRODUCTION
As in any tactical flying, safety is paramount because of the ever-present potential for an
incident. But just as you learned in TacForm, flying only with safety on your mind prevents you
from achieving the level of proficiency necessary to be a competent tactical aviator. Safety is the
natural and number one byproduct of operational proficiency. Complete knowledge coupled with
thorough preparation and continuous practice provides the cornerstones to achieving operational
proficiency safely.
The following specific areas will go a long way in making you a safe and effective tactical jet
pilot:
1.

RELATIVE MOTION/EXCESSIVE CLOSURE

All midair collisions are a result of pilots failing to recognize constant bearing and decreasing
range until it is too late to take evasive action. Understand the mechanics of dynamic
maneuvering and realize that, under g, your lift vector tells you where you are going so be sure to
lag the other aircraft if the need to deconflict arises. Until now, all your flying in close proximity
to other aircraft has been static, and rates of change have always been tightly controlled. This
will not be the case in the rest of your tactical flying, especially during the snap guns exercise as
you are maneuvering very close to the 500-ft bubble and during the horizontal scissors as you
cross the bandit's flight path.
2.

SITUATIONAL/SPATIAL AWARENESS

Spatial awareness is the ability to project the flight paths of your aircraft and other aircraft in
relation to each other. Your ability to develop spatial awareness combined with a complete
understanding of you aircraft's capabilities will prevent a midair collision. Situational awareness
goes beyond spatial awareness and allows you to anticipate situations that may lend themselves
to midair collisions. You need to exercise both situational and spatial awareness anytime you
maneuver for a head-on pass, whether it is during 1 v 1 neutral starts or during an engagement. If
you fail to call the pass, the instructor may have to call it for you.
During 2 v 1 maneuvering, you need to be especially aware of the possibility for a midair during
rear-quarter attacks when you are a solo free fighter and you end up turning back too early
directly into the fight. Another situation similar to 1 v 1 is after the bandit has switched from the
engaged fighter to you as a free fighter and you fail to call the head-on pass. In the case of a
visual forward-quarter attack, if you are a free fighter and you are aligning for a rear-quarter shot
but you delayed your Counterflow turn, the potential exists for a midair with your wingman.

SAFETY/EMERGENCY CONSIDERATIONS 2-1

CHAPTER TWO
3.

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

GOOD START

Just as you learned in CQ, if you aren't in a good position at the abeam, the chances are by the
time you get to the ramp you are not in a good position to land. This holds true in any tactical
flying. Near misses are often caused by the wingman being out of position at the start of the
maneuver. Strive to be in position at all times. This also increases your learning curve, as you
will see the exercise from the same setup each time.
4.

LOST SIGHT/LOOKOUT

In order to minimize the potential for a midair collision (especially in the air-to-air phase), you
must keep your head on a swivel. Learn to take quick glances into the cockpit to get the
information you want then look back outside immediately. Any aircraft that loses sight for more
than an instant in a close fight must transmit, "Lost sight." The other aircraft will provide
descriptive/directive commentary to help the lost-sight aircraft reacquire sight. If this is
unsuccessful, the instructor will call, "Knock it Off."
5.

OUT-OF-CONTROL DEPARTURES

Because you are constantly pushing the envelope in maneuvering during ACM, you will reach
critical points where a departure might occur. Be especially aware of two situations. First, when
you are in a defensive situation and the bandit executes a BRA, you may become disoriented and
lose control as you counter during your vertical pull-up. Second, if you are executing a High-g
roll, you could depart the aircraft because of cross controlling. However the situation develops,
don't hesitate to bring the throttle back to idle and go through your OCF procedures.
6.

AIRCRAFT LIMITATIONS

All aircraft have specific structural/aerodynamic limitations. If you do not heed these limitations,
you could damage the aircraft and endanger yourself. It is mandatory that you know all the
aircraft limitations and emergency procedures.

2-2

SAFETY/EMERGENCY CONSIDERATIONS

CHAPTER THREE
SELF-TEST
300. INTRODUCTION N/A
1 V 1 ACM
1.
Describe the T-45 Gouge numbers for break turn AOA, corner airspeed, sustained turn rate
band, minimum radius airspeed band and minimum vertical airspeed.

2.

Who initiates the "Speed and Angels" call before the start of a maneuver?

3.

Where should the throttle be when airspeed is at 85 kts?

4.

True/False: POM is the last priority for a gun solution.

5.

True/False: A KIO is called if unable to take a shot in the snap shot drill.

6.

Describe the G-warm maneuver.

7.

What type of fight is the flat scissor? (one-circle or two-circle)

8.

True/False: Rudder is not important when flying the flat scissors maneuver.

9.
When is the correct time to perform the pirouette in the rolling scissors and what are the
mechanics?

10.

When is the best time to bug in a rolling scissors?

11. True/False: The 6,000 ft perch set starts with attacking aircraft 3,000 ft outside the
defender's bubble.

12.

What are the visual cues for bubble entry and attack window entry?

SELF-TEST 3-1

CHAPTER THREE
13.

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

Describe the concept of misaligned turn circles and how it is useful in two-circle flow.

14. If you are stuck in lag, on your rate numbers and you have altitude between you and the
hard deck, what is the best maneuver to perform to close separation on the bandit and maneuver
for a shot?

15.

Describe the entry and comm for the BTX.

16.

Describe an energy rate and a positional deck transition.

17.

Nominally, how far is the attacker outside of the defender's bubble at the F-2 for the BTX?

18.

As the defender on the BTX, when should you break back into the bandit?

19. Describe the defensive break turn.

20.

Who should you tell first if you hit RTB fuel on a dualed up ACM flight?

2 V 1 ACM
21. True/False: The call the bandit exercise gives the fighters a chance to mildly maneuver
while working comm.

22.

Who initiates "Fenced" and "G's and Fuel" calls?

23. How many degrees should it take for the free fighter on a no-switch to achieve a F-2 on the
bandit?

24.

What type of fight is the engaged fighter in during a counterflow exercise?

25.

What is the comm for a switch in the multi-switch exercise?

26.

Who calls the bug heading during the multi-switch exercise?

3-2 SELF-TEST

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

CHAPTER THREE

27. Who should be the tac lead on the bug after the merge with the bandit on the multi-switch
exercise?

28.

Who's position do you describe as a response to a "Tally 2" call from your wingman?

29. On the abeam VID exercise, describe the comm when you are the free fighter pitching into
the two-circle fight.

30.

What are the blocks for BVR's?

31.

What is the ROE for the fighters to come out of their block on a BVR?

32. Which is more important regarding comm priority in the engaged arena, directive or
descriptive comm?

33.

Describe the extension after the switch from the flats during a multi-switch engagement.

34. How do we deconflict if either the Fighter or Bandit is blind on a switch during the multiswitch exercise?

35.

Who is responsible for area management on 2 v 1 ACM hops?

SELF-TEST 3-3

CHAPTER THREE

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING


NOTES

3-4 SELF-TEST

APPENDIX A
GLOSSARY
A100. GLOSSARY
A
Admin Lead: The flight lead.
Anchored: Orbiting or engaged at an assigned point.
Angels: Altitude of aircraft in thousands of feet.
Angle Off: Angle off the tail (AOT) between the defender's longitudinal axis and attacker's lineof-sight. Simply the attacker's position off the defender's tail (see also "Track Crossing Angle").
AOB: Angle of bank
Arcing Turn (Arc): A turn executed at less than the optimum rate of turn, or an extension
maneuver executed other than in a straight line.
Aspect: Angular description of an aircraft.
Attack Window: A piece of sky located aft of the defender's post where if an attacking aircraft
max performs at the right time, he will arrive in the defensive aircraft's control zone with angles
and closure under control.
Atoll: A Soviet IR missile - the missile call used by the bandit.
B
Bandit: Aircraft identified as an enemy.
Barrel Roll Attack: An offensive maneuver similar to the displacement roll, but used in high
AOT outside 4,000-ft range.
BFM: Basic Fighter Maneuvering. Synonymous with Air Combat Maneuvering for our
purposes.
Belly Check: Overbanking the aircraft to check areas masked from view by your own aircraft.
Beyond Visual Range (BVR): Situation where an intercept through radar or GCI identifies a
group that is beyond the visual ACM arena.
Blind: Call from fighter meaning, "I do not see my lead/wingman/friendly."

GLOSSARY A-1

APPENDIX A

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

Bogey: Unidentified air contact.


Bracketing: Forcing the bandit to pass head-on between the section during a forward quarter or
abeam attack.
Break Turn: 19-21 unit AOA turn executed to defeat an employed weapon or to deny/gain
positional advantage.
Break Turn Exercise: Essentially a 9,000 ft perch set where the offensive fighter begins his
attack 9,000 ft away from the defensive aircraft.
Bubble: A representation of an aircraft's turn circle in all 3 dimensions if he max performs at his
current energy state.
Bug Out (verb): To disengage from ACM in order to exit safely from the fight; also, Bugout
(adj; noun).
Buster: Expedite with 0G/MRT as required.
C
Check Left/Right (Degrees): To alter heading any number of degrees to the left or right.
Combat Air Patrol Station (CAP): The area of responsibility when a section is on patrol in the
fleet.
Contact: Initial and subsequent detections of an object by any detecting device including
eyeballs.
Control Point: 1 radius of turn aft of the defender on his flight path.
Control Zone: A cone-like area, 2,000 ft to 4,000 ft behind a maneuvering aircraft, 20 degrees
wide at the front to 40 degrees wide on the back side centered on the aircraft's flight path where
if an attacking aircraft arrives with angles and closure under control, the defensive aircraft will
be able to do nothing to deny him positional advantage.
Corner(ing) Airspeed: The slowest airspeed where the g limit is available (410 KIAS @10,000
ft).
Counterflow: A tactic in section engagements where the engaged fighter forces the bandit into a
predictable flight path, while the free fighter maneuvers out-of-phase, going counter to the
direction of the fight for a kill.
D
Daisy Chain: An unfavorable situation where the three or more aircraft are turning in phase in
the same plane.
A-2 GLOSSARY

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

APPENDIX A

Degrees to Go: The number of degrees of turn that an offensive aircraft has to turn in order to
enter a suitable weapons envelope.
Displacement Roll: An offensive maneuver used to reduce excessive closure while displacing
the aircraft to a different plane of maneuvering. Used in low to medium AOT and medium range
situation.
E
(The) Egg: A three-dimensional ovoid showing the effects of gravity on an aircraft maneuvering
in all three planes.
Energy Package: The combination of the aircraft's altitude (potential energy) and airspeed
(kinetic energy) making up the aircraft's total energy.
Engaged Fighter: In multi-plane engagements, the aircraft that is fighting an aggressive 1 v 1
against the bandit.
Engaging Turn: An efficient combination of turn rate and radius that maintains energy.
Engaging Turns: The type of turns used by a section to engage an enemy contact, i.e., Tac turns
(both into and away), in-place turns, and crossturns.
Extension: A maneuver performed to achieve either range and/or angular separation to employ
weapons or exit an engagement.
Eyeball: Identifies the fighter who has a tally/radar contact and will take bandit close aboard to
obtain visual identification (VI D) in section forward-quarter tactics.
F
Feet Dry/Wet: Flying over land or water.
Flat Scissors: Defensive maneuver used to take advantage of an attacker's horizontal overshoot.
Also results from the flattening of the rolling scissors.
Flight Path: The imaginary arc that an aircraft scribes in the sky. The aircraft's velocity, g, and
LV placement determine the geometry of the flight path. An aircraft that is straight and level has
a straight flight path while one in a hard break turn has a very dynamic flight path. The smoke
from an aircraft's engine is an excellent indication of an aircraft's flight path.
Flow: When two aircraft meet head-on, one of two types of flow is established in a turning fight
after the merge occurs. If after the merge both aircraft turn across each other's tail, the flow is
said to "two-circle" because each aircraft is still on it's own distinct turn circle. Both aircraft will
be turning the same direction, i.e., both in a left hand turn. Note that in two-circle flow, the two

GLOSSARY A-3

APPENDIX A

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

aircraft are fighting nose-to-tail. If at the merge one aircraft turns in the same direction as the
other aircraft, the flow is now said to be "one-circle" because both aircraft are now on the same
turn circle but in opposite directions, i.e., one left hand turns, the other in right hand turns. This is
described as a nose-to-nose fight.
Force Mix: The number and type of friendly vs. opponent aircraft to be taken into account when
considering ACM strategies and tactics.
FOX-1: Fox-1 indicates the release of a semi-active radar guided missile. The call is made by
the aircraft releasing the missile.
FOX-2: Indicates the release of an IR (heat seeking) guided missile. The call is made by the
aircraft releasing the missile.
Free Fighter: In multi-plane engagements, the aircraft that is able to maneuver to achieve a shot
while not having to aggressively counter the attacker.
G
Gate: To employ maximum thrust using full afterburner.
Ground Control Intercept (GCI): Communication from a remote ground station that transmits
vectors and altitude information to the fighters to intercept a group long before it could be
visually sighted.
Group: An airborne contact may be composed of one or more aircraft.
Guns: Rear-quarter steady state or snap guns firing solution.
H
Hard Turn: Compromise between a maximum rate turn and energy conserving turn (17 units
AOA). Typically, the nibble of buffet.
Heads Up: Call indicating that an "enemy got through" or "I am not in position to engage
target."

High Yo-Yo: Offensive maneuver designed to hold or increase range by decreasing closure rate
and opening nose to tail in low-to-medium angle off situations.
J
Joker: Fuel state above bingo fuel, which would allow a successful bugout. Call normally
transmitted to notify lead/wingman.

A-4 GLOSSARY

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

APPENDIX A

K
Knock It Off: Call made to stop the fight or current maneuvers.
L
Lateral Pitchback: A Defensive maneuver used after a bug or separation maneuver to reengage.
Usually started at high airspeeds; the fighter will roll to place the LV on or slightly above the
horizon and then execute a 19-21 unit pull to bleed down to tactical turn rate airspeed while
taking away as many angles as possible while the attacker is outside the bubble.
Lateral Separation: Lateral distance between two aircraft.
Lift Vector: The vector created through the production of lift, perpendicular to the wingplane.
Line of Sight (LOS): Relative bearing to the bandit from the fighter's aircraft, with zero degrees
being the fighter's nose.
Loose Deuce: Navy tactical doctrine for employment of a section of aircraft against a single
bandit aircraft now referred to as Section Engaged Maneuvering.
Low Yo-Yo: An offensive maneuver designed to decrease range and angles by increasing
closure rate, typically through the use of out-of-plane maneuvering.
Lufbery: Horizontal or slightly oblique stalemate-type engagement where both aircraft are
across the circle from each other, turning in the same direction at a low-energy state.
M
Merge Plot: Radar tracks involved in an engagement have come together and cannot be
distinguished from each other; occurs in the transition from BVR to the visual arena.
N
No Joy: Call made meaning "I do not see the bandit/bogey."
Nose-To-Tail: Reference to the distance between the nose of an attacker and the tail of the
defender. It is used synonymously with range.
O
One-Circle Flow: An engagement between two aircraft that are turning nose-to-nose, through
opposite AOB. This fight is referred to as a "Radius Fight" since the aircraft with the smallest
turn radius is likely to achieve the advantage.

GLOSSARY A-5

APPENDIX A
Overshoots:

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING


Flight path - Occurs anytime the offensive aircraft flies through the
defensive aircraft's flight path at or aft of the defensive aircraft's 3/9 line.
3/9 Line - Occurs anytime the attacker flies from aft of the defender's 3/9
line to in front of the defender's 3/9 line (i.e., flushing out in front).

Out-of-plane Maneuvering (OOP): Anytime your aircraft is maneuvering out of the plane of
motion with respect to your opponent's plane of motion (> 45 degrees).
P
Padlocked: Call meaning that "I have a tally and cannot take my eyes off the bandit or I will
lose contact due to visibility/range, etc."
Parrot: The IFF/SIF equipment. "Strangle your Parrot" means turn off your IFF.
Pigeons: Magnetic bearing and distance of home base (or unit indicated).
Plane of Motion (Plane of Turn): The flat plane of the turning circle. An aircraft's plane of
motion is generally determined by assessing nose attitude and lift vector placement or more
simply put, the two-dimensional plane the aircraft is currently scribing.
Popeye: Call made to indicate that an aircraft is "in the clouds or area of reduced visibility."
Positional advantage: A combination of angular advantage (i.e., less than 180-degrees of turn)
to your opponent's flight path on the same heading with 3/9 line advantage and/or lateral turning
room.
Post: The center of an aircraft's turn circle. The post is often useful in determining the pursuit
curve.
Pursuit Curves: Pursuit curves are based on the nose position when in the adversary's POM and
the LV placement when not in the adversary's POM.
Lead pointing in front of the adversary
Pure pointing at the adversary
Lag pointing behind the adversary
R
Radius Fight: See One-circle flow.
Range: Linear distance between two aircraft stated in nm or feet.

A-6 GLOSSARY

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

APPENDIX A

Rate Fight: See Two-circle flow.


ROE: Rules of Engagement. This term is used to ensure we have deconflicted flight paths when
two aircraft are converging. e.g., "Hawk 1, High/Low/Left/Right."
Rolling Scissors: Maneuver used to counter a barrel roll attack or when a fighter does not have
the airspeed or altitude to go pure vertical.
S
State: Fuel remaining.
Shackle: Turn made to redress the section by crossing one member to other side, thus
reassuming proper combat spread position.
Shooter: As applied to section forward-quarter tactics, the fighter pulling for a shot as his
wingman (eyeball) passes close aboard and visually identifies (VIDs) the bandit.
Situational Awareness (SA): Cognizance of all factors in a tactical arena that affect mission
success.
Skip It: Call made to indicate, "Do not attack" or the "Cease attack/intercept."
Slice Turn: A hard turn with minimal energy/speed bleedoff performed by rolling to place the
lift vector below the horizon at some oblique angle and applying g.
Snap Shot Drill: Exercise designed to develop the skill of maneuvering into a snap guns
solution and firing on a bandit.
Snap Guns: A non-tracking guns solution with 60-90 degrees AOT and a range of 1,000 ft to
1/2 mile.
Snap Lock: A GCI call indicating a bearing, range and altitude to a target at short range.
Speed and Angels: A call made prior to a ACM engagement to signify that the aircraft is in
parameters to start the maneuver and that all aircraft are in sight. This call will be made only
when the aircraft is within the following parameters for the engagement:
+/- 200 ft altitude
+/- .1 miles
+/- 10 kts
+/- half a clock code

GLOSSARY A-7

APPENDIX A

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

Steady: Call meaning "I am on prescribed heading."


Steer: Call meaning to "Fly heading indicated."
T
TAC (Tactical) Lead: Member of the flight having the best SA and is directing the section's
maneuvers. However, not always the Admin lead.
Tally: Call meaning "A bandit/bogey visually sighted."
Three/Nine Line (3/9 Line: A line drawn through the aircraft, perpendicular to the longitudinal
axis through the Aerodynamic Center which determines whether an opponent is in front of, or
behind that aircraft.
Track Crossing Angle (TCA: Angular difference in velocity vectors at any instant. (See also
"Angle Off" for distinction.)
Track Crossing Rate: The speed at which the opposing aircraft appears to move across the
fighter's canopy.
Turn Circle: The circle scribed by an aircraft's turn as it moves through the sky. The radius of
this turn circle is constantly changing depending upon the "G" and velocity of the aircraft. We
will generally discuss at turn circle based on a generalized maximum performance turn as having
a 3,000-ft radius or 6,000-ft diameter.
Turning Room: Any separation that exists between two aircraft.
Two-Circle Flow: An engagement between two aircraft that are turning nose-to-tail through the
same direction of turn. This is referred to as a Rate Fight because the aircraft with the faster rate
of turn is likely to achieve the advantage.
V
Vector (DEG): Call meaning "Alter heading to magnetic heading indicated."
Visual: Call meaning "Wingman is in sight."

A-8 GLOSSARY

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

APPENDIX A

SYMBOLOGY
You will see and use the following symbols in diagramming an ACM engagement.

Figure A-1 Symbology

GLOSSARY A-9

APPENDIX A

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

A-10 GLOSSARY

APPENDIX B
STUDY RESOURCES FOR ACMFP
Study Resources for ACMFP:
[A] T-45A NATOPS Flight Manual, A1-T45AB-NFM-000
[B] Air Combat Maneuvering Flight Training Instruction (FTI)
ACMFP-01: "Introduction to ACM," 0.8 hr, Classroom
Lesson Preparation:
*
[B] Read "Introduction" and "Background" sections with special attention to symbology
and terminology
Lesson Objectives:
*
Relate environmental components to ACM performance
*
Relate fixed aircraft factors to ACM performance
*
Relate variable aircraft factors to ACM performance
*
Identify energy management components for the T-45A
*
Recall procedure for the performance characteristics exercise
*
Recall basic ACM considerations
*
Recall the actions which lead to a one-circle fight
*
Recall the advantages/disadvantages of a one-circle fight
*
Recall the actions which lead to a two-circle fight
*
Recall the advantages/disadvantages of a two-circle fight
*
Recall out-of-plane (OOP) maneuvering tactical considerations
*
Recall procedures for maintaining sight/lookout doctrine
*
Recall ACM terminology and descriptions
*
Recall ACM symbology
*
Recall training rules for ACM exercises
*
Recall procedure for lost comm situation in ACM
*
Recall procedure for lost sight situations in ACM
*
Recall procedures for conducting G-LOC turns
ACMFP-02: "ACM 1 v 1 Offensive Maneuvering," 1.0 hr, Classroom
Lesson Preparation:
*
[B] Read "Offensive Flight Procedures" section
Lesson Objectives:
*
Recall the concepts and tactics applicable to offensive ACM
*
Recall the purpose and application of the snap guns exercise in ACM (offensive)
*
Recall the procedure for performing the snap guns exercise (offensive)
*
Recall the purpose and application of the high yo-yo in ACM
*
Recall the purpose and application of the low yo-yo in ACM
*
Recall the purpose and application of the horizontal scissors (offensive)
*
Recall procedure for performing horizontal scissors (offensive)
*
Recall the purpose and application of the rolling scissors (offensive)
*
Recall procedure for performing rolling scissors (offensive)
*
Recall the purpose and application of the offensive counter to the defensive pitchback
*
Recall procedures for performing low-angle hard counter (offensive)

STUDY RESOURCES FOR ACMFP

B-1

APPENDIX B
*
*
*

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

Recall procedure for the "break turn" exercise (offensive)


Recall the offensive considerations for disengagement
Recall the procedures for execution of offensive disengagement

ACMFP-03: "ACM 1 v 1 Defensive Maneuvering," 1.0 hr, Classroom


Lesson Preparation:
*
[B] Read "Defensive Maneuvering Flight Procedures" section
Lesson Objectives:
*
Recall the concepts and tactics applicable to defensive ACM
*
Recall factors/techniques for defensive disengagement
*
Recall disengagement follow-on options
*
Recall the purpose and application of the snap guns exercise in ACM (defensive)
*
Recall the procedure for performing the snap guns exercise (defensive)
*
Recall the purpose and application of the horizontal scissors (defensive)
*
Recall procedure for performing horizontal scissors (defensive)
*
Recall the purpose and application of the rolling scissors (defensive)
*
Recall procedure for performing rolling scissors (defensive)
*
Recall purpose and application of defensive low-angle to hard counter
*
Recall procedures for performing a defensive low-angle to hard counter
*
Recall the purpose and application for breakturn exercise (defensive)
*
Recall procedure for the "break turn" exercise (defensive)
*
Recall the purpose and application of the lufbery
*
Recall the purpose and application of the diving spiral
*
Recall procedure for performing a diving spiral
*
Recall the purpose and application of the high "g" roll
*
Recall the procedure for performing a high "g" roll
*
Recall the purpose and application of jink-out maneuvers
*
Recall procedures for performing jink-out maneuvers
ACMFP-04: "ACM 1 v 1 Neutral Starts," 0.8 hr, Classroom
Lesson Preparation:
* [B] Read "1 v 1 Engagement Concepts and Tactics" section
Lesson Objectives:
*
Recall the concepts and tactics applicable to basic fighter maneuvers (BFM)
*
Recall the parameters which constitute a neutral start
*
Recall the actions which lead to a one-circle fight
*
Recall the advantages/disadvantages of a one-circle fight
*
Recall the actions which lead to a two-circle fight
*
Recall the advantages/disadvantages of a two-circle fight
*
Recall out-of-plane (OOP) maneuvering tactical considerations
*
Recall the actions which lead to a vertical fight/merges
*
Assess the neutral 1 v 1 tactical situation

B-2 STUDY RESOURCES FOR ACMFP

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

APPENDIX B

ACMFP-06: "Three-Plane Air Combat Maneuvering," 2.7 hr, Classroom


Lesson Preparation:
[B] Read "2 v 1 Mission Procedures/Maneuvers" section
*
Lesson Objectives:
*
Recall procedures/guidelines provided by ACM briefing
*
Recall rules of engagement (ROE) for conducting ACM training
*
Recall parameters of the weapons envelope used by CNATRA
*
Recall ACM working areas and enroute/RTB procedures
*
Recall weather minimums/requirements for ACM
*
Recall ACM tactical communications plan/usage
*
Identify energy management components for the T-45A
*
Recall tactical considerations and ACM brief board information
*
Recall procedures for conducting G-LOC turns
*
Recall engaged/free fighter tactical doctrine applicable to ACM
*
Recall 2 v 1 mutual support tactical and procedural considerations
*
Recall the 2 v 1 considerations for disengagement
*
Recall procedures for 2 v 1 disengagement
*
Describe the correct position and purpose of the combat spread formation
*
Recall other tactical formations used in ACM
*
Recall tactical communications requirements for ACM
*
Recall additional tactical considerations for ACM
*
Assess 2 v 1 tactical situation (used for all engagements)
*
Recall the concepts and tactics applicable to 2 v 1 ACM
*
Recall responsibilities of each aircraft in the "call the bandit" exercise
*
Describe actions of engaged/free fighter response to counterflow rear quarter attack
*
Describe actions of engaged/free fighter in response to abeam attack
*
Recall methods for regaining section integrity
*
Describe actions of engaged/free fighter response to no-switch rear quarter attack
*
Describe actions of engaged/free fighter to single-switch exercise
*
Describe action of engaged/free fighter in response to multi-switch exercise
*
Describe actions of engaged/free fighter in VFQ attack
*
Recall the procedures for beyond visual range engagements

STUDY RESOURCES FOR ACMFP

B-3

APPENDIX B

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING


NOTES

B-4 STUDY RESOURCES FOR ACMFP

APPENDIX C
2 V 1 ACM COMM SCRIPT
CALL THE BANDIT
NO SWITCH
Bandit

"Bandit setting up on the left on _______ for the call the bandit no switch fighters call
when ready."

Lead

"_______ Speed & Angels.

Wing

"_______ Speed & Angels."

"Bandit's in."

"_______ break left bandit left seven."

"Tally, _______ engaged."

"_______ free pulling for the shot... FOX-2 bandit in trail."

"Bandit knock it off."

"_______ knock it off."

"_______ knock it off (heading)."

SINGLE SWITCH
Bandit

"Bandit setting up on the left on _______ for the call the bandit single switch fighters
call when ready."

Lead

"_______ Speed & Angels.

Wing

"_______ Speed & Angels."

"Bandit's in."

"_______ break left bandit left seven."

"Tally, _______ engaged."

"______ free pulling for the shot ... switch switch bandit's coming to me ... right to
right."

2 V 1 ACM COMM SCRIPT

C-1

APPENDIX C

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

"Right to right."

"_______ will engage in flats (heading)."

"_______ free extending.

"_______ confirms flats (heading)."

"_______ turning in tally visual.... FOX-2 bandit on (side you're on, in this case left)."

"Bandit knock it off."

"_______ knock it off."

"_______ knock it off."

"(heading)."

MULTI-SWITCH BUG
Bandit

"Bandit setting up on the left on _______ for the multi switch bug bug bug fighters call
when ready."

Lead

"_______ Speed & Angels."

Wing

"_______ Speed & Angels."

"Bandit's in."

"_______ break left bandit left seven."

"Tally, _______ engaged."

"______ free pulling for the shot ... switch switch bandit's coming to me ... right to
right."

"Right to right."

"_______ will engage in flats (heading)."

"_______ free extending."

"_______ confirms flats (heading) JOKER."

"Copy joker let's work the bug."

C-2 2 V 1 ACM COMM SCRIPT

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

APPENDIX C

"_______ turning in tally visual."

"Heads up bandit's nose is low ... switch switch bandit's coming to you from the
(direction of bandit's and you're turn as bandit is exiting the flats) [example] left."

"Tally, (call the pass side the same direction as the bandit coming from) example left to
left."

"Left to left."

"Let's bug (heading across bandit's tail)."

"Copy (heading)... I'm at your position."

"Visual."

"Bandit's in a left turn 1 mile with 90 to go, looks like a good bug."

"Bandit concurs."

"Bandit knock it off."

"_______ knock it off."

"_______ knock it off."

"Cross turn _______ low."

"_______ high."

MULTI-SWITCH KILL
Bandit

"Bandit setting up on the left on _______ for the multi switch kill fighters call when
ready."

Lead

"_______ Speed & Angels."

Wing

"_______ Speed & Angels."

"Bandit's in."

"_______ break left bandit left seven."

"Tally, _______ engaged."

2 V 1 ACM COMM SCRIPT

C-3

APPENDIX C

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

"______ free pulling for the shot ... switch switch bandit's coming to me ... right to
right."

"Right to right."

"_______ will engage in flats (heading)."

"_______ free extending."

"_______ confirms flats (heading)."

"_______ turning in tally visual."

"Heads up bandit's nose is low ... switch switch bandit's coming to you from the
(direction of bandit's and you're turn as bandit is exiting the flats) [example] left."

"Tally, (call the pass side the same direction as the bandit coming from) example left to
left."

"Left to left."

"_______ will engage flats (heading not to cross bandit's tail)."

"_______ free extending."

"Confirms flats (heading). "

"_______ turning in tally two."

"_______ on the (side you're on)."

"_______ tally visual.... FOX-2 bandit on the (side opposite your lead)."

"Bandit knock it off."

"_______ knock it off" W"_______ knock it off (heading)."

COUNTERFLOW
Bandit

"Bandit setting up between the section on _______ for the counter flow fighters call
when ready."

Lead

"_______ Speed & Angels."

Wing

"_______ Speed & Angels."

C-4 2 V 1 ACM COMM SCRIPT

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

APPENDIX C

"Bandit's in."

"_______ break right bandit right five."

"Tally, _______ engaged."

"Looks like bandit's sticking with you

"_______ engaged two-circle right defensive."

"_______ turning in tally visual."

"FOX-2 bandit in trail."

"Bandit knock it off."

"Knock it off."

"Knock it off (heading)."

free extending."

VISUAL FORWARD QUARTER


Bandit

"Bandit setting up on the left on _______ for the VFQ fighters call when ready."

Lead

"_______ Speed & Angels."

Wing

"_______ Speed & Angels."

"Start the Comm."

"(wingman's callsign) hard left BOGEY left nine long I'm padlocked call my turn."

"TWO."

"Turn."

"Out of the turn bogey on my nose 1 mile ... I'm the eyeball ... left to left."

"Left to left."

"_______ tally visual... shooter."

"Shoot shoot MIG."

"FOX-2."

2 V 1 ACM COMM SCRIPT

C-5

APPENDIX C

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

"Chaff flares, continue."

"_______ engaged two-circle right offensive."

"_______ free extending."

"_______ turning in tally visual."

"(wingman) come off high/low (in direction of lead's turn in) example left."

"Blind/Visual."

"You're clear . FOX-2 bandit in a right turn."

"Bandit knock it off."

"Knock it off."

"Knock it off."

"(heading)"

C-6 2 V 1 ACM COMM SCRIPT

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

APPENDIX C
NOTES

2 V 1 ACM COMM SCRIPT

C-7

APPENDIX C

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

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C-8 2 V 1 ACM COMM SCRIPT

APPENDIX D
INDEX

A
ACM strategies ............................................A-4
Admin Lead ............................. 1-122, A-1, A-8
Anchored.......................................... 1-115, A-1
Angels ..........................................A-1, C-3, C-4
Angle Off ...... 1-21, 1-22, 1-27, 1-31, 1-52, A-1
A-4, A-8
AOB ......1-33, 1-34, 1-67, 1-69, 1-70, A-1, A-5
Arcing Turn (Arc) ........................................A-1
Aspect ..........1-13, 1-17, 1-20, 1-22, 1-24, 1-29
1-52, 1-60, 1-63, 1-64, 1-74, 1-75, 1-77, 1-88
1-90, 1-100, 1-105, 1-106, 1-113, A-1
Atoll .............................................................A-1
Attack.........1-18, 1-19, 1-23 1-27, 1-29, 1-41
1-45, 1-48, 1-51, 1-53, 1-54, 1-69, 1-89, 1-91
1-93, 1-101, 1-102, 1-105, 1-112, 1-117
1-118, 1-119, 2-1, 3-1, A-1, A-2, A-7

Buster ................................................. 1-97, A-2

C
Check Left/Right (Degrees) ........................ A-2
Combat Air Patrol Station (CAP) ... 1-91, 1-121
1-122, A-2
Contact ............... 1-93, 1-96, 1-117, 1-121, A-2
Control Point .......... 1-14, 1-24, 1-46, 1-81, A-2
Control Zone ....... 1-15, 1-21, 1-22, 1-24 1-26
1-28, 1-29, 1-31, 1-46, 1-56, 1-64, 1-69, 1-103
A-2
Corner(ing) Airspeed ...................1-7, 1-8, 1-10
Counterflow ........... 1-95, 1-101, 1-112 1-117
1-119, 1-120, 1-129, 1-130, 2-1, A-2, C-4

Daisy Chain............... 1-117, 1-124, 1-125, A-2


Degrees to Go..........................1-30, 1-116, A-3
Disengagement.... 1-36, 1-50, 1-61, 1-71, 1-111
B
Bandit.....1-12 1-15, 1-18 1-20, 1-25 1-72
1-112
1-74, 1-75, 1-77 1-79, 1-81, 1-82, 1-84 Displacement Roll............................... A-1, A-3
1-106, 1-110 1-113, 1-115 1-131, 2-1, 2-2
3-2, 3-3, A-1 A-3, A-5 A-8, B-3, C-1 C-6 E
Barrel Roll Attack (BRA) ........1-22, 1-34, 1-44 Egg .................................. 1-11, 1-12, 1-35, A-3
1-61, 2-2, A-1, A-7 Energy Management ......................... 1-72, 1-80
Belly Check..................................................A-1 Energy Package............... 1-32, 1-37, 1-58, A-3
Beyond Visual Range (BVR).......... 1-90, 1-105 Engaged Fighter ...... 1-95 1-97, 1-101 1-103
1-121 1-124, 1-127 1-130, 3-3, A-1, A-5
1-105, 1-110, 1-112, 1-113, 1-115 1-117
Blind.....1-18, 1-19, 1-48, 1-63, 1-90, 1-96,1-97
1-119, 1-120, 1-123, 1-124, 1-126, 2-1, 3-2
1-102, 1-105, 1-111, 1-119, 1-120, 1-131, 3-3
A-2, A-3
A-1, C-6 Engaging Turn............................................. A-3
Bogey ............1-119, 1-120, A-2, A-5, A-8, C-5 Engaging Turns ........................................... A-3
Bracketing ........................................ 1-117, A-2 Extension............... 1-13, 1-62, 1-70, 1-72, 1-79
Break Turn ....1-7, 1-10, 1-15, 1-25 1-27,1-29
1-103, 1-105, 1-113, 1-115 1-117, 1-120
1-30, 1-31, 1-46 1-48, 1-52, 1-54 1-57
1-125, 1-130, 3-3, A-1, A-3
1-62, 1-63, 1-68, 1-70 1-72, 1-103, 1-115 Eyeball .......1-17, 1-61, 1-62, 1-65, 1-90, 1-117
1-129, 3-1, 3-2, A-2, A-3
1-118, A-2, A-3, A-7, C-5
Bubble ........1-22 1-25, 1-30, 1-31, 1-45, 1-46
1-48, 1-49, 1-52, 1-53. 1-62, 1-63, 1-68, 1-69 F
1-79, 1-103, 1-131, 2-1, 3-1, 3-2, A-2, A-5 Feet Dry....................................................... A-3
Bug Out......1-43, 1-49, 1-50, 1-60, 1-61, 1-111 Feet Wet ...................................................... A-3
A-2

INDEX D-1

APPENDIX D
Flat Scissors ........ 1-31 1-34, 1-36, 1-37, 1-42
1-43, 1-58, 1-59, 1-66, 1-67, 1-84, 1-104
1-106, 3-1, A-3
Flight Path........... 1-13 1-15, 1-19, 1-28, 1-31
1-33, 1-36, 1-44, 1-46, 1-49, 1-50, 1-53, 1-56
1-61, 1-69, 1-96, 1-101, 1-105, 1-112, 1-117
1-120, 2-1, A-2, A-3, A-6, A-7
Flow .....1-1, 1-42, 1-43, 1-49, 1-65, 1-74 1-80
1-86, 1-87, 1-91, 1-94, 1-95, 1-97, 1-99, 1-101
1-104, 1-112, 1-116, 1-118, 1-119, 1-121
1-123 1-125, 1-127, 1-128, 3-2, A-4, A-5
A-7, A-8, C-4
Force Mix........................................... 1-92, A-4
FOX-1 ..........................................................A-4
FOX-2 ..........1-23, 1-43, 1-45, 1-47, 1-48, 1-60
1-70, 1-99, 1-100, 1-102, 1-106, 1-113, 1-115
1-119, 1-120, 1-121, A-4, C-1, C-2, C-4 C-6
Free Fighter.............1-95 1-97, 1-101 1-103
1-105, 1-106, 1-110, 1-112 1-115, 1-117
1-119, 1-120, 1-123, 1-125, 1-130, 2-1, 3-2
3-3, A-2, A-4, B-3

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

L
Lateral Pitchback......................................... A-5
Lateral Separation .......... 1-59, 1-62, 1-71, 1-79
1-103, 1-105, 1-106, 1-115, 1-117, A-5
Lift Vector....1-11, 1-15, 1-22, 1-23, 1-28, 1-29
1-31, 1-33, 1-35, 1-37, 1-45, 1-46, 1-57, 1-59
1-63 1-65, 1-67, 1-72, 1-78, 1-84, 1-103, 2-1
A-5 A-7
Line of Sight (LOS) ....... 1-25, 1-26, 1-30, 1-31
1-41, 1-45, 1-48, A-5
Loose Deuce....................................... 1-47, A-5
Low Yo-Yo ............. 1-26, 1-29, 1-46, A-5, B-1
Lufbery..................................... 1-112, A-5, B-2

M
Merge Plot................................................... A-5
Multi-switch ............. 1-94, 1-101, 1-103, 1-104
1-107 1-110, 3-2, 3-3, B-3, C-2, C-3

N
No Joy .............. 1-18, 1-105, 1-121, 1-122, A-5

Gate ..............................................................A-4 One-Circle Flow............. 1-42, 1-49, 1-75, 1-76


Ground Control Intercept (GCI) ...... 1-121, A-4
1-78 1-80, 1-95, 1-99, 1-116, 1-127, A-5
Group .................................................. A-1, A-4
A-7
Guns .............1-19, 1-27, 1-32, 1-40, 1-46, 1-51 One-Circle Fight............. 1-15, 1-30, 1-31, 1-33
1-52, 1-56, 1-58, 1-62, 1-63, 1-65, 1-66, 1-69
1-57 1-59, 1-62, 1-71, 1-75, 1-81, 1-84
1-80, 1-115, 2-1, A-4, A-7, B-1, B-2 1-87, 1-92, 1-95, 1-97, 1-105, 1-113, B-1, B-2
Out-of plane Maneuvering (OOP) ............. 1-21
1-26, 1-51, 1-77, 1-79, A-5, A-6
H
Hard Turn.....1-10, 1-34, 1-38, 1-45, 1-70, 1-81 Overshoots ............ 1-14, 1-34, 1-44, 1-47, 1-56
1-89, 1-112, 1-117, 1-120, A-4, A-7
1-60, 1-72, 1-123, A-6
Heads Up.......................... 1-126, A-4, C-2, C-4
High Yo-Yo .........................................A-4, B-1 P
Horizontal Scissors ........ 1-19, 1-32, 1-37, 1-59 Padlocked ............................................ A-6, C-5
2-1, B-1, B-2 Parrot ........................................................... A-6
Performance Characteristics................ 1-3, 1-75
1-76, B-1
J
Joker................................ 1-88, 1-110, A-5, C-2 Pigeons ........................................................ A-6
Plane of Motion (Plane of Turn) ..... 1-40 1-42
1-51, 1-63, 1-65, 1-77, 1-92, A-6
K
Knock It Off.......... 1-38, 1-42, 1-65, 1-94, 1-99 Popeye ......................................................... A-6
1-100, 1-110, 1-111, 1-115, 1-119, 1-131, 2-2 Position advantage ...................1-74, 1-75, 1-80
A-5, C-1 C-6

D-2 INDEX

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

APPENDIX D

Positional advantage ........ 1-3, 1-15, 1-21, 1-32 Tally .............1-18, 1-47, 1-70, 1-74, 1-81, 1-90
1-59, 1-74, 1-75, 1-77, 1-95, A-2, A-7 1-91, 1-93, 1-97 1-100, 1-102 1-104, 1-106
Post...............1-25, 1-28, 1-31, 1-33, 1-49, 1-53
1-110 1-113, 1-115 1-117, 1-119 1-123
1-55, 1-59, 1-71, 1-72, 1-84, 1-92, 1-115
1-126, 1-127, 1-129 1-131, 3-3, A-3, A-6
1-129, A-1, A-6
A-8, C-1 C-6
Pursuit Curves........................... 1-22, 1-52, A-6 Three/Nine Line (or 3/9 Line)......... 1-13 1-15
1-31 1-33, 1-42, 1-46, 1-47, 1-56, 1-60, 1-65
1-69, A-6, A-8
R
Radius Fight .......... 1-31, 1-32, 1-59, 1-79, 1-81 Total Energy......................................... 1-4, A-3
1-84, 1-95, A-6, A-7 Track Crossing Angle (TCA).............. A-1, A-8
Range .........1-17, 1-19, 1-21 1-23, 1-29, 1-33 Track Crossing Rate.................1-14, 1-24, 1-39
1-37, 1-40 1-43, 1-48, 1-50, 1-54, 1-60, 1-62
1-42, A-8
1-64, 1-65, 1-68, 1-71, 1-74, 1-79, 1-91, 1-120 Turn Circle .......... 1-23 1-25, 1-28, 1-30, 1-31
1-122, 2-1, A-1, A-3 A-7, B-3
1-49, 1-54, 1-55, 1-77, 1-84, 1-120, 3-2, A-2
Rate Fight............ 1-28, 1-55, 1-79, 1-85 1-87
A-4, A-6, A-8
1-95, A-7, A-8 Turning Room ....... 1-15, 1-31, 1-33, 1-35, 1-51
ROE............1-31, 1-33, 1-42, 1-43, 1-81, 1-101
1-57, 1-58, 1-61, 1-67, 1-72, 1-75, 1-79, 1-81
1-121, 1-122, 3-3, A-7, B-3
1-84, 1-85, 1-87, 1-90, 1-103, A-6, A-8
Rolling Scissors ........... 1-32 1-37, 1-44, 1-47 Two-Circle Fight............ 1-30, 1-31, 1-69, 1-72
1-60, 1-61, 1-67, 1-68, 3-1, A-3, A-7, B-1, B-2 1-76, 1-81, 1-82, 1-84, 1-87, 1-95, 1-97, 1-128
3-3, B-1, B-2
Two-Circle
Flow
..........
1-43,
1-49,
1-76 1-80
S
Shackle............................................... 1-41, A-7
1-119, 1-124, 1-125, 3-2, A-4, A-7, A-8
Shooter .......1-40 1-42, 1-64, 1-65, 1-88, 1-89
1-104, 1-116 1-118, 1-131, A-7, C-5 V
Single-Switch.............1-99, 1-101 1-105, B-3 Vertical Maneuvering ....................... 1-11, 1-12
Situational Awareness (SA).............. 1-19, 1-90 Visual ...........1-14, 1-17, 1-45, 1-48, 1-49, 1-52
1-96, 1-97, 1-102, 1-104, 1-117, 1-122, 1-131
1-54, 1-90, 1-91, 1-93, 1-96 1-98, 1-100
2-1, A-7
1-102, 1-103, 1-111, 1-115, 1-117 1-122
Skip It........................................ 1-42, 1-65, A-7
1-131, 2-1, 3-1, A-1, A-3, A-5, A-8, B-3
Slice Turn................................ 1-37, 1-126, A-7
C-2 C-6
Snap Lock ....................................................A-7
Snap Shot Drill...................1-39, 1-40, 3-1, A-7
Speed and Angels........... 1-39, 1-41, 1-45, 1-47
1-64, 1-67, 1-68, 1-89, 1-98 1-100, 3-1, A-7
State............1-5, 1-19, 1-20, 1-37, 1-102, 1-103
A-2, A-4, A-5, A-7
Steady.................................................. A-4, A-8
Symbology ......................... 1-41, A-8, A-9, B-1

T
TAC (Tactical) Lead ..............1-96, 1-98, 1-112
11-115, 1-122, 3-3, A-8

INDEX D-3

APPENDIX D

AIR COMBAT MANEUVERING

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D-4 INDEX