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Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B 4 (2014) 1-7

Earlier title: Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, ISSN 1939-1250

DAVID PUBLISHING

Design, Development and Test of a Small Scale Mango


Juice Extractor
Adesoji Matthew Olaniyan and Obafemi Ibitayo Obajemihi
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin 240003,
Kwara State, Nigeria
Received: October 7, 2013 / Published: January 20, 2014.
Abstract: Mango fruit (Mangifera indica) is very rich in fibre and vitamin C which are the required nutrients for good health and
easy digestion of food in human body system. However, the fruit is highly perishable in its natural state after harvest due to the
chemical deterioration and environmental effects. Due to the perishable nature, abundant wastage during the production season and
relative scarcity during the off season were recorded by farmers. Processing the fruit into the form that can easily be stored, preserved,
packaged, transported or consumed is crucial to having the product all the year round. Besides, mango juice can be consumed freshly,
processed into dry powder, mixed or blended with other juice to make fruit jams, or evaporated to concentrates. These products have
a lot of potential in food and beverage industries for export and foreign exchange earnings. Therefore, a small scale machine to
process mango fruits to high quality juice is highly essential to reduce the postharvest loss and then add value to the commodity. To
achieve this purpose, an abrasion-macerating device (AMD) was designed, fabricated and tested for small scale mango juice
extraction. Design considerations focused on the techno-economic status of the micro and small scale fruit juice processors who are
the intended users of the machine. The major components of the machine included hopper, perforated drum, screw conveyor, juice
outlet, waste outlet, frame, electric motor and motor stand. Other components included screw shaft, the juice collector, top cover and
the transmission system. In operation, the screw conveyor conveys and presses the mango fruits against the perforated roughened
drum. The abrasion/tearing process of the screw on the flesh of the fruit and further pressing against the drum squeeze enough juice
out of the fruit. The juice extracted is drained through the perforated mesh of the juice channel into the juice outlet from where it is
collected while the residual waste is collected at the waste outlet. The machine was tested using freshly harvested mango fruits and
results obtained showed an average juice yield, extraction efficiency and extraction loss of 34.56%, 55.14% and 10.15%, respectively.
These values of juice yield, extraction efficiency and low level of extraction loss indicate satisfactory performance of the machine.
Powered by a 2.5 hp single-phase electric motor, the machine has a production cost of USD565 with the construction materials being
locally available at affordable costs. A cottage mango juice extraction plant based on this technology can provide employment for at
least two persons at the same time providing fresh juice at low costs and residual waste as an ingredient for livestock feed
manufacturing.
Key words: Abrasion-maceration device, juice extraction, mango.

1. Introduction
Mango fruit (Mangifera indica) contains some
important nutrients for good health such as fibre and
vitamin C, and also aids the digestion of food in
human body system. However, the fruit is a perishable
commodity in its natural state after harvest due to its
poor postharvest stability. This leads to high loss to
Corresponding author: Adesoji Matthew Olaniyan, Ph.D.,
research fields: engineer, postharvest technology and food
process engineering. E-mail: amolan397@hotmail.com.

farmers, produce merchants and processors. It is


therefore highly essential to process the fruit to juice
form in order to easily store, preserve, package,
transport and consume the product all the year round.
In the same development, mango juice can be a
valuable raw material in food and beverage industries
which have a lot of potential for export.
Juice extractors are designed in different types
including: continuous screw expellers, halving and
burring machine, roller-press, taglith-type extractor,

Design, Development and Test of a Small Scale Mango Juice Extractor

plunger-type press and rotary juice extractor [1, 2].


Hongvaleerat et al. [3] evaluated the process of
osmotic evaporation to concentrate pineapple juice.
Braddock and Marcy [4] used a commercial juice
extractor to extract juice from fresh pineapple fruits
and the juice extracted was further processed by freeze
concentration. Ishiwu and Oluka [5] developed and
carried out performance evaluation of a juice extractor
as a function of its extraction efficiency. The result of
performance test revealed a juice yield, extraction
efficiency and extraction loss of 76%, 83% and 3%,
respectively.
Oyeleke and Olaniyan [6] evaluated the
performance of a multipurpose juice extractor for
tropical fruit juice extraction. Results showed juice
yields of 76.0%, 83.3%, 82.75%, 96.0% and 71.4%,
for orange, grape, tangerine, water melon and
pineapple, respectively. A small scale orange juice
extractor was designed and fabricated by Olaniyan [7].
Test results showed that the average juice yield and
extraction efficiency were 41.6% and 57.4%,
respectively. Olaniyan and Babatunde [8] developed a
small scale sugarcane juice extractor using a screw
pressing system and the result of a preliminary test
showed a low juice yield of 2.5% with a grating
efficiency of 87.8%. While these results serve as
useful reference background and guide for the present
work, the extractors referred to cannot be used for
mango juice extraction being a large-seeded fruit
(drupe).
Mango fruit is widely produced in the most parts of
Africa but the fruit is highly perishable in its natural
state after harvest. This causes deterioration, wastage,
quality reduction and other forms of postharvest losses.
Small scale mango juice extractors are highly essential
in the processing of mango fruit to the form that can
easily be preserved for longer period. Small scale
extractors can easily be afforded, operated and
maintained by low income and small scale
entrepreneurs. If such machines are scaled-up for
industrial application, cottage juice processing

industries could spring up based on such technology.


This would ensure food and nutrition security while
also creating employment opportunities and
eradicating poverty. Therefore, the objective of this
study was to design, develop and test a combined
abrasion-macerating device (AMD) for small scale
mango juice extraction. This would make possible the
extraction of juice from mango fruits more efficiently
in a continuous manner.

2. Machine
Principles

Description

and

Working

As shown in Fig. 1, the AMD consists of the


following major components: hopper, extraction
chamber, juice outlet, waste outlet, frame, prime
mover (electric motor) and motor stand. The
extraction chamber consists of a perforated cylindrical
drum which houses a uniform diameter and
decreasing-pitch screw conveyor. The perforated drum
is essentially a cylindrical drum on which series of
perforated holes were drilled in an orderly manner.
The perforations were roughened in the internal
surface of the drum to form an abrasive surface for
tearing and macerating the fruit mesocarp and enhance
the flow of juice. The screw conveyor is a
decreasing-pitch type of screw blade arrangement and
it enhances the juice extraction. In operation, the
screw conveyor presses the mango fruits against the
roughened/abrasive drum surface in such a way that
the mango mesocarp is macerated. The extraction is
actually achieved by the action of the screw conveyor
in pressing the macerated mesocarp against the
roughened/abrasive internal surface of the perforated
cylindrical drum along the line of travel. The juice
extracted is drained through the juice channel into the
juice outlet from where it is collected while the
residual waste is collected at the waste outlet.
Powered by a 2.5 hp single-phase electric motor, the
machine has a production cost of USD565 with the
construction materials being locally available at
affordable costs.

Design, Development and Test of a Small Scale Mango Juice Extractor

Fig. 1

Exploded view of the mango juice extractor.

3. Design of Machine Elements

3.2 Design Computations

3.1 Design Considerations

3.2.1 Design of Screw Conveyor


The screw conveyor is the main component and most
functional unit of the extraction chamber. The screw
was designed to have six pitch steps in a decreasing
order with the last pitch less than 50 mm but greater
than 15 mm. The screw pitch was designed using the
expression in the equation below:

While designing the machine, considerations


included high juice yield, high extraction efficiency,
low extraction loss, high quality of juice and
availability, quality and cost of construction materials.
Other considerations included the desire to make the
extraction chamber and juice outlet with stainless steel
to ensure the quality and safety of juice, and to design
the extraction chamber to accommodate the required
quantity of mango fruit. Designing the screw
conveyor to ensure maximum conveyance, abrasion
and maceration of the mango fruit mesocarp is also
considered. Consideration was also given for a strong
main frame to ensure structural stability and strong
support for the machine.

Ps =

4VDL

D2 d2 N

(1)

where, Ps is the screw pitch, V is the inlet velocity of


raw material, D is the outside diameter of screw, d is
the inside diameter of screw, L is the length of the
screw shaft, and N is the shaft speed. With Ps = 0.187 m,
D = 0.238 m, d = 0.036 m, L = 0.550 m and N = 304
rpm, hence, V = 4.72 m/s. In order to design screw
configuration, iteration method was used to determine

Design, Development and Test of a Small Scale Mango Juice Extractor

the screw threading at a decreasing pitch. Therefore


screw pitch 0.187, 0.130, 0.082, 0.054 and 0.040 m
(making a screw length 0.493 m) is on a shaft of length
0.550 m. Therefore, left at both ends of the screw shaft
for the fittings of the bearing at both ends was
determined thus:
C=

1
2

L PL)

(2)

where, C is the clearance at both ends and PL is the


pitch length. With L = 0.550 m and PL = 0.493 m,
hence, C = 0.025 m. Therefore, a clearance of 25 mm is
left at both ends of the screw shaft for the fitting of the
bearing.
3.2.2 Design of Screw Shaft
In operation, the screw shaft conveys, macerates,
presses and squeezes the scrapped mango mesocarps
for juice extraction. Therefore, in order to safeguard
against bending, the diameter of the shaft was
determined from the equation given by Khurmi and
Gupta [9]:
d3s =

16
Ss

Kb Mb 2 + Kt Mt

1
2

(3)

where, ds is diameter of the screw shaft, Ss is maximum


shear stress, Kb is combined shock and fatigue factor
for bending, Kt is combined shock and fatigue factor
for torsion, Mb is bending moment of the shaft and Mt is
torsional moment of the shaft. Given that Ss = 40 106
N/m2, Kb = 1.5, Kt = 1.0, Mb = 21.10 Nm, Mt = 69.18
Nm and = 3.142; hence, ds = 0.021 m. Therefore, a
stainless steel rod of diameter 25 mm was used for the
screw shaft.
3.2.3 Design of the Capacity of the Juice Extractor
The processing capacity of the mango juice extractor
was taken as the capacity of the screw conveyor which
is the main functional unit of the extraction chamber of
the extractor. It was determined from the equation
given below:
Cs = D2 d2 Pa N
(4)
where, Cs is the processing capacity and Pa is the
average screw pitch while other parameters of the
equation are as defined earlier. Given that D = 0.238 m,
d = 0.036 m, Pa = 0.099 m and N = 304 rpm; hence, Cs

= 0.03 m3/s. Therefore, the machine would be able to


extract 30 L of mango juice in 1 s.
3.2.4 Design of the Power Required for Driving the
Juice Extractor
The machine was designed to be driven by an
electric motor through the belt and pulley power
transmission system. The power required to drive the
machine during extraction operation was determined
from the equation given below:
Pr =

D2 d2 gNPa FL
8000

(5)

where, Pr is the power required to drive the machine,


is the density of mango juice, g is the acceleration due
to gravity, F is the material factor, while other
parameters in the equation are as defined earlier. Given
that D = 0.238 m, d = 0.036 m, = 978 kg/m3, g = 9.81
m/s2, N = 304 rpm, Pa = 0.099 m, F = 0.5 and L = 0.550
m; hence, Pr = 2.461 hp. Therefore, a single-phase
electric motor of 2.5 hp was selected to drive the
machine.

4. Materials Selection and Fabrication


Procedure
Fig. 2 shows the front view of the mango juice
extractor respectively while the specification of
construction materials is shown in Table 1. Using
treadle-operated guillotine, two pieces of stainless
steel with dimension 350 mm 250 mm and two
pieces of that with dimension 350 mm 100 mm were
cut from a 2 mm thick standard size stainless steel
sheet. The components were joined together by arc
welding and the edges were smoothened by grounding
to form the hopper of the extractor. A rectangular
shape of dimension 551 mm 471 mm was cut from
the mild steel sheet and folded to a hemispherical
shape to form the base collector of juice. An opening
of dimension 100 mm 80 mm was cut out on the
base collector and a channel was welded to it for the
outlet flow of juice after extraction. The screw blade
was fabricated from a gauge 2 mm stainless steel sheet
which was made into an helix of five circular discs of

Design, Development and Test of a Small Scale Mango Juice Extractor

an external diameter 238 mm and internal diameters of


50, 46, 42, 38 and 36 mm. Then the discs were welded
together to form the screw blade in a helical form. The
top cover was fabricated from the gauge 2 mm
stainless steel sheet of which a rectangular shape of
dimension 551 mm 471 mm was cut and rolled into
a semicircular shape. It was then folded at the edges to
stand on the machine. For the perforated drum, a

Fig. 2
Table 1

rectangular sheet of dimension 740 mm 570 mm


was cut from the stainless steel sheet and series of
holes were drilled on it after marking with a centre
punch. It was then folded and welded into a
cylindrical drum with the perforations made in such a
way that the inside has abrasive surface. The main
frame and motor stand was made from an angle iron
of dimension 40 mm 40 mm 4 mm. Four pieces of

Front view of the mango juice extractor.


Materials used for the construction of the mango juice extractor and their specifications.

Materials
Stainless steel sheet
Stainless steel plate
Stainless steel rod
Stainless steel rod
Stainless steel rod
Stainless steel mesh
Mild steel angle iron
Pillow bearing
Cast iron pulley
Cast iron pulley
V-belt
Bolts and nuts
Welding electrode
Welding electrode
Welding electrode
Cutting disc
Grinding disc

Specifications
1 mm thickness, standard size
2 mm thickness, standard size
35 mm, 1 2 standard length
25 mm, 1 4 standard length
20 mm, 1 4 standard length
1.0 mm thickness, 1 4 standard size

40 mm 40 mm 4 mm, standard length


25 mm
310 mm
65 mm
B 65
M 19, M 13, M 10
Gauges 12 stainless steel
Gauge 10 stainless steel
Gauge 12 mild steel
200 mm
200 mm

Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 12
1 pair
1
2
1
10, 14, 8
4 dozens
2 dozens
8 dozens
1
1

Design, Development and Test of a Small Scale Mango Juice Extractor

length 1,050, 700, 380 and 210 mm were cut using a


power hacksaw and welded together to form the
machine frame and electric motor stand.

5. Materials and Methods Used for Testing


Testing procedure was carried out in the Processing
Laboratory of the Department of Agricultural and
Biosystems Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin,
Nigeria. Freshly harvested and ripe mango fruits were
obtained from a fruit merchant in Ilorin environment.
The fruits were washed, weighed and prepared ready
for juice extraction. The machine was set into
operation and known weights of the fruits were fed
into the machine through the hopper. In the extraction
unit, the screw conveyor conveyed the mango fruit,
tore/scrapped and macerated the mesocarp, pressed
and squeezed the mesocarp against the perforated
cylindrical drum in order to extract the juice. The juice
extracted was drained through the stainless screen into
the base collector, discharged through the juice
channel and weighed while the residual wastes were
collected and weighed separately. From the values
obtained, juice yield, extraction efficiency and
extraction loss were calculated [7, 10, 11]:
JY =
JE =
EL =

100WJE
WJE + WRW
100WJE
xWFS

(6)

WF S WJE + WRW
WFS

(7)
%

(8)

where, JY, JE and EL are juice yield, extraction


efficiency and extraction loss respectively in percent;
WJE, WRW and WFS are weights of juice extracted,
residual waste and feed sample respectively in g and x
is the juice content of pineapple in decimal. Each test
was carried out in triplicates.

method used in this study for calculating juice yield,


extraction efficiency and extraction loss had been used
earlier by Ishiwu and Oluka [5] and Oyeleke and
Olaniyan [6] for pineapple juice and orange juice
extraction, respectively. The results of the test showed
that the machine performed satisfactorily but there is
still room for improvement. An improvement in the
design of the screw conveyor of the extraction
chamber is expected to improve the efficiency of
extraction process in terms of juice yield and juice
recovery efficiency; hence, this is recommended for
further study. Such improvement would involve
optimizing the decreasing-pitch design while the
perforated cylindrical drum of decreasing-diameter
and tapers towards the discharge end.

7. Conclusions
A small scale machine for extracting mango juice
from mango fruit was designed, fabricated and tested.
The extractor was portable enough for local
production, operation, repair and maintenance while
all the construction materials were available locally
and at affordable costs. Powered by a 2.5 hp
single-phase electric motor, the machine has average
juice yield, extraction efficiency and extraction loss of
34.56%, 55.14% and 10.15%, respectively, with a
production cost of about USD565. The machine can
be used for small scale mango juice extraction in the
rural and urban communities and can be scaled-up for
industrial application. An improvement in the design
of the screw conveyor of the extraction chamber is
expected to improve the efficiency of extraction
process in terms of juice yield and juice recovery
efficiency; hence, this is recommended for further
research.

References

6. Results and Discussion

[1]

The results of testing showed that the average juice


yield, extraction efficiency and extraction loss were
34.56%, 55.14% and 10.15%, respectively. The

[2]

A.I. Ihekoronye, P.O. Ngoddy, Integrated Food Science


and Technology for the Tropics, Macmillan Education
Ltd., London, UK, 1985, p. 321.
J.B. Hans, W. Joachin, Fruit Juice Processing, Institute of
Fruit and Vegetable Technology, Technical University of

Design, Development and Test of a Small Scale Mango Juice Extractor

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

Berlin, Germany, 1986.


C.L. Hongvaleerat, M.C. Cabral, M. Dornier, M. Reynes,
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[7]

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