Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

Calibration Procedure

Instrument
Written By

INSULATION TESTER

: Eby Joy
QA/QC Engineer

Checked By : Miyad Hydrose


Technical Supervisor
Approved By : Izzuddin T Mohammed
Technical Director

1.

Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :

No: CI/01/I2
Revision :3
Distributed to : TD,LM,MR
All users. Original : QA File
Issued Date :
11/12/2014
Effective from :
15/12/2014

Purpose

Inorder to provide the written calibration procedure for insulation testers. Insulation
testers are used to verify that electrical installations are safe, to test windings on
motors and to test insulation resistance on various appliances. It is essential that the
tester provides the correct test voltage as the voltage may influence the measurement
results.
2.

Scope

The calibration requirements specified in this document apply to all portable didital
insulation testers. Insulation Test Voltage, Insulation Test Resistance, Insulation Test
current would come under the scope of calibration in an inulation tester. Uncertainty
budgeting of insulation tester calibration will be explained in this procedure.
3.

Location

The calibration will be carried out in the Lab or customer premises depending on the
customer requirement. For better accuracy, lab calibration is preferred.
4.

Environmental conditions to be maintained


Temperature: 22C 2C
Humidity: 50%RH 10%RH

5.

Master Equipment Used

5.1Transmille 3200A Electrical Test Calibrator(for Insulation Resistance Voltage, I.


Resistance, I. current.)
5.2IET labs Decade Resistance box for continuity resistance measurement or any
calibrated resistance standard.
5.3Standard Multimeter
5.4Multiproduct calibrator which can source voltage (if the insulation tester has a
voltage measurement funtion)
5.5Guard Function checker for checking the Guard terminal functioning.
6.
Calibration Capability
6.1Insulation Resistance- 10k to 100 G (Upto 5000 V insulation tester can be
verified, if using the adpator)
6.2Insulation Volatge- 50V, 100V, 250V, 500V, 1000V, 2500V, 5000V
Page 1 of 13

Calibration Procedure
Instrument
Written By

INSULATION TESTER
Sign :
Date :

: Eby Joy
QA/QC Engineer

Checked By : Miyad Hydrose


Technical Supervisor
Approved By : Izzuddin T Mohammed
Technical Director

Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :

No: CI/01/I2
Revision :3
Distributed to : TD,LM,MR
All users. Original : QA File
Issued Date :
11/12/2014
Effective from :
15/12/2014

6.3Insulation Current-0.5mA and 1 mA


6.4Continuity Resistance
7.
Reference international standards/guidelines/Manuals
7.1Guidance on the calibration of Insulation Testers, TG-02-01, South African
Accreditation body
7.2Transmille 3200 Electrical Test calibrator manual.
8.
Calibration Procedure
8.1Precautions before and during calibration
a.
Set the function switch to the appropriate position before measuring.
b.
Warm-up time for the reference instrument is 30 minutes and for the
UUT, refer the operation manual of the instrument. Calibration can only carried
out after the warm-up time.
c.
Do not try to calibrate the insulation resistance if it is damamged or if
metal parts are exposed. Also check the meter for cracks or missing plastic.
d.
Ensure that the test leads are placed and firmly connected in the proper
input terminals. Connect the common test lead before the live test lead and
remove the live test lead before the common test lead.
e.
Examine the test leads for damaged insulation or exposed metal. Check
test lead continuity. Replace damaged leads.
f. Ensure that the insulation tester is switched off when opening the battery
compartment.
g.
Always remove the test leads before replacing the battery in the tester.
h.
The instrument must not be low battery while carrying out the
calibration.
i. Remove the teast leads and the range selector switch to the OFF position after
use.
8.2 Insulation Resistance Measurement
a.
A resistor of known value and voltage coefficient should be connected to
the insulation tester for calibration(Refer figure 1). Connect the insulation
tester(unit under test) to the Black & Red 4mm terminals of Transmille
3200A(which acts as the standard resistor).
b.
Set insulation voltage range on the tester. Calibrate the instrument on at
least two points along the scale of each range.
c.
Enter the required resistance from 10k to 10,000M on the keyboard
followed by Enter in transmille 3200 to set the output. An alternative way to
Page 2 of 13

Calibration Procedure
:

Instrument
Written By

INSULATION TESTER

: Eby Joy
QA/QC Engineer

Checked By : Miyad Hydrose


Technical Supervisor
Approved By : Izzuddin T Mohammed
Technical Director

Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :

No: CI/01/I2
Revision :3
Distributed to : TD,LM,MR
All users. Original : QA File
Issued Date :
11/12/2014
Effective from :
15/12/2014

select the required resistance is to use the digital Control to increment /


decrement the digit indicated by the cursor. The Left and Right arrow keys allow
the selected digit to be changed.
d.
Measure the insulation Resistance set by Transmille 3200 by pressing the
test button in the insulation tester for 1 minute at the selected voltage range. At
the end of the 1 min record the resistance indicated by the unit under test.
Repeat the measurement for 5 times at each point.
e.
Care should be taken not to exceed the voltage and current limits marked
on the specification of the calibrator when applying voltage from the insulation
tester. While applying voltages above 5kV, an voltage adaptor needs to be used
along with the electrical test calibrator inorder to test insulation tester above
1kV voltage capacity.

Figure 1

8.3Insulation Voltage Measurement (Figure 2)-Method 1


Page 3 of 13

Calibration Procedure
Instrument
Written By

INSULATION TESTER

: Eby Joy
QA/QC Engineer

Checked By : Miyad Hydrose


Technical Supervisor
Approved By : Izzuddin T Mohammed
Technical Director

Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :

No: CI/01/I2
Revision :3
Distributed to : TD,LM,MR
All users. Original : QA File
Issued Date :
11/12/2014
Effective from :
15/12/2014

a. The output voltage is measured on each range to ensure that the tester delivers
at least the minimum specified voltage.
b. This measurement should be conducted at the load recommended by the
manufacturer, normal case we take the load as 1G. The output voltage
measured as well as the value of the load shall be stated on the calibration
certificate.
c. The voltage applied by the insulation tester can be measured by Transmille
3200 Electrical Test calibrator.
d. To measure the insulation voltage, Connect the insulation tester to the 4mm
sockets at the top of the calibrator using the set of silicon test leads, or the
leads supplied with the instrument.
e. From the Insulation Resistance menu displayed on the 3200A, select the
VOLTAGE function using the soft key.
f. Press the test button in the insulation tester to inject voltage to the calibrator.
Record the measured value in the transmille 3200 and the applied value from
the tester. Record the error.
8.4Insulation Voltage Measurement - Method 2
a. To measure voltages above 1000 V the following method shall be used.
b. The insulation Tester is to be connected to 1 G load(CB 101). Across the load a
mulimeter will be connected through a high voltage probe as the voltage rating
for multimeters cannot exceed 1000V.
c. Start applying the voltage across the load and measure the voltage across the
load using the mulimeter.
d. Check the error between the insulation tester voltage and the voltage measured
by the reference multimeter.
8.5Insulation current Measurement (Figure 3)
e. Select the required voltage range to be measured using either the digital
Control or the up / down arrow keys in Transmille 3200 Electrical Test Calibrator.
Ranges include 50V, 100V, 250V, 500V and 1000V.The impedance of each
range is automatically set to give the correct load 1mA / 0.5mA (see test current
below) at the applied nominal voltage range.

Page 4 of 13

Calibration Procedure
Instrument
Written By

INSULATION TESTER
Sign :
Date :

: Eby Joy
QA/QC Engineer

Checked By : Miyad Hydrose


Technical Supervisor
Approved By : Izzuddin T Mohammed
Technical Director

Figure 2

Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :

No: CI/01/I2
Revision :3
Distributed to : TD,LM,MR
All users. Original : QA File
Issued Date :
11/12/2014
Effective from :
15/12/2014

Screenshot of transmille 3200 display

Figure 3
g. Select the required measurement current using the Soft Keys. The default
setting for current load is 0.5mA nominal which is thecorrect load/test current
for the 17th Edition equipment -e.g. must be able to supply 0.5mA at the
specified test voltage.Older insulation testers (16th Edition) produced 1mA
current at the specified test voltage. The 3200A should be set to 1mA current
for these instruments. Very old testers may only produce a very small current
and the voltage will collapse under any load these should be tested using
additional equipment.
8.6Insulation Tester with Continuity function
a. Calibrate the low value ohms/continuity ranges by applying at least two low
ohm resistance values.
b. Note that insulation testers are 2-terminal and are often calibrated with the
leads supplied. This shall be reported on the calibration certificate.
8.7Voltage Measurement Accuracy
a. Calibrate the voltage measuring ranges at a minimum of two points along the
range
using transmille 3041 following accredited procedure (AC/QSP/029).

8.8Guard Terminal function Checking


Page 5 of 13

Calibration Procedure
Instrument
Written By

INSULATION TESTER

: Eby Joy
QA/QC Engineer

Checked By : Miyad Hydrose


Technical Supervisor
Approved By : Izzuddin T Mohammed
Technical Director

Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :

No: CI/01/I2
Revision :3
Distributed to : TD,LM,MR
All users. Original : QA File
Issued Date :
11/12/2014
Effective from :
15/12/2014

a. Where a guard terminal is incorporated on an insulation tester, the functionality


of this terminal shall be verified. This can be done in the following way by
connecting two suitable series resistors in parallel with the resistance being
measured. (See figure 1 below).

Figure:
Step 1 - Measure without the guard terminal connected (173 M expected)
Step 2- Measure with the guard terminal connected (1 G expected)
9. Accuracy Criteria
a.

If the UUT reading exceeds and adjustment of the same is not possible to make
it within the manufacturer recommended tolerance limit,then the instrument
need to be rejected without calculating the uncertainty limits.

b. If the UUT reading exceeds the manufacturer recommended tolerance limit and
adjustment is possible to make it within tolernace limit as specfied by the
manufacturer, then the same need to be approved, certified.The uncertainty
Estimation needs to be done and given in the certificate.
c. If the UUT is within the manufacturer tolerance limit without any adjustment,
then the instrument is approved,certified. The uncertainty Estimation needs to
be done and given in the certificate.

Page 6 of 13

Calibration Procedure
Instrument
Written By

INSULATION TESTER

: Eby Joy
QA/QC Engineer

Checked By : Miyad Hydrose


Technical Supervisor
Approved By : Izzuddin T Mohammed
Technical Director

Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :

No: CI/01/I2
Revision :3
Distributed to : TD,LM,MR
All users. Original : QA File
Issued Date :
11/12/2014
Effective from :
15/12/2014

10. Intermediate Check for the Reference Instrument


a. Intermediate check of the reference instrument shall be done every 6 months.
The reference instrument is used for calibrating an Insulation Tester @1G
load under different voltages (50V, 100V, 250V, 500V, 1000V). The results
would be recorded in a work sheet.
b. The same nsulation Tester is calibrated again with the Megger Calibration boxCB101 @1G load under same voltages (50V, 100V, 250V, 500V, 1000V).
c. Both the calibration results shall not have a variation of more than 1% from
each other at any of the points.
d. If a varaition is found more than the acceptable limit, a corrective action form
will be raised by the concerned technician and investigation to be done to find
out the root cause of the problem. A corrective action will have to be taken to
rectify the error. Until the case is resolved the calibration would be stopped
using the instrument in question.
11. Uncertainty Budgeting For Insulation Tester Calibration
11.1 Type A Uncertainty (uA)
a. Type A uncertainty is determined by the statistical analysis of a series of
measurements. Ten measuremnts are taken to find this random uncertainty.
11.2 Type B uncertainty (uB1, uB2, uB3, uB4)
a. All the other uncertainties that cannot be determined statistically, during the
measurement process. They fall in to the category of Type B uncertainties
-

Calibrator Uncertainty , uB1


Measurement error due to limitations of the UUTs resolution uB2
Uncertainty due to thermal emf of test leads , uB3 (Only taken in Voltage measurement )
I year specifications of the reference instrument, uB4
Uncertainty due to Drift, uB5

11.3 Combined Uncertainty (uc)


a. It is a summation of Type A and Type B uncertainties
( U1+UB1+UB2+UB3+UB4.) using law of error propagation.
11.4

Expanded uncertainty (U)


Page 7 of 13

Calibration Procedure
:

Instrument
Written By

INSULATION TESTER
Sign :
Date :

: Eby Joy
QA/QC Engineer

Checked By : Miyad Hydrose


Technical Supervisor
Approved By : Izzuddin T Mohammed
Technical Director

Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :

No: CI/01/I2
Revision :3
Distributed to : TD,LM,MR
All users. Original : QA File
Issued Date :
11/12/2014
Effective from :
15/12/2014

a. Expanded measurement uncertainty (or expanded uncertainty) is defined as the


product of a combined standard measurement uncertainty and a factor larger
than one to provide a certain level of confidence. It is combined uncertainty
multiplied by 2 (coverage factor k) to provide a level of confidence of 95%.
12.

Model Equation

Yi = Ym +Ymc UB1+UB2+UB3+UB4
Ym= Value from the master instrument
Yi = Indicated value in the UUT
Ymc= Correction from the master instrument
UB1= Calibration of the reference meter
UB2= Resolution of The UUT
UB3= Thermal EMF in the Leads (Only applicable if a Voltage measurement fearure is
available in the unit)
UB4= Drift in the master instrument.
13.

Formula used for estimating uncertainty

13.1

Type A Uncertainty (uA)


Stanard deviation (S)
Where n Total Number of

Measurements
S=
n
measurements

Xi value of individual
Xa Average of total

number of measurement
Xi - Xa
i=1
n1
Estimated standard uncertainty

uA =
------------------- Eq(1)

S
Page 8 of 13

Calibration Procedure
:

Instrument
Written By

INSULATION TESTER

: Eby Joy
QA/QC Engineer

Checked By : Miyad Hydrose


Technical Supervisor
Approved By : Izzuddin T Mohammed
Technical Director

Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :

No: CI/01/I2
Revision :3
Distributed to : TD,LM,MR
All users. Original : QA File
Issued Date :
11/12/2014
Effective from :
15/12/2014

n
where S estimated standard deviation.
Probability Distribution is Normal
13.2 Type B uncertainties
a. Uncertainty from Master Equipment Certificate (uB1)

uB1

Expanded Uncertainty
2

------------------- Eq(2)
Probability Distribution is Normal

b. Uncertainty due to UUTs resolution (uB2)


Resolution

-------------------

Equ(3)

uB2 =

2X 3

Probability Distribution is Rectangular


c. Uncertainty due to thermal emf of test leads ( uB3)

Equ(4)

uB3 =

Average of +ive and ive voltage of test leads

-------------------

2
This uncertainty contribution will be considered only in voltage
measurement function in
the Insulation tester.
Probability Distribution is Rectangular
d. Uncertainty Due to Drift (uB4)
Page 9 of 13

Calibration Procedure
Instrument
Written By

No: CI/01/I2
Revision :3

INSULATION TESTER
Sign :
Date :

: Eby Joy
QA/QC Engineer

Checked By : Miyad Hydrose


Technical Supervisor
Approved By : Izzuddin T Mohammed
Technical Director

Distributed to : TD,LM,MR
All users. Original : QA File

Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :

Issued Date :
11/12/2014
Effective from :
15/12/2014

Drift in direct reading instruments is defined for a specific time interval of


interest. The standard uncertainty for drift is

uB4= |Y0-Yt|/3
---------------------- Equ(5)
Y0- Measurement at Time 0
Yt- Mesaurement at Time t
Probability Distribution is Rectangular

13.3 Formula used for Estimation of standard combined uncertainty

uB12

Standard combined uncertainty,


----------Equ(6)

uc =

uA + uB12+ uB12+ uB12+ uB12+

13.4 Formula used for calculating expanded uncertainty


U= uc x 2 (k is the coverage factor which is =2) ----------Equ(7)
14.
Procedure
14.1 Type A Uncertainty (Random Errors)
a. Estimation of Type A uncertainty limit
1.
Ensure the indicated reading of UUT is within the tolerance limit given by
the manufacturer
2.
Take minimum 5 readings on each parameter and range.
3.
Calculate the average value for the series of measurement for all ranges
and parameter
4.
By using the above mentioned formula,calculate the standard deviation (
S ).
5.
Apply estimated standard deviation to Eq(1) above to calculate the Type
A uncertainty limit ( U1 ).
14.2 Type B Uncertainties (Systematic Errors)
a. Estimation of Imported Uncertainty (uB1)
Page 10 of 13

Calibration Procedure
Instrument
Written By

INSULATION TESTER

: Eby Joy
QA/QC Engineer

Checked By : Miyad Hydrose


Technical Supervisor
Approved By : Izzuddin T Mohammed
Technical Director

Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :

No: CI/01/I2
Revision :3
Distributed to : TD,LM,MR
All users. Original : QA File
Issued Date :
11/12/2014
Effective from :
15/12/2014

1.
Calibrators uncertainty is mentioned in the calibration certificate of the
Master instrument as expanded uncertainty hence divide the value by 2 to get
the combined uncertainty.
2.
Use the above mentioned formula Eq(2) to get UB1
b. Estimation of Uncertainty due to Limited Resolution of the UUT ( uB2)
1.
Resolution of the UUT is taken into consideration. The limit to the ability
of an instrument to indicate small changes in the quantity being measured,
referred to as resolution or digital rounding error, is treated as a systematic
component of uncertainty. Half scale of the resolution is taken and the
probability distribution is rectangular, therefore the divisor is 3 .
2.
Use the equation, (Equ3) to get uB2.
c. Estimation of Uncertainty due to Thermal EMF (uB3)
1.
Refer to the technician guide to get the value of uB3.
2.
If an electrical conductor passes through a temperature gradient then a
potential difference will be generated across that gradient. This is known as the
Seebeck effect and these
unwanted, parasitic voltages can cause errors in some measurement systems
in particular, where small dc voltages are being measured.
3.
Take the leads which are used for the calibration. Short circuit one end of
the cables and other ends are connected to the voltage terminals. Take readings
with the leads connected to the positive and negative of the voltage terminal
and readings taken with the leads switched at the voltage terminal.
4.
The probability distribution is rectangular, therefore the divisor is 3 .
5.
Use the equation, Equ(4) to get uB3.
d. Estimation of Uncertainty due to Drift (uB4)
1.
2.
from
3.
4.

Refer to technician guide to get the values of uB4.


Electronic instruments are expected to have drift. Drift can be identified
the certificates of two consecutive calibration done to the instrument.
The probability distribution is rectangular, therefore the divisor is 3 .
Use the equation Equ(5) to get uB4

e. Estimation of Combined Uncertainty (UC)


1.

Take the individual uncertainty values of Type A,


Page 11 of 13

uB1, uB2, uB3 and uB4

Calibration Procedure
:

Instrument
Written By

Sign :
Date :

: Eby Joy
QA/QC Engineer

Checked By : Miyad Hydrose


Technical Supervisor
Approved By : Izzuddin T Mohammed
Technical Director

2.

Sym
bol

uA
uB1
uB2
uB3
uB4

No: CI/01/I2
Revision :3

INSULATION TESTER

Source of
Uncertainty
Repeatability
Calibration of
the Master
Instrument
Resolution of
the UUT
Thermal
Emf(Error
due to leads
Drift

Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :

Distributed to : TD,LM,MR
All users. Original : QA File
Issued Date :
11/12/2014
Effective from :
15/12/2014

Probability
Distribution
Normal

Divisor
1

Sensitivity
Coefficient(Ci)
1

Normal

Rectangular

Rectangular

Rectangular

Add all

Combined
Normal
1
Uncertainty
Expanded
U
Normal(k=2)
1
Uncertainty
uncertainties above, using the Law of Error propagation.
3.
The probability distibution is normal because it is a summation of many
standard probability distributions. The divisor is 1
4.
Use Equ(6) to get the combined Uncertainty

uc

f.

Estimation of Expanded Uncertainty


1.
Although the combined standard uncertainty is used to express the
uncertainty of many measurements, some commercial, industrial and
regulatory applications may require a measure of uncertainty that defines an
interval about which the measurement value will lie with a certain level of
statistical certainty. This type of measure is termed expanded uncertainty, and
is determined by multiplying the combined standard uncertainty by a coverage
factor, k. The coverage factor is usually in the range of 2 to 3.
That is the expanded uncertainty of the measurement which is
multiplied by a coverage factor k=2,providing the level of confidence
of approximately 95%.

e. Uncertainty Budgeting for Insulation Tester Calibration.

Page 12 of 13

Calibration Procedure
Instrument
Written By

INSULATION TESTER

: Eby Joy
QA/QC Engineer

Checked By : Miyad Hydrose


Technical Supervisor
Approved By : Izzuddin T Mohammed
Technical Director

15.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :
Sign :
Date :

No: CI/01/I2
Revision :3
Distributed to : TD,LM,MR
All users. Original : QA File
Issued Date :
11/12/2014
Effective from :
15/12/2014

Documentation
Record all calibration points (includes applied value and measured value) in the
work sheet (AC/WF/003) before and after ( if required ) adjustment.
If the instrument is out of tolerance and not possible to adjust , it is forwarded
to the technical supervisor with a fault report.
Readings are enterd in to the central suystem along with all the details of the
instrument ( if calibration completed )
Certificate of calibration is suued to the customer.

16.

Data to be recorded.
a. Applied readings and indicated readings to be recorded in work sheet.
b. Applied readings and indicated readings after adjustment ( if need be ) to be
recorded in the same worksheet ( May use more than one page as required but
need to bind together and the assigned certificate number to be mentioned in
each page)
c. Calculation of tolerance limit and calculation of uncertainty values are to be
performed.
Prepare calibration certificate / service report as per the procedure

17.

Affixing the identification mark


a. The due date of calibration will be mentioned as per the clients requirment or
will be mentioned as one year.
b. The calibration sticker must be affixed in the instrument in such a way that it
doesnt block any of operation of the instrument.

18. Reason for Revision


Revision 1 : 1.Changes in the format.
2.Inclusion of documentation chapter.
Revision 2 : 1.Inclusion of Range
Revision 3 : The whole procedure was revised to meet the requirements of ISO/IEC
17025 standard.
Inclusion of Uncertainty procedure.
Date
: 11/Dec/2014

****END OF PROCEDURE****
Page 13 of 13