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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION OF THE PROBLEM


1.1 THEORETICAL ORIENTATION OF THE PROBLEM
Education is the basic unit that is responsible for individuals progress and
nations development. Positive change in any culture starts from the small community
(the classrooms and schools) and extends its force to the wider society. Thus, educators
have an important role for the advancement of any society and mostly for the youth who
represent the future of any society. Therefore, any society should seek to develop
effective education system.

India has a long custom of knowledge and education which has always been
appreciated. Accordingly, education has been assigned high priority in the state
development strategy and efforts have made towards the considerable development of
educational services in the country. Teachers play a very imperative task in educational
institutions especially at secondary and senior secondary schools. Today due to
advancement in each and every field world has reached in an era of internationalism
where education plays a significant role in personal and social development. There are
certain factors required for the success for any educational institution like Personal
factors namely motivation, commitment, study, Family factor like income level, marital
status, number of siblings, Peer-related factors like relationship of classmates, study
group members, friends and colleagues, subject/content factors like course structure,
grading policy, textbook, Institutional agent like faculty, advisor, staff, Institutional
factors like location, program reputation, scholarships and social factors like economy,
crime rate. Out of all these factors there is one factor which pertains to the motivation
level of teacher i.e. work motivation which largely effects success of educational
institution. Work motivation of teachers depends on many conditions like Job security,
work environment, organsational climate and most importantly leadership behavior of
heads of the educational institution.
Nature of job also influences the level of work motivation of teachers. If a
teacher is permanent in his job. Then his motivation to do work is low because he is not
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worried about his salary. Salary is fix in his case. If he does not do his work properly no
one can ask him to do work with sincerity. But on the other hand if a teacher is doing job
in a private school or institution then he will do his work with sincerity because of the
keen check by the higher authorities. All factors are related with work motivation of
teachers. Personal factors are related with work motivation of teachers because if
teachers have some problems in his personal life then he does not perform his work
properly. If the environment of a class is suitable for teaching learning process, then
teacher deliver his lecture in a motivated way. Apart from this it has been often found
that if the heads of any educational institutions have a good relationship with teachers
and cooperate with them in academic affairs then the schools outcome will definitely
improve. If because their behavior with teachers is positive and encouraging then the
work motivation of teachers will be very high which will ultimately affect the
performance of teachers on which success or failure of any educational institution
depends the most. So it is often said that leadership behavior of the head in a school
influences the work motivation of teachers the most .So the present study will focus on
the exploring the role of leadership behavior of heads determining the level of work
motivation of teachers.

WORK MOTIVATION
In this globe every individual has different reasons behind every work. But all
citizens work because they attain something as a result of work. This something which
once obtains from work influences their motivation level and the superiority of their life.
Some people work for love, some work for satisfaction while some work for personal
fulfillment. Whatever ones personal reasons for working might be the most important
fact is that all work for money. Whatever it may be called compensation, salary, bonuses
and benefits etc. Money plays a very important role in every individuals life. Money
provides housing, gives children clothing and food, enables teens to their colleges and
allows enjoyment of activities.
The quality of the educational system depends on the quality of its teaching staff
and that a school without human resources may not to be able to achieve the goals and
objectives of the educational system. Adesina (2000) also noted that teachers are the
major indicators and determinants of quality education. Highly professional teachers,
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who are dedicated, are really needed in schools. The strength of an education system
largely depends upon the quality of the teachers. Teachers are arguably the most
important group of professionals for any nations future. Therefore, it is disturbing to
find that many of todays teachers are apathetic with their jobs. It is well known that
many teachers lose or fail to develop self-efficacy within educational settings (Dweck,
1999). In addition, needs satisfaction and motivation to work are very essential in the
lives of teachers because they form the fundamental reason for working in life. While
almost every teacher works in order to satisfy his or her needs in life, he or she
constantly agitates for need satisfaction. Job satisfaction in this context is the ability of
the teaching job to meet teachers needs and improve their job/teaching performance. It
is crucial to determine that what increases teachers motivation.

Many factors have been examined in attempt to find which ones promote teacher
motivation. Pay incentives alone have been found to be unsuccessful in increasing
motivation. Sylvia and Hutchinson (1985) confirmed that teacher motivation is based on
the freedom to try new ideas, achievement of appropriate responsibility levels, and
intrinsic work elements. The national policy on education has

concluded that the

position of the teachers reflects the socio-cultural ethos of humanity. This is in the
context that today a teacher occupies a unique and significant place in any society.

Teacher work motivation is the willingness and strength both internally and
externally in any action or activity directed and diligently in order to achieve the teacher
job satisfaction and organizational goals that have been set, with the dimensions and
indicators: tenacity, the level of presence, responsibility, achievement, and
encouragement to achieve the goals of teachers in the works.
Work motivation enhances the quality of work. A highly motivated teacher
works hard to achieve the performance goals. Such a teacher will be highly productive.
Teachers job is to channelize the creative energies of students and inspire them to learn.
Teachers are not only professionals but they are regarded as leaders in their respective
communities.

The word motivation has been used in two meanings, general

commitment and specific needs of a person. In the first sense work motivation would
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mean work satisfaction and commitment to work, which is the general meaning. In the
second sense, it would mean a particular kind of motivation which an individual derives
from working in an organization.

Work motivation of teachers plays a very essential role in schools. It is a process


that is used to encourage and inspire teachers to perform their jobs thoroughly .Work
motivation is a process that initiates and maintains goal directed performance. Teachers
work motivation naturally has to do with teachers attitude to work. It energies thinking,
colors our positive and negative emotional reactions towards work and life. Motivation
generates the mental effort that drives us to apply the knowledge and skills in the field.
Without motivation, even the most capable person will refuse to work hard. Finally;
motivation leads one to invest more or less cognitive effort to enhance both the quality
and quantity of ones work performance.

It is observed that motivation does not directly influence work presentation.


Apart from that, motivation leads one to use their specifics and skills and use it
effectively to their work place.
Classroom climate is important in teachers motivation. If a teacher experiences
the classroom as a safe, healthy, happy place with supportive resources and facilities for
teaching for optimal learning, he/she tensed to participate more than expected in the
process of management, administration and the overall improvement of the schools.

Teachers have both intrinsic and extrinsic needs. A teacher who is intrinsically
motivated may be observed to undertake a task for its own sake. On the other hand
extrinsically motivated teacher may perform the activity to obtain some reward such as
salary. Motivation is a psychological process. Motivational factors show the
competitiveness in the organization naturally, Collin (1998) shows that financial
incentives get people to do more of what they are doing. Motivation is not the only
explanation of behavior but also interacts and acts in a conjunction with other cognitive
processes. Motivation is the management process of influencing behavior used on the
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knowledge of what make. (Mahajan, 2012). Work motivation is that process which is
used to persuade and enthuse workers to perform their jobs thoroughly and well.
Work motivation is also accomplished through employees review where strong
points of employees performance and personalities are pointed out. Work motivation
enhances the quality of work. A highly motivated teacher works hard to achieve the
performance goals. Such a teacher will be highly productive. Teachers job is to
channelize the creative energies of students and inspire them to learn.(Irum,2012).There
are many factors which effect work motivation of an individual like personal social
factor, classroom environment, socio-economic status, students behavior, reward
incentives, self confidence, personality of teachers and relationship of the teachers with
their colleagues etc.(Alam,2011)

Engagement among staff members contribute towards the staff motivation and
sustainability of organization. Similar view point has been supported by George&
Sabhaoathy (2010) in his study on Work motivation of teachers and its relationship with
transformational and transactional leadership behavior of college principals. In this study
total sample of all the degree institutions teachers in many college of Bangalore city was
taken Results of the study indicated that there was a significant positive relationship
between work motivation of degree colleges teachers and leadership behavior of their
principal. There was a significant positive relationship between work motivation of
degree college teachers and transformational leadership behavior of their principals
similarly there was a significant difference in the work motivation of degree college
teachers as per differences in the leadership behavior of their principals. Degree college
teachers whose principals showed high leadership behavior were more motivated than
teachers whose principals showed low leadership behavior. There was a significant
difference in the work motivation of degree college teachers and the transactional
leadership behavior of their principals. There was a significant main effect of leadership
behavior of college principals on work motivation of degree college teachers.

In enhancing the work motivation of teachers monetary as well as non monetary


factors in the form of challenging jobs also play very important role like a study
conducted by Mustafa, Othman (2010) states the effect of work motivation on teachers
work performance in Pekanbaru senior high school, Riau province, Indonesia. Results of
the study indicated that teachers work motivation of Pekanbaru State Senior High
School was in medium high level. It showed that teachers attitude to be successful in
their work was high. However, it is predicted that the teachers income was lower than
other profession which needs to be increased in order to enhance their level of work
motivation. The motivation of Pekanbaru State Senior High School teachers, although it
was in the satisfactory level, it needs to be improved in the future by holding various
activities, especially by the Ministry of Education and schools, to improve teachers
motivation and it must be done consistently to guarantee teachers educational quality in
line with more challenging education in the global era.

From the various studies it has been observed the females teachers are more
motivated to work than male teachers. Similar views have been supported by Saeed
(2012) in his study on work motivation of males and female secondary school teachers
in Karachi .In this study total sample of all secondary school teachers of Karachi was
taken. Result of the study indicated that female teachers are more motivated to work
than male teachers. This may be due to the fact that female teachers concentrate more on
their job without any external pressure. Moreover, female teachers are not facing the
financial burden of supporting the family as a compared to their male collogues. Male
secondary school teachers in most of the cases are the single bread earners for family.
They are looking for other options to enhance their income. It results into low level of on
job satisfaction. Similar view points given by Salamah (2014) in his study on work
motivation of primary stage teachers in Jordan. In this study total number sample of 312
participants was taken, out of which 156 was males and 156 was female participants.
Result of the study indicated that primary stage teachers in Jordan as a whole have
relatively good level of work motivation. Results indicated a significant difference in the
work motivation of male and female teacher. These results suggest that there was a
significant effect for gender on work motivation of the primary stage teachers.
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Specifically, results suggest that female teachers were found to be more motivated to
their work than male teachers. Suggesting that female teachers found that teaching
saturates their psychological needs and accommodates their role better than other jobs

Role of intrinsic motivation is more important than that of extrinsic motivation


as Mintrop, Ordens (2013) explored in the study about teacher work motivation in the
era of extrinsic incentives. The data set consisted of teacher and student surveys, lesson
observations, interviews with teachers and administrators, and lesson observations.
Results of the study indicated that, teachers perceive themselves to be more strongly
internally than externally motivated in their work, but this internal orientation does not
exclude them from valuing extrinsic rewards, prestige, and status. Second, the
relationship between work motivation and the pursuit of goals shows that in the three
schools precise goals are not strongly embraced by teachers. Diffuse commitments
prevail over precise goals. Third, the relationship between work motivation and work
behaviors (effort, persistence, and participation in learning) shows that effort and
persistence are correlated modestly with perceived difficulty of goals and a sense of
personal ownership of the work. Moreover, participation in learning activities is not
correlated with diffuse commitments, but more strongly associated with a goal setting
and feedback dynamic. Learning is especially strong when feedback signals or cues
competence. Overall, for further study bonus pay incentives in the three schools, we
seem to be dealing with two separate motivational force fields, one around internally
regulated diffuse commitments and effort; the other around goal setting and learning.

High wages and salaries play a very important role in deciding the level of work
motivation. Adjei, Musah (2013) concluded this term in his study on teacher motivation
in selected senior high school in the cape coast metropolis. 312 teachers from the four
schools are selected for research. Out of the total population of teachers, hundred and
twenty (120) teachers, 30 teachers from each school were sampled .Results of the study
highlighted that among the various motivational factors, high wages and salaries,
recognition for good work done and participation in decision making were considered to
be the most important factors that affect teacher motivation in the selected schools
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within the Cape Coast Metropolis. This could be attributed to the fact that, the current
prices of goods and services are very expensive and as a result, teachers would demand
high remuneration and salaries to take care of their families. This means that if teachers
are supplied with high wages and salaries and recognition for their excellent work done,
they will be highly motivated to work hard. This implies that teachers are motivated
when they see students achieving desirable results.

It is observed that there exists no significant interrelationship between the role


conflicts among secondary school teachers in relation to their work motivation. Similar
points have been supported by Sharma (2013) in the study on role conflict among
secondary school teachers in relation to their work motivation. In this study total sample
of 200 teachers including male and female teachers of government and private schools
of Ludhiana was taken. Results of the study indicated that there is no significant
interrelationship between role conflict among secondary school teachers and their work
motivation.

It has been found that organizational commitment of teachers is moderately


associated with their work motivation as gupta (2013) conducted a study to look at the
relationship among organization commitment, job satisfaction and work motivation of
secondary school teachers. With the total sample of 400 secondary school teachers.
Results of the study indicated that there is significant positive correlation between
organizational commitment and job satisfaction of teachers.

It is observed that in the teachers of high school teachers there is average level of
motivation towards work. Rakhi (2014) concluded study on motivation among high
school teachers. Total sample of 70 high school teachers from Ludhiana were taken.
Results of the study indicated that there is no significant difference in the level of
motivation of male and female high school teachers. Teachers working in govt. high
school were found to have high motivated on than private high school teachers.

Teachers perceive themselves to be more strongly internally than externally


motivated in their work. Same points have been supported by mintrop et al (2013) in a
study on teachers work motivation in the era of extrinsic incentives: A descriptive study
of their charter school in the USA. Total sample of the study was all the teachers in three
schools. Results of the study indicated that that teachers perceive themselves to be more
strongly internally than externally motivated in their work but this internal orientation
does not exclude them from valuing extrinsic reward, prestige and status.

It is investigated that female teachers get easily motivated towards work as


compared to male teachers. Rashid (2011) conducted a study on managerial creativity
and work motivation of secondary school tribal teachers in relation to their occupational
self efficiency. Total sample of the study was 180 both gender of tribal teachers. Results
of the research indicated that there exists a major difference in decision-making
originality of secondary male and female tribal teachers. Teachers have a significant
difference in work motivation.
Organizational climate influences teachers work motivation. Similar view points
have been given by Ladyong (2014) in study on organizational climate and teachers
work motivation: a case study of selected schools in prachinburi, Thailand. Total sample
of the study was 480 teachers. Results of the indicated that teachers have high level of
motivation in their work.
It discovered that teachers emotional intelligence and work motivation influence
significantly the teachers productivity in the school. Similar view points have been
given by Muraina, Nyorere, Ojo (2014) in their study on Work Motivation and
emotional intelligence as a correlates of secondary school teachers productivity in south
western Nigeria. Total sample of the study was 900 participants, randomly selected from
secondary school teachers in three selected States in South-Western Nigeria. Results of
the study indicated that by and large, emotional intelligence and work motivation have a
great influence on the teachers productivity. There is hope that with the improvement of
teachers emotional intelligence and work motivation, the situation can be changed for
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better. It is very crucial to improve these factors so as to eradicate the persistent


occurrence of poor report of teachers productivity in Nigeria. By implication, teachers
productivity can be improved through high emotional intelligence and work motivation
in the school system.

It is observed that job satisfaction of teachers in school affected by teachers'


work motivation. Similar view points have been given by Riyadi.S (2015) in his study
on Effect of Work Motivation, Work Stress and Job Satisfaction on Teacher
Performance at Senior High School (SMA) Throughout the State Central Tapanuli,
Sumatera. Total sample of the study was all high school teachers throughout the State
Central Tapanuli totaling 471 people. Results of the study indicated that job satisfaction
of teachers in school districts throughout the State Central Tapanuli affected by work
stress. The performance of teachers in school districts throughout the State Central
Tapanuli affected by teachers' work motivation. The performance of teachers in school
districts throughout the State Central Tapanuli affected by work stress.

LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR
Educational experts prove that effective leadership is important for successful
school improvement. The role of head of a secondary school bears a very significant
place in educational administration and supervision. In this era Leadership is an
overemphasized concept. The major cause for this is the boost of heads leadership day
by day and the school life is becoming more and more complex. Leaders assume a wide
range of roles to support school climate and student achievement. Leaders build the
entire school's capacity to improve. Many heads can serve as leaders among their school
teachers. The educators believe that leadership of heads is a potentially powerful
approach to promote successful, collaborative teaching practices in schools so that
school will work in a good manner and increase in students achievement, and create a
dynamic teaching profession for the 21st century. He remains solemnly responsible for
the all round development of the school plant. His capacities to grow the institute
through the comprehensive growth of teachers yield very wonderful results. Therefore
he must be well aware about his duty as an administrator. His skill to utilize the best
among his teachers paves way for excellent outcomes. His attitude towards his teachers
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reflects within the attitude of teachers towards the students in general and the entire
school plant in particular.

In the words of Jones (2000) leadership is a method in which an individual exerts


influence on other people and inspires, motivates and directs their actions to help reach
group or governmental goals. Apart from that Bendix (1966) thinks a leader should
acquire skills, perception, shape, technology, knowledge, memory, purpose, survival and
courage so that he can lead his clique with self-reliance and willpower. Leadership is an
integral part of management and plays a vital role in managerial operations. If there is
any single factor that differentiates between successful and unsuccessful organizations, it
could be considered as dynamic and effective leadership.

As leadership is considered very significant for improvement for individuals and


school performance, it has attracted the attention of researchers, theorists and
educational institutions, the role of principal as a leader has been a subject of
considerable debate and research in education. Changes in the education structure and
procedure from centralization to decentralization, education system allocate leaders to
use their power in organization administration. One of the core challenges of leaders is
how to successfully they develop their resources to motivate teachers and improve
teachers work value. India and aboard say that a principal plays the role of an academic
leader and administrative leader for a school. It is an experimental truth that the
effectiveness of a school is largely dependent upon its principal. His behavior has an
influence on the way a school functions.
The most crucial factor in any school is the leadership behavior of the principal
and the way through which the principal carries out his leadership behavior and how that
reflects the efficiency of school functioning. There are many factors which affect the
leadership behavior of the heads e.g. legal factor of the school, socio-economic
conditions and local educational concepts, work environment of the school, productivity
of the school in quantity and quality, creation of environment for the grooming of staff
members, Maximum utilization of human resources of the school. Leadership is the
driving force of an organization. It determines the quality and success of an
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organization. Leadership may be described as the totality of functions performed by


individuals and as group. Leadership is a organization is the quality of behavior of an
individual where he/she guides people and their activities into an organized effort. A
successful leader must possess certain basic traits necessary for motivating the
subordinates to improve results.
A highly kind leader is aware to his subordinates feelings and always tries to
make things pleasing for them. Leadership is all about influencing, motivating and
inspiring people to create vision and achieve it. In educational institutions, the principal
to be a good leader must have insight into the human problems and capacity to analyze
the emotional forces that motivate the conduct of the teachers and the students. The
principal is to create the culture of quality that touches even the smallest element,
processes and systems of an institution. A leader is one who leads others and is able to
carry individuals or a group towards the accomplishment of a common goal. He is able
to carry the followers with him, because the influences their behavior and he enjoys
some powers over them. Essentially leadership lies in influencing people to work for the
common goals.

Education is one of the factors affecting the physical and mental growth of an
individual. Today education is seen as a series of teaching, thinking, learning
experiences which serve to change students behavior in a specified desired manner. The
progress and prosperity of a country depends upon the quality of its citizens. The critical
measures of the quality of its citizens are the quality education provided to them. The
quality of education depends upon various factors. The teacher is, however, the most
important factor for quality improvement.

What makes an organization successful? Some management analysts believe that


the basic difference between a successful and an unsuccessful organization is its
leadership. Evidence (Schultz, 1982) exists that half of all new organization fails with in
the first two years and only one third survive five years. In most cases, the failures are
caused by poor leadership. Therefore, an organizations leaders are major determinants
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of its success or failure (Katzm Kahn, 1978). In other words, the successful
organization is one respect-the former are characterized by dynamic and effective
leadership (Hersey & Blanchard, 1977). Hence, leadership abilities are crucial skills
which must be learned and practiced to achieve organizational goals. They are the focus
of activity for principals through which the organizational objectives are accomplished.

Any organization consists of a set of people involved with different positions and
responsibilities working for the attainment of the pre-defined goals. There is a need for
an individual who can monitor the system, guide personnel, plan, organize and lead the
organizational activities toward sustainable development by achieving goals.

Leadership is a fundamental element of education. A great leader can motivate


entire community. A leader influence and he exemplifies in his own life and idea of
education. For the successful implementation of the educational programmer, the
classroom teacher, the headmaster, the supervisor and the administrator should assume
leadership role with full dedication. In a period of crisis and transition, the position of
the educational leader is more significant than any other factor. The task of the
educational leader is to become aware of the opportunities. Schools as the educational
organizations need some conditions to achieve their goals.

Although proper funding, adequate supervision, adequate educational facilities,


efficiency and effectiveness of teaching staff results into well developed education
system but the leadership behavior of the educational manager matters a lot in the
upliftment of standards of output. Leadership Behavior plays a very important role in
enhancing employee work motivation and performance. The quality of education in
schools and colleges is commonly to be influenced by the quality of leadership and
management styles of school leaders and education officials. The school administrator or
the educational leader is supposed to integrate ideas scientifically and creatively and also
mobilize time, materials and resources. Heads should also support the school
organization towards development and progress. On top of all this, school principals
should be able to direct their staff and teachers to recognize and perform their everyday
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jobs, functions and responsibilities for the education of children and, in the process make
them feel that they are getting satisfaction and fulfillment. They must be able to
influence the teachers to perform the tasks and functions without feeling coerces,
pressured or exploited; able to influence teachers to integrate their personal goals and
objectives with those of the school. Giving confidence, being adoptable, and taking risk,
being honest.

Leadership is the ability to gather individuals around some specific objectives by


motivating them to fulfill these objectives co-operatively. Leaders have some qualities
such as having vision, generating confidence, being adoptable, taking risk, being honest,
courageous and willing. Leadership is clearly becoming a more and more significant part
of a teachers professional life. However, this situation can only be constituted as a
result of the interaction between teachers and his/her students.

In general leadership behavior refers to how a leader structures the organization


which he/she leads using the leadership model that works. Similar points have been
supported by ekundayo (2000) in his study on principals leadership behavior as a
determinant of effectiveness of secondary school in Nigeria. In this study total sample of
all the teachers and principals of public secondary schools in South-West, Nigeria.
Results of the study indicated that

the leadership behavior of the principals in

secondary schools in southwest Nigeria is very encouraging which depicts the


transformational leader. It was also concluded that the schools were effective in the
affective and the psychomotor domains but not effective in the cognitive domain. It was
recommended that school principals should not give up in their efforts in sustaining the
leadership behavior in the school system. It was also recommended that the government
and all the stakeholders in the secondary education system should also try to support the
tempo of the performance of the students in the affective and the psychomotor domains
while frantic efforts should be made at improving upon the level of cognitive
achievement of the students. High level of performance in the three domains of learning
is what the schools must strive to achieve.

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Generally it is found that each teacher perceives his or her principal uniquely. A
similar point has been given by Oluremi (2008) in his study on leadership behavior and
practice of a head teacher in an excellent school. Principals leadership behavior and
learning school culture in ekiti state secondary school. Results of the study indicated that
there were variations in teachers perception of their principals leadership behavior.
Each teacher perceived his or her principal uniquely. This is constituent with other
research (Hall & Lord 1995 that has contended that leadership is implicit in nature and
based on information processing of individuals. Individuals have different perceptions of
leadership and leaders because they have different implicit theories about leadership and
leaders and process and store information differently. In addition, the finding showed
that one to one relationship between a principal (leader) and individual teachers mainly
characterize leadership in schools.

The study provided empirical support for

transformational leadership and one dimension of transactional leadership in schools.


Task focus, goal, excellence in teaching, task and performance instruction were
identified as dimension of school hearing cultures.

It is observed that heads behavior influence the academic achievement of students


Supurama (2010) is also supports this point in his study on leadership behavior of
secondary school head & academic achievement of students in mathematics in which it
was indicated that the product of learning that is many factors influenced the academic
achievement of students in mathematics at the secondary school level in the present
study

it is observed that leadership behavior of the heads have made significant

contribution towards the academic achievement in mathematics. Similar views given by


Tatlah, Iqbal, Amin, Quraish (2014) in his study on the effect of leadership behavior of
principals on students academic achievement at secondary level which revealed that
there is effect of leadership behavior of principals on Students Academic Achievement
as described by them but according to the observers who were senior secondary school
teachers there was not any effect of principals leadership behavior on students academic
achievement. The achievement score of the students is equal to 736 in the result of
effect of leadership behavior of principals on students; academic achievement. Whereas,
the achievement score is 407 in result of the principals leadership behavior according to
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the opinion of the observers who were the senior secondary school teachers. Thus a huge
difference in achievement score equal to 329 has been noted and the same is also
supported by the significant difference in leadership behavior according to them and
according to the opinion of the observers.

Head plays very important role for the school improvement. So to observe this
factor Siguroardottir (2011) conducted a study on leadership behavior of a head teacher
in building school leadership capacity. Data was collected by observations, examination
of documents, semi-structured interviews, informal conversation and a survey.
Participants came from all sectors of the school community. Results of the study
indicated that the head teacher has the capacity needed, both to succeed in school
improvement and to build high school leadership capacity, and that he has taken actions
accordingly. It is clear that leadership capacity has grown, and the school has succeeded
in many improvement projects. His personal attributes and leadership behavior have
been of great importance in the process of developing leadership capacity at the school
and for general school improvement. The findings showed that the head teacher is still
rather personally important for the school improvement. The future level of leadership
capacity depends on how well he will manage to involve all groups and individuals in
the improvement work and delegate more leadership.

To determine leadership behavior of the heads gender does not play any
significant role. As Shalmani (2013) concludes in a study on influence of gender and
type of school on leadership behavior among school teachers on total sample of 434
primary school teachers were from primary schools which indicated that Male and
female teachers

scored equally on leadership behavior. There is no significant

difference between male and female school teachers with reference to leadership
behavior.

There is a significant and negative relationship between paternalistic leadership


and work-related criticism. As a study by Cerit (2013) on the relationship between
paternalistic leadership and bulling behavior towards classroom teachers explored that
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the paternalistic leadership had a significant effect on work-related criticism, social


isolation, non-work-related criticism and attacks on attitudes and ethnicity. Yet,
paternalistic leadership had no significant impact on task pressures. According to these
results, paternalistic leadership was significant predictors of work-related criticism,
social isolation, non-work-related criticism and attacks on attitudes and ethnic. Primary
school principals performed paternalistic leadership behaviors was the midpoint of 3.0
on rating scale. The results showed that classroom teachers were the most ex- posed to
factor of task pressures, while they were the least exposed ton on-work-related criticism.
Correlation analysis indicated that there was a significant and negative relationship
between paternalistic leadership and work-related criticism, social isolation, non-work
related criticism and attacks on attitudes and ethnicity, while there was no significant
correlation between paternalistic leadership and task pressures.

It is observed that female heads of schools were high in interpersonal


leadership behavior than male heads of schools. Similar view points have been given by
Ntide (2014) in a study on Analyzing Gender Difference in Leadership Styles and
Behaviour of Heads of Schools in Tanzania. Total sample of the study was 222 public
primary schools from Kasulu district. Results of the study indicated that leadership
styles and behavior of male heads of schools were viewed as effective by most of the
respondents than leadership styles and behavior of female heads of schools. Most male
and female heads of schools displayed pleasing leadership styles and behavior,
leadership styles and behavior of female heads of schools were not fully appreciated.
There were variations in teachers perception of their principals leadership
behaviour. Olurem (2008) also concluded in study on principals leadership behavior
and school learning culture in Ekiti state secondary schools. Total sample of the study
was all secondary schools in Ekiti State. Results of the study indicated that individuals
have different perceptions of leadership and leaders because they have different implicit
theories about leadership and leaders and process and store information differently. Each
teacher perceived his or her principal uniquely.

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There exists no significant main effect and interaction effect between schools
under different managements and locale of school on Leadership Behavior. Similar view
points have been given by Sarvamanagala (2012) in his study on Influence of Leadership
Behavior on School Demographic Factors among Secondary School Teachers. Total
sample of the study was secondary school teachers, drawn from 99 high schools of
Hassan and Mysore districts. Results of the study indicated that there is no significant
effect of inter- action between schools under different managements and locale of school
on leadership behavior is retained.

It was found that heads belonging to rural areas perceive the administrative
problems more seriously than the school heads of urban areas. Same points have been
concluded by Bakshi (2013) in her study on leadership behavior and professional self
esteem of heads in relation to administrative problems in Himachal Pradesh. Total
sample of the study was 50 urban and 50 rural schools. Results of the study indicated
that due to lack of facilities in schools rural school were not functioning in a proper
manner. Environment is not suitable for learning. There is significant difference in the
perception of seriousness of administrative problems in the high leadership behavior and
low leadership behavior.

A majority of the teachers saw that their principal not showing enough interest in
their (teachers') welfare. Adeboyeje also found these results in a study on leadership
behavior of secondary school principal in ondo local government area, ondo state,
Nigeria. Total sample of the study was fifty-three secondary schools in Ondo LGA. .
Five teachers from each school were made respondents. So, in all, one hundred and
eighty teachers were involved. Results of the study indicated that there was no
significant relationship-between the dimensions of principals leadership behavior and
principals sex. There was a significant relationship between the dimensions of
principals' leadership behavior and principals' age. There was no significant relationship
between the dimensions of principals' leadership behavior and types of schools.

18

1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROBLEM


The welfare and health of the employees in an institution are the most essentials
factors required for the effectiveness of the institution. When the employees feel stressfree and happy, then they work better and do their jobs in a motivated way. The case is
also applicable for the people who are employed in any educational institution,
especially teachers and heads.

Success of any institution largely depends on the

motivational level of its employees. Further this motivation level is determined by many
factors like personal, social factors, class room environment, socio economic status,
students behavior, self confidence/personality of teachers and relationship of teachers
with their colleagues. Out of these factors one is the leadership behavior of the heads.
Work motivation is closely interconnected with the leadership behavior of heads. Where
the leadership behavior of heads is ineffective; there even the best school programmes
are unable to produce effective results.

Positive leadership behavior of heads inspires the teachers to work in a motivated


way. Although few studies have been conducted on leadership behavior of heads. But
this variable has been studied with other variables like self concept, academic excellence
and mental health etc. Similarly work motivation has been studied with other variables
like organizational climate, salary system, professional commitment etc. But the
investigator yearns to explore more about the work motivation of teachers that too in
relation to leadership behavior of their heads. This research study was intended to
contribute to the understanding about the work motivation of secondary school teachers
in relation to leadership behavior of their heads. So keeping in mind the above
mentioned points the investigator resolved to undertake the present study.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


The present study was an effort on the part of investigator to find out the
relationship of work motivation of secondary school teachers with the leadership
behavior of their heads. Therefore the present study is entitled as WORK
MOTIVATION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN RELATION TO
LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR OF THEIR HEADS.
19

I.4 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF THE TERMS USED


WORK MOTIVATION
Work motivation is the activation of goal directed behavior which can be
intrinsic as well as extrinsic in nature.

LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR
Leadership entails the set of characteristics that make a good Leader. Leadership
is the ability to gather individual around some specific motives. It means how a person
structures the organization which he/she lead using the leadership model for the work.

1.5 OBJECTIVES
I.

To study work motivation of secondary school teachers

II.

To study leadership behavior of secondary school heads

III.

To find out difference in work motivation among male and female secondary
school teachers.

IV.

To find out difference in leadership behavior among male and female secondary
school Heads.

V.

To find out difference in level of Work Motivation of teachers with respect to


Leadership Behavior of their heads

1.6 HYPOTHSES
I.

There exists no significant difference in work motivation among male and female
secondary school teachers.

II.

There exists no significant difference in leadership behavior among male and


female secondary school heads.

III.

There exists no difference in level of work motivation of teachers with respect to


leadership behavior of their heads.

1.7 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


I.

The study was delimited to male and female teachers of kapurthala district only.

II.

The sample comprised of only 100 teachers and 30 heads of secondary schools.

20

CHAPTER-II
METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is a process of systematically solving the research
problem. It is the science of the study which deals with the research to be is carried out
carefully. It involves the study of various techniques being used by the researcher in the
research problem. In order to realize the objective of the study, a systematic plan for
work is essential for solving the problem. This chapter deals with the method and
procedure keeping in view the objective and hypotheses of the study. This implies that it
is necessary for the researcher to select, design and employ the methodology according
to the problem.

Research method is a set of strategies and principles applied to execute a


particular study. It involves systematic procedures, tools and techniques to tackle with
the research work in a scientific and valid manner. It describes the source of data and
provides information about the tool to be used for data collection, analysis of the data,
interpreting results and to provide conclusion. The selection of the method and specific
design within that method depends upon the nature of the problem and research
hypotheses, and a kind of data that the problem entails. Keeping in the view the research
problem, objective and research hypotheses, the descriptive survey method was used by
the researcher for the present study.

2.1 RESEARCH METHOD


Descriptive research method is designed to obtain pertinent and precise
information and concerning the current status and to draw valid conclusions. So by
keeping in mind the nature of the study descriptive survey method was used by the
researcher in the present study.

21

2.2 SAMPLING
A sampling is a finite part of a statistical population whose properties are studied
to gain information about the whole. When dealing with people, it can be defined as a
set of people selected from a large population for the purpose of the survey. It is a group
of people, persons, objects or items from which samples are taken for measurement.
Purpose of this sampling is to draw conclusions about populations from sample. In the
present study the sample frame comprised of secondary school teachers and heads of
karputhhala district. The study was conducted on 100 teachers including male and
female and 30 heads including males and females .Considering the nature of data,
Stratified random sampling technique was used to collect data. . Stratified sampling
means when the investigator divides his population into different strata by some
characteristic like gender male and female, socio-economic status, or on the basis of like
residence like rural and urban people. The main reward of the sampling technique is that
it gives equal chances to entire population to be included in the sample. Apart from that
sampling frame comprises of a list of the items or people forming a population from
which a sample is taken. Basically, a sampling frame is a complete list of all the
members of the population that we wish to study.

Table 2.1 Showing List of Schools


Sr.No.
1

Name of Schools

Area

Govt. Girls Senior Secondary Banga Road, Phagwara


School

S. G. H. Kh. Senior Secondary Palahi


School

New B.C.S. Senior secondary B.C.S. Street, Near Basra Palace, Phagwara
School

National Model School

Arya Mode Senior Secondary Phagwara

Onkar Nagar, Khothran Road, Near J.C.T. Mill

School

22

Govt. High school

Hadiabad

Govt. High School

Maheru

Shri

Guru

Ravidass

Model Pandwa

School
9

G.R.D. College For Women

Hoshiarpur Road, Phagwara

10

S.G.H. Public School

Palahi

11

S. D. Putri Pathshala

Hadiabad

12

Govt. Senior Secondary School

Atholi

13

Shri

Guru Ram

Rai

Public Hoshiarpur Road, Phagwara

School
14

Govt. Senior Secondary School

Jagatpur Jatta

15

Sant Dass Public School

Urban Estate, Phagwara

16

Saffron Public School

Khothran

17

Lord Mahavir Jain Public School

Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar, Hoshairpur


Road, Phagwara

18

Ayra High School

Jalandhar Road, Phagwara

19

Holy Child Public School

Phagwara

20

Brilliant Public School

Shiv Puri

21

Govt. Senior Secondary School

Mouli

22

Sartaj Public School

Phagwara

23

Govt. Kanya High School

Chachuki

23

24

Govt. Senior SecondarySchool

25

Shri Guru Harkrishan Public Harkrishan Nagar

Nagal Majja

School
26

T. W. E. I. Senior Secondary Sham Nagar, Phagwara


School

27

Kamla Nehru Public School

Phagwara

28

Govt. Senior Secondary School

Rani Pur

29

Govt. Senior Secondary School

Bhanuki

30

New Public High School

Phagwara

Fig: - 2.1 Distribution of Sample

100 TEACHERS

50 FEMALE
TEACHERS

50 MALE
TEACHERS

24

Fig 2.2 Distribution of Sample of Heads

30 HEADS

15 MALE

15 FEMALE

2.3 TOOLS
Research tool can be defined as the instrument in the hands of researcher to
measure what they intent to in their study. There are different tools for collecting
information from the participants. The selection of the appropriate tool is guided by the
purpose of the study and the characteristic of the sample. In the present study following
tools have been selected by the investigator.
I.
II.

Work Motivation Scale by Aggarwal.K.G, (1997).


Leader Behavior Scale by Hinger.Asha ,(2004).

2.3.1 WORK MOTIVATION QUESTIONNAIRE


Work motivation is the activation of goal directed behavior which can be
intrinsic as well as extrinsic in nature. Motivation can be defined in terms of a set of
independent/dependent variable

that explain the direction, aptitude/and persistence of

an individual behavior holding constant effects of aptitude, skill and understanding of


the task, and the constrains operating in the environment. There are 30 items in work
motivation questionnaire. There are five options as a, b, c, d,e. This test measures the
level of work motivation. This test comprises many items pertaing to pay,
decision, benefits, and choices of change.
Following are the dimensions of Work Motivation:I.

Dependence
25

rest, work,

II.

Organizational Orientation

III.

Work Group Relations

IV.

Intrinsic Motivation

V.

Material Incentives

2.3.1.1 VALIDITY
Face validity- Face validity was computed by circulating the questionnaire
among 22 judges who were all practicing psychologists. Using a 5-point scale Judes
rated 24 items. Items related to organizations image having poor rating were dropped.
One item has four parts. Thus the work motivation questionnaire has 26 items.
Item Validity-In order to find out the item validity, item correlations with total
work motivation score were computed. All the items had high coefficient of correlation
with the total score significant beyond 1% level of confidence.
Factorial validity-In order to find out the factorial validity, all the items were
factor analyzed using principle component method.

2.3.1.2 RELIABILITY
Internal consistency of the instrument was found out by Spilt half method. The
reliability co-efficient by Spearman Brown formula was very high.

2.3.1.3 SCORING PROCEDURE


All the items are rated on five points scale. All the items are summated scoring is
done by assigning 5 to the most positive response and 1 to the extreme negative
response. So in this way scores 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 were given to each item respectively.

Table 2.2 Scoring of Work Motivation


Sr.No.

Alternative

Scheme

Scores

1.

(a)

Measures work motivation fully

2.

(b)

Measures work motivation to a great

extent
3.

(c)

Measures work motivation to some extent

4.

(d)

Measure work motivation to a little

5.

(e)

Does not measure work motivation

26

2.3.2 LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR SCALE


Leadership behavior scale intends to measure various dimensions of
leaders behavior effectiveness focusing on positive and constructive dimensions
subsequently A6 dimensional scale comprising thirty items is developed.
These dimensions are:I.

Emotional Stabilizer-Capable of providing emotional stability to ones


employees, motivating and energizing them to overcome major socio economic
hurdles.

II.

Team Builder-Able to have proper alliance, with clear communication


with members of the team so as to motivate them to work for a vision with
dedication, must also entertain multiple perspective by appreciating, converging
and diverging viewpoints for better achievement.

III.

Performance Extractor-Shows concern for the accomplishing of tasks in


stipulated time by instituting strategies that are adaptable to change for
enhancing overall organizational performance.

IV.

Potential Extractor-Focuses on development and utilization of skills and


abilities of individuals. The capabilities of a leader would lie in exploring and
channelizing the latent potentialities in a proper manner so that their fuller
utilization is ensured.

V.

Socially Intelligence- Develops relationship based on empathy, support,


challenge and respect with successive personal transformations according to
opportunities and situations.

VI.

Value Inculcator- The inculcation of value promotes axiological


potentials in the organization by percolating competencies down the various
levels of organization.

. This scale consists of 30 items, in which 24 items are positive and 6


items are negative. It can be administered to higher and middle level male and female
executives of private and public sector undertakings. The steps taken in the development
of scale are well elaborated in the headings of validity and reliability.
27

The scale comprises of 30 items having five alternative answers viz,


always, usually, sometimes, rarely, and never. The subject is asked to choose an
alternative for each item, which best characterizes his/her behavior.

2.3.2.1 VALIDITY
Construct Validity- It is determined by the extent or degree to which the items making
up a test both individual and collectively are true measures of the construct or process is
being tested.
Factorial Validity- Factorial validity of a test as determined by correlating the test with
a factor isolated by factor analysis.

2.3.2.2 RELIABILITY
In the beginning items were selected and they were given to the experts in
the area of management, human resources, administration, banking, non government
organizations and others. Besides, working leader in the public and private sectors were
also selected as experts.

2.3.2.3 SCORING
The answers of the respondents given in terms of five categories viz, always, usually,
sometimes, rarely and never are assigned scores 5,4,3,2, and 1 respectively, and
items(6,16,21,25 and 26) are to be scored in reverse order i.e.(1for 5,2,for 4,3,for 3,
4for2 and 5 for 1).
Table 2.3 Different Dimensions with Items
Sr. No.

Dimension of LBS

Items Specify

Item No.

1.

ES

1,7,13,19,25

2.

TB

2,8,14,20,26

3.

PO

3,9,15,21,27

4.

PE

4,10,16,22,28

5.

SI

5,11,17,23,29

6.

VI

6,12,18,24,30

Total Items

30

28

2.4 PROCEDURE
In order to conduct the present study, data was collected from secondary school
teachers and heads from kapurthala district of Punjab. As it was difficult to collect data
from all schools due to paucity of time so investigator selected few schools from which
data was collected. While administrating the tests, proper supervision has been done in
order to collect the relevant data. The researcher personal visited the different schools
involved in the present.. First of all researcher met the principal of the school.
Researcher requested to the principal and orientation them regarding the purpose behind
their particular research. Researcher promised that whatever data will be collected from
their school it will be kept confidential.
After the collection of the data, it was tabulated as per objectives of the study.
The scores thus obtained were statistically treate.

2.5 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES


Analysis of data means studying the organized material in order to discover
inherent facts. The data is studied from a many angles so as to explore unrevealed facts.
Analysis requires an alert, Flexible and open mind approach. In the present study the
investigator computed mean, median, SD t-value and percentages to test the hypotheses
in order to arrive at the conclusion.

29

CHAPTER III
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
The proceeding chapters of the study generally dealt with the theoretical
orientation of the problem as well as review of the related literature and methodology
study has mainly covered sampling, description of tools, and statistical techniques,
which were used to explore the data. The present chapter highlights the results,
discussion, interpretation and recommendations of the study.
The explanation of results and its interpretation is considered to be the mainly
vital part of the research as it verifies the hypotheses and thus leads to the final
conclusion of the study. In this chapter collected data has been tabulated and subjected
to statistical analysis. After the analysis the result were interpreted.
The present study was conducted to evaluate Work Motivation among secondary
school teachers in relation to Leadership Behavior of their heads. On the basis of the
results hypotheses were tested and conclusions were drawn.

3.1 Results pertaining to difference in Work Motivation among Male and Female of
Secondary School Teachers

Hypotheses: 1 There exists no significant difference in Work Motivation among Male


and Female secondary School Teachers.

One of the objectives of the present study was to find out the difference in work
motivation of male and female secondary school teachers. For this purpose standardized
questionnaire pertaining to Work Motivation was administrated on 100 teachers
including fifty male and fifty female teachers and their mean, standard deviation and ttest was computed. The results have been shown in the under mentioned table.

30

Table 3.1 Showing Means Scores, SD, t-value of Work Motivation among Male
and Female Teachers
Gender

S.D

t-value

Remarks

Male

50

100.56

13.28

0.52

Insignificant

Female

50

99.12

24.24

Graph: 3.1 Showing Mean and SD value of Male and Female Teachers
regarding Work Motivation

INTERPRETATION
It is the evident from the above mentioned table that the mean score for work
motivation of male and female teachers came out to be 100.56 and 99.12 respectively.
SD value came out to be 13.28 and 24.24 respectively. The calculated t-value for
difference in work motivation of male and female teachers came out as 0.52 whereas the
31

table value is found out to be 1.98 and 2.62 at 0.05 and 0.01 level of significance. As
calculated value is smaller than table value, hence the hypothesis i.e. there exists no
significant difference in work motivation of male and female secondary school teachers
is accepted.

This shows that there exists no significant difference in work motivation of male
and female secondary School teachers. Results reveal that gender does not play any
significant role in determining work motivation among teachers. Similar results have
been found in study conducted by Rakhi (2014) regarding work motivation among high
school teachers in which no significant difference was found in the level of motivation
among male and female high school teachers. The researcher is of the view that such
results came out because in this era both male and female teachers are highly motivated
towards their work. Now days there is a cut throat competition . Everyone wants to excel
in their respective jobs irrespective of their gender considerations.

3.2 Results Pertaining to Difference in Leadership Behavior among Male and


Female of Secondary School Heads.

Hypotheses: 2 There exists no significant difference in Work Motivation of Male and


Female secondary School Teachers

One of the objective of the present study was to find out the difference in
Leadership Behavior among Male and Female Heads of Secondary School. The results
have been presented in the under mentioned table.
Table 3.2 Showing Mean Score, SD and t-value of Leadership Behavior among
Male and Female Heads
Gender

SD

t-value

Remarks

Male

15

127.26

9.54

0.056

Insignificant

Female

15

127.06

9.91

32

Graph: 3.2 Showing Mean and SD value of Male and Female Heads
regarding Leadership Behavior

INTERPRETATION
It is the evident from the above mentioned table that the mean score for
Leadership Behavior of male and female school heads of secondary school found out to
be 127.26 and 127.06 respectively. SD value came out to be 9.54 and 9.51 respectively.
The calculated t-value for the leadership behavior of male and female heads came out as
0.056 whereas the table value is found out to be 2.04 and 2.76 at 0.05 and 0.01 level of
significance. As calculated value is smaller than table value, hence the hypothesis i.e.
there exists no significant difference in leadership behavior of male and female
secondary school heads is accepted.

This shows that there exists no significant difference in leadership behavior


among male and female secondary school heads. The researcher is of the view that such
results came out because gender does not play a significant role in leadership behavior
of heads. Similar results have been found in study by Shalmani (2013) regarding
33

influence of gender and type of school on leadership behavior among school teachers.
Results clearly show that there is no significant difference between male and female
school teachers with reference to leadership behavior. The researcher is of the view that
such results came out because male and female heads equally manage their school in a
proper way. They also contribute in similar way towards development and progress of
school. They influence the teachers to do their tasks without any force and their staff to
identify and perform their everyday jobs, functions and duty towards the education of
children. Both male and female heads puts equal efforts to create a suitable environment
for effective learning.

3.3 Results pertaining to Difference in Level of Work Motivation of Teachers and


with respect of Leadership Behavior of their Head of Secondary School.

Hypothesis: 3 There exists no difference in level of Work Motivation of Teachers with


respect to Leadership Behavior of their heads.

One of the objectives of the present study was to find out the difference in the
level of Work Motivation of Teachers with respect to Leadership Behavior of their
Heads. For this the investigator applied concerned tests. Results were obtained and data
was tabulated to subjected to statistical analysis.

Table 3.3 Showing Different Categories of Leadership Behavior of Heads


Leadership Behavior

No. of Heads

High

11

Average

13

Low

34

Graph 3.3 Showing Different kinds of Leadership Behavior of Heads of Secondary


Schools

INTERPRETATION
From Table 3.3, it can be traced out that out that 30 Heads are converted into 100%.
Total percentage of Heads of different secondary schools 37% of heads are having High
leadership Behavior, 20% heads falls in low leadership behavior whereas majority of
heads i.e. 43% falls in average category of leadership behavior.

Table 3.4 Showing No. of Teachers Falling in Different Categories of Work


Motivation

Work Motivation of Teachers

No. of Teachers

High

30

Average

47

Low

23

35

Graph 3.4 Showing No. of Teachers Falling in Different Categories of Work


Motivation

INTERPRETATION
From Graph 3.4 it can be found that out of total percentage of teachers of different
secondary schools , 30% of teachers are having High Work Motivation Level, 47%
teachers fall in average work motivational category and 23 % of teachers have low
work Motivation.

36

Graph: 3.5 Level of Work Motivation of Teachers under High Leadership


Behavior of Heads

INTERPRETATION
The pie chart shows that under the high Leadership Behavior of Heads, 39% teachers
are fall in high category of work motivation, 39% teachers fall in average
motivation categort and 22% teachers had low level of Work Motivation

37

work

Graph:3.6 Level of Work Motivation of Teachers under Average Leadership


Behavior of Heads

INTERPRETATION
The pie chart shows that under the average Leadership Behavior of Heads,

24%

teachers are fall in high work motivation category, 57% teachers fall in average work
motivation category and remaining 19% teachers had low level of Work Motivation.

38

Graph: 3.7 Level of Work Motivation of Teachers under Low Leadership


Behavior of Heads

INTERPRETATION
The pie chart shows that under the low Leadership Behavior of Heads, 27% teachers fall
in high work motivation category , 41% teachers are fall in average work motivation
category whereas 32% teachers fall in low level of Work Motivation.

Table 3.5 Showing the Level of Work Motivation of Teachers as per the Leadership
Behavior of Heads
Level of Work Motivation of Teachers
Type of
Leadership
Behavior of Heads
High

High Work
Motivation

Average Work
Motivation

Low Work
Motivation

14%

14%

8%

Average

10%

24%

8%

Low

6%

7%

9%

39

INTERPRETATION`
The above mentioned table shows the percentage of Work Motivation of teachers and
the Leadership Behavior of their heads. It shows that the leadership behavior of heads is
divided into three categories like high, average and low. Out of 30 heads , the leadership
behavior of 11 heads are high, 13 heads fall in average category and the 6 heads
pertained to low leadership behavior.

Apart from this, from the table it is clearly evident that maximum no. of
teachers i.e. 24% fall in average work motivation category and these very teachers work
under the headship of teachers who have average leadership behavior. Similarly 14% of
teachers out of total sample of teachers fall in the category of High work motivation
category whose heads leadership behavior is found out to be of high leadership
behavior category. If one has close look at the data then it can be easily interpreted that
out of total population of teachers working under the headship of heads with low
leadership behavior, maximum i.e. 9% fall in the category of low work motivation level.

So it can be easily seen that there lies a differentiation in the level of work
motivation of teachers

as per the leadership behavior of their heads. Hence the

hypothesis that there exist no difference in the level of work motivation of teachers with
respect to leadership behavior of their heads is not accepted. It is the responsibility of
heads to encourage the teachers to do their duties in a proper manner.

40

CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, SUGGESTIONS FOR
THE FURTHER STUDY
4.1 CONCLUSIONS
Interpretation of the data is the final step of research and it demands critical and logical
thinking in summarizing the findings of the study and comparing them with the
hypotheses formulated in the beginning. Conclusions are essential for an investigation as
they provide a finishing touch and critical review of the entire work. In the present study
the investigator has tried to find out the Work Motivation among secondary school
teachers in relative to Leadership Behavior of their heads. On the basis of analysis and
interpretation of data, following conclusions were drawn.
The hypothesis that there exists no significant difference in work motivation of
male and female secondary school teachers is accepted. This shows that gender
does not play a significant role in work motivation. Both male and female
teachers help students to transform students into better intellectual human beings.
The hypothesis that there exists no significant difference in leadership behavior
of male and female secondary school heads is accepted. It is revealed that gender
does not play any important role in determining leadership behavior among
heads. Male and female heads equally manage their school in a proper way.
Both male and female heads create a cordial environment in school.
The hypothesis that there exists no difference in level of Work Motivation of
teachers with respect to leadership behavior of their heads is not accepted as data
reveals that the level of work motivation of teachers is corresponding to
leadership style of their heads.

41

4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS
The hypothesis that there exists no significant difference in work motivation of
male and female secondary School teachers is accepted. But as per the data the mean
score of male is higher than that of female. It shows that there is low work motivation in
women. Although difference is not significant yet it lies so it is the responsibility of
government to frame such type of policies which will be beneficial for female teachers
so as to enhance their motivation towards work. In the process of policy making, women
teachers should also be involved. There is a need to provide conducive learning
atmosphere for teachers. Teachers especially women teachers should be sent on
conferences, seminars and workshops. It will upgrade their skills as well as motivate
them to work even harder.

The hypothesis that there exists no significant difference in leadership behavior


of male and female secondary school heads has been accepted. In this hypothesis the
mean score of male heads found to be higher than that of female heads. It is revealed
that the leadership behavior is not found to be effective in female heads as compared to
male heads. Time to time seminars, conferences, and workshops should be conducted by
the government for female heads so that they would update their knowledge. In service
training should also be provided to such heads.

Similarly results show that the level of work motivation in teachers is as per the
leadership behavior of heads, so there is requirement that heads should posses effective
high leadership behavior only then they will be in position to enhance motivation level
of teachers working under them.

4.3 LIMITATIONS
Research has forever several limitation. This is specially true in the case of
investigate studies because at the time of data collection, any individual may try to
conceal his/her negative aspects.

The researcher considered the following

limitations in the present study.

42

The present study was conducted on the sample of 100 teachers and 30
heads only. This sample is too small in size.
The data was collected mainly from the Karputhhala district only.

4.4

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY


Research is never ending procedure. Every investigator after completing his/her

piece of research inevitably become conscious of research in which further research is


needed and naturally feels motivated to indicate area which may be taken up for research
by other investigator With the experience in the ground of study the researcher suggests
the following suggestions for further research: The present study can be conducted on a large sample for getting a reliable
result.
The Work Motivation of teachers may be studied with other variables such as
professional commitment, role conflict and job satisfaction etc.
The Leadership Behavior of teachers may be studied with other variables such as
academic achievement, job satisfaction, Teacher Commitment to Organizational
Values, work stress etc.

43