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Basketball?????? ????

an open world,predecesplayed individually against a single


opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each pla
yer uses a racquet that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball cover
ed with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court. The object of t
he game is to play the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play
a good return. The opponent who is unable to return the ball will not gain a poi
nt, while the opposite opponent will.
Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society and at all age
s. The sport can be played by anyone who can hold a racquet, including wheelchai
r users. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the lat
e 19th century as "lawn tennis".[1] It had close connections both to various fie
ld ("lawn") games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racquet spor
t of real tennis. During most of the 19th-century in fact, the term "tennis" ref
erred to real tennis, not lawn tennis: for example, in Disraeli's novel Sybil (1
845), Lord Eugene De Vere announces that he will "go down to Hampton Court and p
lay tennis."[2]
The rules of tennis have chacentu as the grip, connected to a neck which joins a
roughly elliptical frame that holds a matrix of tightly pulled strings. For the
first 100 years of the modern game, racquets were of wood and of standard size,
and strings were of animal gut. Laminated wood construction yielded more streng
th in racquets used through most of the 20th century until first metal and then
composites of carbon graphite, ceramics, and lighter metals such as titanium wer
e introduced. These stronger materials enabled the production of over-sized racq
uets that yielded yet more power. Meanwhile, technology led to the use of synthe
tic strings that match the feel of gut yet with added durability.
Under modern rules of tennis, the racquets must adhere to the following guidelin
es;[36]
The hitting area, composed of the strings, must be flat and generally uniform.
The frame of the hitting area may not be more than 29 inches in length and 12.5
inches in width.
The entire racquet must be of a fixed shape, size, weight, and weight distributi
on. There may not be any energy source built into the racquets.
The racquets must not provide any kind of communication, instruction or advice t
o the player during the match.
The rules regarding racquets have changed over time, as material and engineering
advances have been made. For example, the maximum length of the frame had been
32 inches until 1997, when it was shortened to 29 inches.[37]

A tennis racquet and balls.


Many companies manufacture and distribute tennis racquets. Wilson, Head and Babo
lat are some of the more commonly used brands; however, many more companies exis
t. The same companies sponsor players to use these racquets in the hopes that th
e company name will become more well known by the public.
Balls
Main article: Tennis ball
Tennis balls have come a long way from being made of cloth strips stitched toget
her with thread.[38] Tennis balls are made of hollow rubber with a felt coating.
Traditionally white, the predominant color was gradually changed to optic yello
w in the latter part of the 20th century to allow for improved visibility. Tenni

s balls must conform to certain criteria for size, weight, deformation, and boun
ce to be approved for regulation play. The International Tennis Federation (ITF)
defines the official diameter as 65.41-68.58 mm (2.575-2.700 inches). Balls mus
t weigh between 56.0 and 59.4 grams (1.975-2.095 ounces).[39] Tennis balls were
traditionally manufactured in the United States and Europe. Although the process
of producing the balls has remained virtually unchanged for the past 100 years,
the majority of manufacturing now takes place in the Far East. The relocation i
s due to cheaper labour costs and materials in the region.[40]
Miscellaneous
Advanced players improve their performance through a number of accoutrements. Vi
bration dampers may be interlaced in the proximal part of the string array for i
mproved feel. Racquet handles may be customized with absorbent or rubber-like ma
terials to improve the players' grip. Players often use sweat bands on their wri
sts to keep their hands dry as well. Finally, although the game can be played in
a variety of shoes, specialized tennis shoes have wide, flat soles for stabilit
y and a built-up front structure to avoid excess wear.
Manner of play

The dimensions of a tennis court

Two players before a serveFor individual terms see: Glossary of tennis


Court
Main article: Tennis court
Tennis is played on a rectangular, flat surface, usually grass, clay, or a hardc
ourt of concrete, asphalt, or acrylic; occasionally carpet is used for indoor pl
ay. The court is 78 feet (23.77 m) long, and 27 feet (8.23 m) wide for singles m
atches and 36 ft (10.97 m) for doubles matches.[41] Additional clear space aroun
d the court is required in order for players to reach overrun balls. A net is st
retched across the full width of the court, parallel with the baselines, dividin
g it into two equal ends. It is held up by either a metal cable or cord that can
be no more than 0.8 cm (1/3 inch).[42] The net is 3 feet 6 inches (1.067 m) hig
h at the posts and 3 feet (0.914 m) high in the center.[41] The net posts are 3
feet (0.914 m) outside the doubles court on each side or, for a singles net, 3 f
eet (0.914 m) outside the singles court on each side.
The modern tennis court owes its design to Major Walter Clopton Wingfield who, i
n 1873, patented a court much the same as the current one for his stick tennis (s
phairistike). This template was modified in 1875 to the court design that exists
today, with markings similar to Wingfield's version, but with the hourglass sha
pe of his court changed to a rectangle.[43]
Lines
The lines that delineate the width of the court are called the baseline (farthes
t back) and the service line (middle of the court). The short mark in the center
of each baseline is referred to as either the hash mark or the center mark. The
outermost lines that make up the length are called the doubles sidelines. These
are the boundaries used when doubles is being played. The lines to the inside o

f the doubles sidelines are the singles sidelines and are used as boundaries in
singles play. The area between a doubles sideline and the nearest singles sideli
ne is called the doubles alley, which is considered playable in doubles play. Th
e line that runs across the center of a player's side of the court is called the
service line because the serve must be delivered into the area between the serv
ice line and the net on the receiving side. Despite its name, this is not where
a player legally stands when making a serve.[44]
The line dividing the service line in two is called the center line or center se
rvice line. The boxes this center line creates are called the service boxes; dep
ending on a player's position, he or she will have to hit the ball into one of t
hese when serving.[45] A ball is out only if none of it has hit the line or the
area inside the lines upon its first bounce. All the lines are required to be be
tween 1 and 2 inches (51 mm) in width. The baseline can be up to 4 inches (100 m
m) wide.[44]
Play of a single point
Main article: Point (tennis)
The players (or teams) start on opposite sides of the net. One player is designa
ted the server, and the opposing player is the receiver. The choice to be server
or receiver in the first game and the choice of ends is decided by a toss befor
e the warm-up starts. Service alternates game by game between the two players (o
r teams). For each point, the server starts behind
dsf 4

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Pisci srpske istorije II, Radovan Samard i


Pisci srpske istorije II, Radovan Samard i

Pisci srpske istorije II, Radovan Samard i


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dsafsd 34
First played
1891, Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.
Characteristics
Contact
Yes
Team members
5 per side
Mixed gender
Yes, separate competitions
Type
Team sport, ball sport
Equipment
Basketball
Venue
Indoor court (mainly) or outdoor court (Streetball)
Presence
Olympic
Demonstrated in the 1904 and 1924 Summer Olympics
Part of the Summer Olympic program since 1936
Basketball is a sport played by two teams of five players on a rectangular court
. The objective is to shoot a ball through a hoop 18 inches (46 cm) in diameter
and 10 feet (3.048 m) high mounted to a backboard at each end. Basketball is one
of the world's most popular and widely viewed sports.[1] The National Basketbal
l Association (NBA) is the most popular and widely considered to be the highest
level of professional basketball in the world and NBA players are the world's be
st paid sportsmen, by average annual salary per player.[2][3]
A team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the basket during reg
ular play. A field goal scores three points for the shooting team if the player
shoots from behind the three-point line, and two points if shot from in front of
the line. A team can also score via free throws, which are worth one point, aft
er the other team was assessed with certain fouls. The team with the most points
at the end of the game wins, but additional time (overtime) is issued when the
score is tied at the end of regulation. The ball can be advanced on the court by
bouncing it while walking or running or throwing it to a teammate. It is a viol
ation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it,
or to hold the ball with both hands then resume dribbling.

As well as many techniques for shooting, passing, dribbling and rebounding, bask
etball teams generally have player positions and offensive and defensive structu
res (player positioning). Traditionally, the tallest and strongest members of a
team are called a center or power forward, while slightly shorter and more agile
players are called small forward, and the shortest players or those who possess
the best ball handling skills are called a point guard or shooting guard.
sdf 34