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Oracle Enterprise Asset

Management
Using Meters in EAM
An Oracle White Paper
Nov 2014

Table of Contents
1. OVERVIEW .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1
2. WHAT ARE METERS ? ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1
3. BASIC SETUPS FOR METERS ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3
4. EXAMPLE USES OF METERS ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7
5. APIS AND TABLES USED FOR METERS .............................................................................................................................................................................17

1. OVERVIEW
The objectives of this white paper are to provide an overview of what meters
are and how they are used in EAM. The paper will look at the setups required
and look at some examples of using meters. There will also be a brief
discussion of APIs and tables related to meters. The topics covered in the
paper are :

What are meters?


Basic Setups
Some examples of using Meters
Tables/APIs used for meters

2. WHAT ARE METERS ?


Meters are defined and associated with asset numbers to measure the assets
(or rebuildable items) usage.
Example : odometer, counter.
Meters are used in Preventative Maintenance Scheduling to schedule and
generate work orders.
Meter Readings are entered at Work Order Completion. Meter Readings can
be mandatory or non-mandatory at this stage. However, Meter Readings are
mandatory for work orders which are generated by PM Scheduling.

3. BASIC SETUPS FOR METERS


The following setups are required to use Meters:

Create an asset

Create Activities: Meters are used to measure usage of an asset and the
main reason for doing this is to carry out maintenance work based on the
usage. Hence, one or more activities need to be defined for the work to
be done. BOMS and routings can also be created for the activity.

Create the meter

Associate the meter to the asset(s)


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Now define the PM Schedules which will generate the work orders for the
designated activities based on the meter rules.

Lets now look at the setups in more detail before exploring some examples:
3.1 We have an asset DTF3000. Here is an activity :

3.2 : Next - here is the Maintenance BOM created for the activity :

3.3 : Here is the Maintenance Routing created for the activity :

3.4 : Now lets look at how this activity is associated to an asset using the
Activity Association form :

3.5 : There are 2 ways to create a meter :

Create a Meter Template and then instantiate them when creating


an asset

Create a Meter manually and then associate it to one or more


assets.

Meter Readings can be mandatory or non-mandatory at this stage.


Meter Readings are mandatory for work orders generated by PM
Scheduling.

3.5.1 Lets now look at how the meter is created using the manual method :
Here is the meter used for the previous activity and asset : (not all the values
are shown in the screenshot they are as follows: type = absolute ; UOM =
Ml ; value change= ascending ; initial reading = 120000 ; rate per day = 200 ;
no of past readings = 600)

Explanations of Key fields used in defining meters :

Meter Type : This can be either of the following:


- Absolute = actual readings used and value field enabled when
entering readings.
- Change incremental changes are measured. Change field is
enabled for meter readings.

Source Meter : For example when a parent asset meter is updated, it will
update the child asset meter readings also. Example : A truck meter is
updated. This updates the child transmission meter also.
Value Change: Controls the direction allowed for meter readings:
- Ascending = Readings can only go up (e.g car odometer)
- Descending = Readings can only go down (e.g a liquid dispenser
which starts full and then the liquid starts to get used and is
reduced)
- Fluctuating = Readings can go up or down (e.g a temperature
gauge)

Used in Scheduling Checkbox : Meter is used in PM Scheduling

Required Checkbox : meter readings are required when the work order is
completed for the associated asset.

Initial Reading : Automatically used as the first meter reading entered.

Rate : Works in conjunction with the no of past readings to calculate daily


meter usage estimates based on historical readings.

No of Past Readings : Dictates the number of readings prior the schedular


should go to calculate the usage rate.

Primary Failure Meter (PFM) : This is the default meter used for Failure
Analysis (optional). Failure Analysis not a part of this webcast separate topic.

The PFM is used to calculate meter based MTBF and MTTR

MTBF = Mean Time before Failure


MTTR = Mean Time to Repair
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3.5.2

The other method of creating meters is to use a meter template.


The Steps are :
- Create meter template
- Assign it to an asset group.
- Create a new asset for that asset group
- A new meter instance will be automatically created for that
asset number. This is ideal for fleet management for example.

Next - the PM Schedule is created for the asset/activity/meter

This shows the last service date information:

Before I look at some examples I will highlight some points about usage rate
and number of past readings :
Lets say you specify the number of past readings on the meter definition as
10 and the usage rate as 25 miles a day.
If there are insufficient readings in the system for the meter - (e.g 9 rather then
required 10), the system uses the usage rate/day (25 per day) in the
calculation.
Otherwise, the system will use the historical readings to calculate the usage
rate which is stored on the PM Schedule.
A Tip : If you do not want the system to calculate the usage rate but use the
one you have provided, then use a very high value for no of past readings - eg
999999. After 1000000 readings, the system will recalculate the usage rate.
The new usage rate will be seen on the PM Schedule and will be based on your
latest meter reading and historical readings.
If you want to know the formula used by the PM Engine to forecast work
orders when using meters, refer to the note below :
Formula Used By Workbench To Forecast Work Orders (Doc ID 812166.1)
Another tip : Uncheck the flag 'Implement From Horizon Start Date if you
want the system to include past dates in the calculation and take into account
all potential work orders.
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EXAMPLE USES OF METERS :


Now I will consider some example uses of Meters.

CASE 1 :

1 meter assigned to multiple assets :

E.G : Test_Meter1 Assigned to Asset numbers ASSET1, ASSET2, ... Etc.

Readings are done on the meter.

When entering a value in the Meter Reading , the value becomes the last
value reading for all the assigned asset numbers.

Thus, entering a value for ASSET1 when completing a work order for
ASSET1 , will be seen as the last reading value for ASSET2.

CASE 2:

1 meter - 1 asset :

E.G : TEST_METER_1 is assigned to one asset number , Asset1.

And TEST_METER_2 assigned to another asset number , Asset2.

In this case when you record a reading for Asset1, it will the last reading
value for the TEST_METER_1, thus not interfering with TEST_METER_2.

Each meter will have its own values and last value.

Hence, if you need to track readings by individual asset number, you must
assign the asset number its own specific meter. For example if you want
to track the service of 2 cars using the odometer, you will need a separate
meter for each car you cannot use one meter for both cars.

CASE 3

User wants to create a PM definition so that work orders are not


suggested until the meter reading (say 100) has been exceeded.
Define a Meter with Rate per Day = 1 and Number of Past Reading = 9999
99
Create a PM with Meter rules for every 100 hours as the Interval
In the Scheduling Options: Use: Base Meter or Base Date to suggest Next
Service: Start Date
EAM Parameters: Uncheck the flag 'Implement From Horizon Start Date'.
Run the Forecasted Work from the Maintenance Workbench.

CASE 4 :
The User wants to generate work orders based on last service reading. Setups
are as follows:
Meter = Test_meter1.
This was defined as base meter on PM Schedule with :
Initial Interval = 1
Usage Rate = 5.249378
Base Interval = 100
Last Service Reading = 900 ; Date = 29-SEP-2010 13:20:35
On 10-Oct-2010 14:20:36, meter reading of 1000 entered.
However : no work order was generated.
Solution for Case 4 :
Base Meter is mentioned with base meter reading as 1, so suggestions are
forecasted from the base meter reading always - irrespective of last service
reading.
Base Meter reading=1, so PM forecasts work orders at following due readings
as the interval is 100: 101, 201, 301, 401, 501, 601, 701, 801, 901, 1001 and
so on.
Usage rate=5.249378
Latest Meter reading=1000, latest meter reading date: 10-Oct-2010 14:20:36
User forecasted in horizon: 29-Sep-2010 to 30-Oct-2010

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Lets calculate when due reading 901 falls on:


Left days = (Latest Meter reading-due reading)/usage rate
= (1000-901)/5.249378
= 99/5.249378
= 18.859377
Suggestion date = Latest Meter reading date +left days :
= 10-Oct-2010 14:20:36 + 18.859377
Suggestion Date = 29-OCT-10
Solution : Remove the base meter. Just use a meter rule in PM with
scheduling option : Actual Start Date/Actual End Date/Schedule Start
Date/Schedule End Date.

CASE 5 :
User wants to measure fuel usage for 1000 buses.
Possible solution:
You can create a meter for each bus. There is no need to create any work
order just enter meter readings for each bus periodically and then write your
own reports to analyse the data.
Use a change meter, with value type ascending and direction of Fluctuating.

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CASE 6 :
Can I assign 2 meters or more for 1 asset? For example , one is an odometer
and the other is an hour meter to measure engine hours. Whichever comes
first, the WO should be triggered. (WO to be created at 5000 KM or 2000
hours whichever comes first).
This is possible because you can associate multiple meters to an asset number
AND a PM schedule can have multiple meter rules.
As an aside a PM schedule can have BOTH a date rule and a meter rule and
the one which comes first will trigger the work order.
In the multiple rules region, you can specify the value FIRST or LAST (for
scheduling based on field) to deal with due dates (first or last due date of all
rules).
Lets look at an example of this :
Rule 1 : Odometer - 5000 KM
Rule 2 : 240 Hours
Scheduling Based On : First Due Date
Lets say the current meter is 4900 and will get to 5000 in 2 days :
PM will generate WOs only for rule 1 as it is due in 2 days. If you suggest a
period longer or shorter, it is not relevant, only rule 1 will apply. WO for
Rule 1 will be generated before rule 2 reaches its target.
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After a period, the PM runs again.


If at the next run, the 240 Hours rule comes first this time, then only rule 2
will be used for the chosen period.
Conversely, you can choose Last Due Date in the Scheduling Based On
region. In this case, even if rule 1 reaches its due reading, the service is
not scheduled until rule 2 has also reached its due reading.

CASE 7 :
Trucks of a specific Make and Model need to be scheduled for an oil change
every 30 days, or every 1000 miles.
Date Rule defined:
- Last Service Start/End : Date December 26, 2001
- Interval In Days: 30
Meter Rule defined:
- Last Service Reading 3000
- Interval 1000
- Latest Meter Reading 3100 (found within meter reading history)
- Latest Meter Reading Date January 1, 2002 (this can be found via meter
reading history)
- Usage Rate 25 miles per day

If the Meter Rule is taken into account, the next due date is February 6, 2002
(January 1 2002 + [(3000 + 1000 - 3100)/25 = January 1, 2002] +36 days),
and every 40 days after that.
This is calculated as the interval (1000 miles) divided by the usage rate
(25 miles per day).
The PM Scheduler process compares the above suggested dates from the
runtime interval rule, to those of the date rule:
Base Date of December 26, 2001 + every 30 days.
The Work Orders ultimately created by the PM Scheduler process are those of
the earliest or latest dates, depending on how the Schedule Based On region is
populated. If you selected First Due, the earliest suggestion is used for Work
Order creation. The opposite is also true if you selected last due.

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CASE 8 :
Use of the Intervals Per Cycle field. This field represents the number of base
intervals that comprise the complete cycle. For example, 12 monthly intervals
would comprise a 1-year cycle, and four 7,500 miles base intervals would
comprise a 30,000-mile cycle.
The group of maintenance activities on one PM schedule represents a cycle of
activities. After the cycle of activities completes, the cycle restarts. For
example, you can define a PM schedule for two activities that have a common
Base Interval of 7,500 miles. The first activity is an oil change, and is scheduled
every 7,500 miles.
The second activity, a tune-up, is scheduled for every fourth interval or 30,000
miles.
The work order for the oil change generates on each occurrence of the 7,500
mile interval and the work order for the tune-up generates on the fourth
interval occurrence.
CASE 9 :
Multiple Activity Example:
-

Inspection every 100 hours of operation


Minor PM for every 200 hours of operation
Major PM for every 400 hours of operation
Scheduling Option: Base Meter

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The above screenshot shows the PM schedule for this example.


The screenshot below shows the forecasted work orders :

The program will update Current Cycle and Current Interval Count when
PM work orders are completed.
For example at 210 hours of operation, two Inspection work orders and
one Minor PM work order have been generated and completed. The
Current Interval Count has been updated to (2). The Current Interval
Count provides a count within the Current Cycle, the Current Interval
Count is updated to (1) with the start of each new cycle.
The Current Cycle provides a count of the number of times a PM Set
(Inspection, Minor PM and Major PM) has been completed. In this
example, the Current Cycle remains (1), the Current Cycle will be updated
to (2) with the completion of the PM Set and the start of a new cycle.
When forecasting work orders for the next 30 days, note that the activity
"Minor PM" is not included in the forecast but the Activity "Inspection" is
included, the "Repeat in Cycle" controls if an activity will occur within a
Cycle.
For the activity "Inspection" the Repeat in Cycle is "Yes", for the activity
"Minor PM" the Repeat in Cycle is "No", the Minor PM" will be
generated once per cycle

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CASE 10 :
Can meters be associated to Asset Routes?
NO there is an ER for this :
Enhancement Request Bug 13807136

CASE 11:
The client wants to create a rule in a mass meter entry or when
completing the Work order, for example, to prevent the users from
entering more than 1000 KM/day or more than 24hrs/day.
This is not possible. There is an ER for this:

Bug 6402052 : ONDEMAND:EAM HOUR METER ALLOWS YOU ENTER


READINGS
WHICH
SET
USAGE
RATE
>
24
HOUR

CASE 12:
Entering meter Readings (at work order completion) :
This is done using the Meter Readings page in Maintenance Super User:

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APIs AND TABLES USED FOR METERS :

Import Meter Reading is an


interface process used to import
meter readings into eAM.

In addition, the
CREATE_METER_READING API
creates meter readings and resets
existing meter readings.

Execution Steps for importing meter


readings :
1. Populate the interface table with
the import information.
The Meter Reading Import process
reads information within the
EAM_METER_READING_INTERFACE
table, then imports that
information into the eAM
production table.
2. Launch the Meter Reading Import
process.

RELEVANT TABLES FOR INVESTIGATING


METERS AND RULES:
Select counter_id from
CSI_COUNTERS_V where
counter_name like'&meter_name';--provide EAM meter name stored as
counters in CSI table
Select * from csi_counter_readings
where
COUNTER_ID = 'enter counter id here';
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select * from EAM_PM_SCHEDULINGS


where name like 'enter problematic
PM schedule name'
SELECT * FROM
EAM_PM_SCHEDULING_RULES
WHERE PM_SCHEDULE_ID =
'Substitute schedule id here'

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Using Meters in EAM


Nov 104
Author: Zar Ahmed
Oracle Corporation
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U.S.A.
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Phone: +1.650.506.7000
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Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation. Various
product and service names referenced herein may be trademarks
of Oracle Corporation. All other product and service names
mentioned may be trademarks of their respective owners.
Copyright 2003 Oracle Corporation
All rights reserved.

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