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# JPN Pahang

Teachers Guide

## Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

CHAPTER 4: HEAT
4.1 : UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM
By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to

## Explain how a liquid-in glass thermometer works

Thermal equilibrium
:Keseimbangan terma

A

Hot
object

Equivalent to

Equivalent to

Cold
object

1.

## No net heat transfer

The net heat will flow from A to B until the temperature of A is the ( same, zero as the
temperature of B. In this situation, the two bodies are said to have reached thermal
equilibrium.

2.

When thermal equilibrium is reached, the net rate of heat flow between the two bodies is
(zero, equal)

3.

There is no net flow of heat between two objects that are in thermal equilibrium. Two
objects in thermal equilibrium have the same temperature.

4.

5.

(a)

Be easily seen

(b)

(c)

Expand uniformly

(a)

Opaque liquid

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

## Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

6.

( Heat, Temperature ) is a form of energy. It flows from a hot body to a cold body.

7.

8.

9.

10.

## Lower fixed point (l 0 )/ ice point

11.

Upper fixed point( l 100)/steam point: the temperature of steam from water that is boiling

Temperature, =

l - l

x 1000C

l100 - l0
l0
l100
l

## : length of mercury at ice point

: length of mercury at steam point
: length of mercury at point

Exercise 4.1
Section A: Choose the best answer
1.

## The figure shows two metal blocks.

Which the following statement is
false?

## A. P and Q are in thermal contact

B. P and Q are in thermal
equilibrium
C. Energy is transferred from P to Q
D. Energy is transferred from Q to P

2.

## When does the energy go when a cup

of hot tea cools?
A. It warms the surroundings
B. It warms the water of the tea
C. It turns into heat energy and
disappears.

3.

## Which of the following temperature

corresponds to zero on the Kelvin
scale?
A.
2730 C
B.
00C
C.
-2730 C
D.
1000 C

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4.

5.

Chapter 4: Heat

## How can the sensitivity of a liquidin glass thermometer be increased?

A.
Using a liquid which is a
better conductor of heat
B.
Using a capillary tube with a
narrower bore.
C.
Using a longer capillary tube
D.
Using a thinner-walked bulb

D.
6.

## Which instrument is most suitable

for measuring a rapidly changing
temperature?
A.
Alcohol-in
glass
thermometer
B.
Thermocouple
C.
Mercury-in-glass
thermometer

Platinum
thermometer

resistance

## When shaking hands with Anwar,

Kent Hui niticed that Anwars hand
was cold. However, Anwar felt that
Kent Hui hand was warm. Why did
Anwar and Kent Hui not feel the
same sensation?
A.
Both hands in contact are in
thermal equilibrium.
B.
Heat is flowing from Kent
Huis hand to Anawrs hand
C.
Heat is following from
Anwars hand to Kent Hui hand.

## Section B: Answer all the questions by showing the calculation

1.

The length of the mercury column at the ice point and steam point are 5.0 cm and 40.0cm
respectively. When the thermometer is immersed in the liquid P, the length of the mercury
column is 23.0 cm. What is the temperature of the liquid P?
Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C
l100 l0
= 23 5 x 1000C
40 - 5
= 51.430C

2.

The length of the mercury column at the steam point and ice point and are 65.0 cm and
5.0cm respectively. When the thermometer is immersed in the liquid Q, the length of the
mercury column is 27.0 cm. What is the temperature of the liquid Q?
Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C
l100 l0
= 27 5 x 1000C
65 - 5

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

## Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

= 36.670C
3.

The distance between 00C and 1000C is 28.0 cm. When the thermometer is put into a
beaker of water, the length of mercury column is 24.5cm above the lower fixed point. What
is the temperature of the water?
Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C
l100 l0
= 24.5 0 x 1000C
28 - 0
= 87.50C

4.

The distance between 00C and 1000C is 25 cm. When the thermometer is put into a beaker
of water, the length of mercury column is 16cm above the lower fixed point. What is the
temperature of the water? What is the length of mercury column from the bulb at
temperatures i) 300C
Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C
l100 l0
= 16 0 x 1000C
25 - 0
= 64.00C
Temperature, = l l0 x 1000C
l100 l0
300C = x 0 x 1000C
25 - 0
x = 7.5cm

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

## SECTION C: Structured Questions

1.

Luqman uses an aluminium can, a drinking straw and some plasticine to make a simple
thermometer as shown in figure below. He pours a liquid with linear expansion into the
can.

## (a) Suggest a kind of liquid that expands linearly. (1m)

Alkohol
.
(b) He chooses two fixed points of Celsius scale to calibrate his thermometer. State them
(2m)
Lower fixed point = freezing point of water.

## Upper fixed point = boiling point of water

(c) If the measurement length of the liquid inside the straw at the temperature of the lower
fixed point and the upper fixed point are 5cm and 16 cm respectively, find the length of
the liquid at 82.50C.

100 = 82.5
16-5
x5
100x 500 = 907.5
x = 14.08cm

## (d) Why should he use a drinking straw of small diameter?

To increases the sensitivity of the thermometer

(e) What kind of action should he take if he wants to increase the sensitivity of his
thermometer?
Use a copper can instead of the aluminum can because it is a better thermal

conductor

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Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

2.

## What do you mean by heat and temperature?

Heat
is the energy that transfers from one object to another object because of a
....
temperature
difference between them.

Temperature
is a measure of degree of hotness of a body.

4.2

## : UNDERSTANDING SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY

By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to

## Solve problems involving specific heat capacity

1.

Heat capacity
Muatan haba
Specific heat capacity
Muatan haba tentu

The heat capacity of a body is the amount of heat that must be supplied to the
body to increase its temperature by 10C.

2.
(a)
(b)
(c)
3.

## The heat capacity of an object depends on the

Temperature
of the body
.
Mass
of the body
.
Type
of material

The specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount of heat that must be

## supplied to increase the temperature by 1 0C for a mass of 1 kg of the substance. Unit

Jkg-1 K-1
Specific heat capacity , c =

Q__
m

4.

## The heat energy absorbed or given out by an object is given by Q = mcO.

5.

High specific heat capacity absorb a large amount of heat with only a small
temperature increase such as plastics.

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

6.

## Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

Conversion of energy

Electrical energy
Electrical
energy

Heater
Power = P

Potential energy

A high position

Kinetic energy

due to friction

Heat energy
Pt = mc

Heat energy
mgh= mc

Heat energy
mv2= mc

Power = P

7.

Faster increase
in temperature
Small value of c

Slower increase
in temperature
Two object of
equal mass

Big value of c

Equal rate of
heat supplied

(a)
(i)

## Water as a coolant in a car engine

Water is a has high specific heat capacity. It is used as a cooling agent to prevent
overheating of the engine .Therefore, water acts as a heat reservoir as it can
absorb a great amount of heat with small increase in temperature.

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(b)

Chapter 4: Heat

## Household apparatus and utensils

-The base and the body of a cooking pot is made up of material that has small
specific heat capacity so that it can absorb heat faster and become hot quickly.
-The handle of cooking pot is made up of wood that has large specific heat capacity
so that the handle become not too hot (also acts as insulator).

(c)

Sea breeze

(d)

Land breeze

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

## Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

Exercise 4.2
SECTION A : Choose the best answer
1.

## The change in the temperature of

an object does not depend on
A. the mass of the object
B. the type of substance the object is
C. the shape of the object
D. the quantity of heat received

2.

## Which of the following defines

the specific heat capacity of a substance
correctly?
A. The amount of heat energy required
to raise the temperature of 1kg of the
substance
B. The amount of heat energy
required to raise 1kg of the
substance by 10C.
C. The amount of heat energy required
to change 1kg of the substance from
the solid state to the liquid state.

3.

## ethanol. The temperature of the ethanol

rises faster. This is because the ethanol..
A. is denser than water
B. is less dense than water
C. has a larger specific heat capacity
than water
D. has a smaller specific heat capacity
than water
4.

## Heat energy is supplied at the

same rate to 250g of water and 250g of

## In the experiment to determine

the specific heat capacity of a metal
block, some oil is poured into the hole
containing thermometer. Why is this
done?
A. To ensure a better conduction of
heat
B. To reduce the consumption of
electrical energy
C. To ensure the thermometer is in an
upright position.
D. To reduce the friction between the
thermometer and the wall of the
block.

## SECTION B: Answer all questions by showing the calculation

1.

How much heat energy is required to raise the temperature of a 4kg iron bar from
320C to 520C? (Specific heat capacity of iron = 452 Jkg-1 0C-1).
Amount of heat energy required, Q = mc
= 4 x 452 x (52-32)
= 36 160 J

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2.

Chapter 4: Heat

## Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 0.8 kg of

copper from 350C to 600C. (Specific heat capacity of copper = 400 J kg-1 C-1).
Amount of heat required, Q = mc
= 0.8 x 400 x (60-35)
= 8 000 J

3.

## Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 2.5 kg of

water from 320C to 820C. (Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 C-1).
Amount of heat required, Q = mc
= 2.5 x 4200 x (82-32)
= 525, 000 J

4.

750g block of a aluminium at 1200C is cooled until 450C. Find the amount of
heat is released. . (Specific heat capacity of aluminium = 900 J kg-1 C-1).
Amount of heat released, Q = mc
= 0.75 x 900 x (120-45)
= 50 625 J

5.

0.2 kg of water at 700C is mixed with 0.6 kg of water at 30 0C. Assuming that
no heat is lost, find the final temperature of the mixture. (Specific heat capacity of water
= 4200 J kg-1 C-1)
Amount of heat required, Q = Amount of heat released, Q
mc = mc
0.2 x 4200 x ( 70- ) = 0.6 x 4200 x ( - 30)
= 40 0C

10

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

## SECTION C: Structured questions

In figure below, block A of mass 5kg at temperature 100 0C is in contact with

1.

## another block B of mass 2.25kg at temperature 200C.

5kg
2.25kg
A
B
1000C
200C
Assume that there is no energy loss to the surroundings.
(a)

## Find the final temperature of A and B if they are in thermal equilibrium.

Given the specific heat capacity of A and B are 900 Jkg-1 C-1 and 400 Jkg-1 C-1
respectively.
Amount of heat required, Q = Amount of heat released, Q
mc = mc
5.0x 900 x ( 100- ) = 2.25 x 400 x ( - 20)
= 86.670C

(b)

## Find the energy given by A during the process.

Energy given = mc
= 5 x 900 x (100 86.67)
= 60 000 J

(c)

## Suggest one method to reduce the energy loss to the surroundings.

Put them in a sealed polystyrene box// wrap them with
..
thick tissue paper // thick cloth//felt cloth

11

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Teachers Guide

4.3

Chapter 4: Heat

## By the of this subtopic, you will be able to

State that transfer of heat during a change of phase does not cause a change in
temperature

## State that l = Q/m

Determine the specific latent heat of fusion and specific latent heat of vaporisation

1.

## Four main changes of phase.

Gas
Boiling
Latent heat absorbed

Solid

2.

Solidification
Latent heat released

Condensation
Latent heat released

Liquid

The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant temperature during a change of
phase is known as latent heat. Q= ml

3.

Temperature
Complete the diagrams below and summarized.

(a) Melting

12
Time

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

## Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

(b) Boiling

Temperature

Time

(c) Solidification
Temperature

Time

(d) Condensation

Temperature

13
Time

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Teachers Guide

4.

Chapter 4: Heat

## Latent heat of fusion

is the heat absorbed by a melting solid. The specific
latent heat of fusion is the quantity of the heat needed to change 1kg of solid to a liquid at
temperature
its melting point without any increase in .. The S.I unit of the
specific latent heat of fusion is Jkg-1.

( melting)

water

ice
heat lost
( freezing)

5.

...

## is heat of vaporisation is heat absorbed during

boiling. The specific latent heat of vaporisation is the quantity of heat needed to change 1kg
temperature
of liquid into gas or vapour of its boiling point without any change in
.. The S.I unit is Jkg-1.
Latent heat absorbed
( boiling)

gas

water
heat lost
( condensation)
14

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6.

Chapter 4: Heat

## Explain the application of Specific Latent Heat above:

(d)

Cooling of beverage
When ice melts, its large latent heat is absorbed from surroundings. This property

makes ice a suitable substance for use as a coolant to maintain other substance at a

low temperature. Beverage can be cooled by adding in several cubes of ice. When the

ice melts a large amount of heat (latent heat) is absorbed and this lowers the

## temperature of the drink.

(e)

Preservation of Food
The freshness of foodstuff such as fish and meat can be maintain by placing

them in contact with ice. With its large latent heat, ice is able to absorb a large

quantity of heat from the foodstuff as its melts. Thus food can be kept at a low

## temperature for an extended period of time.

(f)

Steaming Food
Food is cooked faster if steamed. When food is steamed, the condensed water

vapour releases a quantity of latent heat and heat capacity. This heat flows to the

(g)

## Killing of Germs and Bacteria

Steam that releases a large quantity of heat is used in the autoclave to kill germs

15

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

EXERCISE 4.3
Section A:
1.

## The graph in figure below shows

how the temperature of some wax
changes as it cools from liquid to solid.
Which section of the graph would the
wax be a mixture of solid and liquid?

## A. The time taken for the ice to melt

B. The voltage of the electricity supply
C. The mass of water produced by
melting ice
D. The temperature change of the ice.

3.

A.
B.
C.
D.
2.

## It is possible to cook food much

faster with a pressure cooker as shown
above. Why is it easier to cook food
using a pressure cooker?

PQ
QR
RS
ST

## Figure show a joulemeter used for

measuring the electrical energy to melt
some ice in an experiment. To find the
specific latent heat of fusion of ice, what
must be measured?

## A. More heat energy can be supplied to

the pressure cooker
B. Heat loss from the pressure cooker
can be reduced.
C. Boiling point of water in the
pressure cooker is raised
D. Food absorbs more heat energy from
the high pressure steam

16

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Teachers Guide

4.

Chapter 4: Heat

## Which of the following is not a

characteristics of water that makes it
widely used as a cooling agent?
A. Water is readily available
B. Water does not react with many other
substance
C. Water has a large specific heat
capacity
D. Water has a large density
A. determining the rate of melting of ice
B. ensuring that the ice does not melt
too fast.
C. determining the average value of the
specific latent heat of fusion of ice.
D. determining the mass of ice that
melts as a result of heat from the
surroundings
6.

5.

## Figure below shows the experiment

set up to determine the specific latent
heat of fusion of ice. A control of the
experiment is set up as shown in Figure
(a) with the aim of

## Scalding of the skin by boiling water

is less serious then by steam. This is
because
A. the boiling point of water is less than
the temperature of steam
B. the heat of boiling water is quickly
lost to the surroundings
C. steam has a high specific latent
heat.
D. Steam has a high specific heat
capacity.

## SECTION B: Answer the question by showing the calculation

300g of ice at 00C melts. How much energy is required for this

2.
Q = ml

## = 0.3 x 334 000 kJ kg-1

= 100200 J
Question 2-7 are based on the following information

17

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

## Specific latent heat of vaporization of water = 2.26 X 106 J kg-1

An immersion heater rated at 500 W is fitted into a large block of ice at 0 0C.

3.

## How long does it take to melt 1.5kg of ice?

Q = ml
Pt = 1.5 x 3.34 x 105
500 x t
t

= 501 000
= 1002 s
300 g of water at 400C is mixed with x g of water at 800C. The final

4.

x = 0.9 kg

5.

water at 00C.
668000 J

## Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 3 kg of ice at 00C to water at

6.
300C.

1.38 x 106 J
Find the amount of heat needed to convert 0.5 kg of ice at -150C into steam at

7.
1000C

1.523 x 106 J

Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 100 g of ice at 0 0C into steam

8.
at 1000C.

18

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

## Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

3.014 x 105 J
9.

The specific latent heat of vaporization of water is 2300 kJ kg-. How much
heat will be absorbed when 3.2 kg of water is boiled off at its boiling point.
7360 kJ / 7360 000 J

4.4

## By the end of this subtopic; you will be able to :

Explain gas pressure, temperature and volume in terms of the behavior of gas molecules.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

## Explain absolute zero and the absolute/Kelvin scale of temperature

Solve problems involving pressure, temperature and volume of a fixed mass of gas

1.

## Complete the table below.

Property of gas
Volume,V

m3

Explanation
The molecules move freely in random motion and fill up
the whole space in the container.

container

Temperature,T

K (Kelvin)

## The molecules are in continuous random motion and have

an average kinetic energy which is proportional to the
temperature.

Pressure,P

Pa(Pascal)

19

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Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

## and bounces back, there is a change in momentum and a force

is exerted on the wall

2.

## The kinetic theory of gas is based on the following assumptions:

(a) The molecules in a gas move freely in random motion and posses kinetic energy
(b) The force of attraction between the molecules are negligible.
(c) The collisions of the molecules with each other and with the walls of the container are
elastic collisions

4.4.1

Boyles Law

P1
V
That is PV = constant
Or P V = P V
1

Small volume
molecules hit wall
more often, greater
pressure

## Relationship between pressure and volume

1.

Boyles law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is inversely
proportional to its volume when the temperature is kept constant.

2.

P

1/V

20

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3.

## Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

The volume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of 50 m deep is 250cm 3. If the
atmospheric pressure is 10m of water, find the volume of the air bubble when it reaches
the surface of the sea.
P2= 10m

P1V1 = P2V2
60m (250 x 10-6)m3 = 10m x V2
1.5 x 10-3 m3
= V2

PI=50m + 10m

4.4.2

Charless Law
V1=250cm3

VT
that is V = constant
T

Higher temperature,
faster molecules,
larger volume to keep
the pressure constant

Relationship between
volume and temperature

Lower temperature

1.

Charles law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the volume of the gas is directly
proportional to its absolute temperature when its pressure is kept constant.

2.

The temperature -2730C is the lowest possible temperature and is known as the absolute
zero of temperature.

3.

Temperature
Absolute zero
Ice point
Steam point
Unknown point

4.

-273
0
100

Kelvin Scale(K)
0
273
373
( + 273 )

V/m3

21
-273

100

/0C

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4.4.3

## Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

Pressures Law

PT
That is P = constant
T

## Relationship between pressure

and temperature

1.

Higher temperature
molecules move
faster, greater
pressure

The pressure law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is directly
proportional to its absolute temperature when its volume is kept constant.

## EXERSICE 4.4Gas Law

1.

A mixture of air and petrol vapour is injected into the cylinder of a car engine when
the cylinder volume is 100 cm3. Its pressure is then 1.0 atm. The valve closes and the
mixture is compressed to 20 cm3. Find the pressure now.

P2 = 5.0 atm
2.

The volume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of 50 in deep is 200 cm3. If the
atmospheric pressure is 10 in of water, find the volume of the air bubble when it reaches the
surface of the sea.

V2 = 1 200 cm3
22

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3.

## Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

The volume of an air bubble is 5 mm3 when it is at a depth of h m below the water
surface. Given that its volume is 15 mm3 when it is at a depth of 2 m, find the value of h.
(Atmospheric pressure = 10 m of water)

h = 26 m
4.

An air bubble has a volume of V cm3 when it is released at a depth of 45m from the
water surface. Find its volume (V) when it reaches the water surface. (Atmospheric pressure
= 10 m of water)

V2 = 5.5 V1
5.

## A gas of volume 20m3 at 37 oC is heated until its temperature becomes 87oC at

constant pressure. What is the increase in volume?

V2= 23.2 m3
6.

The air pressure in a container at 33 oC is 1.4 X 105 N m2. The container is heated until
the temperature is 550C. What is the final air pressure if the volume of the container is fixed?

## P2 = 1.5 x 105 Nm-2

7.

The volume of a gas is 1 cm 3 at 15 oC. The gas is heated at fixed pressure until the
volume becomes triple the initial volume. Calculate the final temperature of the gas.

T2 = 864 K
8.

2 = 591 oC

## An enclosed container contains a fixed mass of gas at 25 0C and at the atmospheric

pressure. The container is heated and temperature of the gas increases to 98 0C. Find the new
pressure of the gas if the volume of the container is constant.
(Atmospheric pressure = 1.0 X 105N m2)

23

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9.

## Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

The pressure of a gas decreases from 1.2 x 10 5 Pa to 9 x 105 Pa at 400C. If the volume
of the gas is constant, find the initial temperature of the gas.

T1 = 41.73 K

1 = -231.27 oC

PART A: CHAPTER 4
1.

2.

3.

## A 5kg iron sphere of temperature

500C is put in contact with a 1kg
copper sphere of temperature 273K
and they are put inside an insulated
box. Which of the following
statements is correct when they reach
thermal equilibrium?
D.
A iron sphere will have a
temperature of 273K
E.
The copper sphere will have
a temperature of 500C.
F.
Both the sphere have the
same temperature.
G.
The temperature of the iron
sphere will be lower than 500C

## C. To allow microwave to reflect

more times inside the lunch box
D. To allow microwave to penetrate
deeper into the lunch box.

## In the process to transfer heat from

one object to another object, which
of the following processes does not
involve a transfer to material?
A. Convection
B. Vaporisation
D. Evaporation
When we use a microwave oven to
heat up some food in a lunch box, we
should open the lid slightly. Which
of the following explanations is
correct?
A. To allow microwave to go inside
the lunch box
B. To allow the water vapors to go
out, otherwise the box will
explode
24

4.

## Water is generally used to put out

fire. Which of the following
explanation is not correct?
A. Water has a high specific heat
capacity
B. Steam can cut off the supply of
oxygen
C. Water is easily available
D. Water can react with some
material

5.

## Given that the heat capacity of a

certain sample is 5000 J0C-1. Which
of the following is correct?
A. The mass of this sample is 1kg.
B. The energy needed to increase
the temperature of 1 kg of this
sample is 5000 J.
C. The energy needed to increase
the temperature of 0.5kg of this
sample is 2500J.
D. The temperature of this sample
will increase 10C when 5 000 J
energy is absorbed by this
sample.

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6.

7.

8.

Chapter 4: Heat

## Which of the following statement is

correct?
A. The total mass of the object is
kept constant when fusion
occurs.
B. The internal energy of the object
is increased when condensation
occurs
C. Energy is absorbed when
condensation occurs.
D. Energy is absorbed when
vaporization occurs.

D. Gas
molecules
collide
inelastically with each other

## Water molecules change their states

between the liquid and gaseous states
A. only when water vapour is
saturated
B. at all times because evaporation
and condensation occur any time
C. only when the vapour molecules
produce a pressure as the same as
the atmospheric pressure
D. only when the water is boiling

9.

## A cylinder which contains gas is

compressed at constant temperature
of the gas increase because
A. the average speed of gas
molecules increases
B. the number of gas molecules
increases
C. the average distance between the
gas molecules increases
D. the rate of collision between the
gas molecules and the walls
increases

10.

## A plastic bag is filled with air. It is

immersed in the boiling water as
shown in diagram below.

## Which of the following statements is

false?
A.
The volume of the plastic bag
increases.
B.
The pressure of air molecules
increases
C.
The air molecules in the bag
move faster
D.
The repulsive force of boiling
water slows down the movement
of air molecule

## Based on the kinetic theory of gas

which one of the following does not
explain the behaviour of gas
molecules in a container?
A. Gas molecules move randomly
B. Gas molecules collide elastically
with the walls of the container
C. Gas molecules move faster as
temperature increases

25

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

## Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

PART B;
1.

A research student wishes to carry out an investigation on the temperature change of the
substance in the temperature range -500C to 500C. The instrument used to measure the
temperature is a liquid in glass thermometer.
Thermometer
Liquid
Freezing point of liquid (0C)
Boiling point of liquid (0C)
Diameter of capillary tube
Cross section

A
Mercury
-39
360
Large

B
Mercury
-39
360
Small

C
Alcohol
-112
360
Large

D
Alcohol
-112
360
Small

Table 1
(a) (i) State the principle used in a liquid- in glass thermometer.(1m)
Principle of thermal equilibrium
........................................................................................................................................
(ii)

## Briefly explain the principle stated in (a)(i) (3m)

A system is in a state of thermal equilibrium if the net rate of heat flow between
.
the component of the system is zero. This means that the component of the system
.
are at the same temperature
.

(b) Table 1 shows the characteristic of 4 types of thermometer: A,B C and D. On the basis
of the information given in Table 1, explain the characteristics of, and suggest a suitable
thermometer for the experiment.(5 m)
Alkohol
freezing point is less than -50C, boiling point higher than 50C.Thus the

alcohol
will not boil.

Capillary
tube has small diameter will produce a large change in the length thus

## making the change clearly visible.

Small diameter increases sensitivity of the thermometer
26

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

## Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

..
(c) The length of the mercury column in uncalibrated thermometer is 6.0cm and 18.5 cm at
00C and 1000C. respectively. When the thermometer is placed in a liquid, the length of
the mercury column is 14.0cm
(i)

## Calculate the temperature of the liquid

The temperature of the liquid = 8.0 x 100
12.5
= 64 0C

(ii)

State two thermometric properties which can be used to calibrate a thermometer. (6m)
Change of volume of gas with temperature

2.

## A metal block P of mass 500 g is heated is boiling water at a temperature of 1000C.

Block P is then transferred into the water at a temperature of 300C in a polystyrene cup.
The mass of water in the polystyrene cup is 250 g. After 2 minutes, the water temperature
rises to 420C.

Figure 2

Assuming that the heat absorbed by the polystyrene cup and heat loss to the
surroundings are negligible.{Specific heat capacity of water 4 200 j kg-1 C-1)
Calculate
27

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

(a)

Chapter 4: Heat

## the quantity of heat gained by water the polystyrene cup

Q = mc
= 0.250 x 4200 x (42-30)
= 12 600J

(b)

## the rate of heat supplied to the water

Rate of heat supplied to the water = 12 600J
120s
= 105 Js-1

(c)

## Heat supplied by metal block P = heat gained by water

0.500 x c x(100 -42)

= 12 600J
c

3.

## A student performs an experiment to investigate the energy change in a system. He

prepares a cardboard tube 50.0 cm long closed by a stopper at one end. Lead shot of
mass 500 g is placed in the tube and the other end of the tube is also closed by a stopper.
The height of the lead shot in the tube is 5.0 cm as shown in Figure 3.1. The student then
holds both ends of the tube and inverts it 100 times (Figure 3.2).

Figure 3.1

(a)

Figure 3.2

## State the energy change each time the tube is inverted.

Gravitational potential energy kinetic energy heat energy
28

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

## Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

..
..
(b)

What is the average distance taken by the lead shot each time the tube is
inverted?
45.0 cm

(c)

Calculate the time taken by the lead shot to fall from the top to the
bottom of the tube.
S = ut + at2

0.45 = 0 + (10)t2
t = 0.3s
(d)

After inverting the tube 100 times, the temperature of the lead shot is
found to have increased by 30C.

i.

## Calculate the work done on the lead shot.

Work done = (100) mgh
= 100 x 0.500 x 10 x 0.45
= 225 J

ii.

## Calculate the specific heat capacity of lead.

mc = 225 J
c =

225
(0.500 x 3)
= 150 J kg-1 oC-1

iii.

## State the assumption used in your calculation in (d)ii.

...
No heat loss to the surroundings/All the gravitational potential energy is converted

## into heat energy

.
PART C: EXPERIMENT
1.

Before travelling on a long journey, Luqman measured the air pressure the tyre of
his car as shown in Figure (a) He found that the air pressure of the tyre was 200 kPa.

29

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

## Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

After the journey, Luqman measured again the air pressure of the tyre as shown in Figure
(b) He found that the air pressure had increase to 245 kPa. Luqman also found that the
tyre was hotter after the journey although the size of the tyre did not change.
Using the information provided by Luqman and his observations on air pressure in the
tyre of his car:

(a)

(b)

(c)

## Design an experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in (b).

Figure (a)

[1 mark]

Figure (b)

Choose suitable apparatus such as pressure gauge, a round-bottomed flask and any other
apparatus that may he necessary. In your description, state clearly the following:
i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

## The procedure of the experiment including the method of controlling the

manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable,

vi.

## The way you would tabulate the data,

vii. The way you would analyse the data. [10 marks]

30

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

Inference
Hypothesis

## At constant volume, the air pressure depends on the temperature

At constant volume, the air pressure increase as the temperature

Aim

increases
To investigate the relationship between the air pressure and the

Variable

## temperature at constant volume.

Constant variable : Air temperature
Manipulate variable : Air pressure

## Responding variable : Volume of air

Round-bottom flask, rubber tube, Bourdon gauge, beaker, stirrer,
thermometer, wire gauze, tripod stand and Bunsen burner.

Arrangement of
apparatus

Procedure

## The beaker is filled with ice-cold water until the flask is

completely immersed.

## The water is stirred and the initial temperature reading

taken. The pressure reading from the bourdon gauge is also
31

JPN Pahang
Teachers Guide

Chapter 4: Heat

taken.

## The water is heated and constant stirred. When the water

temperature increases by 100C, the Bunsen burner is
removed and the stirring of water is continued. The
temperature and pressure readings of the trapped air are
recorded in the table

## The above procedure is repeated until the water temperature

almost reaches boiling point.

Tabulation of Data

Analysis of Data

32