Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

HUKUM DAN ETIKA DALAM PROFESI ARSITEKTUR

ETHICS IN BUILDING ON
CONSERVATION AREAS
the case of Majapahit Information Center, Trowulan
(Baskoro Tedjo) and the New Acropolis Museum,
Athens (Bernard Tschumi)
CASE STUDIES

Project: Majapahit Information Center Project: New Acropolis Museum


Location: Trowulan, East Java, Indonesia Location: Acropolis, Athens, Greece
Type: New building on heritage site Type: New building on heritage site
Architect: Baskoro Tedjo Architect: Bernard Tschumi
ETHICS IN BUILDING ON CONSERVATION SITE

1. The intervention must be the minimum necessary.


2. The intervention should be reversible if technically possible. This is more
likely to be achievable with traditional methods.
3. The intervention should not prejudice future intervention.
4. The intervention should not hinder later access to all the evidence
incorporated in the structure.
5. The intervention should be totally directed by dedicated respect for
aesthetics, and historical and physical integrity.
6. The intervention should allow the maximum amount of existing material
to be retained.
ETHICS IN BUILDING ON CONSERVATION SITE

7. The intervention should be harmonizing in color, tone, texture, form and


scale.
8. Restoration should not be attempted unless there is adequate
archaeological evidence or there is good photographic or drawn evidence
for the items to be replaced. In addition the items must be essential to re-
instate the original design concept.
9. Restoration in order to re-instate the original design concept is only done
in exceptional circumstances and where the restoration is absolutely
necessary for the structure to be fully understood and appreciated by the
observer. Archaeological curiosity should not be engaged in, so as to
attempt to retrieve the evidence, especially if this will result in
unnecessary intervention in the structure.
REQUIREMENTS IN BUILDING ON CONSERVATION SITE

1. The historical development of the building must be fully documented. (No


decisions regarding intervention should be made in isolation of the full
knowledge of all the building phases).
2. The condition of the building and the condition of any materials must be
fully documented before the intervention has taken place.
3. The methods and materials used must be fully documented.
4. The intervention must be taken by a conservator/contractor who is fully
trained and experienced in this field of work.
KEY PROCESSES

PROCESSES MAJAPAHIT INFORMATION CENTER NEW ACROPOLIS MUSEUM

Site Survey YES YES

NO YES
Open Competition

YES YES
Archeological Research

Design Presentation
YES YES
(to authority)

Design Presentation
NO YES
(to archeologist)

Design Presentation
NO YES
(to public)
KEY PROCESSES

PROCESSES MAJAPAHIT INFORMATION CENTER NEW ACROPOLIS MUSEUM

Public Voting NO YES

Appointment of
NO YES
Archeological Experts

Appointment of
NO YES
Specialist Contractors

Design Evaluation
YES YES
Team (design revision)

Continuous Archeological
NO YES
Supervision
ETHICS CODE REFERENCES

Ref: Ikatan Arsitek Indonesia


Standar Etika 1.4 WARISAN ALAM, BUDAYA DAN LINGKUNGAN
Arsitek sebagai budayawan selalu berupaya mengangkat nilai-nilai budaya melalui karya, serta wajib
menghargai dan membantu pelestarian, juga berupaya meningkatkan kualitas lingkungan hidupnya yang tidak
semata-mata indah dengan menggunakan pendekatan teknis-ekonomis, tetapi juga menyertakan asas
pembangunan berkelanjutan.

Kaidah Tata Laku 1.401


Arsitek berkewajiban berperan aktif dalam pelestarian bangunan/ arsitektur dan/ atau kawasan bersejarah yang
bernilai tinggi.
Kaidah Tata Laku 1.402
Arsitek berkewajiban meneliti secara cermat sebelum melakukan rencana peremajaan, pembongkaran
bangunan/ kawasan yang dinilai memiliki potensi berdasarkan peraturan yang berlaku dan/ atau penilaian pakar.
Kaidah Tata Laku 1.403
Arsitek berkewajiban memberitahukan dan memberikan saran kepada Pengurus IAI Daerah/ Cabang untuk
diteruskan kepada yang berwenang, apabila mengetahui ada rencana perombakan, peremajaan, pembongkaran
bangunan dan/ atau kawasan yang perlu dilestarikan di daerahnya.
Kaidah Tata Laku 1.403
Arsitek mengusahakan penggunaan sumber daya secara efisien, meningkatkan mutu sumber daya manusia,
mempertahankan dan memperkaya keanekaan hayati serta kelestarian lingkungan.
ETHICS CODE REFERENCES

Ref: American Institute of Architects


CANON 1: General Obligations: Natural and Cultural Heritage
E.S 1.3 Members should respect and help conserve their natural and cultural heritage while striving to improve
the environment and the quality of life within it.

Ref: Royal Institute of British Architects


Principle 2 - Competence
2.1 Members are expected to apply high standards of skill, knowledge and care in all their work. They must also
apply their informed and impartial judgement in reaching any decision….

2.2 Members should realistically appraise their ability to undertake and achieve any proposed work. They should
also make their client aware of the likelihood of achieving the client’s requirement and aspirations. If members
feel they unable to comply, they should not quote for, or accept, the work.

2.3 ……Members should maintain appropriate records throughout their engagement.


LIST OF REFERENCES

1. Archeological Institute of America, Code of Ethics (2007)


2. Ikatan Arsitek Indonesia, Kode Etik Arsitek dan Kaidah Tata Laku Profesi Arsitek (2007)
3. American Institute of Architects, Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct (2007)
4. Royal Institute of British Architects, Code of Professional Conduct (2005)
5. US Department of Interior, Natural Historic Preservation Act 1966 (2008)

FURTHER READINGS

1. http://heptadesain.wordpress.com/2009/01/17/baskoro-tedjo-dan-kontroversi-trowulan/
2. http://www.newacropolismuseum.gr/eng/
3. http://www.archaeological.org/pdfs/AIA_Code_of_EthicsA5S.pdf

Verwandte Interessen