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ARTICLE

II
DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES
PRINCIPLES

efficiency and the development of moral character shall receive the


support of the Government.

Section 1. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State.


Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority
emanates from them.

Section 13. The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in
nation-building and shall promote and protect their physical,
moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being. It shall
inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism, and encourage
their involvement in public and civic affairs.

Section 2. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of


national policy, adopts the generally accepted principles of
international law as part of the law of the land and adheres to the
policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity
with all nations.

Section 14. The State recognizes the role of women in nationbuilding, and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law
of women and men.

Section 3. Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the


military. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the protector of
the people and the State. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the
State and the integrity of the national territory.
Section 4. The prime duty of the Government is to serve and
protect the people. The Government may call upon the people to
defend the State and, in the fulfillment thereof, all citizens may be
required, under conditions provided by law, to render personal,
military or civil service.

Section 15. The State shall protect and promote the right to health
of the people and instill health consciousness among them.
Section 16. The State shall protect and advance the right of the
people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the
rhythm and harmony of nature.
Section 17. The State shall give priority to education, science and
technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and
nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total human
liberation and development.

Section 5. The maintenance of peace and order, the protection of


life, liberty, and property, and promotion of the general welfare are
essential for the enjoyment by all the people of the blessings of
democracy.

Section 18. The State affirms labor as a primary social economic


force. It shall protect the rights of workers and promote their
welfare.

Section 6. The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable.

Section 19. The State shall develop a self-reliant and independent


national economy effectively controlled by Filipinos.

STATE POLICIES
Section 7. The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In
its relations with other states, the paramount consideration shall be
national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interest, and the
right to self-determination.
Section 8. The Philippines, consistent with the national interest,
adopts and pursues a policy of freedom from nuclear weapons in
its territory.
Section 9. The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order
that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and
free the people from poverty through policies that provide
adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising
standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all.
Section 10. The State shall promote social justice in all phases of
national development.
Section 11. The State values the dignity of every human person
and guarantees full respect for human rights.
Section 12. The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and
shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous
social institution. It shall equally protect the life of the mother and
the life of the unborn from conception. The natural and primary
right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for civic

Section 20. The State recognizes the indispensable role of the


private sector, encourages private enterprise, and provides
incentives to needed investments.
Section 21. The State shall promote comprehensive rural
development and agrarian reform.
Section 22. The State recognizes and promotes the rights of
indigenous cultural communities within the framework of national
unity and development.
Section 23. The State shall encourage non-governmental,
community-based, or sectoral organizations that promote the
welfare of the nation.
Section 24. The State recognizes the vital role of communication
and information in nation-building.
Section 25. The State shall ensure the autonomy of local
governments.
Section 26. The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities
for public service and prohibit political dynasties as may be
defined by law.
Section 27. The State shall maintain honesty and integrity in the
public service and take positive and effective measures against
graft and corruption.

Section 28. Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law, the


State adopts and implements a policy of full public disclosure of
all its transactions involving public interest.