Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

CHAPTER 14

Packed Towers

Design Equations

Table 14-32 Generalized Pressure Drop Rules.

Design pressure drop in.


in. H2O/ft. of packed depth

Service
Absorbers and Regenerators
(Non-foaming System)
Absorbers and Regenerators
Atmospheric or Pressure Stills
and Fractionators
Vacuum Stills and Fractionators

0.25-0.40
0.10-0.25
0.40-0.80
0.10-0.40

Source: Branan, C., The Process Engineers Pocket Handbook, Gulf Publishing
Co., Houston, Texas, (1976).

published packing factors. This effect reduces to zero for


most packings when the ratio of packing size to diameter
exceeds 10:1 [169]. This factor is necessary when data
from a pilot plant tower, which is filled with large
packings are used for full scale designs.

The packed tower sizing method is based upon the generalized DP correlation as shown in Figure 14-21C.
The abscissa on the generalized DP curve is expressed as:
 

0:5
rG
L
X
(14-33)
G rL  rG
where 0:01 < X < 2:0; and the ordinate is expressed as:


G2l Fp m0:1
L
Y
rG rL  rG g

(14-34)

where 0:001 < Y < 0:15



Y exp C0 C1 ln X C2 ln X2 C3 ln X3

4
C4 ln X
(14-35)

Table 14-33 Constants for Each Pressure Drop Correlation.

Pressure Drop
in. H2O/ft. of
packed depth

Constants
C0
-6.30253
C1
-0.60809
C2
-0.11932
C3
-0.00685
C4
-0.00032
C0
-5.50093
C1
-0.78508
C2
-0.13496
C3
-0.00134
C4
-0.00174
C0
-5.00319
C1
-0.95299
C2
-0.13930
C3
-0.01264
C4
-0.00334

0.05

0.10

0.25

Pressure Drop
in. H2O/ft. of
packed depth
0.50

1.0

1.5

Constants
C0
-4.39918
C1
-0.99404
C2
-0.16983
C3
-0.00873
C4
-0.00343
C0
-4.09505
C1
-1.00120
C2
-0.15871
C3
-0.00797
C4
-0.00318
C0
-4.02555
C1
-0.98945
C2
-0.08291
C3
-0.03237
C4
-0.00532

Source: Blackwell, W.W., Chemical Process Design On A Programmable


Calculator, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1984.

and C0 C4 are constants derived for each DP. The values


of these constants for each DP correlation are shown in
Table 14-34.


Y rG rL  rG  0:5 lb
; 2
G1
Fp m0:1
ft :s
L
The tower area is:
A

p D2 2
G
; ft2
; ft
4
3600 Gl

(14-37)

The tower diameter is defined by:


D

 0:5
4A
; ft:
p

(14-38)

At flooding condition, Eckerts flooding curve is represented as:



 2
G2 Fp J m0:2
L
(14-39)
vs: logFLG
log
rG rL g C
where
FLG

  
L
rG 0:5
rL
G

(14-40)

Using Kessler and Wankats model to represent the


flooding condition,
X1 FLG
and

562

(14-36)

(14-41)

Packed Towers

Table 14-34 Input Data and Computer Results of Example 14-1.


DATA141.DAT
3230.6
62.3

1136.0
155.0

0.0738
1.0

1.0

PACKED TOWER DESIGN


LIQUIED FLOW RATE, lb/hr.:
GAS FLOW RATE, lb/ft.^3:
GAS DENSITY, lb/ft.^3:
LIQUID DENSITY, lb/ft.^3:
TOWER PACKING FACTOR:
PRESSURE DROP, INCH-H20:
LIQUID VISCOSITY, cP:
X CO-ORDINATE IN THE GENERALIZED PLOT:
Y CO-ORDINATE IN THE GENERALIZED PLOT:
CALCULATED VAPOR RATE, lb/s.td^2:
X CO-ORDINATE AT FLOODING CONDITION:
Y CO-ORDINATE AT FLOODING CONDITION:
VAPOR RATE AT 70% FLOODING CONDITION:
VAPOR VELOCITY AT 70% FLOODING CONDITION,
Ib/s.ft^2:
TOWER AREA, ft.:
TOWER DIAMETER, inches:
TOWER DIAMETER, ft.:
TOWER AREA AT 70% FLOODING CONDITION, ft^2:
TOWER DIAMETER AT 70% FLOODING CONDITION,
inches:
TOWER DIAMETER AT 70% FLOODING CONDITION, ft.:
FLOOD PRESSURE DROP, in. H2O/ft. packing:

3230.6
1136.0
0.0737
62.3000
155.0
1.000
1.000
0.0979
0.0719
0.2617
0.0978
0.1335
0.2496
3.39
1.21
14.87
1.24
1.67
17.49
1.46
3.926

CHAPTER 14

Since the flooding correlation is not perfect, a 95% confidence with a safety factor of 1.32 is used to determine
the area at flooding condition (Bolles and Fair [172]).
Therefore, area of the tower at flooding condition is:


G
(14-46)
; ft2
Areaflood 1:32 
3600  G2
The tower diameter at 70% flooding condition is:

diaflood

0:5

4  Areaflood
; ft:
p

(14-47)

In the region below the flooding curves, the pressure


drop can be correlated with an equation of the form:

DP a 10

bL1


G2 
1
PG

The pressure drop at incipient flooding from Kister and


Gills [93, 139] equation is:
DPflood 0:115 F0:7
p ; in: H2 O=ft: of packing
(14-21)
where

Y1


G22 Fp J m0:2
L

(14-42)

rG $rL $gc

where
gc 32.174 lbm./lbf . ft/sec2
mL liquid viscosity, cP
J rwater =rL
At flooding condition,
log Y1 1:6678  1:085 log X1
 0:29655 log X1 2

(14-43)

The mass vapor rate (lb/ft2.s) at 70% flooding condition


can be expressed as:


Y1 $rG $ rL $gc
G2 0:7
Fp $J$m0:2
L

0:5 

lb
;
s: ft2

(14-44)

The vapor velocity (ft/s) at 70% flooding condition is


expressed as:
VGF

G2
; ft=s
rG

(14-45)

A
Tower area, ft2, Equation 14-37
Areaflood Tower area at 70% flooding condition, ft2,
Equation 14-46
C0 C4 Pressure drop correlation constants.
D
Packed tower diameter, ft.
diaflood Tower diameter at 70% flooding condition,
ft, Equation 14-47
FLG
Flow parameter in Equation 14-40
Fp
Packing factor for packing material
G
Vapor rate, lb/hr.
Vapor mass velocity, lb/(ft2. sec. tower cross
G1
section), Equation 14-36
G2
Vapor mass velocity, lb/(ft2. sec. tower cross
section), Equation 14-44
gc
conversion factor, 32.174 lbm./lbf . ft/sec2
L
Liquid rate, lb/hr.
Liquid mass velocity, lb/(ft2 sec. tower
L1
cross-section)
X
Abscissa in the generalized pressure drop
correlation chart.
Y
Ordinate in the generalized pressure drop
correlation chart.
Ordinate in Eckerts flooding curve
Y1
VGF
Vapor velocity at 70% of flooding condition,
ft/sec., Equation 14-45.

563

CHAPTER 14

Packed Towers

Greek letters
Constants in Tables 14-24 and 14-25
Liquid viscosity, cP
Liquid density, lb/ft3
Vapor density, lb/ft3
Ratio of water density to liquid density,
rwater/rL
y
Kinematic liquid viscosity, centistokes,
note:
Centistokes centipoise=rL =62:4
DPflood
Pressure drop at incipient flooding; in:
H2 O=ft: ofpacking:
DP
Pressure drop, in.H20/ft. packing
a, b
mL
rL
rG
J




lb mol
lb
1:8
17
h
lb mol
30:6 lb=h




lbmol
lb
Gasflow rate atthe bottom 40
28:4
h
lbmol
1;136lb=h
Liquid flow rate at the bottom 3200 + 30.6
3230.6 lb/h
Using the generalized pressure drop correlation of
Strigle, Figure 14-21F, gives:
r
L rG
The flow parameter, FLG
G rL

Example 14-1
A packed tower with 1-inch Raschig rings is to be used to
absorb ammonia from air, by contacting the gas stream
with water. The entering gas flow is 40 lb mol/h and
contains 5.0% of NH3. Ninety per cent of the NH3 is to
be removed from the air. The entering water flow rate is
3,200 lb/h. Absorption is to be carried out at 1 atm. Abs.,
and 20 C. Estimate:
1. The diameter of the tower for a DP of 1.0 in. H2O/ft.



3230:6 0:0737 0:5
0:0978
1136:0 62:3

From Figure 14-21F at DP 1:0 in: H2 O=ft, the ordinate is 0.069


That is:
0:069

packing.
2. The vapor rate at 70% of flooding condition.

Physical properties:

rG 28:4

rL
mL
Fp
J

1
259



273
293

0.0737 lb/ft3
3
62:3 lb=ft
1cP
155
1:0

G21 Fn0:1
32:2 rG rL  rG 

The liquid viscosity in centistokes, n cP=rL =62:4


1/(62.3/62.4) 1.0016 cSt.
and the mass vapor rate, G1 is expressed as:

G1

0:069  32:2  rG  rL  rG
Fp n0:1

0:5

; lb=s: ft2



0:069 32:2 0:0737 62:3  0:0737 0:5
155 1:00160:1

0:2564 lb=s: ft2


Area of the packed tower:

Solution
When calculating the tower diameter, conditions at its
base should be used, since this corresponds to the maximum flow rates.
At the bottom of the column:

G
1136

Area
G1
0:25643600
Area 1:23 ft2
Hence, tower diameter:

MWgas 0:05 17 0:95 29


28:4 lb=lb mol:
lb
lb mol
NH3 removed from the air (0.9) (0.05) (40)

Molecular weight of ammonia, MWNH3 17

564


4$Area 0:5
d
; ft:
p


4  1:2308 0:5

p
1:25 ft:15 inches:

lb
hr

1
lb
2
ft :sec


hr
sec

Packed Towers

(b). Using Kessler and Wankats correlation to represent


the flooding condition [165],
X1 FLG

CHAPTER 14

The pressure drop at incipient flooding from Kister and


Gills [93, 139] equation is:
DPflood 0:115 F0:7
p ; in: H2 O=ft: of packing

0:0978

0:115 1550:7

and

3:926 in: H2 O=ft: of packing


(14-21)

G2 Fp J m0:2
L
Y1
rG $ rL $ gc

Computer Program

At flooding condition:
logY1 1:6678  1:085 logX1  0:29655 logX 1 2
1:6678  1:085 log0:0978  0:29655 log 0:09782
0:8746
Y1 0:13346
The mass vapor rate (lb/ft2. s) at 70% flooding condition
can be expressed as:




Y1 $rG $rL $g 0:5
lb
;
G2 0:7
Fp $J $ m0:2
s$ft2
L


0:1335 0:0737 62:3 32:2 0:5
0:7
155 1 10:2
0:2497 lb=s$ft2
The vapor velocity (ft/s) at 70% flooding condition is:

VGF

G2
rG

lb

s: ft

1
2

lb
3
ft

3:389 ft$=s
The tower area at 70% flooding condition, using a safety
factor of 1.32 is:


lb 1 hr
G
$
Areaflood 1:32
;
:
3600G2
hr lb 2 s
s: ft

1136
3600 0:2497

1:66 ft

Norton offers a new, high performance system centered


around an improved Intalox metal tower packing,
including effective internals which provide the distribution and pressure drop consistent with the higher performance of the packing itself.
Figures 14-6J and 14-6U illustrate the IMTP packing.
The manufacturers key performance descriptions are
[83]:
1. Greater capacity and efficiency than fractionation

trays and other dumped packings.


2. Pressure drop approximately 40% lower than

equivalent size Pall rings.


3. Low liquid hold-up.
4. Structural strength allows packing depths to 50 ft

Tower diameter is:



dia; flood

14.25 Proprietary Random Packing


Design Guides
Norton Intalox Metal Tower Packing (IMTP)

0:2497=0:0737

1:32

A computer program PROG 141.for has been developed to calculate the diameter of packed towers for
pressure drops of 0.05, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0 and 1.5 in.
H2O/ft. The simulation is based on the generalized
pressure drop correlation of Sherwood et al. [162]. The
curves have been fitted to a series of equations developed by Blackwell [164]. In addition, the program
calculates the vapor rate and vapor velocity at 70% of
flooding condition, based on Kessler and Wankats correlation, and uses a safety factor of 1.32 to determine
the diameter of the column at 70% flooding condition.
The pressure drop at flooding condition is determined
using Kister and Gills equation [93, 139]. Table 14-34
shows the input output data for the packed tower of
Example 14-1.

4  1:66
p

1:46 ft: 17:5 in:

or more.


0:5

5. Easy to use in distillation, from deep vacuum where

low pressure drop is beneficial, to high pressure


where capacity surpasses many trays.
6. HETP values nearly independent of flow rate.
565