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Book of Saltwater Species

Cartiligeous Species ................................................................................................................................ 5


Boney Species ......................................................................................................................................... 6
Bull Huss - Scyliorhinus stellaris ............................................................................................................. 7
Blackmouthed Dogfish - Galeus melastomus ......................................................................................... 9
Lesser Spotted Dogfish - Scyliorhinus canicula .................................................................................... 11
Shark, Blue - Prionace glauca ................................................................................................................ 13
Shark, Porbeagle - Lamna nasus .......................................................................................................... 15
Smoothhound, Starry - Mustelus asterias ........................................................................................... 17
Smooth hound - Mustelus mustelus ..................................................................................................... 19
Spurdog - Squalus acanthias ................................................................................................................. 21
Tope - Galeorhinus galeus .................................................................................................................... 23
Common Skate - Raja batis ................................................................................................................... 25
Ray, Blonde - Raja brachvara ................................................................................................................ 27
Ray, Cuckoo - Raja naevus .................................................................................................................... 29
Ray, Small-eyed - Raja microocellata .................................................................................................... 30
Ray, Spotted - Raia montagui................................................................................................................ 32
Thornback Ray - Raja clavata ................................................................................................................ 34
Ray, Undulate - Raja undulata .............................................................................................................. 36
Stingray - Dasyatis pastinaca................................................................................................................. 38
Angler Fish - Loahius Piscatorius ........................................................................................................... 40
Bass Dicentrachus labrax ................................................................................................................... 42
Black Bream - Spondyliosom cantharus ................................................................................................ 44
Couchs Bream - Sparus pagrus............................................................................................................. 46
Bream, Gilthead - Sparus aurata ........................................................................................................... 48
Bream, Red - Pagellus bogaraveo ......................................................................................................... 50
Rays Bream - Brama brama ................................................................................................................. 51
Wolf fish (Catfish) - Anarhichas lupus ................................................................................................... 52
Coalfish - Pollachius virens ................................................................................................................... 54
Cod Gadus morhua ............................................................................................................................ 56
Conger - Conger conger ........................................................................................................................ 59
Common Eel - Anguilla anguilla ............................................................................................................ 61
Garfish - Belone belone ........................................................................................................................ 63
Gurnard, Grey - Eutrigla gurnardus ...................................................................................................... 65
Gurnard, Red - Aspitriela caculus ......................................................................................................... 67

Gurnard, Tub - Eutrigla gurnardus ....................................................................................................... 69


Haddock - Melanogrammus aeglefinus ................................................................................................ 71
Herring - Clupeid harangues ................................................................................................................. 75
John Dory Zeus faber......................................................................................................................... 77
Ling - Molva molva ................................................................................................................................ 79
Mackerel - Scomber scombrus ............................................................................................................. 81
Mullet, Golden Grey - Liza aurata ........................................................................................................ 83
Mullet, Thin-lipped Grey - Liza ramada................................................................................................. 86
Pollack - Pollachius pollachius............................................................................................................... 87
Poor-cod - Trisopterus minutus ............................................................................................................ 89
Pouting - Trisopterus luscus .................................................................................................................. 90
Red Mullet - Mullus surmuletus............................................................................................................ 92
Greater Sandeel - Hyperoplus launceolatus ......................................................................................... 93
Scad - Trachurus trachurus ................................................................................................................... 95
Sea Scorpion, Short Spined - Myoxocephalus scorpius ........................................................................ 97
Sea Scorpion, Long Spined - Taurulus bubalis....................................................................................... 99
Tusk - Brosme brosme ........................................................................................................................ 100
Trigger Fish - Balistes capriscus........................................................................................................... 102
Greater Weever Trachinus draco .................................................................................................... 104
Whiting - Merlangius merlangus......................................................................................................... 106
Ballan Wrasse Labrus bergylta ........................................................................................................ 107
Corkwing Wrasse - Symphodus melops .............................................................................................. 109
Cuckoo Wrasse - Labrus mixtus .......................................................................................................... 111
Goldsinny Ctentolabrus rupestris ................................................................................................... 113
Rock Cook Centrolabrus exoletus ................................................................................................... 114
Brill - Scophthalmus rhombus ............................................................................................................. 116
Dab Limanda limanda ...................................................................................................................... 118
Flounder - Pleuronectes flesus ........................................................................................................... 120
Halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus ................................................................................................. 122
Lemon Sole Microstomus kitt ......................................................................................................... 124
Long Rough Dab Hippoglossoides platessoides .............................................................................. 126
Megrim - Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis ............................................................................................... 128
Plaice - Pleuronectes platessa ............................................................................................................ 129
Sole - Solea solea ................................................................................................................................ 131

Turbot - Scophthalmus maximus ........................................................................................................ 133

Cartiligeous Species
Sharks

Skates and Rays

Boney Species
Round Fish

Flatfish

Bull Huss - Scyliorhinus stellaris

Distinguishing features: A small bull huss can look at first glance like a lesser spotted dogfish and is
also known as the greater spotted dogfish. However the nasal flaps in the Huss are clearly separated
and the rear of the anal fin is in line with the front of the first dorsal. The back and sides are a sandy
brown with large brown patches and the underside is a creamy white. Occasionally the back and sides
may take on a grey hue.
Size: The bull huss can reach lengths of 155 cm and a weight in excess of 10 kg. Its one of the few
larger species where the shore angler can expect to catch fish as big as the boat angler.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/bullhuss.htm
Distribution: The huss is much less common than the LSD and is most prolific at the southern end of
the east North Atlantic around the English Channel and the south west of Ireland. Lives on the sea bed
at any depth from the shoreline out to 60 metres and inhabits rough or rocky ground.
Food: A wide selection of crustaceans, molluscs and small fish form the bulk of the diet of a Bull Huss.

Baits: Mackerel head and guts are a favourite bait but strips and flappers will also take fish. Squid and
cuttlefish can also be effective.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Bull Huss

Scyliorhinus
stellaris

Storflekket

Storflckig

Storplettet

Grossgefleckter

Not

rdhai

rdhaj

rdhaj

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Not available

Not available

Not available

Zvjzdtsjataja koshtsjja

Bull Huss Nasal Flaps

Lesser Spotted Dogfish Nasal Flaps

akla

Katzenhai
Icelandic
Flekkjahfur

available

Portuguese
Not available

Blackmouthed Dogfish - Galeus melastomus

Distinguishing features: The black-mouthed dogfish is a small member of the shark family and has
the typical shark shape. It has two small, equally sized dorsal fins and a large upper lobe to the tail fin.
The light brown colour on the belly merges into a darker brown on the sides and back interspersed
with rounded, brown patches. Not surprisingly the inside of its mouth is black.
Size: This dogfish can reach lengths of 90cm and weights of around 2 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/dogfish.htm
Distribution: This dogfish will rarely stray into depths of 50 metres and is most common in depths of
over 200 metres. It tends to prefer areas of soft bottom.
Food: Feeds mainly on bottom living invertebrates, including shrimps and cephalopods, but also hunts
small pelagic fishes as part of its diet.
Baits: Although this fish rarely targeted a strip of fish is the most effective bait.

English

Latin

Blackmouthed

Galeus melastomus Hgjel

Dogfish

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Hgl

Ringhaj

Fleckhai

Bardoulin

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Hondshaai

Bardoulina

Bardulin

Not available

Not available

Pata Roxa

Regional Names - Black-mouthed catshark

Lesser Spotted Dogfish - Scyliorhinus canicula

Distinguishing features: This small member of the shark family has a long, low tail fin the lower lobe
of which is under developed. The two dorsal fins are situated towards the tail and the first of these
starts behind the base of the pelvic fin. It can be confused with the Bull Huss however the nasal flap in
the Lesser Spotted Dogfish (LSD) have little or no separation whereas in bull huss the flaps have a
broad interspace. The LSD is generally a sandy brown colour with small dark brown spots but the
predominant colour can vary to a dark brown depending upon its habitat. The underside is a creamy
white.
Size: The LSD is one of the smallest sharks and its unlikely that the maximum size will exceed 1.9kg
and normally the fish will be around the 1kg mark.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/dogfishlesserspotted.htm
Distribution: The Lesser Spotted Dogfish will be found over soft bottoms comprising of sand, fine
gravel or mud. It will inhabit waters from 3 to 400 metres with the majority being found at the
shallower end of the range. The LSD is an egg layer and these will be laid in shallow water between

November and July. Its an extremely common fish in the North Sea and southern end of the north
Atlantic and can be found as far south as the Mediterranean.
Food: While the LSD will eat bottom living fish its main diet comprises crustaceans including crabs and
shrimp, molluscs and polychaete worms. It will scavenge any fish carcases on the sea bed.
Baits: Oily fish baits such as mackerel, blueys or herring will attract the passing LSD as will peeler crab.
They can be a pest when fishing with large baits for other species. The shore angler can target them
with sandeel and a cocktail of ragworm and fish bait can be very effective.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Dogfish,

Scyliorhinus

Smflekket

Smflckig

Smplettet

Kleingefelckter

Not

Lesser

Spotted

canicula

rdhai

rdhaj

rdhaj

Katzenhai

available

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Regional Names - Blindog, Doggie, Lesser Spotted Catshark


Bull huss nasal flaps

Further Reading..
Might as well face it, Im addicted to dogs

Shark, Blue - Prionace glauca

Photo taken aboard Luke Astons boat Clare Dragoon with thanks to John SAI
Distinguishing features: The blue shark is a long, slender member of the shark family with long,
curving pectoral fins. The upper lobe of the tail fin is also long. It has no spiracle and five gill slits. The
back and upper sides are dark blue, fading into a lighter blue on the lower sides and white on the
belly.
Size: This shark can grow to lengths of around 3.8 metres in Northern European waters and can weigh
up to 160 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/sharkblue.htm
Habitat: The blue shark is ocean going and is found in warm and temperate waters throughout the
world. It is a seasonal migratory fish in northern waters and rarely comes close to shore. It tends to
live in the surface areas. The majority of these northern sharks are female.
Food: Feeds mainly on shoals of pelagic fish such as mackerel, herring and sandeels although they
also predate on squid.

Baits: Mackerel are the most effective bait for the blue shark, either live or as a flapper. They respond
well to the scent trail from rubby dubby.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Shark, Blue

Prionace glauca

Blhai

Blhaj

Blhaj

Blauhai

Not

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

available

Shark, Porbeagle - Lamna nasus

Photo courtesy of Kevin Crowley SAI


Distinguishing features: The porbeagle shark is a round bodied, chunky member of the shark family. It
has five gills and comparatively large front dorsal fin. The small second dorsal fin is situated
immediately above the similar anal fin. The back and upper sides are grayish blue which fades into
cream on the underside. The dorsal fins have a lighter rear edge.
Size: The porbeagle can reach lengths of around 3 metres and a weight in excess of 230 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/sharkporbeagle.htm
Habitat: The porbeagle can be found throughout the north Atlantic. It is a pelagic species and will
travel extensively hunting. Although it is an oceanic shark it can be found close to shore. The larger
fish tend to frequent the northern end of its range.
Food: Squid form a major part of this sharks diet as do fish especially mackerel, cod and coalfish.
Baits: Whole fish baits are preferred for the porbeagle either live or dead.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Shark,

Lamna nasus

Hbrann

Hbrand,

Sildehaj

Heringshai

Not

Porbeagle

sillhaj

available

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Length / Weight Chart - http://www.planetseafishing.com/downloads/porbeagle.pdf

Smoothhound, Starry - Mustelus asterias

Distinguishing features: The starry smooth hound is a closely related of the smooth hound and
resembles it closely. The lower lobe on the tail is larger than its relative and the denticles are broad
with grooves along their length. The nasal flaps are narrow. The coloration is the same as the smooth
hound but it has small white spots on the upper sides which gives the fish its distinguishing name.
Size: The starry smooth hound grows to a length of around 1.8 metres and can weigh 13 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/smoothhound.htm
Habitat: Found mainly in water to 70 metres deep in waters from the southern reaches of the UK down
to the Mediterranean and up into the southern North Sea up to Danish waters. It prefers a seabed of
sand and gravel.
Food: The crushing teeth are capable of smashing the shells or hermit crabs and these together with
other crustaceans form the major part of their diet.
Baits: As for smooth hounds, crabs, peeler and hardbacks, and hermit crabs are effective baits. Squid
will also take this species as will ragworm and cocktail baits.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Smothhound,

Mustelus asterias

Hvitflekket

Glatthaj

Stjernehaj

Glatthai

Not

Starry

glatthai

available

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Cao liso

Regional Names - Smuts


Further Reading..
Hounds all round

Smooth hound - Mustelus mustelus

Photo courtesy of Henry


Distinguishing features: The smooth hound has a typical, slender shark body with two dorsal fins and
five gill slits. The lower lobe of the tail fin is comparatively small. The dermal denticles are narrow with
grooves at the thick end only. The back and sides are grey with occasional dark spots on the back and
the belly is an off white. The mouth has small, flattened crushing teeth. There is a spiracle behind each
eye. The nasal flaps are broad.
Size: The smooth hound grows to a length of around 1.5 metres and a weight of 24kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/smooth.htm
Habitat: Found mainly in water from 5 - 50 metres in waters from the southern reaches of the UK
down to the Mediterranean. It prefers a seabed of mixed ground with sand, gravel and boulders.
Food: Feeds almost exclusively on crustaceans including crabs, hermit crabs, shrimps and squat
lobster.

Bait: Crabs, peeler and hardbacks are excellent baits for smooth hounds as are hermit crabs when
removed from their shells. Squid will also take this species as will ragworm and cocktail baits.
Regional Names - Smuts
Further Reading..
Hounds all round

Spurdog - Squalus acanthias

Distinguishing features: The spurdog is the only common small shark found in the North Sea and
eastern North Atlantic which has a spine in front of the two dorsal fins and lacks an anal fin. The
spines are sharp and the one on the second dorsal stands proud of the fin. The back of the spurdog is
dark grey with white spots scattered on the back and sides. The female gives birth to live young.
Size: Spurs can attain a length of about 130 cm and a weight of around 11 kg. The female spurdogs
are heavier than the male size for size.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/spurdog.htm
Distribution: The spurdog is found in waters from 10 metres to in excess of 200 metres in depth with
over a soft or muddy bottom. Although they are generally a bottom feeding fish they will feed up in
mid water or higher when chasing food. Its not unusual for a pack of spurs to follow a hooked fish to
the surface.

Food: Shoaling fish such as whiting, herring, sprats and sandeels for the bulk of the spurdog diet. It
will also feed on demersal species such as cod and flatfish together with squid and crabs.
Baits: Fish baits are without doubt the most effective bait for spurdogs and any of the oily species such
as herring, mackerel or blueys should be the first choice. At some venues they can also be targeted
using squid either whole or in strip form. Spurdog will happily attack whole fish being used to target
larger species.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Spurdog

Squalus acanthias

Piggh

Pigghaj

Pighaj

Dornhai

Aguillat/Chien

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Doornhaai

Mielga

Spinarola

Katran

Hfur

Regional Names - Spiney Dogs, Spurries


Length / Weight Chart - http://www.planetseafishing.com/downloads/spurdog.pdf
Further Reading..
Spurdogs in crisis

Portuguese
Galhudo malhado,
Melga

Tope - Galeorhinus galeus

Distinguishing features: The tope is a member of the shark family and has the typical slender shark
shape with five gill slits. The upper lobe of the tail fin is large and ends in a triangular shape. The
second dorsal fin is similar in shape and size to the directly opposite anal fin. The back and sides vary
in colour from grey to grayish brown and the belly is white.
Size: The tope can attain lengths of 2.5 metres and weights of 38 kg in European waters.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/tope.htm
Habitat: The tope can be found along the coast adjoining the east North Atlantic, North Sea and the
Mediterranean and is migratory in the north. It inhabits water from 10 to 200 metres in depth and
although it mainly lives in packs on the bottom but will come up into mid-water to feed. It can be
found over all types of seabed but is commonly found over mixed hard and soft ground.
Food: The tope feeds extensively on fish including pout, codling and whiting. Crustaceans also form
part of its diet.

Bait: Mackerel, live or dead is the favourite bait for tope although in some estuarine waters sections of
silver eel can be effective as can large sandeel where the tope come within range of the shore angler.
Other small fish such as dabs and whiting can also be effective over sandy ground.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Tope

Galeorhinus galeus

Grhai

Grhaj

Grhaj

Hundshai

Not

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Regional Names - Sweet William

available

Common Skate - Raja batis

Distinguishing features: This is the largest of the skates found in European waters. It has a fairly long
snout which leads to the front edge of the wing or disc being concave in shape. Both sexes have
prickles on the back but the male tends to have more coverage over the whole of the disc. This skate
has a row of spines down its tail and has up to three spines situated between the two dorsal fins at the
rear of the tail. The colouration on the upper surface varies from olive brown to grey with brown
blotches and dark spots. Lines of dark pores are visible on the blueish-grey underside.
Size: Females of this skate can reach widths in excess of two metres and weights over 115 kg have
been recorded.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/skatecommon.htm
Distribution: The common skate can be found in depths of 10 to 600 metres but the adults tend to
inhabit the deeper water. In exceptional cases around the Western Isles large adults will venture into
shallow water. It can be found from the waters around Iceland and north Norway down to the
Mediterranean Sea. It is commonly found over soft seabed in particular where scallops are found.

Food: This skate is a predacious fish which will hunt in mid-water as well as on the bottom and feeds
extensively on spurdogs, rays and demersal fish. It will also feed on crustaceans.
Baits: Whole or flappered fish are the most effective bait for skate including mackerel, coalfish and
dogfish.

English

Latin

Common Skate Raja batis

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Glattskate

Skata

Skade

Glattrochen

Flotte

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Schate

Noriega

Razza Comune

Gladkiy Skat

Skata

Raia

Regional Names - Barndoor

Further reading
Skate on a plate
Island Master-skater

Ray, Blonde - Raja brachvara

photo courtesy of Mike Concannon


Distinguishing features: The blonde ray has the common Rajidae kite shape with a relatively thick body
and a short snout. The tips of the pectoral fins are angular and there are a line of spins down the midline of the tail. The light brown back is covered with dark spots which continue out to the very edge of
the wings. There may also be lighter blotches on the upper surface and the fish is white on the ventral
side. As with all rays the males have large claspers adjacent to the pectoral fins.

Size: One of the largest rays the blonde ray can reach a weight of 18 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/rayblonde.htm
Habitat: It inhabits from UK coastal waters down to the Mediterranean and is mainly found in water
from 30 to 100 metres deep over sandy bottoms.
Food: This ray feeds mainly on herring, sprats, pouting, sandeels and other small fish together with
crustaceans and worms.
Baits: Large fillets of mackerel are an effective bait for blonde rays particularly when combined with a
whole calamari squid. Peeler crab can work well from the shore.

Ray, Cuckoo - Raja naevus

Distinguishing features: The cuckoo ray is one of the rarer of the European rays and has the typical ray
shape with comparatively large rounded pectoral fins. There is a double line of spines down the tail
and rear of the back. Small spines cover most of the upper surface and underside of the snout. The
back is a patchy grayish brown with distinct black and yellow marks on each wing.
Size: This ray can grow to a length of around 70 cm.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/raycukoo.htm
Habitat: Lives over clean seabed in depths from 20 to 150 metres. It is found from the north of the UK
and southern Norway down the Atlantic coast and North Sea into the west end of the Mediterranean.
Food: The diet consists of shrimps and worms when young with fish forming the main food for adults.
Baits: Mackerel strip is generally the most effective bait for this species.
Regional Names - Jenny

Ray, Small-eyed - Raja microocellata

photo courtesy of Mike Concannon


Distinguishing features: The small eyed ray has rounded wing tips and a shortish snout. As its name
suggests it has comparatively small eyes. The upper surface of the wings and body are grayish to
brown colour with light patches and streaks which run parallel to the edges of the wings.
Size: The small eye grows to lengths of around 90 cm and attains a weight of over 7 kg. As with most
rays the female of the species is larger.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/raysmalleyed.htm

Habitat: This ray lives in the coastal waters around the English Channel, south of Ireland and the
Atlantic coasts of France, Spain and Portugal in depths of up to 100 metres. It likes sandy seabeds and
will frequent estuaries.
Food: The small eyed ray feeds mainly on fish and crustaceans.
Baits: Sandeel make an effective bait for small eyed ray, particularly from the shore. Squid, either on its
own or as a cocktail with fish strip will also take fish as will small fish from the location being fished
such as poor cod or pout.

Ray, Spotted - Raia montagui

Photo courtesy of Adam


Distinguishing features: The spotted ray has a concave, curved snout and the typical ray wings. The
young spotted ray has small spines on the upper surface near the front edge and in the adults these
extend further back. There is a row of larger spines which run down the back and tail and expand to
the sides of the tail. The back is a sandy brown with dark spots which dont extend out to the edge of
the wings. They are white on the underside.
Size: The spotted ray can reach a length of 75 cm and a weight of around 4 kg. The females grow
larger than the males.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/rayspotted.htm
Habitat: Whilst it will be found on rocky ground the spotted ray prefers a sandy seabed. Its normally
found in depths between 25 and 120 metres. It is found from the coastal waters of the UK down to the
Mediterranean.

Food: The spotted ray feeds mainly on crabs, shrimps and other crustaceans although fish do form a
minor part of its diet.
Baits: Mackerel, squid, peeler crab and sand eel can all be effective baits from the boat or shore.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

Spotted Ray

Raja montagui

Flekkskate

Not available Storplettet

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

rokke

German

French

Flckrochen

Not

available

Thornback Ray - Raja clavata

Distinguishing features: The body of the thornback ray has the kite shape that is typical of the skates
and rays. As its name suggests it has thorns on its upper surface particularly from the root of the tail
down to the dorsal fins at its tip. In the larger specimens the thorns have a small disc at their base.
Colouration varies widely but its generally a brown to grey on the back with numerous lighter spots
and patches. The underside is cream merging to grey at the edges of the wings.
Size: Thornbacks can grow to a weight of around 15 kg and fish approaching this size will always be
female.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/raythornback.htm
Distribution: The thornback ray can be commonly found in depths of 10 to 60 metres but the depth
ranges to 300 metres. It tends to prefer areas where the sea bed comprises sand, mud or gravel. The
female lays her eggs in inshore waters from March to August.
Food: Thornbacks feed mainly on crabs but it will also eat fish such as sandeels and flatfish.
Baits: Fish baits such as mackerel and herring are popular baits particularly around Scotland and
Ireland. Prawns and peeler crab can also be very effective and in some areas squid will produce this
ray.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Thornback Ray

Raja clavata

Piggskate

Knaggrocka

Smrokke

Dornrochen

Not

available

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Regional Names - Roker


Further Reading..
Rays un-loched
Rays on the radar

Ray, Undulate - Raja undulata

Photo courtesy of Milo


Distinguishing features: The undulate ray has the typical kite shape with rounded tips to the wings and
a shortish snout. The back and snout are covered with short spines. The upper surface is a brown to
sandy brown colour with multiple distinguishing darker wavy lines and yellowish white blotches.
Size: The undulate can reach a length of 1.3 metres and weigh over 9 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/rayundulate.htm
Habitat: It is most commonly found in water 45 to 100 metres deep. Although mostly found over
sandy bottoms it will inhabit areas where the seabed comprises mud, mussels bed or boulders. It is
found off the south coast of England and Ireland down the Atlantic coasts of France, Spain and
Portugal into the Mediterranean. The larger fish are found at the southern end of this area.
Food: This ray feeds mainly on small fish particularly flatfish as well as squid and crustaceans.

Baits: Oily fish baits such as herring, mackerel, sandeels and blueys are effective for undulate rays and
squid will also produce fish either on its own or as a cocktail with fish strip.

Photo courtesy of Milo

Stingray - Dasyatis pastinaca

Photo courtesy of Steve


Distinguishing features: The stingray has the typical rhomboid body shape of a ray but lacks any
dorsal fins. Instead it has one or more serrated spines at the base of the thick section of the tail which
them tapers quickly into a long, whip like shape. The colour on the upper side is usually a plain brown,
grey or olive but some lighter blotches may be present. The underside is cream fading to grey at the
outer edges of the wings.
Size: The sting ray can reach weights in excess of 120 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/raysting.htm
Distribution: This ray is found in depths ranging from the shoreline to approximately 75 metres where
the seabed comprises mud or sand. It does venture into estuarine waters on occasion. It can be found
from the waters of the North Sea, through the Mediterranean Sea to the southern tip of Africa. The
largest specimens are found toward the south of this range.

Food: Feeds almost exclusively on crustaceans and molluscs.


Baits: Stingray will take fish baits but crab and king ragworm can be more effective when targeting this
species.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Stingray

Dasyatis

Pilrokke

Stingrocka

Pilrokke

Peitschenrochen

Raie

pastinaca

Pastenague

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Pijlstaartrog

Rayavaca

Baracola

Morskoj Kot

Not available

Manteiga

Further reading
Sun, sea and stingrays

Angler Fish - Loahius Piscatorius

Distinguishing features: The anglerfish is basically a broad flat head with a mouth and a tail. The rays
of the first dorsal fin are spines and the second one has 11-12 rays. Towards the mouth there is small
rod used to lure prey. The colour of the upper body varies from reddish brown to grey/green. The
underside is white and the pelvic fins have a black border.
Size: The anglerfish can reach weight approaching 45 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/angler-fish.htm
Habitat: Tends to prefer deep water up to 550 metres where the seabed is composed of sand, gravel
or crushed shells. It can be found from the Arctic Circle down to North West Africa.

Food: Anglerfish feed almost exclusively on live fish.


Baits: They are an accidental angling catch and fish baits are the mostly likely to attract this species.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Angler

Lophius piscatorius Breiflabb

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Marulk

Havtaske

Seeteufel

Baudroie

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Zeeduivel

Rape

Rana / Rospo /

Not available

Martino

Regional Names - Monk, Monkfish, Oomph, Fishing Frog

Icelandic

Portuguese

Sktuselur

Tamboril

Bass Dicentrachus labrax

Distinguishing features: The colours of a bass vary from greeny-grey on the back merging into
brilliant silver on the sides and a silvery-white belly. It has prominent scales on its streamlined body.
The bass has two large dorsal fins the first of which has 8-9 spines. It also has sharp spines on the
lower edge of the gill cover and should be handled with care.
Size: Whilst the bass can reach a size of over one metre and a maximum weight around 12 kilo the
angler can more reasonably expect to find fish up to 60 cm.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/bass.htm
Distribution: The Bass is relatively common in the waters around the UK and in habits the waters from
Norway in the north down as far as the Mediterranean and West Africa. It is an active shoaling fish in
inshore waters and will regularly be found in estuaries, particularly when in its juvenile stages. The
bass tends to breed in May off the UK. It is to some extent a migratory fish although many areas hold
year round populations of fish up to 1.5kg.

Food: Fish is the main diet of bass in particular sandeels, sprats and other small members of the
herring family. They also eat large quantities of squid and crustaceans.
Baits: The most popular all round shore bait for bass off beaches is the fresh lugworm with peeler crab
producing most fish over rocky marks. Live fish baits such as sandeel and mackerel can produce some
excellent specimens both from the boat and shore. Float fishing with live baits is becoming
increasing popular with anglers targeting reef bass from the boat. After an onshore blow razorfish
and slipper limpets can be very effective from the beaches.
Lures: A large variety of lures will take bass both from the boat and shore. From the shore spinning
with silver lures such as the ABU Krill or the Dexter wedge in its various guises will produce fish. Plugs
are very effective over shallow rocky marks due to the fact that they are less likely to snag and their
size tends to produce bigger specimens.
Redgills, Storm Sandeels and other eel shaped lures will also produce fish and the risk of snagging
when fishing over shallow rocks can be reduced by fishing them below a bubble float or Sbirolino
floats which can be obtained either for surface fishing or slow sinking.
Shads are very effective both from the shore when spinning and fished on flowing traces from the
boat. In certain areas pirks such as the Yann can take some large specimens of bass.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Bass

Dicentrarchus labrax Havabbor

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Havsabborre

Havaborre

Seebarsch

Bar

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Zeebaars

Lubina

Spigola

Morskj volk

Vartari

Robalo

Regional Names - Spikey Salmon Bass, White Salmon , White Mullet or Sea Dace
Length / Weight Chart - http://www.planetseafishing.com/downloads/bass.pdf

Black Bream - Spondyliosom cantharus

Distinguishing features: The black bream is a deep bodied, fully scaled species with a relatively small
head and spiny single dorsal fin. The back of bream is darkish blue-grey merging into silvery-grey on
the sides. There are six to seven faint vertical bars on the sides when the fish is fresh. Young fish may
have golden horizontal bars on the sides. Occasionally the larger fish will have a blue tinge around
the eyes.
Size: Black bream will grow to a length of 50 cm and may attain a weight of 3 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/breamblack.htm
Distribution: This bream can be commonly found from the southern end of the UK down to the
Mediterranean and will range further north to the Scottish border in the summer months. It likes
mixed rough and clean ground, will frequent mussel beds and may be found on wrecks. It will
generally be found in depths shallower than 50 metres.
Food: Feeds mainly on squid and small crustaceans but small fish and seaweed also feature in their
diet.
Baits: Squid is an effective bait for Black Bream either as whole small "party" squid, squid heads or
simply in strip form. Ragworm, scallop frills and small fish strips will also attract this species of bream
and bread is successfully used from the shore in the Channel Islands. Ground baiting can be used to
attract the shoals.

English

Latin

Bream, Black Spondyliosoma


cantharus

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Havkaruss

Havsruda

Havrude

Seekarpfe

Not

available

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Regional Names - Old Wife


Further Reading..
The forgotten venue
Rattle Therapy

Couchs Bream - Sparus pagrus

Distinguishing features: The Couchs bream is a deep bodied fish with a high, rounded profile to its
head and a spiny single dorsal fin. The anal fin has 3 spiny rays connected to 8 or 9 softer rays to the
posterior. This bream has an overall rose-pink hue which darkens towards the back and merges into
silver on the lower sides and belly. The fins are also rose-pink. The mouth contains 4 to 6 very strong
teeth at the front and smaller sharp teeth behind and to the sides of these. There are also a rows of
crushing teeth to the rear of the jaws.
Size: Couchs bream will grow to a length of 75 cm and can reach weights in excess of 7kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/breamcouches.htm
Distribution: This bream can be from the southern end of the UK, particularly the Channel Islands,
down to the Mediterranean and north-west African coast. It likes muddy or sandy ground around rocks
particularly where sea grass is found. It will generally be targeted in depths shallower than 50 metres.
Food: Feeds mainly on molluscs and small crustaceans.
Baits: Squid is an effective bait for Couchs Bream particularly from the boat but fish strip, cuttlefish
and worms will also take this bream.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Bream,

Sparus pagrus

Not available

Rodbraxen

Almindelig

Gewhnliche

Pagre

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Not available

Pargo-Colorado Albaro Pagro

Couchs

Regional Names - Pagrus


Further reading - Hard and Mean

Blankesten

Rotbrasse

Commun

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

narp

Not available

Pargo-Amarelo

Bream, Gilthead - Sparus aurata

Distinguishing features: The gilthead bream has the typical deep, flat profile bream shape. It has a
distinct bump on the head above the gills. The front teeth are sharp and pointed whereas the others
are flat for crushing. When alive or fresh it has red or orange markings at the gill covers and a bright
irregular gold stripe across the head and onto the gill covers which gives the fish its name. The back is
a bluey grey merging into silver on the lower sides and belly.
Size: The gilthead can reach weights of 7.5 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/breamgilthead.htm

Habitat: Lives in shallow water, up to 30 metres, in small groups over soft ground. It prefers the
warmer waters around the Mediterranean and the west coast of Africa. In summer it migrates north
and can be found on the south coast of Ireland and the western reaches of the English Channel.
Food: It feeds mainly on molluscs and crustaceans.
Bait: Peeler crab and shellfish are the main baits for giltheads but they will take worms as well.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Bream, Gilt-

Sparus aurata

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Dorade

Head

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Goudbrasem

Dorada

Orata

Not available

Not available

Not available

Bream, Red - Pagellus bogaraveo


Distinguishing features: While the red bream has the basic bream family shape it is not as deep bodied
as some and has a rounded head. It has large eyes and long pectoral fins. The back is a reddish grey
colour as are the fins and the sides are silver with as pinkish hue. There is a darkish spot above the
pectoral fin on the dark lateral line. The fins are reddish grey in colour, the pectoral and tail fins are
particularly red.
Size: The red bream can grow to over 50 cm and weigh up to 4.5 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/breamred.htm
Habitat: This bream is a shoal fish which migrates north during the summer from the warmer waters
around the Mediterranean and the Atlantic coasts of France and Spain. Young fish will come into
shallow water and adults live in water over 100 metres deep most of the time. It prefers mixed hard
ground and like the black bream, can be found around wrecks.
Food: The red bream feeds mainly on small fish but they will also eat squid and crustaceans.
Baits: Shellfish such as razors, cockles and mussels make good baits for this species and they will also
take fish strips.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Bream, Red

Pagellus bogaraveo Flekkpagell

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Flckpagell

Spidstandet

Meerbrasse

Dorade

blankesten

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Zeebrasem

Esprido

Pagro / Pagello

Not available

Not available

Not available

occhialone

Rays Bream - Brama brama

Distinguishing features: Has the typical narrow, deep bodied bream shape with a snub nose and
downward angled mouth. The dorsal and anal fins cover the rear half of the body and are low for
most of the length only rising outwards as they reach their leading edges. It has long tail and pectoral
fins and there are upwards of sixty scales along the lateral line. The back is a browny green with silver
sides and belly. The pectoral fins have a yellowish tinge.
Size: The Rays bream can weigh over 3 kg and reach lengths of over 65 cm.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/breamrays.htm
Distribution: Rays bream is a pelagic species which inhabits the western Atlantic waters, the North Sea
and down to the central mid-Atlantic. Although normally found in deep water areas it is occasionally
found stranded on North Sea shorelines in the cold winters during its southern migration.
Food: This species feeds mainly on small fish and crustaceans.
Baits: Although rarely caught by anglers Worm and fish baits will occasionally take this species.
Thanks to Derryck Greenwood for permission to use the excellent photo.

Wolf fish (Catfish) - Anarhichas lupus

Distinguishing features: The catfish or wolf fish is a long bodied species with no pelvic fins. The dorsal
and anal fins are long with the dorsal starting above the gill plate. At the tail end the dorsal fin is
convex at the junction with the body. The large head contains a mouth with canine like teeth and
crushing teeth inside. The body colour varies from reddish brown to bluey grey with darker vertical
bands which also feature on the dorsal.
Size: The catfish can reach a length of 1.5 metres and weights of 18 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/catfishcommon.htm
Habitat: Found in numbers around Norway, the Faroe Islands and Iceland in depths from 10 metres to
300 metres. Further south it is rarely found in depths of less than 60 metres. It prefers hard seabed
but will be found on mud or sand.
Food: Catfish feed on crustaceans and molluscs as well as sea urchins.
Baits: Squid makes an effective bait for wolf fish as are mussels and fish such as blueys.
Lures: Catfish will take pirks either with or without bait.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Catfish

Anarhichas lupus

Grsteinbit

Dutch

Spanish

Meerval

Perro del norte / Bavosa lupa

Italian

lobo

Regional Names - Wolffish


Further Reading..
In Search of the Abominable Sea Wolf

Havskatt

Almindelig/

Stribet havkat

Katfish, seewolf Loup

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Zubtka

Steinbtur

Peixe-lobo

Coalfish - Pollachius virens

Distinguishing features: The Coalfish is similar to the pollack in body shape although the larger
specimens tend to have a rounder cross section. The first anal fin starts below the gap between the
first and second dorsal fin. The back is a very dark greeny blue which merges sharply into silvery white
on the sides and belly. The lateral line is light coloured. Small specimens over kelp may have a golden
sheen to the sides.
Size: Coalfish can grow to a length in excess of 130 cm and weigh over 15 kg particularly in northern
waters.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/coalfish.htm
Distribution: Immature Coalies can be found in great numbers in the shallow water around the north of
the UK and Ireland. They will inhabit water up to 250 metres deep and over all sorts of sea bed. The
Coalfish will work through the sea layers from the bottom to the surface in search of food.

Food: Large Coalfish feed almost exclusively on fish particularly on members of the herring family.
Smaller fish feed on sandeels, capelin and crustaceans.
Baits: The smaller Coalfish will take most baits but favourites with the shore angler include peeler
crab, mussels and worms.
Lures: The boat angler will target the Coalfish almost exclusively with lures. Strings of feather or small
eels can be very effective for the smaller fish. Larger specimens are best fished for using a plastic eel
such as a Redgill, plastic worm or large shad retrieved on a long trace. Feathers and spinners will also
take fish from the shore. Casting small pirks can also be effective in deeper water.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Coalfish

Pollachius virens

Sei

Grsej

Sej, grsej

Khler

Lieu Noir

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Koolvis

Palero

Merluzzo Nero

Sjda

Ufsi

Escamudo

Regional Names - Saith, Poddlie, Queeth, Geek, Poddler, Black Pollock, Black Jack, Sillock, Sey,
Glashan, Cuddie

Pollack (left) and Coalfish (right) - photo courtesy of Mike Concannon

Cod Gadus morhua

Distinguishing features: Probably the most recognisable of the cold water sea fish that the angler
fishing in northern European waters is liable to come across, mostly due to its popularity with rod and
line anglers. The cod varies in background colour from greenish on fish which inhabit the deeper
waters to reddish brown on fish which have taken up residence in kelp. The back and sides have dark
and light mottling in all cases. The lateral line is conspicuously light, continuous and has a smooth
curve over the pectoral fin.
The cod is generally a thick bodied fish with a long chin barbell. It has three dorsal fins close together
which are rounded in profile and two anal fins. The tail fin is slightly convex and the upper jaw
overhangs the lower.
Size: There are records of fish of 90kg (200lb) but the maximum today will be unlikely to reach much
more than a quarter of that size in Scandinavian or Icelandic waters. The UK shore angler can expect
fish averaging around 1.5kg and the capture of a 5 kilo fish is exceptional. Even from the boat fish of
over 10kg are no longer common unless the angler is fishing the waters near the Arctic Circle.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/cod.htm

Distribution: The cod can be found in a variety of habitats from the shoreline to well down the
continental shelf, in depths of 600m. At the southern end of its range the cod tends to only inhabit the
shallower water in winter, where, as elsewhere its the smaller, younger fish which live close inshore.
It will forage for food both on the sea-bed and in mid-water. The cod generally spawns between
February and April in water about 200m deep. Inshore waters of this depth are only found in the
northern fjords. The cod has been exploited for years as a food fish and nowadays stocks are
dangerously close to extinction in some areas.
Food: There is not much that a cod wont eat but a wide range of crustaceans, worms, brittlestars and
fish are among its main food sources. The fish species it targets include herring, capelin, and sandeels
and increasingly in UK waters the pipefish.
Baits: Although it depends on the venue and the time of year peeler crab is probably the top bait in the
UK particularly for the shore angler. Closely following crab would be the various worms with lug, both
fresh and frozen black lug being the most effective and rag also producing fish. The matchmans
favourite white rag will often take fish on days when more accessible baits fail.
The various shellfish, mussels, razorfish and clams will all take fish on their day and are particularly
popular with boat anglers around Scotland and the North Sea. Large squid baits will take the bigger
cod and this bait is extensively used from the boat in the waters around the south coast of England.
In the more northern cod holding areas fish baits are extensively used both from the boat and shore
with mackerel, herring and blueys all taking their share of fish. Combining two or more baits into a
cocktail on the hook can often be very effective with lugworm and mussel being a favourite in the
north.
Lures: Where the water clarity is good lures can be very effective for cod in particular from the boat.
Pirks are probably the first lure that the angler thinks of when targeting cod and with the growing
popularity of pirk casting much light lures can be used. The chrome pirk is still popular although
various painted lures are now available and will take their fair share of fish.
Plastic or rubber worms, eels such as the redgill, or shads can be very effective fished either on a flier
above a pirk or on a flowing trace either slowly retrieved or hopped along the bottom. Large shads
fished in conjunction with a leadhead are a highly successful method of fishing for large cod in the
clear northern waters.

Muppets are also used extensively for cod but these are generally fished with bait and are more an
attractor than a lure.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Cod

Gadus morhua

Torsk

Torsk

Torsk

Dorsch

Cabillaud

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Kabeljauw

Bacalao

Merluzzo Bianco

Treska

orskur

Bacalhau

Regional Names - Spraggs, Ken Dodd


Length / Weight Chart - http://www.planetseafishing.com/downloads/cod.pdf
Further Reading..
Jurassic Mark
Shad Mad Cod

Conger - Conger conger

Distinguishing features: The Conger has a round, elongated body and a continuous dorsal fin which
merges with the ventral fin. Unlike the Common Eel the dorsal fin starts near to the pectoral fin.
Colouration on the back and sides varies from a dull brown to dark grey depending upon the location.
Size: The Conger can be a massive fish with a maximum weight in excess of 65 kg and lengths
approaching three metres. The shore angler choosing a suitable mark could locate fish of up to 25 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/conger.htm
Distribution: Conger will be found mainly over rocks, wrecks and other structures including around
piers. They inhabit depths from the shoreline to 200 metres and its not unusual to see them

swimming around weed and kelp beds close to the surface in harbours and sea lochs. It breeds in the
deep water trenches in the tropical Atlantic.
Food: The diet of the Conger consists mainly of fish, large crabs and octopuses.
Baits: Mackerel flappers are the most consisted Conger bait but pouting can also be an effective fish
bait. The Conger will also take squid and cuttlefish baits and smaller ones from the shore are partial to
peeler crab.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Conger

Conger conger

Havl

Havsl

Havl

Meeraal, Conger

Congre

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Zeepaling

Cngrios

Grongo

Morskj gor

Not available

Congro, safio

Regional Names - Havel, Slippery Bob

Common Eel - Anguilla anguilla

Photo courtesy of Davey


Distinguishing features: The Common Eel has a round, elongated body and a continuous dorsal fin
which joins with the ventral fin at the tail. The dorsal fin starts well down its back, near to the vent
than the gills and the pectoral fin is rounded. The lower jaw protrudes further than the upper one.
Colouration on the back and sides varies from a dull brown and yellow in freshwater to dark grey
almost black with a silver belly when it is mature in the marine environment.
Size: In the sea the Common Eel will grow to around 2 kg. Small eels can be commonly found under
rocks in estuaries.

http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/eelcommon.htm
Distribution: The Eel is rarely caught in water deeper than 20 metres and its found mostly in estuaries
and harbour areas where the bottom is a mixture of mud, weed and rocks.
Food: The diet of the Common Eel consists mainly of crustaceans and worms.
Baits: Peeler crab is the most effective bait for Eels although they will take worms and occasionally
fishbaits.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Eel

Anguilla anguilla

(Eur.) l

Aal

Anguilla

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Anguila

Not available

Ugor

Not available

Eirs

Regional Names - Snotties

Garfish - Belone belone

Distinguishing features: The garfish has a distinctive elongated body with a long beak like set of hard
jaws. It has a long single dorsal and anal fin. The colouration is a bright blueish green on the back and
upper sides fading into bright silver on the lower sides and belly. A yellow sheen is sometimes present
on the lower half.
Size: The garfish can reach a length of a round one metre and a weight of 1.75 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/garfish.htm
Distribution: Garfish are found mainly in the surface layers of the sea. It migrates from deep water
inshore during the summer months. It is mostly found in southern section of the east North Atlantic,
the southern North Sea, the Mediterranean and round into the Baltic Sea.
Food: They feed mainly on small fish especially herring and sandeels but will also eat squid and
crustaceans.
Baits: Small strips of fish are the most effective bait for garfish including mackerel belly strip and
pieces of garfish itself.

Lures: Garfish will take slender silver spoons and spinners together with feathers. They can also be
taken on small plastic eels and Storm sandeel style lures.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Garfish

Belone belone

Horngjel

Nbbgdda,

Hornfisk

Hornhechte

Orphie

horngdda

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Geep

Aguja

Aguglia

Not available

Not available

Sarda

Regional Names - Green Bones, Sea Pike, Longnose, Snipe Eel, Mackeral Guide, Sea Needle

Gurnard, Grey - Eutrigla gurnardus

Distinguishing features: The grey gurnard has a slim, tapered body with the typical gurnard hard head
and feeler like pectoral fin rays. The lateral line has a series of bony knobs along its length. The
pectoral fin is comparatively short and doesnt reach the vent. There is a darkish blotch on the first
dorsal. While it is generally a grey or brownish grey colour its not unusual for the back and sides to
have pinkish hue. The ventral side is a dullish white.
Size: The grey gurnard can grow to a length of 45 cm and a weight of around 1.2 kg.
Habitat: Found on similar ground to the red gurnard but prefers depths of 20 to 50 metres. It also
ranges further north than the red gurnard. Although a bottom feeder it will range through the lower
water column and occasionally into mid-water.
Food: Feeds mainly on small shrimps, crustacean bottom living fishes and sandeels.
Baits: Small fish baits are the most effective for targeting this species.
Lures: The grey gurnard will take small plastic eels and sabiki style lures.

English

Latin

Gurnard, Grey Chelidonichthys

[Eutrigla] gurnardus

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Knurr, vanlig

Knot

Knurhane

Knurrhahn

Not

available

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Gr Poon

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Regional Names - Gowdies, Latchets

Gurnard, Red - Aspitriela caculus

Photo courtesy of Dale


Distinguishing features: The red gurnard, like others in this family has a sloping, hard bony head with
spines on it and the gill plates. It has a stocky, tapered body with large scales along the lateral line.
The pectoral fins are adapted to provide additional sense organs and the first three rays are thick and
separate. The head is slightly concave and the pectoral fins only just reach the vent. The back and
sides are deep red merging into pinkish silver on the underside.
Size: Can attain a length of 40 cm and a weight of around 1.3 kilo.
Habitat: Found in the southern east Atlantic and English Channel as well as the Mediterranean in
depths of between 20 and 250 metres. The red gurnard prefers seabeds of sand or sand and gravel
although it will spend time on mud and rocky ground.
Food: This gurnard feeds on shrimps and small crabs together with small fish and worms.
Baits: Fish strips are the most common bait for the red gurnard but they will take peeler crab and
ragworm on occasion.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Gurnard,

Chelidonichthys

Knurr,tverrstripet

Rdknot

Tvrstibet

Kuckucksknurrhahn

Not

Red

[Aspitrigla] cuculus

knurhane

available

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Rode Poon

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Gurnard, Tub - Eutrigla gurnardus

Distinguishing features: The tub gurnard is the largest of the European gurnards. It has the classic
sloping, bony head with sharp edges to the gill covers and feeler like pectoral extensions. The rayed
part of the pectoral fins extend well beyond the vent The colouration varies from re to pink on the
upper surfaces to predominately white or whiteish-orange on the underside. The large pectoral fins
have bright blue markings with a red trim and may have green spots.
Size: This gurnard can reach lengths of 75 cm and can weigh over 5 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/gurnardtub.htm
Distribution: This bottom dwelling species can be found around the coast of northern Europe down to
the Mediterranean and north west Africa. It is most numerous towards the south of it range. The
adults can be found in depths from 20 to 200 metres and juveniles will venture close inshore.
Food: The tub gurnard feeds on a wide range of crustaceans and small fish including sandeels, gobies
and dragonettes.
Baits: A strip of fish is the most effective bait for tub gurnards particularly mackerel.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Tub Gurnard

Trigla lucerna

Knurr

Fenknot

Knurhane

Knurrhahn

Grondin

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Poon

Alfondiga

Angiliedda

Szeltyi Morskoi Petukh Not available

Regional Names - Tub, Sea robin

Icelandic

Portuguese
Cabra-Cabao

Haddock - Melanogrammus aeglefinus

Distinguishing features: The haddock is a member of the cod family with three dorsal fins, the first of
which is triangular and two anal fins. The lower jaw is shorter than the upper and the barbel is short.
The back is a greeny brown colour with greyish silver sides and at times has a purple hue. The lateral
line is black and there is a black spot above the pectoral fin.
Size: The haddock can grow to around 80 cm and attain a weight of 8 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/haddock.htm
Habitat: A migratory fish, at the northern end of its range it travels into shallow water in the summer
and the reverse is true further south. It will be found over most types of sea bed but favours softer
bottom. It can be found in depths from 10 metres out to 300 metres.
Food: The haddock feeds mainly on bottom living organisms such as worms, brittlestars and
molluscs. They will also eat sandeels and capelin.

Baits: Mussels are a favourite bait and they will also regularly take lugworm, fish strips and other
shellfish.
Lures: Haddock will take pirks, feathers and plastic worms or eels.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

Haddock

Melanogrammus

Hyse (kolje)

Kolja

Kuller

Schellfish

aeglefinus

French
Eglefin

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Schelvis

Eglefino

Asinello

Pksha

sa

Arinca

Regional Names - Haddies, Chipper ,Chat, Jumbo

Hake - Merluccius merluccius

Distinguishing features: The hake has a long body shape, not unlike the pollack, with a large head and
a mouth filled with long sharp teeth. The second dorsal fin and the anal fin are long and take up
approximately half of the body length. The scales on the hake are fairly large and the lateral line is
straight and located on the upper half of the body. The back is a blueish grey in colour fading to silver
on the sides and silver-white on the belly. The insides of the gills and mouth are a blackish colour.
Size: The hake can attain a length of 1.8 metres and can reach weights in excess of 12 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/hake.htm
Distribution: While the hake spends a lot of its life near the bottom it will venture into the upper midwater reaches to feed particularly at night. It is commonly found in depths of 100 to 550 metres over
various types of seabed.
Food: The hake feeds mainly on fish and squid but the younger fish will include crustaceans in their
diet.
Baits: Oily fish baits such as mackerel and herring are effective when targeting hake and squid will also
take this species.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Hake

Merluccius

Not available

Kapkummel

Sydafrikansk

Kaphecht

Merluche

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Stokvis

Merluza Del

Nasello Del Capo

merluccius

Cabo

Kulmule

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Marmota

Herring - Clupeid harangues

Distinguishing features: The herring is a narrow bodied fish with large, easily detached scales on the
body. It has a prominent lower jaw and the dorsal fin starts in front of the pelvic fins. The dark blue
back becomes lighter on the sides and merges into a silvery white on the underside.
Size: The herring can grow to a length of over 40 cm and a weight of around 700 gm.
Habitat: The herring is found throughout the north Atlantic, the North and Baltic Seas and up into the
Arctic Circle. It can be found in all depths of water and will range through the water column.
Food: The main diet of the herring is plankton.
Baits: It is very rare for herring to take natural bait.
Lures: Herring will take very small feather or sabiki lures and can also be caught on plain silver hooks.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

Herring

Clupea harengus

Sild

Sill, strmming Sild

German

French

Hering

Herang

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Haring

Arenque

Aringa

Syeldz

Sld

Arenque

John Dory Zeus faber

Distinguishing features: The john dory has a narrow rounded body with a large protrusible mouth. The
first dorsal fin is large with 9 to 10 spines and there is another spiny fin on the lower edge. The sides
have a light background interspersed with greenish brown patches and the ventral side is a greyish
silver. There is a black thumb-mark on either side which is surrounded by a yellow ring. The
membranes on the anal and pelvic fins are black.
Size: The john dory can reach lengths in excess of 60 cm and weights of 5 kilo or more.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/john-dory.htm
Distribution: This species ranges from the south western waters of Scandinavia down through the
Mediterranean to the north west coast of Africa. It normally lives of around 10 to 50 metres and will
often hunt in mid-water.
Food: The John Dory feeds mainly on small fish.
Baits: This fish is normally an accidental capture and has been taken on fish baited feathers.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

John Dory

Zeus faber

St. Petersfisk

Sanktpersfisk

Sanktpetersfisk

Europischer

Jean

Heringsknig

Dor,

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

sint-Pietervis

Gall De La Mar

Pesce San Pietro

Solnechnik

Not available

Alfaquete

Regional Names - Dory, St Peters Fish

Ling - Molva molva

Distinguishing features: The ling is a long bodied fish with one short anterior dorsal fin, 14 to 15 rays
and one long fin towards the tail. It has a single chin barbel and the lower jaw does not project. The
back and sides are a brownish green colour and the rear dorsal and anal fins have a lighter edge.
There is a darkish spot on the first dorsal and to a lesser extent on the second dorsal and anal fins.
Size: Can grow to a length of two metres and weigh around 40 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/ling.htm
Habitat: The ling lives in the colder waters from the English Channel north to Norway and Iceland. It
can be found in depths from 20 metres down to 300 metres. It prefers rocky ground and is frequently
found on and around wrecks.
Food: Diet consists mainly of demersal fish but will also eat crustaceans.
Baits: Fish baits, mackerel in particular are most effective for ling.
Lures: Ling will take pirks particularly when baited and are attracted to baited spoons.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Ling

Molva molva

Lange

Lnga

Lange

Leng

Lingue

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Leng

Maruca

Molva

Mlva

Langa

Maruca

Regional Names - Ollock


Further Reading
Species spotlight: Ling

Mackerel - Scomber scombrus

Distinguishing features: The Mackerel is one of the most readily recognised sea fish in the North
Atlantic due to it being a popular bait fish as well as a target species for anglers. The body has
cylindrical cross section and tapers from the mid point to the head and tail. The first dorsal fin has 1113 rays and five finlets start to the rear of the second dorsal and anal fin. This fish is brightly coloured
when live and the back is a blue-green with irregular dark bands down the back and sides. The lower
sides and belly are a white with iridescent hues.
Size: Although the Mackerel can reach a weight of 3 kg its more normal for the angler to catch fish
around 500gms.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/mackerel.htm
Distribution: This prolific migratory fish is found all over the North Atlantic from the edges of the
continental shelf and down to North Africa. It is a pelagic species and can be found throughout the
water column. It migrates north and inshore in the summer and in the reverse direction in winter.
Food: Mackerel feed on small fish such as sprats and mackerel as well as pelagic crustaceans such a
shrimps.
Baits: Mackerel will happily take small strips of fish including its own species.
Lures: Anglers commonly use feather type lures either true feathers or artificial ones such as sabikis.
Silver metal spinners and pirks will also take Mackerel as will small redgill style lures.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Mackerel

Scomber scombrus Makrell

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Makrill

Makrel

Makrele

Maquereau

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Makreel

Cabellas

Maccarello

Makryel

Makrll

sarda

Regional Names - Shiners, Moggs

Mullet, Golden Grey - Liza aurata


Distinguishing features: The golden grey mullet is the smallest of the three mullets found in Northern
European waters. It has the typical mullet body shape and the pectoral fin, when folded forwards
covers the back half of the eye. The colouration is the same as the thin-lipped mullet but it lacks the
spot at the pectoral fin and has a prominent gold blotch on either side of the head.
Size: Grows to a length of around 45 cm and a weight of 2 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/mulletgolden.htm
Habitat: It is most common around the English Channel and the south west of England and Wales. It
will range as far south as the Mediterranean. While it will be found around harbours and river mouths
it is not frequently found in rivers unlike the other two mullet species. It is regularly found off sandy
beaches.
Food: The golden grey mullet feeds on algae, small worms and vegetation.
Baits: Small bunches of harbour ragworm are effective baits, particularly from beaches. Bread and
other baits as for the thick-lipped grey mullet can also produce fish.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Mullet,

Liza aurata

Gullmulte

Guldmulte

Guldmulte

Goldmeersche

Not

Golden Grey

available

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Mullet, Thick-lipped Grey - Chelon labrosus

Distinguishing features: The torpedo shaped body of the thick-lipped mullet is covered with large
scales. The anterior of the two dorsal fins has four spines. The upper lip is broad and more than half
of the diameter of the eye in depth. The pectoral fin covers most of the eye when folded forward. Its
back varies from dark green to bluey grey merging into grey stripes running from the gills to the tail
over a silver background. Other than the anal fin, grey, those on the ventral side are white.
Size: The thick-lipped mullet can grow to about 80 cm and attain a weight of around 6 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/mulletgrey.htm
Habitat: It is a summer migrating species which can be found in the coastal waters around the UK,
France, and Spain and down the Mediterranean and North West Africa. It is commonly found in
harbours, estuaries and other inshore water.
Food: Feeds on vegetative matter, plankton, worms, copepods, small crustaceans and molluscs.
Bait: A wide range of baits can be used for this mullet depending upon the locality. Bread in particular
is widely used but small fish baits and ragworm can also be effective. Maggots, sweetcorn and other
freshwater type baits have landed mullet. They respond well to groundbaiting.
Lures: The mullet can be taken by fly fishing particularly when feeding on the maggots of seaweed
flies

English

Latin

Mullet,

Chelon labrosus Multe,tykkleppet

Thicklip Grey

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Tjocklppad

Tyklbet

Dicklippige

Not

multe

multe

meersche

available

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Further Reading..
Where theres muck theres mullet
Horn of plenty

Mullet, Thin-lipped Grey - Liza ramada


Distinguishing features: The thin-lipped mullet has the typical mullet body shape and scales. The
pectoral fin does not reach the eye when folded backwards. The upper lip is less than half of the
diameter of the eye in depth. There is dark spot at the base of the pectoral fin and greyish blue colour
on the back merges into silver on the sides with faint grey stripes.
Size: This mullet can reach a length of 65 cm and a weight of around 3.5 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/mulletgreythinlipped.htm
Habitat: Is most common off the coast of France and the Mediterranean but ranges north to the coast
of Ireland, England, the North Sea and into the Baltic Sea. It is happy in estuaries and can be found well
up rivers.
Food: It feeds on the same organisms as the thick-lipped mullet.
Baits: As for thick-lipped grey mullet.
Lures: Although not strictly lure fishing a small mepps type spoon fitted with a single hook and baited
with harbour ragworm will take thin-lipped grey mullet.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Mullet,

Liza ramado

Multe,tynnleppet

Tunnlppad

Tyndlbet

Dnnlippige

Not

Thinlip Grey

multe

multe

meersche

available

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Pollack - Pollachius pollachius

Distinguishing features: The pollack has the typical cod family shape with 3 dorsal fins and two anal
fins. The lower jaw protrudes further than the upper one and has no barbel. The colouration varies
according to the waters in which the pollack inhabits, from brownish-green on the back and
yellowish-green on the sides to reddish, gold colours in fish which live in kelp covered ground. In
smaller fish the colours are patchy and tend towards golden. The dark lateral line curves sharply down
to the middle of the body over the pectoral fin.
Size: The pollack can reach sizes of 140cm and weights in excess of 14 kg however the shore angler
can expect to target fish averaging around 2 kg and the a good specimen from the boat would scale 5
kg.

http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/pollack.htm
Distribution: The habitat of the pollack tends to close to rocks, piers or rough ground with the biggest
specimens normally found over wrecks or deep water reefs. Adult specimens can be found at depths
ranging from the surface to over 100 metres deep. The smaller fish will inhabit the inshore waters
including sandy areas. The pollack will spawn in deep water from January to April. They can be found
from the Mediterranean to as far north as the Arctic Circle.
Food: Fish form the main source of food for pollack, particularly sandeels and members of the cod and
herring families. Recently on the north and east coasts of the UK large numbers of pipefish form a
major part of the diet. They will also forage on the sea bed for crustaceans.
Baits: Sandeels, fresh or frozen, make an excellent bait for pollack both from the boat and shore. In
shallow water a single ragworm will often produce good bags of fish from the rocks or over offshore
reefs. Similarly a belly strip of mackerel slow retrieved can be deadly. Large specimens are taken
occasionally on fish baits being used for other species.
Lures: Plastic or rubber worms, eels such as the redgill, or shads can be very effective on a flowing
trace either slowly retrieved back to the boat or spun deeply from the shore.
The shore angler can also find success using a metal spoon spun over kelp covered rocks, elongated
silver or copper ones normally produce best bags.
A favourite among the Scottish competition anglers for inshore pollack is to fish with two or three
redgills or plastic worms fished paternoster style above a fluttering, hookless pirk.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

Pollack

Pollachius pollachius Lyr

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Vlaswijting

Abadejo

Merluzzogiallo

Sayda

Lr

Juliana

French

Lyrtorsk, bleka Lubbe, lyssej, Polack

Lieu jaune

blsej

Regional Names - Lythie, Lythe, Coalsey, Podler , Piltock, Stedlock, Cuden, Cooth, Harbin, Whiting
Pollock

Poor-cod - Trisopterus minutus

Distinguishing features: The poor cod is a mini-species from the cod family with three dorsal fins and
two anal fins. The base of the first anal fin starts beneath the space between the first and second
dorsal fins and the upper jaw overlaps the lower. The back is a yellowish-brown with the sides tending
towards a copper colour and the belly is silvery grey. Its scales tend to come off on the hand when
touched but the fin position should be used as the main guide when distinguishing between this
species and the pouting.
Size: Poor cod reach a maximum length of around 26 cm but between 15 and 20 cm is more common.
Distribution: Poor cod are very common in the waters of the eastern North Atlantic in depths of
between 25 to 200 metres. It is less common close to the shore than the pouting.
Food: Its food consists mainly of small fish and crustaceans.
Baits: Poor cod will take almost any small baits including crab, worms, fish and squid.
Lures: Like the pouting, poor cod will happily take small sabiki lures fished hard on the bottom.

English

Latin

Poor Cod

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Trisopterus minutus Sypike

Glyskolja

Glyse

Zwergdorsch

Not

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Faneco

available

Pouting - Trisopterus luscus

Distinguishing features: The pouting is a deep bodied member of the cod family with three dorsal fins
and two anal fins which all overlap at the base. The start of the front anal fin is well forward, below the
middle of the first dorsal. The pelvic fin is long and reaches past the anal vent. These latter two
characteristics are the easiest way to differentiate between a small pouting and its close relative the
poor cod. Coloration in the adult is generally a coppery-brown with four or five darker bands across
the upper body and a black spot at the base of the pectoral fin. Younger pout tend to be more silver
grey in colour and the bands may be absent.
Size: Pouting can reach a maximum weight of around 3 kg but the average size from the boat is about
1 kg and less than half of that from the shore.

http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/pouting.htm
Distribution: Pout are very common in the waters around the English Channel and southern North Sea
with the small fish being found in shallow water with a sandy bottom. Larger fish tend to shoal near or
over rocks and wrecks. They can be found anywhere from the shoreline to depths of 300 metres and
spawns in March to April.
Food: Its food consists mainly of small squid, fish and crustaceans with shrimps a particular favourite.
Baits: Pouting can be veracious feeders and will take most baits but fish strips and squid will take the
larger specimens. Using worm baits, lugworm or rag can be very effective for shore fishing or smaller
fish from the boat. Its not unusual for large pout to take a whole mackerel flapper when fishing for
conger.
Lures: Although not normally a target for the lures fisherman, pouting will happily take small sabiki
lures or mini-eels fished hard on the bottom.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Pouting

Trisopterus luscus

Skjeggtorsk

Skggtorsk

Skgtorsk

Bartdorsch

Tacaud

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Steenbolk

Faneca

Merluzzo francese

Trestsjka

Skeggur

Faneca

Regional Names - Scotchies, Scotch Haddock, Bleg, White Eyes, Gilligant, Brown Bream

Red Mullet - Mullus surmuletus

Distinguishing features: The red mullet is a slim, narrow bodied fish with an angled front to the head.
The large scales are easily dislodged and there are two long barbels below its chin. The colour is a
reddish brown to deep red with yellowish stripes along its body together with a single darker red
stripe. The colours may merge into blotchy patches.
Size: Red mullet can attain weights of around a kilogram.
Distribution: Although found around the UK and North Sea coasts it is most plentiful south of the
English Channel down through the Mediterranean to the north west coast of Africa. It inhabits muddy
or sandy seabeds in depths from below the low water mark to around 100 metres.
Food: This species feeds mainly on invertebrates and crustaceans which it roots from the seabed.
Baits: Soft baits such as worms or peeler crabs will on occasion take this species.

Greater Sandeel - Hyperoplus launceolatus

Distinguishing features: As its name suggests the greater sandeel has an elongated eel shaped body
and is the largest of the European sandeels. Unlike other sandeels the upper jaw is not protrusible and
it has a couple of teeth on the roof of the mouth. The dorsal fin extends from behind the pectoral fin
to almost reach the tail and the lateral line, situated towards the belly, is continuous. The back and
upper sides wary from blueish-green to green and the belly is a silvery white. There is a dark spot on
the side of the head.
Size: The greater sandeel can reach lengths of 30cm or more.
Distribution: This sandeel ranges widely from the north coast of Spain to the waters around Iceland
and the north of Norway. It is generally found over sandy bottoms in depths from just a few metres to
150 metres.
Food: The greater sandeel feeds mainly on planktonic species but larger specimens will include small
fish in their diets.
Baits: Very small fish baits can be used to take this sandeel.
Lures: Small sabiki style lures are the most effective method targeting the greater sandeel particularly
those which include white and silver in their makeup.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

Greater

Hyperoplus

Storsil

Tobiskung

Tobiskonge

Groer Sandaal Lanon

Sandeel

launceolatus

French
Commun

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Zandspiering

Lanzon

Cicerello

Sandsli

Sandilho

Regional Names - Launce, sandeel

Scad - Trachurus trachurus

Distinguishing features: Although also know as the horse mackerel the scad is from a totally different
family to the Atlantic mackerel. The body shape is similar but two dorsal fins are close together with
the front one being spiny and the posterior one being large and stretching down to the tail. It has a
large anal fin with two conjoined spins to its anterior. The scad has a large pectoral fin and series of
large boney scales along the lateral line. The back is a blue grey with a greenish tinge fading into
silvery sides and a white belly.
Size: The maximum size for scad is around 1.5 kg but the majority of captures are less than half that
size.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/scad.htm
Distribution: The scad can be found throughout the southern end of the eastern North Atlantic and
south as far as the west coast of Africa. It is pelagic and can be found throughout the water column
although its more common in the upper layers. It is found in water less than 100 metres deep.
Food: Scad feed on small fish, crustaceans and squid.
Baits: Small fish baits will produce scad as will ragworm and squid strips.

Lures: As with their namesake, the mackerel, scad will regularly take feathers and other small lures.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

Scad

Trachurus

Taggmakrell

Taggmakrill

Hestemakrel

Bastardmakrele,

trachurus

hestemakrell

Stcker

French
Chinchard

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Horsmakreel

Jureles

Suro

Not available

Not available

Chicharro, carapau

Regional Names - Buck mackerel, Horse Mackerel, Mossbanker, Skipper

Sea Scorpion, Short Spined - Myoxocephalus scorpius

Distinguishing features: This member of the sculpin family is one of the largest found in European
waters. It has a large head and rounded body which tapers down to the tail fin. The mouth is very large
for the size of the fish. It has two short spines on the anterior opercula bone and one larger one on the
gill cover. The gill covers are connected on the underside by a fleshy membrane. There are also
numerous small spines on either side of the lateral line. The colouration varies from red on the belly of
the male to more orange on the female and there are several white spots. The back is generally a
greenish brown with darker blotches.
Size: The short spined sea scorpion can reach lengths of around 60 cm in northern waters and can
reach weights of over 2 kilos.
Distribution: Found in cooler waters from the English Channel to inside the Arctic Circle. Can be found
from the shoreline to depths of 60 metres and it is found over a mixture of different sea beds.
Food: This species of sea scorpion feeds on small fish and crustaceans.
Baits: Worms, mussels and fish baits are effective for this species.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

Short Spined

Myoxocephalus

Vanlig Ulke

Ulk

Almindelig Ulk Gemeiner

Sea Scorpion

scorpius

German

French

Seeskorpion

Not

available

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Zeedonderpad

Not available

Not available

Evropeiskiy Kerchak

Marhnotur

Not available

Regional Names - Sea Scorp, Father Lasher, Snotch, Cluggie, Bull-rout

Sea Scorpion, Long Spined - Taurulus bubalis

Distinguishing features: A comparatively small member of the sculpin family the long spined sea
scorpion has a hard, bony head with a single long spine on the preoperculum. The membrane under
the gill covers is not continuous from side to side and separates at the throat. There are small spines
on the lateral line itself. The colour on the upper side varies from red to greenish brown and merges to
yellow on the ventral side.
Size: The long spined sea scorpion reaches lengths of around 18 cm.
Distribution: Its habitat covers rocky inshore areas from the north coast of Spain northwards to inside
the Arctic Circle. Can be found in tidal pools and under rocks below the high water mark.
Food: This sea scorpion feeds on small fish and crustaceans.
Baits: Although not a target species small Worm and fish baits will take this species.

Tusk - Brosme brosme

Distinguishing features: The tusk is a muscular, solid bodied fish with a single long dorsal and anal fin
which meet the tail fin. It has a single chin barbel. The lateral line curves downwards above the vent.
The fins have a dark band and white edges. The body is generally a greyish brown or green colour with
occasional yellow flashes.
Size: Can attain a length of over one metre and weights of around 16 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/torsk.htm
Habitat: It is a cold water species found mostly north of Scotland and up to the Arctic Circle and
Iceland. It prefers water from 50 to 200 metres deep over rocky mixed ground.
Food: The tusk feeds mainly on crustaceans, small fish and molluscs.

Baits: Oily fish baits such as mackerel, herring and blueys make effective baits for tusk.
Lures: Tusk will take pirks and shads fished close to the bottom.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Tusk

Brosme brosme

Brosme

Lubb

Brosme

Lumb

Not

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Brosmio

Not available

Menjk

Keila

Bolota

Regional Names - Torsk, Rubber Mannies

available

Trigger Fish - Balistes capriscus

Distinguishing features: The trigger fish is well named as the second of the three spines on the first
dorsal can act as a trigger and locks the strong sharp first spine as a defensive measure. The body is
deep and narrow with a small spin in place of the pelvic fins. It has a large second dorsal, tail and anal
fins. The body is generally a greeny brown or grey colour and the dorsal and anal fins have a blue line
along their base.
Size: Can grow to a length of over 40 cm and reach weights of 2.7 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/triggerfish.htm
Habitat: This trigger fish is found from the west coast of Africa, into the Mediterranean and north into
the English Channel and Atlantic west coast of the UK. It is a summer migratory fish in the northern
half of its range. It lives mainly on mixed rough ground and is frequently found in the same areas as
black bream.
Food: Feeds mainly on crabs, shrimps and other crustaceans.
Baits: Peeler crab work well for triggers and they can also be caught on small squid, worm and
mackerel baits.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Triggerfish

Balistes carolinensis Not available

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Not available

Not available

Not available

Baliste /
Alutre

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Trekkervis

pez Ballesta

Pesce Balestra

Not available

Not available

Not available

Greater Weever Trachinus draco

Photo courtesy of David Groom


Distinguishing features: The greater weever has a fairly slender body and the smaller ones are not
dissimilar to a whiting. It has a smallish head with a comparatively large almost vertical mouth. Two
poisonous spines (one one each side) are situated at the rear edge of the gills, pointing downward. In
addition there are two other poisonous spines on the prominent frontal dorsal fin. The general
colouration is a sandy brown and white to cream with darkish mottled stripes and on occasion the
sides and fins can be tinged with blue. The anterior dorsal is very dark.
Size: The maximum size for the greater weever is around 40cm.

Distribution: The greater weever can to be found around the Atlantic coast of Europe and throughout
the Mediterranean waters. It is commonly found over sandy seabeds from around 10 metres to depths
of 100 metres. It buries most of its body in the sand during the day and mostly emerges to feed after
dark when it may be pelagic.
Food: The weever feeds heavily on small crustaceans and fish including sandeels and gobies.
Baits: Small fish baits will attract the weever wrasse although they are normally taken when targeting
other species.

Whiting - Merlangius merlangus


Distinguishing features: The whiting is a slim bodied member of the cod family with three dorsal fins
which are joined. It has two anal fins the first of which is long and the first edge starts below the mid
point of the first dorsal. The small barbel in the young whiting disappears in the adults. There is a
black spot at the base of the pectoral fin. The silvery white colour on the belly and sides merge into a
light copper brown or greeny blue on the back.
Size: The whiting can reach a weight of about 3 kg and a maximum length of around 70 cm.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/whiting.htm
Habitat: The whiting can form prolific shoals in depths of 30 to 100 metres but can be found both
shallower and deeper. It is found from the waters around Iceland and Norway down to the
Mediterranean. It will happily live on the bottom or into mid-water over seabeds of sand or mud.
Food: Feeds mainly on small fish such as sandeels, herring and sprats but will also eat shrimps and
other crustaceans.
Baits: Whiting are not particularly fussy when it comes to bait but lugworm, squid and mackerel will
normally produce particularly when used as a cocktail.
Lures: Whiting will occasionally be caught on small feathers and pirks.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

Whiting

Merlangius

Hvitting

Vitling

Hvilling

Wittling

merlangus

French
Merlan

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Wijting

Merlan

Merlano

Merlang

Lsa

Badejo

Ballan Wrasse Labrus bergylta

Distinguishing features: The ballan wrasse is a deep bodied, fully scaled member of the Labridae
family with a pointed but not elongated mouth which contains prominent teeth and thick lips. More
crushing teeth are to be found on the pharyngeal bones in the throat. The colour of the ballan varies
from venue to venue and may range from greeny-brown through green to red. The underside and the
fins are spotted with white. The spiny first dorsal has 19 to 20 rays and the posterior one 9 to 11.
Size: The maximum size for a ballan wrasse is around the 5kg mark but any fish over 3kg would be an
excellent specimen.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/wrasseballan.htm
Distribution: The ballan is to be found around European waters including the coast of Denmark,
Sweden and Norway. The best fishing is to be found on the Atlantic coast of the UK and France. It is
commonly found near to rocks and reefs from around 2 metres to depths of 25 metres. The adult is
normally a solitary fish and is territorial.
Food: The ballan feeds heavily on crustaceans, especially small crabs and molluscs.

Baits: Crabs, both peeler and hardback are the most effective bait for the larger ballan wrasse. The
hardbacks will generally sort out the larger specimens. Ragworm and lugworm also make an effective
bait for this species although it is more susceptible to the smaller fish. Ballans will occasionally take
fish baits but they would never be relied upon as bait for this wrasse.
Lures: Ballan wrasse will occasionally take lures especially short, stumpy plugs but its unusual for an
angler to target them without bait. One theory is that with the wrasse being territorial, it is chasing off
a competitor rather than attempting to feed.

English

Latin

Wrasse, Ballan Labrus bergylta

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Berggylt

Berggylta

Berggylt

Gefleckter

Not

Lippfisch

available

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Regional Names - Sea Soo

Corkwing Wrasse - Symphodus melops

Distinguishing features: A deep bodied fully scaled wrasse, the corkwing has 3 spines at the front of
its anal fin and 8 to 10 softer ones to the rear. The rear edge of the gill cover is sharp and serrated.
The colouration varies depending upon the habitat but is usually green, reddish green or greenybrown and the males tend to have blueish lines on their lower halves. There are dark blotches behind
the eye and on the tail either on or below the lateral line.
Size: The corkwing may reach lengths of 25cm and weigh up to 450gms.
Distribution: The corkwing wrasse can to be found around the coasts of northern Europe and down to
the western end of the Mediterranean. Its usual habitat features rocks and will be found in depths from
the low water mark down to 30 metres. Like a number of other small wrasse species eel grass is also a
favoured haunt.
Food: The corkwing feeds heavily on small crustaceans and molluscs.
Baits: Small worm baits are effective for this wrasse although they are normally taken when targeting
larger wrasse such as the ballan.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Corkwing

Symphodus

Grnaade

Skorsnultra

Smmundet

Goldmaid

Cronilabre

Wrasse

melops

Gylte

Melops

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Zwartooglipvis

Porredano

Tordo Occhionero

Not available

Not available

Bodio-Vulgar

Cuckoo Wrasse - Labrus mixtus

Male Cuckoo Wrasse


Distinguishing features: The Cuckoo Wrasse is one of the most distinctively coloured of the cold water
wrasse species with the male in particular taking on tropical hues. The male has bright blue to purple
markings on the head and body over a background which can vary from yellow to orange and green.
The females are more subdued and tend to an overall reddish orange with a black line along the dorsal
towards the tail broken up by lighter spots; the fins may also have a blue border. Immature males
have a similar colouring to the female but without the dorsal markings. The Cuckoo Wrasse is
streamlined with a pointed head and protruding mouth which contains canine teeth. There are 16-18
spines in anterior section of the dorsal fin and 11-14 in the posterior section.
Size: Cuckoo Wrasse are generally a small fish but can reach weights of over 1 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/wraseecuckoo.htm
Distribution: The Cuckoo Wrasse can be found in depths from 2 to 200 metres but if most frequent
from 20 to 80 metres. It prefers mixed ground and rocky areas.
Food: The Cuckoo Wrasse feeds mostly on small crustaceans and molluscs.
Baits: Although worms and peeler crab will take Cuckoo Wrasse a strip of mackerel is the mostly likely
bait to secure one of this species.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Wrasse,

Labrus

Blstl/rdnebb

Blgylta/

Blstak/rdnb

Kuckucks

Not

Cuckoo

bimaculatus

rdnbba

Lippfisch

available

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Futher Reading ..
Wrasse-ster Blaster

Female Cuckoo Wrasse

Goldsinny Ctentolabrus rupestris

Distinguishing features: The goldsinny has a fairly slender body with an angled head with a
comparatively large mouth. The anal fin has 3 to 4 rays with spines at the anterior and 7 to 8 softer
ones to the posterior. Its colour tends to be reddish or orangey brown with a dark spot towards the
front of the dorsal fin and on the upper surface of the root of tail fin.
Size: The maximum size for the goldsinny is around 18cm.
Distribution: The goldsinny wrasse can to be found around the Atlantic coast of Europe and
throughout the Mediterranean waters. It is commonly found near to rocks and reefs with algae growths
from around 10 metres to depths of 50 metres. It may also be found close inshore in rock pools and in
beds of eel grass. It is known to act as a cleaner fish for other species.
Food: Like most wrasse the goldsinny feeds heavily on small crustaceans and other benthic
invertebrates.
Baits: Small worm baits are effective for this wrasse although they are normally taken when targeting
other species.
Regional Names - Salmon wrasse

Rock Cook Centrolabrus exoletus

Distinguishing features: The rock cook is a small deep-bodied wrasse with thick lips on a small
mouth, its also known as the small mouth wrasse. The mouth extends to less than half the distance to
the eye. It only has one row of small teeth. The anal fin has 4 to 6 rays with spines at the anterior and
6 to 8 softer ones to the posterior. Its colour varies from green through brown to red on the upper
back fading into yellow on the underside. Larger males have extensive blue blotches particularly on
the head and on the upper fins. There is a dark semi-circular mark on the tail with a lighter band
adjacent to this and on the edge of the fin.
Size: The maximum size for a rock cook is around 15cm.
Distribution: This wrasse can to be found around European waters including the western coasts of the
UK, Ireland, Spain, France, Denmark, Sweden and Norway. It is commonly found near to rocks and
reefs with algae growths and in eel grass beds from around 2 metres to depths of 25 metres. It is
known to act as a cleaner fish for other species.
Food: The rock cook feeds heavily on small crustaceans and other benthic invertebrates.
Baits: Small crab and worm baits are effective for this wrasse although they are normally taken when
targeting other species.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Rock Cook

Centrolabrus

Bergnebb

Not available Smmundet

exoletus

Danish
Gylte

German

French

Kleinmuliger

Petite

Lippfisch

Vieille

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Centrolabro

Tordo

Not available

Not available

Not available

Regional Names - Small mouth wrasse

Brill - Scophthalmus rhombus

Distinguishing features: The brill is a close relative of the turbot which it resembles however its body
is scaled and lacks the boney protuberances. The first rays of the dorsal fin are free from membranes
in their upper half. The dorsal fin has 73-83 rays and the anal 56- 62. The underside is a creamy
white and the upper side a sandy brown with spots which do not extend on to the tail fin. The fins
tend to be lighter than the body. The body of the brill is more oval than the turbot.
Size: The maximum weight is around 7 kg and length is 75 cm.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/brill.htm
Distribution: The turbot can be found in the eastern North Atlantic, North Sea, and Baltic Sea and
down to the Mediterranean. It inhabits water from the shoreline to depths of around 70 metres where

the seabed is composed mainly of sand and occasionally gravel, mud or a mixture of these. Larger
specimens are found on offshore sandbanks.
Food: The brill feeds extensively on fish, particularly sandeels together with crustaceans and squid.
Bait: Long thin fillets of mackerel or launce are a favourite bait as are live or dead large sandeels.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

Brill

Scophthalmus

Slettvar

Sltvar

Slethvarre

Glatbutt, Kleist

rhombus

French
Barbue

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Griet

Rmol

Romboli

Gldkij romb

Sltthverfa

Rodovalho

Further Reading..
Brills and Spills

Dab Limanda limanda

Distinguishing features: The Dab belongs to the family of flatfish called Pleuronectidae which are all
right-eyed flatfish, the eye migrates over the head when young and finishes on the right hand side of
the head (when viewed from the front). In comparison to its moderate sized head the Dab has a small
mouth. The colouration can vary from a sandy brown with yellow spots to a gray-brown with darker
speckles. The underside is white and slightly translucent. The lateral line has a D-shaped curve above
the pectoral fin and the skin is rough to touch on the upper side.
Size: In suitable waters the bad can grow to over 40 cm in length and attain a weight of 1.5kg but the
more normal size that the angler will encounter is around 25 cm.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/dab.htm
Distribution: The bad is probably the most abundant flatfish in the waters of northern Europe
especially in the North Sea and the waters around Iceland. It tends to favour sandy grounds with
depths of around 20-40 metres but the smaller specimens will be found shallower than this. Adults
tend to move inshore in the early summer after spawning and although not a shoal fish where the
angler finds one Dab there are usually more about.
Food: The Dab is voracious feeder and will eat almost any small bottom living invertebrate that it
comes across. Small crustaceans, worms, sandeels and molluscs form the bulk of its diet.
Baits: When in a feeding mood Dabs will take most baits but fish baits in general and mackerel strip in
particular from the boat. When shore fishing lugworm, particularly stale, sticky worms, will produce

most fish. Other worms such as rag and white rag can also be productive and mussel is always worth
trying particularly in the north of Scotland. Squid and razor fish will also attract the hungry Dab.
Whichever bait chosen it should be of a size to match the small mouth of this species.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Dab

Limanda limanda

Sandflyndre

Sandskdda

Ising, slette

Scharbe,

Limande

Kliesche

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Schar

Limanda

Limanda

Limnda

Sandkoli

Solho

Flounder - Pleuronectes flesus

Distinguishing features: The Flounder is a flatfish and normally a dull brown or greenish-brown on its
upper side and occasionally faint red spots can be found. The underside is opaque and a dull white
although brownish discolouration is not unusual. There are small sharp knobs along the edges of the
fins and along the straight lateral line. Although the Flounder is a right-eyed flatfish it can be found
with the eyes on the left side. It can hybridise with the plaice.
Size: The Flounder can attain a size of 50 cm and a weight of around 3 kg. The shore angler is more
likely to find fish around the half kilo mark and any fish of over 1 kg is a good specimen.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/flounder.htm
Distribution: The Flounder can survive in water which is only slightly saline and will happily frequent
estuaries. Although it will inhabit depths of up to 50 metres the majority will be found in depths of

less than 15 metres and will often be found at the anglers feet. It tends to prefer areas where the sea
bed is composed of sand or mud. It breeds in deeper water in the spring time.
Food: The Flounder will feed on a wide range of bottom living animals including molluscs, worms and
crustaceans such as sand hoppers and shrimps.
Baits: Flounders, although avid feeders can be very fussy when it comes to baits. On one venue peeler
crab, in season, may be the only bait touched whereas on another beach a bunch of maddies may be
the killer. Worms, either lug or rag, are generally a good bet for Flounders and can be particularly
effective when cocktailed with fish strip. A strip of herring or mackerel on its own can also produce
good numbers of fish at some venues.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Flounder

Platichthys flesus

Skrubbe

Skrubbskdda

Skrubbe

Flunder, butt

Flet

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Bot

Platija

Passera Pianuzza

Not available

Not available

Solha das pedras

Regional Names - Fluke

Halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus

Distinguishing features: The halibut is the largest of the flatfishes and has a thick but comparatively
slender body. The eyes are on the right side of the head. The tail fin is slightly concave. The mouth
contains large teeth and the lower jaw is prominent. The lateral line has a pronounced D-shaped curve
above the pectoral fin. The topside of the halibut is a greenish-brown to dark brown and the
underside is pearly white.
Size: The halibut can reach weights of over 300 kilos.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/halibut.htm
Distribution: This halibut is throughout the continental shelf of the north Atlantic from the south west
of the UK up into the Arctic Circle. It is found in greatest numbers in depths between 40 to 200 metres
but inhabits depths of over 1000 metres. It lives over a range of seabeds including sand, rock and

gravel. While, like most flatfish, it spends time on the seabed the halibut is an active predator and will
hunt its prey in mid-water.
Food: The halibut feeds extensively on fish but also includes squid, prawns and other crustaceans in
its diet.
Baits: Fish baits including whole live and dead baits are effective for halibut.
Lures: Halibut will take lures in particular pirks and baited versions can be particularly effective. Some
Swedish anglers fishing in Norway have had good results when trolling with large plugs (crankbaits).

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Halibut

Hippoglossus
hippoglossus

Kveite

Helgeflundra

Helleflynder

Heilbutt

Fletan

Atlantique

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Heilbot

Hipogloso

Halibut

Not available

Heilagfiski

Alabote

Regional Names - Butt

Lemon Sole Microstomus kitt

Distinguishing features: The lemon sole has an oval shaped body that is sandy brown in colour with
darker brown blotches and yellow and green spots on the back, the underside is white. It has a small
head and mouth with prominent lips. The lateral line curves slightly above the pectoral fin.
Size: The lemon sole reaches lengths over 60 cm and weights of around one kilo.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/solelemon.htm
Distribution: This flatfish is found throughout European and Scandinavian waters and is most common
in the colder northern waters. Although smaller specimens can be found near the shore the larger fish
tend to frequent sand, gravel and rocky mixed bottoms in depths between 40 and 200 metres.

Food: The lemon sole feeds mainly on worms but also includes small crustaceans and molluscs in its
diet.
Baits: Worm and fish baits are the most effective way of attracting this species.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Lemon Sole

Microstomus kitt

Bergflyndre

Bergtunga

Rdtunge

Limande

LimandeSole

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Tongschar

Mendo Limn

Sogliola Limanda

ykkvalra

Solha-Limo

Regional Names Lemons

Long Rough Dab Hippoglossoides platessoides

Distinguishing features: The long rough dab is a slender bodied, right sided flatfish. The eyes and
mouth are relatively large compared to the smallish head. There is a slight curve to the lateral line at
the pectoral fin and the sharp edged scales give the fish its name. The upper surface is brown colour
which varies in shade depending upon its habitat.
Size: The long rough dab can reach lengths of 50 cm.
Distribution: This species is found in the North Atlantic from the English Channel northwards. The
northern reaches of its range hosts the greatest numbers. The further north they are the more likely
that they will be found in shallow waters and they inhabit depths 0f 4 to 400 metres. It lives on
seabeds comprising sand or mud.
Food: The long rough dab feeds mainly on small crustaceans, worms and molluscs with the occasional
fish adding to the diet.

Baits: Small fish and worm baits are effective baits although they are normally taken when targeting
other flatfish.

English

Latin

Long Rough Hippoglossoides


Dab

platessoides

Dutch

Spanish

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Gapeflyndre

Lerflundra

Almindelig

Doggerscharbe

Balai

Italian

Lange Schar Platija Americana Passera Canadese

Regional Names - American Plaice

Hising

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Not available

Skrpflra

Solha Americana

Megrim - Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis

Distinguishing features: The megrim is a thin bodied, left eyed flatfish with a large extendable mouth
and large eyes. The last two rays of the dorsal and anal fins finish on the underside of the fish. The
upper side is a sandy brown colour with darker patches and the underside is white.
Size: The megrim can attain a length of around 60 cm.
Habitat: Can be found over muddy and sandy bottoms in depths from 20 to 300 metres. Its range is
from the waters around Iceland and Norway down to the Mediterranean.
Food: The diet of the megrim consists mainly of small fish such as sandeels, gobies and small
whiting. It will also feed on squid and crustaceans.
Bait: Mackerel strip is the best bait for targeting megrim.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

Megrim

Lepidorhombus

Glassvar

Glasvar

Glashvarre

Flgelbutt

whiffiagonis

French
Cardine

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Schartong

Lliseria

Rombo Giallo

Megrm

Megrim

Areeiro

Plaice - Pleuronectes platessa

Distinguishing features: The plaice is a typical round bodied, right eyed flatfish. The upper side is a
sandy brown with prominent red or orange spots. The underside is a pearlescent white. There is a line
of boney knobs between the upper edge of the gill cover and the eyes.
Size: Plaice can grow to a weight in excess of 7 kg but its more likely that the angler will take fish
around the kilo mark from the boat and half that from the shore.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/plaice.htm
Distribution: Plaice like sandy sea beds but will also inhabit muddy and gravel areas. While it will be
found in depth down to 200 metres its most common from 10 to 50 metres.

Food: Plaice feed on a wide range of bottom living organisms including crustaceans, worms, sandeel
and molluscs. They have a habit if nipping the spouts off shellfish such as razorfish.
Baits: Worms, rag, lug and white rag, are generally the first choice for the angler targeting plaice. A
particular favourite is ragworm with a long thin strip of squid on the bend of the hook, a parcel of
peeler crab is sometimes used at the head of the cocktail. In certain areas, particularly off the Scottish
west coast islands mackerel strip can be effective.

English

Latin

Plaice

Pleuronectes platessa Rdspette

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Rdsptta

Rdsptte

Scholle

Plie,

carrelet

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Schol

Solla

Passera

Kmbala morskja

Rauspretta

Solha

Length / Weight Chart - http://www.planetseafishing.com/downloads/plaice.pdf

Sole - Solea solea

Distinguishing features: The sole is an oval shaped flatfish with a small head and a small offset mouth.
The dorsal and anal fins are joined to the tail by a thin membrane. The upper side of the sole varies in
colour from dark brown to sandy brown with blotches and the underside being a creamy white. There
is a dark spot on the pectoral fin.
Size: The sole can grow to 60 cm and a weight of around three kilos although the majority of fish
encountered will not exceed 30 cm.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/soledover.htm
Distribution: The sole will be found where the seabed is sandy or muddy in depths of 10 to 100
metres. It is found mainly in the southern North Sea and down the Atlantic coast to the Mediterranean.
The sole tends to feed best after dark inshore.
Food: Although sole will occasionally feed on molluscs its main diet consists of worms and
crustaceans.
Baits: Smallish neat ragworm, black lug or blow lug baits are the most effective bait for sole.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

Sole

Solea solea

Tunge

Tunga

Stunge, tunge Seezunge, Zunge

French

Lammzunge

Sole

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Tong

Lenguado

Sogliola

Solye ya

Not available

Linguado

Regional Names - Slips

Turbot - Scophthalmus maximus

Distinguishing features: The turbot is a wide bodied flatfish with the eyes on the left side of its head.
The body is without scales but there are boney tubercles on it although these are sometimes only on
the underside. Only the tips of the dorsal fin are outwith the membrane. Colouration varies according
to the habitat but its generally a sandy brown with darker spots which extend onto the tail fin. The
dorsal fin has 57-71 rays and the anal one 43-52.
Size: Turbot are the largest of the flat fish other than Halibut and can reach lengths of one metre and a
weight of 25 kg.
http://www.efsa.co.uk/record/turbot.htm
Distribution: The turbot can be found in the eastern North Atlantic, North Sea, and Baltic Sea and down
to the Mediterranean. It inhabits water from the shoreline to depths of around 55 metres where the
seabed is composed of sand, gravel, crushed shells or a mixture of these. Larger specimens are found
on offshore banks. They are also found in the scour adjacent to wrecks.
Food: Turbot feed almost exclusively on fish, particularly sandeels, herring, whiting and sprats.

Bait: Long thin fillets of mackerel or launce are a favourite bait as are live or dead large sandeels.

English

Latin

Norwegian

Swedish

Danish

German

French

Turbot

Psetta maxima

Piggvar

Piggvar

Pighvarre

Steinbutt

Turbot

Dutch

Spanish

Italian

Russian

Icelandic

Portuguese

Tarbot

Rodaballo

Rombo chiodat

Belokryj pltus

Sandhverfa

Pregado