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Saint Psych 205

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Question :

Explain what central tendency and variability are. In

your answer define what the mean, median, mode,

variance, and standard deviation are. What is the

difference between the descriptive standard

deviation and the unbiased estimate of the standard

deviation? When would you use the unbiased

estimate?

Student Answer:

scores in a given distribution, there are three measures of central

tendency and each one of them play a different role. Mean - is a

set of numbers is the sum of all the numbers of the set divided by

the number of items in the set. Mode - is the number that occurs

the most frequently. Median - is simply the middle most

occurring number. The difference between standard deviation and

unbiased estimate of the stand deviation is that in SD is very

straight forward it is a measure of variability, it helps to compare

score from different distributions it is an estimate of the populate,

while the unbiased estimate standard deviation is only when we

subtract 1 from n, and it is larger. We should use unbiased

estimate for an estimate of a population parameter.

Instructor

Explanation:

Measures of central tendency give the location of the

distribution

Mean The arithmetic average. It equals the sum of

the scores divided by the number of scores.

Median The middlemost score in a distribution.

Mode The most frequent score in a distribution.

Measures of variability tell how spread out the scores

are.

Range The highest score minus the lowest score.

Variance The standard deviation squared. It is the

sum of the squared deviations divided by the number

of scores.

Standard deviation -The square root of the variance.

calculating the variance.

The unbiased estimate is used when we use the

sample data to estimate the population parameter.

Points Received:

6 of 8

Comments:

-956533094

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False

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Question 2 Question :

.

You are a psychologist who has collected the subjective wellbeing scores of a number of elderly people aged 90 or above who

are residents of an independent living facility or who are still

living independently in their homes.

A. For each group calculate the values listed below:

a. Mean

b. Median

c. Mode

d. Range

e. Variance (for describing the data)

f. Standard deviation (for describing the data)

g. The unbiased estimate of the variance

h. The unbiased estimate of the standard deviation

B. Which data set has a mean that is more representative of the

data? Why?

Independent Living

Facility

At

Home

70

60

88

70

Student Answer:

70

70

70

75

71

72

80

68

74.83333333 69.16666667 MEDIAN A B 70.5 70 MODE A B 70

70 RANGE A B 18 15 VARIANCE A B 56.96666667

25.76666667 STANDAR DEVIATION A B 7.547627

5.076087732 UNBIASED DEVIATION A B 6.89000887

4.633812925 UNBIASED VARIANCE A B 47.47222222

21.47222222 Part 2 I think set A has a more representative mean

because you can clearly tell what your mean is going to be.

Instructor

Explanation:

Independent Living

At Home

Mean =

74.83

69.17

Median =

70.50

70.00

Mode =

70.00

70.00

Range =

20

15

Variance =

47.47

21.47

Standard deviation =

6.89

4.63

Unbiased estimate variance = 56.97

25.77

Unbiased estimate SD =

7.55

5.08

B. 2 pts.

The data for the elderly living at home are more representative of

the data because the standard deviation is smaller.

The mean scores for the Independent Living group are higher, but

the median scores for both groups are equal. The mean scores may

differ due to one very high score in the Independent Living group

and one relatively low score in the At Home group. The median

scores would make the best comparison and they indicate no

difference between the two groups in subjective well-being of the

two groups.

Points Received:

5 of 9

Comments:

-956533093

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False

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Question 3 Question :

.

Student Answer:

Instructor

Explanation:

Normal curve is a visual representation of a symmetrical

distribution score with an equal number of scores above midpoint

and below the midpoint.

The normal curve is symmetrical with asymptotic

tails.

The mean, median, and mode are equal to one

another and located at the center of the curve.

Points Received:

1 of 3

Comments:

-956533092

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False

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Question 4 Question :

.

A. Describe what a z score is.

B. Explain why they can be used to compare scores

from different distributions.

Student Answer:

knowledge about standardization sample's mean and standard

deviation. Part B Z score can be used to compare scores from

different distributions because it tells you where the score lies, it

compares with the rest of the data above, below the mean and it

compares scores from different normal distribution.

Instructor

Explanation:

a raw score in units of standard deviation.

B. Because it is based on units of standard deviation,

they can be used to compare scores from different

distributions.

Points Received:

4 of 4

Comments:

-956533091

Short

False

-956533091

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Question 5 Question :

.

where

= 78 and the standard deviation =

4.

a. 72

b. 82

c. 78

d. 87

e. 71

Student Answer:

Instructor

Explanation:

score = 78 standard deviation =4 78-78/4 = 0 z

A. 72

B. 82

C. 78

D. 87

E. 71

* z = -1.5

* z = + 1.0

* z = 0.00

*z = +2.25

*z =-1.75

Points Received:

0 of 10

Comments:

-956533090

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False

-956533090

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Question 6 Question :

.

For a distribution of scores with

= 82 and

(Dont forget to sketch the normal curve to help you

visualize what you are trying to find.)

A. What is the percentage of scores falling between

the mean and a raw score of 84?

B. What is the probability of a score falling above a

raw score of 86?

C. What is the probability of a score falling between

the raw scores of 83 and 87?

D. The percentile rank of a score of 79.

E. The percentile rank of a score of 89.

Student Answer:

Instructor

Explanation:

(85.5 - 82)/2.5 = 1.4 z2 = (86.5 - 82)/2.5 = 1.8 probability = .0448

C z1 = (82.5-82)/2.5 = 0.2 z2 = (87.5 - 82)/2.5 = 2.2 probability =

.40.68 D z-score = (78.5 - 82)/2.5 = -1.4 percentile rank = 8 E zscore = (88.5 - 82)/2.5 = 2.6 percentile rank = 99

A. What is the percentage of scores falling between

the mean and a raw score of 84?

* 20 points = 4 pts. each

* Probability = 28.81%

B. What is the probability of a score falling above a

raw score of 86?

* Probability = .0548

C. What is the probability of a score falling between

the raw scores of 83 and 87?

* Probability = .3218

D. The percentile rank of a score of 79.

Percentile = .1151

E. The percentile rank of a score of 89.

Percentile =. 9974

Points Received:

11 of 20

Comments:

-956533089

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False

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Question 7 Question :

.

Student Answer:

Instructor

Explanation:

Points Received:

that is in the top 15% of the scores on a test with a

mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15?

mean = 100 sd = 15 z score corresponding to top 15% is

1.036433 now, I know that, Z = (X-mean)/sd hence, x =

(1.036433*15) + 100 = 115.5465

* 115.6

4 of 4

Comments:

-956533088

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False

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Question 8 Question :

.

Use the following information to answer the

questions below:

Mean

Standard

Deviation

Raw Scores

Juan

Lucinda

Spatial Ability

Test

80

6

Musical Ability

Test

74

3

Spatial Ability

82

86

B. On which test did Lucinda do better?

C. James had a z score of -1.2 on the spatial ability

test. What was his score?

D. Ming Lee had a z score of +1.56 on the musical

ability test. What was her score?

Student Answer:

Instructor

Explanation:

Points Received:

Comments:

test did Lucinda do better? Spatial Ability C James had a z score

of -1.2 on the spatial ability test. What was his score? Z = (Xmean)/sd -1.2 = (X 80)/6 X = 72.8 D Z = (X-mean)/sd 1.56 =

(X 74)/3 X = 78.68

* A. Musical ability

*B. She scored equally one standard deviation

above the mean for each

*C. 72.8

*D. 78.68

5 of 8

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Question 9 Question :

.

Student Answer:

Instructor

Explanation:

Points Received:

distribution.

the data from which the histogram will be created, identify the

bins in which you want to put the data. select the histogram tool

from the toolpack to make it. 1.Divide the results into intervals,

and then count the number of results in each interval. In this case,

intervals range of 2,5, 10 or 20 are appropriate. 2.Create a table

similar to the frequency distribution table but with 2 columns.

To make a frequency distribution, you need to make a

table of each number and a tally mark by the number

for each time the number appears in the data set.

To make a histogram, first make a frequency table.

Then make a graph with values on the x-axis and

frequencies on the y-axis. Make bars to represent the

frequency of each value.

5 of 5

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Question 10 Question :

.

Student Answer:

data.

Column charts display vertical bars going across the chart

horizontally, with the values axis being displayed on the left side

of the chart. B Pivot Table: Pivot tables allow you to quickly

summarize and analyze large amounts of data in lists and tables

independent of the original data layout in your spreadsheet by

dragging and dropping columns to different rows, columns, or

summary positions.

Instructor

Explanation:

Points Received:

frequency polygon, stem & leaf plot, etc.

4 of 4

Comments:

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False

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Student Answer:

Instructor

Explanation:

Points Received:

Graphs and tables are useful when examining data because you

need data first to do calculation. The graphs and tables can give

you an insight into the relationship between variables , what kind

of descriptive statistic is the right one to use to describe the data

and so on.

Graphs and tables allow you to examine the shape of

the distribution as well as the presence of outliers.

3 of 4

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11

False

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Question 12 Question :

.

grade classes. One class at one school has

participated in an arts program (involving putting

on a musical play) which emphasized training in

group cooperation skills. The class at the other

school also put on the same musical play, but did

not participate in the cooperation skills training.

One month after each group performed the play,

they took a paper and pencil social skills test and

the scores are shown below. Compare the two

groups in terms of measures central tendency,

variability, skewness, and kurtosis. What do these

measures tell you about the scores in the two

groups?

Cooperation Skills

Training

103

104

105

110

98

97

120

124

114

108

101

96

102

112

108

Student Answer:

No Cooperation Skills

Training

100

96

94

85

82

98

101

102

85

88

82

101

98

98

94

Descriptive statistics for the the two variables are given below.

Cooperation Skills Training No Cooperation Skills Training

Mean 106.8 Mean 93.6 Standard Error 2.10938944 Standard

Error 1.869046 Median 105 Median 96 Mode 108 Mode 98

Standard Deviation 8.169630172 Standard Deviation 7.238784

Sample Variance 66.74285714 Sample Variance 52.4 Kurtosis

-0.015199963 Kurtosis -1.28997 Skewness 0.705539281

Skewness -0.57248 Range 28 Range 20 Minimum 96 Minimum

82 Maximum 124 Maximum 102 Sum 1602 Sum 1404 Count 15

Count 15 Mean is sum of all observations divided by total

number of observations. It is observed that the group with

Cooperation Skills Training has a higher average as compared to

the group with No Cooperation Skills Training. The median in an

ascending series is the value at which there are just as many

values less than it as there are greater than it. Here the group with

Cooperation Skills Training has a higher median as compared to

the group with No Cooperation Skills Training. Mode is the

number which occur maximum number of times. Here mode is

for the group with Cooperation Skills Training is 108 which are

higher as compared to mode is for the group with No Cooperation

Skills Training. The variance and the standard deviation are both

measures of the spread of the distribution about the mean. The

standard deviation measures how concentrated the data are

around the mean; the more concentrated, the smaller the standard

physical unit as the original data. Standard deviation and variance

is given in the table above. The low value of standard deviation

implies that my mean is reliable. The group with no Cooperation

Skills Training has lower standard deviation which implies than

its mean is more reliable as compared to that of group with

Cooperation Skills Training. Literal meaning of Skewness is lack

of symmetry. We study Skewness so as to have an idea about

shape of the curve. Here data for group with Cooperation Skills

Training is positively skewed implying there are a very few

students with high scores. And the data for group with no

Cooperation Skills Training is negatively skewed implying there

are a very few students with low scores. Kurtosis quantifies

whether the shape of the data distribution matches the Gaussian

distribution. A flatter distribution has a negative kurtosis. Here

both groups have flatter distribution.

Instructor

Explanation:

No cooperation skills tr.

Measures of central tendency

Mean

106.8

93.2

Median

105

94

Mode

108

94

Measures of variability

Range

20

Variance

51.03

Standard deviation

7.14

Kurtosis

28

66.74

8.17

-.02

- 1.33

Skewness

0.71

- 0.42

*Central tendency: Cooperation Skills Training group

scored higher on social skills

*Variability: There was more variability in the

*Kurtosis: Both groups had relatively peaked

distributions. No Cooperation Skills group was more

peaked.

*Skewness: The scores in the Cooperation Skills

Training group were positively skewed. No

cooperation Skills training scores were negatively

skewed. Cooperation Skills training group had more

skewness in scores.

Points Received:

8 of 8

Comments:

-956533083

Short

12

False

-956533083

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12

Question 13 Question :

.

to examine the relationship between the following

variables? Explain why you have selected the

correlation coefficients.

A. Reading ability (converted to ordinal rank in

class) and number of friends in class (converted to

ordinal rank).

B. Political party (Democrat or Republican) and rank

in high school graduating class.

C. IQ score and subjective well-being score.

D. Gender (male or female) and score on a test of

musical-ability.

Student Answer:

Instructor

Explanation:

coefficient C Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient D

Rank biserial coefficient

A.

B.

C.

D.

Rank biserial coefficient

Pearson correlation coefficient

Point biserial coefficient

Points Received:

4 of 5

Comments:

-956533082

Short

13

False

-956533082

Short

13

Question 14 Question :

.

school dropout level in his county. He measured the

reading level of students entering middle school

(based on a standard test) and their academic

performance at the end of 10th grade (as measured

by overall GPA).

Use the following data to:

A. Compute a correlation coefficient using Excel.

B. Create a scatterplot using Excel.

C. Determine the coefficient of determination.

Explain what it tells you.

D. Explain in words what the correlation coefficient

tells you about the relationship between reading

level when entering middle school and 10th grade

academic performance as measured by GPA.

E. What does it not tell you?

Student

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

100

110

80

75

91

124

95

82

104

95

88

95

107

112

Student Answer:

Instructor

Explanation:

0.788265138 B. Create a scatterplot using Excel. Unable to paste

the scatterplot. C. Determine the coefficient of determination.

Explain what it tells you. Coefficient of determination =

correlation coefficient ^2 0.621361928 D. Explain in words what

the correlation coefficient tells you about the relationship

between reading level when entering middle school and 10th

grade academic performance as measured by GPA. r = 0.78, this

implies that there is a strong positive linear relationship between

10th grade academic performance and GPA. that is as the value of

reading level score increases, the GPA also increases. E. What

does it not tell you? Correlation doesnt necessarily mean

causation. It measures the degree of association between the two

variables. Whereas causation means the change in one variable is

caused by other.

A. r = +.7882 = +. 79

B. r2 = .624 or 62.4%

62% of the variance in GPA is accounted for by

reading ability.

C. There is a strong positive relationship between

reading ability scores at the beginning of

middle school and 10th grade GPA.

D. The correlation does not tell us that reading ability

causes GPA.

Points Received:

Comments:

8 of 8

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