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# 01/09/53

## Chapter 8 Balances on Nonreactive Processes

8.1 Elements of Energy Balances Calculations
8.1a Reference States A Review
We can never know the absolute values of U and H for a species at a
given
i
state.
t t Fortunately,
F t t l we never needd tto know
k
th absolute
the
b l t values
l
off U
and H at specified states; we only need to know dU and dH for
specified changes of state, and we can determine these quantities
experimentally.
We may therefore arbitrarily choose a reference state for a species and
determine dU = U Uref for the transition from the reference state to a
series of other states.

If we set Uref equal to zero, then U=dU for a specified state is the
specific internal energy at that state relative to the reference state. The
specific enthalpies at each state can then be calculated from the
definition H
definition,
H=U+PV
U+PV , provided that the specific volume ( V ) of the
species at the given temperature and pressure is known.
The values of U and H in the steam tables were generated using this
procedure. The reference state was chosen to be liquid water at the triple
point [H2O(l, 0.01C, 0.00611 bar)], at which point was defined to be
zero.

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This does not mean that the absolute value of for water vapor at 400C
and 10.0 bar is 2958 kJ/kg. It means that of water vapor at 400C and
10.0 bar is 2958 kJ/kg relative to water at the reference state, or

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## 8.1b Hypothetical Process Paths

and
are state properties of a species; that is, their values depend
only on the state of the species primarily on its temperature, state of
aggregation
i (solid,
( lid liquid
li id or gas),
) and,
d to a lesser
l
extent, on its
i pressure
(and for mixture of some species, on its mole fraction in the mixture).
A state property does not depend on how the species reached its state.
Consequently, when a species passes from one state to another, both
and
for the process are independent of the path taken from the
first state to the second one
one.

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## In most of this chapter and in chapter 9, we will learn how to calculate

internal energy and enthalpy changes associated with certain processes;
specifically,
1.Changes in P at constant T and state of aggregation (Section 8.2).
2.Changes in T at constant P and state of aggregation (Section 8.3).
3.Phase changes at constant T and P melting, solidifying, vaporizing,
condensing, sublimating (Section 8.4).
4.Mixing of two liquids or dissolving of a gas or a solid in a liquid at
constant T and P (Section 8.5).
8 5)
5.Chemical reaction at constant T and P (Chapter 9).

## For example, we wish to calculate

for a process in which solid phenol
at 25C andd 1 atm is
i convertedd to phenol
h l vapor at 300C andd 3 atm.

=H
( vapor, 300C, 3atm ) H
(soild, 25C, 1atm )
H
However, we do not have such a table.

(l,25C,1atm)

## (l 25C 1atm) ---- > (v,200C,1atm)

( 200C 1atm)
H = H (l ,25C ,1atm ) H (v,200C ,1atm )

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## Tm = melting point () --->

Tb = boiling point () --->

## Step 1,3, 5 Type 2 (change in T at constant P) (Sec 8.2)

Step 2,4
2 4 Type 3 (change in phase at constant T and P) (Table B.1)
B 1)
Step 6 Type 1 (change in P at constant T) (Sec 8.2)

= H
+ H
+ H
+ H
+ H
+ H

H
1
2
3
4
5
6

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## The procedure to follow for the energy balance calculation.

1.Perform all required material balance calculations.
2.Write the appropriate form of the energy balance (closed or open system) and delete any
of the terms that are either zero or negligible for the given process system.
3.Choose a reference state phase, temperature, and pressure for each species involved
in the process.
4.For a closed system, construct a table with columns for initial and final amounts of each
).
species (mi or ni) and specific internal energies relative to the chosen reference state ( U
i
For an open system, construct a table with columns for inlet and outlet stream
& i or n& i ) and
componentt flow
fl rates
t (m
d specific
ifi enthalpies
th l i relative
l ti to
t the
th chosen
h
reference
f
states.

## ) and insert the values in the appropriate

or H
5.Calculate all required values of ( U
i
i
places in the table.
6.Calculate

U = n i U
i
final

n U or m U m U
i

initial

n& H

H = n& i H
i
i i or
out

in

final

Closed System

initial

m& H m& H
i

out

Open System

in

7.Calculate any work, kinetic energy, or potential energy terms that you have not dropped
from the energy balance.
& ).
8.Solve the energy balance for whichever variable is unknown (often Q or Q
Closed System

Q W = U + E k + E p

Open System

& W
& = H
& + E& + E&
Q
s
k
p

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Example 8.1-1
Acetone (denoted as Ac) is partially condensed out of a gas stream
containing 66.9 mole% acetone vapor and the balance nitrogen.
Process specifications and material balance calculations lead to the
flowchart shown below.

## The process operates at steady state. Calculate the required cooling

rate.

Solution
0. Basis: 100 mole/s of mixed gas (Ac & N2)
1.Perform required material balance calculations. None are required
in this example.
2.Write and simplify the energy balance.
& W
& = H
& + E& + E&
Q
s
k
p

& = H
& = n& H
Q
i i n& i Hi
out

in

## 3.Choose reference states for acetone and nitrogen.

N2 (g, 25C, 1 atm) From Table B.8
Ac (l, 20C, 5 atm) No enthalpy data is available

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## Note the following points about the table

Nitrogen has only one state for inlet and outlet
Acetone has one inlet state but two outlet state
Since the liquid acetone leaving the system is at the reference state,
so its specific enthalpy is zero.

## 5.Calculate all unknown specific enthalpies.

H1a
H1 b
Ac(l, 20C, 5atm )
Ac(l, 20C, 1atm )
Ac(l, 56C, 1atm )

H1c
H1 d

## Ac( v, 56C, 1atm )

Ac( v, 65C, 1atm )

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= H
+ H
+ H
+ H

H
1
1a
1b
1c
1d
56 C

) + 65 C (C )
=V
(C p ) Ac( l ) dT + (H
Ac ( l ) (1atm 5atm) +
v Ac
p Ac ( v ) dT

20 C

0.0734 L/mol

Table B.1

Table B.1

56 C

30.2 kJ/mol

Table B.1
kJ
5
Ac(l) : C p
= 0.123 + 18.6 10 T
mol C
kJ
5
8 2
12 3
Ac( v) : C p
= 0.07196 + 20.10 10 T 12.78 10 T + 34.76 10 T
mol C

H
1

&
6.Calculate H

& = n& H
H
i i n& i Hi
out

in

## = [(3.35)(32.0) + (63.55)(0) + (33.1)(0.10) (66.9)(35.7) (33.1)(1.16)]kJ / s

= 2320kJ / s
7.Calculate nonzero work, kinetic energy, and potential energy terms.
Nothing to do in this step.
&
8.Solve the energy balance for Q
& = H
& = 2320kJ / s = 2320kW
Q

## Heat must be transferred from the condenser at a rate of 2320 kW to

achieve the required cooling and condensation.

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## H2, H3, H4 file

patiparn@buu.ac.th jackchonburi@hotmail.com

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