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Next, the fifth phase in the software development life cycle is the Programming phase

or it is known as the Coding Stage. In this phase, the code writing and programs testing were
carried out. (Please refer to appendix for the example of code writing.) Programmer will
translate the program specifications into computer language, which means the programmer
write the text data sets for inputs and check whether the program generate the expected
output from the inputs data sets, which was referred as programs. The program written will
also be reviewed to ensure that the program achieve the programming standard that expected
by the end-users. The programs control all the input and output data movements and control
the whole process in a system. This is the only phase where the concept system is first
translated into a computer understandable and executable program instructions.
The sixth step in software development life cycle was the Testing phase. Before
implementing the newly developed system into operations, a test run of the system should be
carried out to remove all possible bugs in the system. When the whole programs of the
system were finish coded, the program was tested using a set of test data. The output of the
test run should match the expected results. The test run were divided into two phase which
are Unit test and System test. In Unit test, after coding, compiling and the programs was
brought to working conditions, each of the program will be tested using prepared test data.
(Please refer to appendix for the example of Java unit test.) If there was any bug or error
noticed, it will be immediately debugged, which can also be called as error correction. For
System Test, it will be carried out after the unit test for each of the programs were done and
errors were corrected. During this stage the test run will be carried out using actual data,
which the complete system will execute using the actual data as its input. The output of the
system for every stage of execution will be analysed. When analysing the output, there might
be situations where the outputs do not match the expected results. In this case, the errors or
bugs in the specific part of the programs will be identified and corrected. After that, the
program will be tested again until no error occur and the expected output was obtained. When
the system is confirmed running error-free, the system will be run using the users actual data
to show that the system was running properly and met the users expectation and
The seventh step in software development life cycle is the Implementation phase.
During this phase, the programs will be installed into the user's computer. (Please refer to
appendix for the example of program installation.) After the programs installation was done,
the training of the users begins. The users will be trained to learn to use the new software.

After the users had master the way to use the software, they have to shift from manual
working to computerized working and there are two strategies that can be used to run the
system and shift the working way. First method is the Parallel run, which both computerized
and manual working are executed in parallel for a certain defined period to prepare the
system data and switch the computerized working as the main operation after the defined
period. Another method was Pilot run, the new system will be installed part by part. Where
some part of the new system will be installed first and run for considerable time period. When
the results of the part system installed was achieve a satisfactory level, then only other
remaining parts will be implemented. Errors can be identified easily using this method.
The last stage in the software development life cycle was the Maintenance phase. This
phase is very important for identifying and eliminating errors in the system during occur
during its actual operation. It is because there might be some errors will occur in the system
as it operate for some period of time and it must be identified and corrected as soon as
possible. Moreover, this phase was also important for identifying and applying modification
to the system to adapt the always changing working environment. Which means the system
will be review from time to time during this phase and to identify any changes need to be
made or any additional requirements need to be added. (Please refer to the appendix for the
example of program maintenance.) If a big changes needed to be made to the software, a new
project might need to be set up to make the changes and then the new project will proceed
through all the above software development life cycle phases again.

Coding Stage

Figure above shows a programmer was writing a program.

Figure above shows the example of C language coding.

Testing phase

Figure above shows the example of Java program unit test.

Implementation phase

Figure above shows the example of installation of a program.

Maintenance phase

Figure above shows the example of maintaining a program through providing updates to
correct errors and add new features to the program.