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Experiment No. 4

Kim, Sung Mina, Lopez, Essene Qumran a, Santacruz, Margarette Louisea

a

Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering, Mapua Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

ARTICLE INFO

Keywords:

AB S T R AC T

Fluid Flow

Surface Roughness

Relative Roughness

Friction Factor

Reynolds Number

But when fluid flows in pipes, mechanical energy is lost due to

friction between the fluid flowing and the pipe. Frictional losses

depend on the properties of the pipe in which the fluid flow, the

properties of the fluid, and the behavior of the fluid flow itself. For

fluid flow through a straight pipe with uniform diameter, factors

such as velocity, density and viscosity of the fluid, and diameter,

length and roughness of pipe play a significant role in building up

friction losses. The objectives of this study are: to determine the

friction factor of the fluid flowing through a small pipe; and to

determine the effect of Reynolds number and relative roughness on

the friction factor of the fluid flow. Comparing the values acquired

for the experimental and theoretical value for the friction factor, the

percentage errors computed are 98.75 and 98.89 percent for trials 1

and 2 respectively. varying the Reynolds number or relative

roughness has an effect to the friction factor of the fluid flow.

Based on equation 4, the following may be observed: If the relative

roughness remained constant and the Reynolds number is

increased, the friction factor that may be obtained will decrease; If

the Reynolds number remained constant, and the relative roughness

of the material increased, the friction factor that may be obtained

will also increase. As such, it may be said that the friction factor is

inversely proportional to the Reynolds number and directly

proportional to the relative roughness of the material.

Date submitted:

4 November 2014

INTRODUCTION

Fluid flow through pipelines is an

important process in many industries. Fluid

flow may be classified as internal or external

flow (Universitetet i Oslo, n.d.). In this study,

internal flow is of concern, in which the conduit

is filled with the fluid and fluid flows because of

Experiment 02 Group No. 2

because of a driving force which makes the fluid

have kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of the

fluid makes the fluid to have pressure. The

pressure of the fluid loses its magnitude as fluid

flows through the conduit. This pressure may be

said as a mechanical energy.

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mechanical energy is lost because of friction

(Gutierrez, C and Ngo, R., 2005). Frictional

losses depend on the properties of the pipe in

which the fluid flow, the properties of the fluid,

and the behavior of the fluid flow itself. In this

study, the friction factor of fluid flow through

straight and uniform, diameter but rough pipe

will be studied. For fluid flow through a straight

pipe with uniform diameter, factors such as

velocity, density and viscosity of the fluid, and

diameter, length and roughness of pipe play a

significant role in building up friction losses

(Gutierrez, C., Ngo, R., 2005).

According

to

Perrys

Chemical

Engineers Handbook (Green D., Perry, R.,

2008), friction factor is a function only of the

Reynolds number when the pipe is smooth,

while relative roughness, /D is an additional

factor which affects the friction factor on rough

pipes. But friction factor is also affected by the

behavior of the flow. As such, there are different

correlations that may be used for the

approximation of friction factor for laminar or

turbulent flow, and it also depends if the pipe is

smooth or rough. As mentioned in the Perrys

Chemical Engineering Handbook (Green, D.,

Perry, R., 2008): For laminar flow, the HagenPoiseuille equation

f=

16

eqn. 1

factor may be expressed implicitly in the form of

1.256

=4 log

+

3.7 D f

f

eqn. 3

form of

1

0.27 7

=4 log

+

D

0.9

( )

eqn. 4

approximate the friction factor when the

Reynolds number is greater than 4000. In this

study, in order to compute for the theoretical

friction factor, equation 4 will be used.

In order to compute for the friction

factor using experimental data, the Fanning

equation may be used (Gutierrez, C., Ngo, R.,

2005)

2 f u2 L

F=

gc D

eqn. 5

f = Fanning friction factor

u = velocity of the fluid

L = length of the pipe

the flow of a fluid when the Reynolds number is

less than 2100; The friction factor may be

approximated using the Blasius equation,

f=

0.079

0.25

eqn. 2

gc = force-mass conversion factor

The objectives of the study are: to

determine the friction factor of the fluid moving

through a straight pipe; and to determine the

effect of Reynolds number and relative

roughness on the friction factor of the fluid flow.

Reynolds number is between 4000 to 105; As for

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EXPERIMENTAL SECTION

Isolate piping

system

prime and

start-up

Collection of

water

determine

temperature

Compute

compute %

error

repeat

procedure for

remaining

trials

Figure 1. Flow Diagram of Procedures

i.

its effect, we first do the first step which is to

isolate the piping system and then begin to

prime and start-up the pump and by allowing the

water to pass through the pipeline, with these we

should obtain the length of the pipeline (in terms

of m) and then measure the amount of water (in

of time, which is in this case one minute. The

velocity of water can be obtained by dividing the

length by the given time. By getting the

temperature of the water, properties of it like,

density and viscosity are obtained. With these

data, the Reynolds number is then computed.

i.

relative roughness

factor and relative roughness, the flow should

first be classified as laminar or turbulent. With

the reading of the manometer, we shall be able

to solve the mechanical energy lost due to

friction, F using equation

F=

p

g

=R m Hg 1

gc

)( )

eqn. 6

pipe and also the experimemtal friction factor

using equation 5 in order to compute for the %

error obtained. Six (6) trials were made, each

trial lasted for 60 seconds. The second column

of the table was obtained by taking the average

of the 6 trials made.

Table 1. Data and Results

Volumetric Flow Rate of the

Water, V

Velocity of the Water, u

6.33x10-4 m3/s

0.006 m

25oC

996.645 kg/m3

22.61 m/s

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0.9015 x 10-3 cP

149977.6602

Manometer Reading, Rm

4.5 cmHg

friction, F

Length of the straight pipe, L

Roughness of the Pipe,

Relative Roughness of the Pipe,

/D

Experimental Fanning friction

factor, fexperimental

Theoretical Fanning friction

factor, ftheoretical

% error

552749.4 J/kg

0.46 m

0.0000457 m

7.6166x10-3

0.705164

8.8269 x 10-3

98.75%

experimental values of the fanning friction

factor was obtained. The first observed value in

the table is the volumetric flow rate. This was

obtained experimentally by getting the volume

of water discharged at a certain amount of time.

Dividing this volumetric flow rate by the crosssectional area of the pipe in which the fluid

flows, the velocity of the fluid may be

calculated. The temperature of water which was

flowing through the pipe was also obtained in

order to get its density and viscosity. Using the

inside diameter of the pipe used, density,

viscosity, and the velocity of fluid flowing, the

Reynolds number was then obtained. The

Reynolds number for both trials were found to

be greater than 4000, which means the fluid

flow is in the turbulent region. Since the flow is

turbulent and the pipe is considered to have

roughness, equation 4 may then be used in order

to compute for the theoretical friction factor. In

order to calculate the theoretical friction factor

using equation 4, the roughness, , should also

be known. The value for the roughness was

Handbook Table 6-1 which may be seen in table

2 in this report. The roughness of the pipe used

is assumed to be equal to the roughness of a

commercial steel which was found out to be

0.0457 mm.

In order to obtain the experimental value for the

friction factor, equations 5 and 6 should be used.

The manometer reading was also obtained

experimentally. Comparing the percentage errors

of the theoretical and experimental friction

factors, the percentage errors that were

computed were 98.75 and 98.89 percent for

trials 1 and 2 respectively. Causes of errors may

be: inaccurate reading, human errors, equipment

error, and fluid leakage.

It should also be noted that varying the

Reynolds number or relative roughness has an

effect to the friction factor of the fluid flow.

Based on equation 4, the following may be

observed: If the relative roughness remained

constant and the Reynolds number is increased,

the friction factor that may be obtained will

decrease; If the Reynolds number remained

constant, and the relative roughness of the

material increased, the friction factor that may

be obtained will also increase. As such, it may

be said that the friction factor is inversely

proportional to the Reynolds number and

directly proportional to the relative roughness of

the material.

Table 2. Perrys Chemical Engineering

Handbook (2008) Table 6-1: Values of Surface

Roughness for Various Materials

Material

Drawn tubing (brass, lead, glass, and the like)

Commercial steel or wrought iron

Asphalted cast iron

Galvanized iron

Cast iron

Wood stove

Concrete

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Surface Ro

0.00152

0.0457

0.122

0.152

0.259

0.183-0.91

0.305-3.05

Riveted steel

REFERENCES

CONCLUSION

The theoretical and experimental values for the

friction factor of fluid flowing through straight

pipe were obtained. Comparing the values

acquired for the experimental and theoretical

value for the friction factor, the percentage

errors computed are 98.75 and 98.89 percent for

trials 1 and 2 respectively. It should also be

noted that varying the Reynolds number or

relative roughness has an effect to the friction

factor of the fluid flow. Based on equation 4, the

following may be observed: If the relative

roughness remained constant and the Reynolds

number is increased, the friction factor that may

be obtained will decrease; If the Reynolds

number remained constant, and the relative

roughness of the material increased, the friction

factor that may be obtained will also increase.

As such, it may be said that the friction factor is

inversely proportional to the Reynolds number

and directly proportional to the relative

roughness of the material.

Retrieved

from:

http://www.efunda.com/formulae/fluids/

calc_pipe_friction.cfm

[2] Gutierrez, C., Ngo, R. (2005). Chemical

Engineering Laboratory Manual Part 1.

Philippines

[3] Green, D. and Perry, R. (2008). Perrys

Chemical Engineers Handbook, 8th

Edition.

[4] FishXing (2006). Darcy Friction Factor.

Retreieved

from:

http://www.fsl.orst.edu/geowater/FX3/h

elp/8_Hydraulic_Reference/Darcy_Frict

ion_Factor.htm

[5] Pipe Flow Software (2014). Friction Factor

Calculations.

Retrieved

from:

http://www.pipeflow.com/pipe-pressuredrop-calculations/pipe-friction-factors

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