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LABORATORY MANUAL

ECE 325
CONTROL SYSTEM LAB

Name of the Student :


Registration Number/Roll No :
Section and Group :
School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Table of Content
S. No.
1.

Title of Experiment
Error Detector Characteristics: Error Detector Characteristics and
Control Applications of the following.
(i) LVDT
(ii) Potentiometer

Page No.
3

2.

Servomotor: To obtain the Transfer Function and Control


Characteristics of DC/AC Servo Motor

11

3.

Operational Characteristic of Stepper Motor: To obtain the Operational


Characteristics for the Control Application of Stepper Motor

17

4.

Operational Characteristic of Temperature Detectors.: To obtain the


Operational Characteristics for the Control Application of Temperature
Detectors (Thermisters, Thermocouple etc.)

21

5.

Step Response: To Study the Step Response and Feed Back Properties
for Ist and 2nd order system.

24

6.

Simulation Using MATLAB: Simulation of control systems using


MATLAB for Controllers and different Plots

27

7.

Comparision of different Control action: Comparisons of different


Control Action (P/I/D/Relay) on Industrial Process (Pneumatic/
Simulated System

30

8.

Design of Compensator: To obtain the Frequency Response


Characteristics and Design of Compensator for a given system

35

9.

Position Control Performances: To obtain the Position Control


performance of DC Servo Motor.

38

10.

Performance Analysis: Performance Analysis of Thermal System and


Design using PID/Relay Control

44

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 (a)


Aim : To study the performance characteristics of an angular position error detector using two
potentiometers.
Apparatus: Set up comprises of :
Signal Sources : There are two built in sources for operating the error detector. These are,
d.c. : IC regulated +5V
a.c. : 400Hz, 1.2V p-p
Measurement : A 312 digit DVM is available on the panel for the measurement of d.c. signals.
For a.c. measureements an external CRO will be required.
Building Blocks:
(a) Error detector : the basic error detector consists of two servo-potentiometers with
calibrated dials of 10 resolution mounted on the panel. A common a.c./d.c. (selected by a
switch) signal is internally connected to these, and the potentiometer outputs are
permanently wired to a unity gain instrumentation amplifier. The poutput of the
instrumentation amplifier is brought out on the panel. This constitutes the error detector.
(b) Demodulator : this block is neede during the operation of the potentiometer. The a.c.
output of the potentiometer may be connected to the demodulator input and the output
obtained is a phase-sensitive d.c. signal.
Power supply : the unit has an internal 12V I.C. regulated supply which is permanently
connected to all the circuits. The power supply and the circuits are short-circuit protected. No
external a.c. or d.c. supply may be connected to the sockets on the front panel.
Theory : Potentiometer is an important component of a feedback position control. Potentiometers
are also used in open loop system for the purpose of monitoring the angular position of a shaft.
Other devices which find similar application include optical encoders, synchros, electromagnetic
transducers and specialized potentiometers like sine-cosine potentiometer etc., although a good
quality linear potentiometer is perhaps the most common.
A potentiometer is an electromagnetic transducer which converts angular or linear displacement
into a proportional electrical voltage. When a reference voltage is applied across the fixed
terminals of the potentiometer, the output voltage measured at the variable terminal is
proportional to the input displacement
Rotary potentiometers are commonly available in single turn or 3 turn/10 turn varieties. These
have restricted motion, with mechanicals stops at both ends. Special servo-potentiometers are
also available with unrestricted motion, however, they have a gap of about 50 in their electrical

circuits. These potentiometers are normally wire wound for long rotational life but have finite
resolution. The resistance tolerance and linearity are also excellent.
Output voltage e(t) may be written as
e(t) = Ke ()

(1)

where () is the shaft position and Ke is the constant of propeortionality,


,

Ke = ,

(2)

Use of two potentiometers in parallel, supplied from the same source, enables a comparison of
two shaft positions a reference shaft and a controlled shaft. The output voltage taken across the
variable points of the two potentiometers maybe expressed as
e(t) = Ke [1 () 2 ()] = Ke ()

(3)

and the circuit is also represented as an error detector block.


On the other hand, in potentiometer error detector supplied with a.c. signal (carrier) v(t) = V
sin , the error output is given by
e(t) = Ke

(4)

where is the angular error between reference and controlled potentiometers.


It may be seen from above that whenever changes sign there is a 1800 phase shift in e(t). Again
considering a sinusoidal angular error,
() = sin
e(t) may be represented as a suppressed carrier signal given by
1

e(t) = 2 [cos( ) cos( + )]

(5)

when the above signal is applied to a 2-phase servomotor, the motor acts as a demodulator and
the direction of shaft movement is in accordance with the sign of . A d.c. motor may be used
instead, provided a balanced demodulator is used to extract the direction information from the
signal of equation (5). An integrated circuit balanced modulator/demodulator type LM1496 has
been used in the present unit for this purpose. In this circuit, the modulating signal e(t) = Ks
, is multiplied by the carrier signal of amplitude V to yield,
e (t) = Ks V sin
The above signal is passed through a low pass filter to remove the 2 component to yield the
output

eo(t) =

this may then be amplified by a d.c. amplifier before feeding to a d.c. motor

Procedure :
(A) Linearity and Range of potentiometer
The linearity of a potentiometer may be defined as the maximum percentage deviation of the
output voltage from its ideal value. This may be better appreciated from a graph between the
potentiometer output and shaft position. Again, the range of the potentiometer indicates the
angle through which a proportional output is available in the potentiometer.
1. Set the excitation switch to DC
2. Keep POT 2 fixed at any position and do not disturb its position. Let this position be 2
3. Turn POT 1 in steps of 200 (at 10 interval when there is a sudden change in voltage).
Record angular position 1 and the output V0
4. Plot V0 vs 1 . Observe linearity and range.
5. Repeat for another position of POT 2
6. From the readings, plot V0 versus (=1 2 ) . If this plot is not a straight line, draw a
straight line approximation. Calculate the slope of this line as,
Slope = Ke =
Sr. No.

V0

Table 1
(B) A.C. excitation
1. Display the CARRIER on the CRO and measure its amplitude and frequency.
2. Switch the EXCITATION to AC. Now observe Vo on a CRO while turning either POT 1 or
POT 2 very slowly. Use the internal CARRIER for external triggering of the CRO. Notice and
record how phase of V0 changes when (= 1 2 ) changes sign.
3. Record and plot peak-to-peak (or r.m.s) V0 as a function of . Note that the information about
the sign of is lost.
4. Next connect V0 to the input of the BALANCED DEMODULATOR and its output to the
DVM.

5. Record and plot the demodulator output VDEM as a function of . Note that the information
about the sign of is restored.
Sr. No.

VDEM

Table 2
Graph : Plot between V0 and has to be plotted.

EXPERIMENT NO 1 (b)
Aim : To study the characteristics of synchros error detector
Apparatus Required: Various components of synchros error detector are:
The unit has one pair of transmitter-receiver synchros motors, powered by an isolated 60 volt ac
inbuilt supply.
Sockets are brought upon the panel to make connections with attenuated compensated output in
ratio 1:10 for waveform observation.
The synchro pair is well mounted inside steel cabinate and dials printed in degrees with resolution
of 20 provided to study phase/displacement errors.
The bottom of cabinate is covered with see through Perspex sheet for demonstration purposes.
The control knobs are factory adjusted for electrical zero. Complete unit is 220 volt ac main
operable.
Theory: Synchros are small motors which are used for remote transmission of shaft angular
position in AC servo systems. The basic structure of synchro is wound rotor and wound stator.
The windings are mutually coupled in such a way that it gives substantially sinusoidal variation
as a function of shaft angular position. The signal transmission unit is mechanically coupled with
another motor called control transformer. Displacement of transmitter unit develops an output
error voltage that are in proportion to the the misalignment between both shafts. If the receiving
end has no rotation then it will generate error voltage which are amplified and send to servo
motor to re-correct the position.
The synchros has major advantages over potentiometric error detector as
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

There is no wear from rotation except non-critical wear at slip ring.


The operating speed can be much higher than pot.
Synchro has full 3600 rotation with no electrical break.
System is highly reliable and possibilities of multispeed operation
Resolution is better since no stepping effect

There are some demerits also


a) Synchros has useful range in order of 300
b) Linearity is not much better than modern servo potentiometers.
The synchro transmitter has dumb bell shaped magnetic structure having primary winding upon
rotor which is connected with the reference voltage Vr , through set of slip rings and brushes. The
secondary windings are wound in slotted stator and are distributed around its periphery. Although
the windings are distributed but it acts as positioned 1200 apart. In schematics the windings are

shown as three phase configuration but only single phase voltage appears across them. The
magnitude and polarity of these voltages/phase depends upon the angular position of the rotor.
Let Vs1n, Vs2n, Vs3n represent the voltages induced in stator coils S1, S2, S3 respectively with
respect to the neutral then
Vs1n = KVr sinwct cos(+ 2400) ..1
Vs2n = KVr sinwct cos()..2
Vs3n = KVr sinwct cos(+ 1200) 3
The terminal voltages across the stator coil are
V23 = 3 KVr sinwct sin(+ 2400) ..4
V31 = 3 KVr sinwct sin().5
V12 = 3 KVr sinwct sin(+ 120)6
Where Vr sinwct is the reference voltage , is the respected angle in degree, K is a constant
The synchro transmitter/receiver : The synchro transmitter is constructed like two pole
alternator in which rotor coil is wound on laminated core. The ends of the coil are brought out
through slip rings and brushes for electrical connections and designated as R1, R2. The stator
portion has three coils which are spaced 1200 apart of rotor magnetic meridian. The ends of each
coil is connected internally and starts are brought out for electrical connections as S1, S2 and S3.
The receiver motor is similar to transmitter.
Procedure:
1. Connect CRO one channel with the provided sockets COM and REF in observation block.
The reference socket as attenuated 1:10, voltage of Tx, R2 with respect to R1
2. Connect CRO other channel, say B channel with outputs of S1, S2 and S3 alternately
given in observation block, while kept Tx dial to certain position say 00. Note the output
in Vpp and its phase angle with respect to REF output waveform. The S1, S2 and S3
sockets are also 1:10 attenuated.
3. Measure the voltage difference between stator sockets S1, S2 and S3 directly(meter range
200VAC) such V12 between S1 and S2, V31 between S3 and S1, V23 between S2 and S3
4. Rotate Tx dial in 300 incremental steps and note voltage magnitude and phase w.r.t input
at REF
5. Prepare a table as given in reference from observations.
Tx (in degree)
0

S1
Magnitude Phase
V
180

S2
Magnitude Phase
V
0

S3
Magnitude Phase
V
180
8

30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330

0
V
V
V
V
V
0
V
V
V
V

0
0
0
0
0
0
180
180
180
180

V
V
0
V
V
V
V
V
0
V
V

0
0
0
180
180
180
180
180
0
0

V
V
V
V
0
V
V
V
V
V
0

180
180
180
180
0
0
0
0
0
0

The voltage/phase are Vpp measured on CRO with respect to input magnitude and polarity.
Tx (in degree)

V12
Magnitude Phase

V31
Magnitude Phase

V23
Magnitude Phase

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
The voltages should be measured on multimeter (200VAC) with respect to S1-S2, S3-S1 and S2S3
6. From table 1, plot graphical curves between the voltage/phase of stator terminal
7. Plot another graphical representation between the voltage difference measured in table 2,
Vs displacement in . Note the ve number show the out of phase voltage.

Date of Performance

Worksheet of the student


Registration Number:

Aim:
S.No

Theoretical
Values

Simulation
Values

Error

1
2
3
4
Calculations:

Result and Discussion

Graph/Plot: Error Analysis

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt)

S.No Parameter

Marks

Max. Marks

Understanding of the student about the


procedure/apparatus.

20

Observations and analysis including


learning outcomes

20

Completion of experiment, Discipline and


Cleanliness

10

Signature of Faculty

10

Experiment No. 2
Aim : : To obtain the Transfer Function and Control Characteristics of DC/AC Servo Motor
Apparatus : AC servomotor set up description is as follows:
An Ac servomotor is basically a two phase induction motor except for certain design
feature. The two phase induction motor consists of two stator windings oriented 900
electrical apart in space and excited by AC voltage which differ in time-phase by 900. In
figure 1, the schematic diagram for balanced operation of motor is shown where voltages of
equal rms magnitude and 900 phase difference are applied to the two phase stator, thus
making their respective filed 900 apart in both time and space, resulting in a magnetic field
of constant magnitude rotating at synchronous speed. The direction of rotation depends
upon phase relationship of input voltage V1 and V2 As the field sweeps over the shortcircuited rotor, voltages induced in it producing current in it. The rotating magnetic field
interacts with these currents produce a torque on the rotor in the direction of field rotation.

Figure 1
The shapes of torque-speed characteristics of two-phase induction motor are shown in
figure 2. The use of such motor (a) in control application is intolerable because of the
positive slope which prevails over most of the operating speeds. The positive slope cause
negative damping to lead instability in control system. In control applications the motor is
modified in a way to ensure positive damping over full speed range. A convenient way to
obtain the result shown in curve (b) is to design the motor with very high rotor resistance.
Whenever the two phase induction motor is designed with high rotor resistance it is
referred as a two-phase AC servomotor.

11

Figure 2 : Torque Speed characteristics of induction motor, 3 = AC servomotor


In feedback control applications phase a is energized with fixed rated voltage often called
as Reference, while phase b is energized by variable control voltage called control voltage.
Moreover the arrangement is made in this configuration such that the control voltage is set
exactly 900 out of phase with the reference voltage. In these instances unbalance operation
is really an unbalance in voltage and amplitudes only. If assumption is made both voltages
are always at 900 apart in time phase than the quantity p can be defined as
p = V1/V2 .(1)
where p is the ratio between both voltages.
Then the phasor expression for the control voltage becomes,
V2 = - j p V1 (2)
The j factor accounts for the 900 lag between the two stator voltages and p express the
magnitude of V2 as per unit ratio of the reference voltage V1. Upon inserting relation 1
into 2
V1a = (V1 + j V2)
The expression for the positive sequence voltage becomes
V1a = (V1 + j V2) = V1/2(1+ p) (3)
12

Similarly
V1b = (V1 - j V2) = V1/2(1+ p) (4)
The AC servomotor construction :
Two phase AC servomotors are available in a wide variety of the configurations. The most
popular type has a squirrel cage rotor with a low ratio of rotor to frame diameter and high
rotor resistance. This type of motor gives best overall performance and efficient in
converting input power (watts) to shaft torque. There are other motor configurations that
are used in the specific applications, which include drag-cup rotor and solid iron rotor
basically used in AC tachometer application. The motor used in this set up has following
specifications:
Two phase AC servomotor ACM DT 15/120 : E (rated) 120 VAC/0.1Amp/phase.
Phase split capacitor 1 / 440VAC . Rotor: squirrel cage type, dia 15 mm shaft dia 5 mm.
Speed 2500 RPM/100 volts
The coils with similar construction are wired/placed such that the flux developed 900
electrically apart. Under a balanced condition, the windings are excited with equal voltage
900 apart in a time phase with the help of a capacitor seriesed with one of the winding. The
motor current therefore generate magnetic field in an air gap which is also in a space and
time quadrature. The rotating flux field induces a voltage in the rotor conductors with a
magnitude proportional to the relative speed. A P pole, 50 hz winding causes the resultant
field to rotate at n rpm, and similar one at 400 Hz will rotate at 8n rpm. The rotor voltage in
turn causes currents as a result a torque is developed by interaction of the current carrying
conductors and the rotating field. This drags the rotor along after the synchronous field of
the stator. Since the rotor must overcome friction, it cant reach synchronous speed.
About the set up:
The given AC servomotor is mounted and mechanically coupled with a small permanent
magnet field DC motor for loading purpose. The AC servomotor is excited by a step down
isolated ac supply of 100 volt. The reference winding is connected through a phase split
capacitor of 1 with these voltage. The control winding is fed through a phase control
circuit which provide variable voltage to it through a phase control circuit which provide
variable voltage to it through a control P1 (provided upon the panel) A switch S1 is also
provided to cut-off the motor from the supply. A pair of sockets is given across the control
winding to measure AC applied voltage (E).
The DC motor when not connected with the provided dc supply (switch S2 is in off
condition) it generates speed proportional voltage across its terminals as back emf Eb.
Another pair of sockets is given across the motor terminal for this measurement.
13

When DC supply is fed to the DC motor it run in reverse direction of servomotor direction
in result a load is imposed. The resultant torque developed by DC motor to overcome it
increases the current through it which is indicated by panel meter. The expression used to
determine the developed torque is given
T=

1.019 104 60
2

gm cm

Where P is the power IaEb in watts, N is the speed in RPM


The speed is measured with the help of opto-interrupter transducer. A 6 hole disc is
mounted upon the motor shaft interrupt the light falling upon a photo diode which result in
generating a narrow pulse train, which is used to trigger a mono-flop circuit. The width of
the output pulses of mono-flop is a subject of these trigger pulses repetition, which are
rectified, averaged and fed to an analog meter calibrated in terms of RPM.
Procedure:
1. Switch off the switches S1 and S2. Keep both controls P1 and P2 to minimum (fully
counter-clockwise)
2. Switch on the power supply, switches ON S1. Slowly increase control P1 so that
AC servomotor starts rotating.
3. Connect digital multimeter (20V DC range) across the DC motor sockets given in
RED and BLCK color
4. Vary the speed of servomotor gradually and note the speed N rpm from the panel
meter, and corresponding back emf developed across the DC motor. Record the
observations in table 1.
Table 1
Sr. No.
Speed N in rpm
Eb in volts
1
2
3
4
5. Connect digital multimeter (range 200 VAC) across the servomotor control winding
sockets. Now adjust AC servomotor voltage to 80 volt AC, E1 = 80V. Note the
speed in rpm in table 2
6. Switch on S2 to impose load upon the motor. The DC supply although at zero volt
but it short out the DC motor armature and fall in speed observed. Note the current
Ia and speed from panel meters in steady state condition.
7. Increase the load current by means of control P2 in slow manner and note the
corresponding speed and Ia in steady state condition. Record all the observations in
table 2
14

Sr. No

Table 2 : E = ..Vac. No load speed = ..rpm


Ia Ampere
Eb Volt
Speed
N P watt
rpm

Torque

8. Prepare table 2, filling the Eb data from table 1 for the corresponding speeds.
Calculate P as P = Ia Eb in watts. Calculate the torque given by the expression
T=

1.019 104 60
2

gm cm

9. Adjust servomotor voltage to another value say E2 = 70 Vac. Repeat the steps 5 to
8 and prepare another table. Prepare more tables for different E.
10. Draw the speed torque characteristics curves.
Graph : Draw the plots between torque T and speed N, voltage Eb and speed N.

15

Date of Performance

Worksheet of the student


Registration Number:

Aim:
S.No

Theoretical
Values

Simulation
Values

Error

1
2
3
4
Calculations:

Result and Discussion

Graph/Plot: Error Analysis

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt)

S.No Parameter

Marks

Max. Marks

Understanding of the student about the


procedure/apparatus.

20

Observations and analysis including


learning outcomes

20

Completion of experiment, Discipline and


Cleanliness

10

Signature of Faculty
16

EXPERIMENT NO. 3

AIM: - To obtain the Operational Characteristics for the Control Application of


Stepper Motor

APPARATUS USED: - Stepper Motor Kit, P Kit, Interface Cord and


Connecting Leads.

THEORY:- The stepper motor is a special type of motor which is designed to rotate
through a specific angle called step for each electrical pulse received from its control
unit. It is used in digitally controlled position control system in open loop mode. The
input command is in form of a train of pulses to turn the shaft through a specified angle.
the main unit is designed to interface with P 8085 kit. The stepper motor controller card
remains active while the pulse sequence generator disabled as given plug is connected
with p interface socket. The following program enables the stepper motor to run with p
8085 kit. For two phases four winding stepper motor only four LSB signals are required.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-

DIRECTION
CW

12 V
CCW
FIELD

PHASE
PULSE
and
PHASE

STEPPER
MOTOR
ROTOR

SEQ

DRIVER

GEN.

Y GRD TRIG

PROCEDURE:Connect the stepper motor with p 8085 kit as shown in fig. press EXMEM key to enter
the address as given then press NEXT to enter data .

17

ADDRESS

DATA

2000

3E 80 MVI A, 80

Initialize port A as output port.

2002
2004
2006
2008

D3 03 OUT 03
3E F9 Start MVI
D3 00 OUT
00
CD 3020 call delay

OB
AFA
Output code for step o.
delay between two steps.

200B

3E F5 MVI A, F6

Location reserve for current


Delay.
Output code for step 1.
delay between two steps.

200d
200F
2012
2014
2016
2019
201B
201D
2020

D3 OO OUT
OO
CD 3020 Call delay
3E F6 MVI A, F5
D3 OO OUT OO
Output code for step 2.
CD 3020 calls delay
between two steps.
3E FA MVI A, F9.
D3 OO OUT
OO
Output code for step 3.
CD 3020 call delay
delay between two steps.
C3 04 20 JMP START Start.

Press FILL key to store data in memory area. This will complete the pulse sequence
generation. To delay programme route, first press EXMEM to start, a dot sign will appear
in address field then enter the start address. Press NEXT to enter data.

ADDRESS
2030
2033
2036
2039
203C

DATA
11 00 00 LXI D 00 00Generates a delay.
CD BC 03 CALL DELAY
11 00 00 LXI
D 00 00 Generates a delay.
CD BC 03 CALL
DELAY
C9
RET

Press FILL to save data to execute the programmed press the key GO .The above program
is to rotate the motor at a particular as defined by the given address. Changing the
following contents will change the motor speed.

ADDRESS
2030
CHANGE
CHANGE

DATA
11 00 20 AND 2036 TO SIMILAR 11 00 20
11 00 10 TO
11 00 10
11 00 05 TO
11 00 05
18

CHANGE
2012
2019

Sr
No.

11 00 03 TO
3E F6
TO

3E F5

3E FA

3E F9.

No. of Pulses

TO

11 00 03.

Displacement

Step Angle

RESULT:- The stepper motor runs as per fed program.


PRECAUTION:1. Make the connection of motor with p kit properly.
2. Feed the program carefully and correctly.
3. Do
not
change
the
motor
direction

at

high

speed.

19

Date of Performance

Worksheet of the student


Registration Number:

Aim:
S.No

Theoretical
Values

Simulation
Values

Error

1
2
3
4
Calculations:

Result and Discussion

Graph/Plot: Error Analysis

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt)

S.No Parameter

Marks

Max. Marks

Understanding of the student about the


procedure/apparatus.

20

Observations and analysis including


learning outcomes

20

Completion of experiment, Discipline and


Cleanliness

10

Signature of Faculty

20

EXPERIMENT NO. 4
Aim: To obtain the Operational Characteristics for the Control Application of Temperature
Detectors
Apparatus: Resistance temperature detector (PT-100), signal conditioner module, beaker,
immersion rod, thermometer.
Theory : The resistivity of metals increases with an increase in temperature (i.e. the temperature
coefficient is positive), where as in some semiconductors the resistance decreases with an
increase in temperature (i.e the temperature coefficient is negative).
The resistance thermometer based on the above phenomenon is one of the most accurately
reproducible temperature-sensing device. Pt 100 is unduly used as a RTD
Sr. No

Temperature (0C)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

00
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

Resistance
()
100.00
103.90
107.79
111.67
115.54
119.40
123.24
127.07
130.89
134.70
138.50

Table 1
Signal conditioner module : AC constant current signal is applied on the RTD to make it
operative. The output of the RTD is directly fed to the input of D.C. differential amplifier and
then is fed to a summing amplifier with some gain and zero adjustment to obtain the output
directly in engineering unit of temperature.
SET GAIN pot (VR2) is given for the adjustment of amplifier gain and SET ZERO pot
(VR1) is given for zero adjustment.
Fixed Resistance Source : A 100 and 138.5 fixed resistance is provided with the set-up to
calibrate the signal conditioners module for measurement of temperature directly in 0C.
Procedure : 1. Throw the SPDT switch towards RTD position given on the front panel.
2. Place a beaker containing water. Place an immersion rod in the beaker. Keep the thermometer
and RTD in the beaker.

21

3. Connect the OUTPUT terminals of the signal conditioner (DPM Output) with the digital panel
meter.
4. Connect a digital multimeter across the OHMS socket, set the mode of digital multimeter to
resistance measurement and set output of fixed resistance at 100 with selector switch.
5. Connect output to the RTD INPUT of signal conditioner.
6. Switch ON the instrument and adjust SET ZERO pot (VR1) so that display will show 00.0
7. Remove output of fixed resistance i.e. OUTPUT from the RTD INPUT.
8. Switch OFF the instrument and select fixed resistance at 138.5 with a selector switch.
9. Connect fixed resistance ( output) to RTD INPUT of signal conditioner.
10. Again switch on the instrument and adjust SET GAIN pot (VR2) so that display wills show
100.0
11. Repeat step 3 to 10 one or two times.
12. Remove resistance lead from the RTD INPUT and connect RTD probe across RTD INPUT.
13. Heat the RTD kept in water and note down the reading of the thermometer. For reference
compare the reading with table no. 1
14. To note down the resistance of RTD, throw the OHM/ RTD switch towards OHMS positions.
Connect a digital multimeter across OHMS socket and set the mode of DMM to resistance. In this
case the DPM of demonstration unit will show infinite reading.
15. Plot the graph between temperature (in 0C) and resistance.
Note : For better results take reading in reverse order i.e. from 1000C to 00C (or room
temperature)
RESULT : Linear curve is obtained between temperature and resistance.

22

Date of Performance

Worksheet of the student


Registration Number:

Aim:
S.No

Theoretical
Values

Simulation
Values

Error

Calculations:

Result and Discussion

Graph/Plot: Error Analysis

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt)


To

Parameter

Marks

Max. Marks

Understanding of the student about the


procedure/apparatus.

20

Observations and analysis including


learning outcomes

20

Completion of experiment, Discipline and


Cleanliness

10

Signature of Faculty

23

EXPERIMENT NO 5
Aim: To Study the Step Response and Feed Back Properties for 1st and 2nd order
system
APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer with MATLAB
Theory:
First order system These are characterized by one pole and/or a zero. A pure integrator
and a single time constant, having transfer function of the form K/s and K/(sT+1), are the
only two commonly studied representatives of this class of system.
()

If () = () = / then for R(s) = 1/s


C(s) = K/ s2 and c(t) = Kt
()

If () = () =

+1

, for R(s) = 1/s

C(s) = K/(s(sT+1)) and c(t) = 1 e-t/T


Second order system A second order control system is one wherein the highest power of s
in the denominator of its transfer function equals 2
A general expression for the transfer function of a second order system is given by
() =

2
2 + 2 + 2

where is called the damping ratio and the undamped natural frequency. Depending
upon the value of , the poles of the system may be real, repeated or complex conjugate
which is reflected in the nature of its step response. Results obtained for various cases are:

Undamped case (0 < < 1)


C(t)=

1 2

sin( + 1 1 2 /)

Where, = 1 2 is termed the damped natural frequency. A sketch of the unit


step response for various values of is available in the text books.

Critically damped case( = 1) ; c(t)=1- (1 + )


Overdamped case ( > 1) : c(t)= 1 -


2 2 1

2 1

2 1

2 1

+ 2 1

)
24

Delay time , is defined as the time needed for the response to reach 50% of the final value.
Rise time, , is the time taken for response to reach 100% of the final value for the first
time. This is given by
=

,where =

1 1 2

Peak time, , is the time taken for the response to reach the first peak of the overshoot and
is given by
=

1 2

Maximum overshoot, Mp, is defined by


Mp= c (tp)-c()x 100%
Setting time, ts, is the time required by the system response to reach and stay within a
prescribed tolerance band which is usually taken as 2% or 5%.
Procedure :
Consider a first order and second order system.Using MATLAB, plot the unit-step response
curve of this system. Obtain the rise time, peak time, maximum overshoot, and settling
time.

Result :

DISCUSSION:The Step Response indicates how the system behaves in Transient as well as Steady States.
The slope indicates the fastness of the system to reach the required value. The settling time
indicates how long the system is going to take to reach steady state value

25

Date of Performance

Worksheet of the student


Registration Number:

Aim:
S.No

Theoretical
Values

Simulation
Values

Error

1
2
3
4
Calculations:

Result and Discussion

Graph/Plot: Error Analysis

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt)

S.No Parameter

Marks

Max. Marks

Understanding of the student about the


procedure/apparatus.

20

Observations and analysis including


learning outcomes

20

Completion of experiment, Discipline and


Cleanliness

10

Signature of Faculty
26

EXPERIMENT NO. 6

AIM: Simulation of control systems using MATLAB for Controllers and different Plots
APPARATUS REQUIRED: System with MATLAB
THEORY:
Frequency Response: The frequency response is the steady state response of a system when the
input to the system is a sinusoidal signal. Frequency response analysis of control system can be
carried either analytically or graphically. The various graphical techniques available for
frequency response analysis are
1. Bode Plot
2. Polar plot (Nyquist plot)
3. Nichols plot
4. M and N circles
5. Nichols chart
Bode plot: The bode plot is a frequency response plot of the transfer function of a system. A
bode plot consists of two graphs. One is plot of the magnitude of a sinusoidal transfer function
versus log w. The other is plot of the phase angle of a sinusoidal transfer function versus logw.
The main advantage of the bode plot is that multiplication of magnitude can be converted into
addition. Also a simple method for sketching an approximate log magnitude curve is available.
Polar plot:
The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G (jw) on polar coordinates as w is varied from
zero to infinity. Thus the polar plot is the locus of vectors [G (jw) ] G (jw) as w is varied from
zero to infinity. The polar plot is also called Nyquist plot.
Nyquist Stability Criterion: If G(s)H(s) contour in the G(s)H(s) plane corresponding to Nyquist
contour in s-plane encircles the point 1+j0 in the anti clockwise direction as many times as the
number of right half s-plain of G(s)H(s). Then the closed loop system is stable.
Root Locus: The root locus technique is a powerful tool for adjusting the location of closed loop
poles to achieve the desired system performance by varying one or
more system parameters.
The path taken by the roots of the characteristics equation when open loop gain K is varied from
0 to infinity are called root loci (or the path taken by a root of characteristic equation when open
loop gain K is varied from 0 to infinity is called root locus.)

27

Frequency Domain Specifications: The performance and characteristics of a system in


frequency domain are measured in term of frequency domain specifications. The requirements of
a system to be designed are usually specified in terms of these specifications.
The frequency domain specifications are
1. Resonant peak, Mr
2. Resonant Frequency, wr.
3. Bandwidth.
4. Cut off rate
5. Gain margin
6. Phase margin
Resonant Peak, Mr
The maximum value of the magnitude of closed loop transfer function is called the resonant peak,
Mr. A large resonant peak corresponds to a large over shoot in transient response.
Resonant Frequency, wr
The bandwidth is the range of frequency for which the system gain is more than -3db. The
frequency at which the gain is -3db is called cut off frequency. Bandwidth is usually defined for
closed loop system and it transmits the signals whose frequencies are less than cut-off frequency.
The bandwidth is a measured of the ability of a feedback system to produce the input signal,
noise rejection characteristics and rise time. A large bandwidth corresponds to a small rise time or
fast response.
Cut-Off Rate:
The slope of the log-magnitude curve near the cut off frequency is called cut-off rate. The cut-off
rate indicates the ability of the system to distinguish the signal from noise.
Gain Margin, Kg
The gain margin, Kg is defined as the reciprocal of the magnitude of open loop transfer function
at phase cross over frequency. The frequency at with the phase of open loop transfer function is
180 is called the phase cross over frequency, wpc.
Phase Margin, g
The phase marging, is that amount of additional phase lag at the gain cross over frequency
required to bring the system to the verge of instability, the gain cross over frequency wgc is the
frequency at which the magnitude of open loop transfer function is unity (or it is the frequency at
which the db magnitude is zero).
PROCEDURE:
1. Enter the command window of the MATLAB.
2. Create a new M file by selecting File New M File.
3. Type and save the program.
4. Execute the program by either pressing F5 or Debug Run.
5. View the results.
6. Analysis the stability of the system for various values of gain.

28

Date of Performance

Worksheet of the student


Registration Number:

Aim:
S.No

Theoretical
Values

Simulation
Values

Error

Calculations:

Result and Discussion

Graph/Plot: Error Analysis

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt)


To

Parameter

Marks

Max. Marks

Understanding of the student about the


procedure/apparatus.

20

Observations and analysis including


learning outcomes

20

Completion of experiment, Discipline and


Cleanliness

10

Signature of Faculty

29

EXPERIMENT NO. 7

Aim: To study the characteristics of an analogue PID controller using simulated systems
Apparatus: The experimental set up has the following description:
Process or Plant: In practical situation the process or plant is that part of the system which
produces the desired response under the influence of command signal. Usual processes are higher
order, non linear functions having dead time or pure time delay. In process control studies such
plants are commonly modeled by transfer functions of the form

() = +1
Where is the time delay in sec, is the effective time constant and K is the dc gain
In the present system, the process is an analogue simulation through a few basic building blocks
which may be connected suitably to from a variety of processes or plants. These blocks are,
(a) Integrator having an approximate transfer function of 10/s
(b) Simple pole two identical units, each having a transfer function of 1/(1+0.0155s)
(c) Pure time delay a time delay of about 5.64 msec generated by a high order multiple pole
approximation of the delay function
Controller : The controller for the process in an analogue Proportional-Integral-Derivative(PID)
circuit in which the PID parameters are adjustable. The values may be set within the following
range through 10 turn calibrated potentiometers:
Proportional gain, Kc : 0 to 20
Integral Time constant, Ti : 5 to 100 msec
Derivative Time Constant, Td : 0 20 msec
Error detector : The error detector is a unity gain inverting adder which adds the command signal
with the feedback signal. To ensure negative feedback it would therefore be necessary to have
(2n+1) phase shift in the forward path, for n = 0,1,2.
Uncommitted Amplifier : It is a unity gain inverting amplifier. This amplifier may be inserted in
the loop, if required, to ensure a proper phase angle.
Signal sources: the signal sources comprises of a low frequency square and triangular wave
generator having adjustable amplitude and frequency. The square wave is used as command input
to the system, while the triangular wave is used for external x-deflection in the CRO. This
arrangement gives a perfectly steady display even upto very low frequencies and is convenient
for CRO measurements.
30

Power supply and DVM: An IC regulated circuit powers the complete unit. A 312 digit DVM of
19.99 volt range mounted on the panel may be used for dc or steady state measuremnets. Also a
variable dc in the range 1 (min) available on the panel may be used as a dc input or set point
for the system.
Theory: An approach towards improving the performance of systems has been through
elementary control actions called control terms inserted in the forward path of an existing
control system.
PID controller
The equation of a PID controller is given by
() = () + () +

()

Where e(t) = error signal


m(t) = PID output or plant output
Kc = Proportional gain
Ki = Integral gain
Kd = Derivative gain
In Laplace domain the above equation is written as
() = () +

() + ()

An alternative representation of the above, which is commonly used in process control, is as


under:
() = (1 +

1
+ ) ()

Where Ti = = Integral time constant

Td =

= Derivative time constant

It is easy to develop the structure of PD, PI controllers from above, by substituting Ki = 0 and Kd
= 0 respectively

31

Figure 1
In the present unit, the three gains are adjustable in the following range with the help of calibrated
10-turn potentiometers.
Kc : 0 to 20; Ki : 0 to 1000; Kd = 0 to 0.01
In the next section, the student finds out the maximum values of Kc, Ki and Kd or in other words
the full scale values of these parameters. The potentiometers used are 10 turn types and each turn
is divided into 10 parts by the dial scale. Each part is further divided into five divisions so that the
total dial range of 0 to 1 has a least count of 0.002. A full revolution of a knob corresponds to a
change of 0.1 in dial reading. To obtain a parameter value, multiply the dial setting by the
corresponding full scale value. As an example, if FSV for P-control is 20 then a dial setting of
0.032 will correspond to a Kc = 0.032x20 = 0.64
Procedure : Controller calibration
1. Apply a square wave signal of 100mV p-p at the input of the error detector. Connect P, I
and D outputs to the summer and display controller output on the CRO
2. With P-potentiometer set to maximum and I- and D- potentiometers set to zero, obtain
maximum value of Kc as
Kc (max.) =

3. With I-potentiometer set to maximum and P- and D-potentiometers set to zero, a ramp
will be seen on CRO. Maximum value of Ki is then given by
Ki (max.) =

4 ()

where f is the frequency of the

input.
4. Set D-potentiometer to maximum and P- and I- potentiometers to zero. A series of sharp
pulses will be seen on the CRO. This is obviously not suitable for calibrating the Dpotentiometer. Instead, applying a triangular wave at the input of the erro detector a
square wave is seen on the CRO.

Kd (max.) = 4 ()
where f is the frequency of the input signal.
32

5. Set all the three potentiometers- P, I and D to maximum values and apply a square wave
input of 100mV (p-p). Observe and trace the step response of the PID controller. Identify
the effects of the P, I and D control individually on the shape of this response.
Proportional Control
1. Make connection as shown in figure with the process made up of time delay and time
constant blocks. Notice that the CRO operation in the X-Y mode ensures stable display
even at low frequencies.
2. Set input amplitude to 1 V(p-p) and frequency to a low value.
3. For various values of Kc = 0.2, 0.4 measure from the screen the values of peak
overshoot and steady state error and tabulate
Proportional Integral Control
1.
2.
3.
4.

Make connections for the 1st order type-0 system with time delay
Set input amplitude to 1 V p-p, frequency to a low value and Ki to zero
For Kc = 0.6 (say), observe and record the peak overshoot and steady state error.
With the Kc as above, increase Ki in small steps and record peak overshoot and steady
state error.

Proportional Integral Derivative Control


1. Make connections as shown in figure with proportional, integral and derivative blocks
connected.
2. Set input amplitude to 1V (p-p), frequency a low value Kc = 0.6, Ki = 54.85 (scale setting
of 0.06) and KD = 0
3. The system shows a fairly large overshoot. Record the peak overshoot and steady state
error.
4. Repeat the above step for a few non-zero values of Kd

Figure 2 : CRO display of step response using triangular time base

33

Date of Performance

Worksheet of the student


Registration Number:

Aim:
S.No

Theoretical
Values

Simulation
Values

Error

Calculations:

Result and Discussion

Graph/Plot: Error Analysis

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt)


To

Parameter

Marks

Max. Marks

Understanding of the student about the


procedure/apparatus.

20

Observations and analysis including


learning outcomes

20

Completion of experiment, Discipline and


Cleanliness

10

Signature of Faculty

34

EXPERIMENT NO. 8
AIM: To obtain the Frequency Response Characteristics and Design of Compensator for a given
system
APPARATUS REQUIRED: System employed with MATLAB
THEORY: The control systems are designed to perform specific tasks. When performance
specification are given for single input. Single output linear time invariant systems. Then the
system can be designed by using root locus or frequency response plots.
The first step in design is the adjustment of gain to meet the desired specifications. In practical
system. Adjustment of gain alone will not be sufficient to meet the given specifications. In many
cases, increasing the gain may result poor stability or instability. In such case, it is necessary to
introduce additional devices or component in the system to alter the behavior and to meet the
desired specifications. Such a redesign or addition of a suitable device is called compensations. A
device inserted into the system for the purpose or satisfying the specifications is called
compensator. The compensator behavior introduces pole & zero in open loop transfer function to
modify the performance of the system.
The different types of electrical or electronic compensators used are lead compensator and lag
compensator.
In control systems compensation required in the following situations.
1. When the system is absolutely unstable then compensation is required to stabilize the system
and to meet the desired performance.
2. When the system is stable. Compensation is provided to obtain the desired performance.
LAG COMPENSATOR:

Figure 1
A compensator having the characteristics of a lag network is called a lag compensator. If a
sinusoidal signal is applied to a lag network, then in steady state the output will have a phase lag
with respect input.
Lag compensation result in improvement in steady state performance but result in slower
response due to reduced bandwidth. The attenuation due to the lag compensator will shift the gain
crossover frequency to a lower frequency point where the phase margin is acceptable. Thus the
lag compensator will reduce the bandwidth of the system and will result in slower transient
35

response. Lag compensator is essentially a low pass filter and high frequency noise signals are
attenuated. If the pole introduce by compensator is cancelled by a zero in the system, then lag
compensator increase the order of the system by one.
LEAD COMPENSATOR:

Figure 2
In a lead network zero is nearer to origin as compared to pole, hence the effects of zero is
dominant, therefore, the phase lead network, when introduced in cascade with forward-path of a
transfer function, the phase shift is increased.
The bode plot of phase-lead network reveals that the lead network allows to pass high frequencies
and low frequencies are attenuated.
As the gain is reduced at low frequencies additional gain is needed in the system to account for
the reduction in gain.

PROCEDURE:
Without compensator:
1. Write the transfer function of system in command window.
2. Obtain its bode plot and step response.
3. Calculate gain margin and phase margin from bode plot. Calculate time specifications from
step response.
With compensator:
1. Write the appropriate transfer function of compensation network.
2. Obtain the closed loop transfer function with compensator using MATLAB command.
3. Draw its bode plot and step response.
4. Compare the values of gain margin, phase margin and time specifications.

36

Date of Performance

Worksheet of the student


Registration Number:

Aim:
S.No

Theoretical
Values

Simulation
Values

Error

Calculations:

Result and Discussion

Graph/Plot: Error Analysis

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt)


To

Parameter

Marks

Max. Marks

Understanding of the student about the


procedure/apparatus.

20

Observations and analysis including


learning outcomes

20

Completion of experiment, Discipline and


Cleanliness

10

Signature of Faculty

37

EXPERIMENT NO. 9
Aim : To obtain the Position Control performance of AC Servo Motor
Apparatus: The set up comprises two parts, the motor unit and control unit.
Motor unit: It consists of two phase ac servomotor. It has the following specifications:
(a) Operating voltage : 120 Vac, maximum current 0.15 Amp
(b) Rated shaft speed: 2400 rpm, Inertia 4.6 x 10-4 kg/cm2
(c) Torque : 0.085 x 10-2 kg/m
The motor drives a potentiometric load through gear train. The gear ratio is 1:40 hence the load
shaft rotation is 2400/40 = 60 rpm
The angular displacement is sensed by a 3600 servo potentiometer. A graduated disc is mounted
upon the potentiometer to indicate angular position with 10 resolution. The complete unit is
housed in see through cabinate. A cable is attached to the unit with 9 pin D type connector for
connection with the control unit.
Control unit: It consists of power supply, servo-amplifier, error detector and command
potentiometer. There is facility given to record the transient period of position control system
under step signal. The description is as follows:
1. Command signal there are two command signals provided in the control unit. One is the
continuous command which is given by reference potentiometer. The reference
potentiometer is also a 3600 servo potentiometer of same value as fitted in the motor unit.
Both the potentiometers are connected with same reference source of 3 V pp ac, 50 Hz
obtained from built in transformer. Sockets are provided for both the outputs for
measurement purposes. A graduated dial is fitted with the reference potentiometer with 10
resolution.
Other command signal is in the form of a step signal of 11 second duration which is activated by
briefly pushing upon step key. This signal is added with the reference signal through a relay and
quantity is subject to reference dial position. The step command is used for quantative study.
2. Error detector It is a two input and one output block. One of them is positive oriented
for command signals and one negative oriented for feedback. The error detector produces
a phase sensitive signal with relative amplitude. This signal form an envelope as e(t),
which is followed by an amplifier with variable gain setting.
3. Gain block The gain settings provided upon the panel. This block provide forward path
gain KA in equal steps from 3 to 10, selected by a rotary switch provided upon the panel.

38

4. Servo amplifier block the servo amplifier is a push-pull transistorized amplifier operate
from 36 V dc supply. Its voltage gain is 20 and its output gas quadrature phase with motor
reference winding voltage phase.
5. Waveform capture/ display block The time response of the system is too slow for
convenient display upon CRO. This card can capture the event, store it in a RAM and then
display the stored contents on CRO for detailed studies. The stored data is erased when a
new capture cycle is made. The time for capture cycle is about 3.2 seconds. In mode A
transient response is recorded, while in mode B error detector envelope is recorded.
The unit has built in dc regulated power supplies for all blocks and motor unit reference winding
operate upon 110 volt isolated ac supply .
Theory : Second order systems are studied in great detail in any course in linear control system.
The reason for this is that a large number of higher order practical systems may be approximated
as a second order system while neglecting less dominant modes, non linearities like dead zone,
saturation, hysteresis etc. assuming these to have little effect on the performance. Also second
order systems lend themselves to a simple and accurate mathematical analysis. In the following
description we shall follow the above strategy. At the end however, the imperfections due to
nonlinearities must be pointed out.
Position Control- a second order system
A second order system is represented in the standard form as,
2
() = 2
+ 2 + 2
where is called the damping ratio and the undamped natural frequency. Depending upon
the value of , the poles of the system may be real, repeated or complex conjugate which is
reflected in the nature of its step response. Results obtained for various cases are:

Undamped case (0 < < 1)

C(t)=

1 2

sin( + 1 1 2 /)

(1)

Where, = 1 2 is termed the damped natural frequency. A sketch of the unit step
response for various values of is available in the text books.

Critically damped case( = 1) ; c(t)=1- (1 + )


Overdamped case ( > 1) : c(t)= 1 -


2 2 1

2 1

2 1

(2)

2 1

+ 2 1

(3)

39

The transfer function G(s) of an ac servomotor may be derived as


()

=
()
( + 1)
Where Km is the motor gain constant and T is the mechanical constant, and E is the control
winding voltage.
Considering closed loop transfer function of the system with proportional feedback only as
()
()

()
1+ ()

2 + + /

. (4)

This gives unit step response similar to all three cases as discussed in equation 1-3, depending
upon the value of KA the gain constant. Therefore the response of the position control can be
altered by the alteration of the gain KA for satisfactory response. Some of the parameters should
be defined in term of response curves
a) Delay time , is defined as the time needed for the response to reach 50% of the final value.
b) Rise time, , is the time taken for response to reach 100% of the final value for the first
time. This is given by
=

,where =

1 1 2

c) Peak time, , is the time taken for the response to reach the first peak of the overshoot
and is given by
=

1 2

d) Maximum overshoot, Mp, is defined by


Mp= c (tp)-c()x 100%
e) Setting time, ts, is the time required by the system response to reach and stay within a
prescribed tolerance band which is usually taken as 2% or 5%. An approximate
calculation based on the envelops of the response for a low damping ratio system yields.
Ts(5% tolerance band)= 3/
Ts(2% tolerance band)= 4/
Another important characteristic of a closed loop system is the steady state error, ess.
For unity feedback systems ess is defined as
()

Ess= lim () = lim0 () = lim0 1+()


40

Procedure : (a) Position control through continuous command


1. Connect motor unit with the control unit.
2. Switch on the power. Set KA = 4
3. Connect CRO with the Vr socket. Starting from on end say 300, measure the voltage
amplitude A
4. Move the reference potentiometer to 900 and measure the output voltage here as B. the
constant c related to command signal is
=

volt/ 0

5. Connect CRO other channel with socket V0. Move command potentiometer in steps of 300
approximately and note the R (from command potentiometer) 0 (from feedback
potentiometer) , Vr and V0 from the sockets provided upon the panel.
6. Set KA for other value say 6, and record the values. Calculate the errors from the
results( 0 ) , ( 0 ) for each step for each set of KA where K = gain =
selected gain KA x 20
7. Keep command potentiometer at 1800. Set KA = 4 Note the position of the feedback
potentiometer. Rotate slowly the command potentiometer and note R, which position the
motor follows the command. Repeat the step for gain KA at 7
From the observations it is found that motor follows the command signal with a finite error at low
gain settings. Graphically it is shown below. At low gain K = 4 x 20 = 80, the system has some
delay (the motor follows command position after some displacement) and larger steady state
error, where at K = 140 the system produce low error with small delay hence faster response.
(b) Study of error detector. Position control through step command
1. Set gain KA = 4. Position reference potentiometer to 1200
2. Connect CRO one channel at reference socket(Vr). Note the signal amplitude in Vac pp.
3. Connect other channel with feedback socket (V0) and measure the ac pp voltage there as V0
4. Now apply step signal and note the rms signal value at Vr socket. After elapse of time when
move to previous position (11 seconds later) move the reference dial for same reading obtained
with step signal. Note the dial position and find out the step signal actuation in degree.
For example start degree is 120 and new degree is 200 then step signal actuation is 200-120 = 800
5. Now remove CRO one channel connected with feedback socket, and connect it with the
error output socket ET

41

6. Apply step command and note the error output(a noisy signal may appear in mV order)
ess 0 = error output/constant c in deg
7. Set gain KA = 7. Apply same step and find out the ess. Connect CRO back with V0 socket
and note V0 is initial value and V0 is the final value, where V0 is voltage at 1200 and V0
after applying step signal in steady state.
Observation of dynamic response
1. Select KA = 4. Keep command potentiometer at 1200 Connect CRO at X-Y output sockets
with reference to ground in X-Y mode. Set Y at 0.5V/div and X at 0.5V/div. A zig-zag
curve will appear upon CRO. Select mode A.
2. Press capture key briefly, a spot will appear upon screen. Press step key briefly, the motor
will be run. Wait till capture time is complete (about 4 seconds). After completion of
capture time the captured waveform will be displayed upon screen.
3. Connect CRO at reference socket and note the ac voltage. Apply step signal and note the
ac signal voltage. Connect the CRO at feedback socket and find out the difference
between both readings as error (in mV). Trace the waveform which appears upon screen,
with screen graticules as reference. Observe the waveform shape; the curve show no
overshoot and sluggish hence the damping factor is = or > 1
4. Apply step signals at gain settings of 6, 8 and each time capture a fresh waveform. Trace
the waveforms to observe the effect of different gain in closed loop control system.
5. Select the waveform that looks like second order response curve. Find out the time
specifications.

42

Date of Performance

Worksheet of the student


Registration Number:

Aim:
S.No

Theoretical
Values

Simulation
Values

Error

Calculations:

Result and Discussion

Graph/Plot: Error Analysis

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt)


To

Parameter

Marks

Max. Marks

Understanding of the student about the


procedure/apparatus.

20

Observations and analysis including


learning outcomes

20

Completion of experiment, Discipline and


Cleanliness

10

Signature of Faculty

43

EXPERIMENT NO. 10

Aim : Performance Analysis of Thermal System and Design using PID/Relay Control
Apparatus : Thermal System Kit, CRO, Power Supply
Theory :
In most of the chemical and biochemical processes it is of fundamental importance to control
the temperature at which various processes occur. Improper temperature control may lead to
loss of product quality, non-profitable operation or even create hazardous situations.

Temperature is generally controlled by modifying the power output of a heating/cooling


device. This translates in setting the flow rate of a heating/cooling agent or the electrical
current applied to an electrical heater. For a continuous stirred tank, the dynamic heat balance
is described by equation 1.

dTR F (T T )
Q
R
dt
0
V
V cp

(1)

If a thermosensor is used to measure the temperature, the delay in the measurement can be
described:

dT
sens

dt

(T T )
R
sens

(2)

sens

The same first-order delay can describe the response of the heater:

dQ (Q
0
Q)

(3)

dt Q

By introducing a temperature controller in the system, the power output of the heater will
depend on the difference between the measured temperature and a set value. A proportionalintegral-derivative

44

controller (PID) computes the power by considering instantaneous temperature


deviation (proportional component), deviation history (integral component) and
deviation trend (derivative component):
E KP
QPID Q0 K

t
Edt K

dE
P

dt

(4)

Controller parameters (Kp, I and D) are established through a process called controller
tuning. Several methods are available for determining these parameters, the purpose being to
reach a temperature as close as possible to the reference.

Notations:
TR = temperature in the tank
[

o0

C] T = temperature of the
o

inlet [ C]

Tsens = temperature indication (observed) [ C]

Tset = set temperature [ C]


E = Tsens Tset (temperature
deviation) F = flow rate [L/h]
V = tank volume [L]

Q = heater power [J/h]


Q0 = nominal power of the
heater [J/h] QPID = controlled
power output [J/h]
= fluid density [kg/L]
cp = specific heat
[J/kgK] t = time [h]

sens = time constant of the thermosensor


[h] Q = time constant of the heater [h]
I = time constant of the integral component [h]
D = time constant of the derivative component [h] o

KP = proportional constant of the controller [J/h C]

45

Experimental setup

Figure 1 - Scheme of a continuous stirred tank with temperature control

The experimental setup (Figure 1) consists of a stirred tank equipped with an electrical heater and
a magnetic stirrer. Water is continuously pumped in the tank through a valve that controls the
water flow. A rotameter (FI) indicates the flow rate. The water level is maintained constant by an
overflow connection to the vessel.

An electrical coil heater with the constant nominal power of 1000 W is submersed in the filled
tank and connected to a analog/digital (A/D) transforming unit. Temperature is measured with a
thermocouple (T), and recorded using the same A/D unit. The A/D unit transforms the continuous
analogous signal into a digital signal that can be interpreted with the aid of a process computer.

The LabVIEWTM platform is used to communicate with the measurement instruments


(thermocouples) and the actuators (electrical heater). The decision to turn the heater ON or OFF is
taken according to an adapted model of a PID controller (Figure 2). A modulator was included to
transform the continuous output of the PID (heating power in this case) in an ON/OFF command.
The purpose of the controller is to maintain a steady temperature in the tank (T set).
46

Figure 2 - Schematic representation of the adapted PID controller implemented in the process computer

The control parameters (Kp, TauI, TauD) and other values (Tset, modulator frequence,
etc.) can be introduced manually using sliders or input boxes.
1. Controller configuration

Calibrate the temperature sensor using a normal thermometer for comparison


(minimum three values).

1.1.

1.2.

Calibrate the rotameter by measuring the volume of water collected in 1 minute time intervals

at different rotameter indications (minimum three values per indication).


1.3.

For the measured inlet temperature and a given flow rate, determine the theoretical steady

state temperature in the case when the heater is ON and there is no temperature control. Use the
steady- state heat balance. Is this value attainable?
1.4. Determine the
a) Write

time constant of the temperature sensor.

down the sensor indication at time=0.

b) Submerge the

sensor in a well-mixed heated tank and write down the sensor

indication vs. time. Use a scale of seconds. Stop after the indication shows three
consecutive identical values.
c) Create the sensor_data.txt file with two columns: time [hours] and

measured temperature [ C]. Use HEAT_DELAY_FIT.mmd program to estimate


sensor delay (TAUsens) by fitting simulated temperature (Tsens) to data. For estimation,
set the parameters to the following values: Q0=0, Tenv=initial sensor indication, T0=final
sensor indication.
1.5. Determine the

time constant of the electrical heater.


47

a) Write
b)

down the temperature in the tank at time=0. Make sure that agitation is ON.

Turn the heater ON. Write down the sensor indication vs. time. Use a scale of

seconds. Stop the heating when the temperature increases over 90 C.


c) Create the heater_data.txt file with two columns: time [hours] and

measured temperature [ C]. Use HEAT_DELAY_FIT.mmd program to estimate


heater delay (TAUQ) by fitting simulated temperature (Tsens) to data. For estimation,
set the parameters to the following values: Q0=3600, Tenv = T0= initial sensor
indication.
Comment on the quality of the fitting. Is estimating only TAUQ sufficient to obtain a
good fit? What other parameters could be changed to improve the fitting?

1.6. Determine the

parameters of the controller (tuning the controller) using the Ziegler-

Nichols open-loop method. Use the TEMPERATURE_SWITCH Lab View file for
monitoring the process.
a) Switch

the operation of the tank to continuous by switching the water flow ON. Set a flow
rate indication of 25 L/h. Make sure that agitation is ON.

b) For

the actual flow rate (see rotameter calibration!), compute the theoretical power output
(Qcomp) needed to have a steady state temperature of 40 C in the tank. In
LabView, set the value of the Heater ON parameter to round(10*Qcomp/Q0).
Because the heater can deliver only one power output, smaller powers are achieved by
switching the heater ON for a fraction of a set time interval, in this case 10 seconds, and
then switching it OFF. The process is then repeated.

c)

Turn the heater ON. Use a chronometer to make sure that the heater is switched on/off as
prescribed. Wait until the system reaches a steady state (steady Tsens in the process
monitor). Compare the steady-state temperature with the theoretical one. In case they are
different, comment on the possible causes.

Compare the indications of the three thermosensors. Are Tsens and Toutlet identical? If they are
not, comment on the possible causes.

48

d) Perform

a step-change in the flow rate (decrease abruptly the flow rate with 15 L/h).

Write down the value of this step (=B). Wait for the system to reach the new steady-state.

e) By

using the response plots, estimate and compare the time constants affecting the
behavior of the system (residence time, sensor response time, heater response time).

f)

Use the step change collected data and interpolate a smooth curve from Tsens(time).
Using this modified response curve, estimate lag time TL and the slope (Figure 3).
Establish the PI controller settings using these values.

Figure Open-loop Ziegler-Nichols method for tuning the controller parameters

1.7.

Test

the

controller

settings

computed

at

4.6.

using

the

TEMPERATURE_CONTROLLER_FINAL LabView file. Comment on the quality of the


control. Test the system to a small (<5 L/h) flow rate perturbation and comment on the
robustness of the control. Explain the nature of the observed oscillations.

TEMPCONT_modulated.mmd Madonna file is a simulation of the system we use in this


experiment. Simulate the process response to:
1.8.

a)

the step change you performed in the flow rate (controller = 0, stepflow = 1, modulate = 0, Q

= Qcomp). Adjust the parameters in the program (flow rates, temperatures, volume, etc.) to the
49

real values.
b)

Estimate the controller settings by minimizing the square integral error (EINT2).Write down

Kp and TAUI values. Simulate the control using these values (controller = 1, stepflow = 1,
modulate = 1, Q0 = Qnominal).
c)

Modify the controller settings in the TEMPERATURE_CONTROLLER_FINAL LabView

file. Monitor the response of the system. Compare the experimental Tsens with the simulated
value. Comment on the possible differences.
1.9. Compare the

two methods for tuning the controller (open-loop and model-based).

Based on your previous comments, write your personal suggestions on how this
experiment might be improved.

1.10.

PRECAUTIONS: 1. Apply voltage to servomotor slowly to avoid errors.


2. Impose load by DC motor slowly.
3. Take the reading accurately as the meter fluctuates.
4. Switch OFF the setup when note in use.

50

Date of Performance

Worksheet of the student


Registration Number:

Aim:
S.No

Theoretical
Values

Simulation
Values

Error

Calculations:

Result and Discussion

Graph/Plot: Error Analysis

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt)


To

Parameter

Marks

Max. Marks

Understanding of the student about the


procedure/apparatus.

20

Observations and analysis including


learning outcomes

20

Completion of experiment, Discipline and


Cleanliness

10

Signature of Faculty

51