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HANDBOOK OF THE

MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

HANDBOOK
OF THE

MODERN GREEK
VERNACULAR
GRAMMAR, TEXTS, GLOSSARY
BY

THUMB

ALBERT-

PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY IN STRASSBURG UNIVERSITY


SOMETIME PROFESSOR IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MARBURG

TRANSLATED FROM THE


SECOND IMPROVED AND ENLARGED GERMAN EDITION
BV

S.

ANGUS,

M.A., Ph.D.

>

Edinburgh: T.

&

T.

>

> >

CLARK,
1912

38 George Street

Printed by

Morrison

&

Gibb Limited

FOR
T.

LONDON

&

T.

CLARK, EDINBURGH

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT,

NEW YORK CHARLES


:

'^

c*

e*^--

'

AND

SCRIBNER'S SONS

CO.

LIMITED

TO

GEORGE

N.

HATZIDAKIS
IN

SiNCEREST Friendship

248515

FOREWORD TO THE ENGLISH


EDITION.
I

HAVE been repeatedly approached from the English

my

with regard to a translation of

side

Modern Greek Handbook.

English-speaking scliolars are of course sufficiently familiar

German language

with the

But

original.

as there

a large

is

who cannot do

students

consult

to

this,

German works

number

and

in the

of English-speaking

as, besides, it

is

easier to

master a foreign language in a grammar written in one's


mother- tongue, I have been very pleased to give

when
for a

Messrs. T.

translation

which

The

&

T.
of

my

consent

Clark of Edinburgh desired to arrange


second edition of

the

was recently published

my Handbook,

and considerably enlarged.

translation gives the text of the

German

original with-

out alteration, except that a few slips have been removed


partly due to the translator's accuracy.

my

I desire to express

sincere thanks to Dr. S.

for the carefully executed translation

Angus

he has performed his

task with great ability and with a perfect understanding of


the subject.

My
its

German

dress
of

wish

is

that

form,

may

and contribute

Modern Greek

my
to

book, which has gained friends in

secure

new

friends

in

its

English

an increased and deepened knowledge

among English-speaking

scholars

and

students.

A.

Strassburg, January 1912.

THUMB.

TRANSLATOR'S NOTE.
Professoe Thumb's Forewords

render any further words

from the TransLator unnecessary.


the

as

has been

present

the English student

most

The need

growingly

is

with

part

of the

modern

history of the

the

Ka6apevov(7a,

book

is

Greek people, and

the

the

No

"Atticizing"

account

fair

is

to

vernacular, which reflects the chequered

of the ancient language.


this

English-

familiar deal either exclusively or for

learned language of the present day.

hand

the

in

felt

book

for such a

The works on Modern Greek with which

speaking world.

the

'^^^

first

is

alone the true descendant

It is not too

much

to claim that

and as

in English to supply the want,

such must prove welcome to the teachers and students of the

Greek language.
in

two ways,

latest

Professor Thumb's aim

first,

phase of Greek to those Hellenists

that they

is

be practical

to

to present a satisfactory account of the

must pass beyond the

classical

who

are convinced

and the Hellenistic

periods for the study of a living language with an unbroken

three thousand years

history of

and, secondly, to furnish

a Textbook of the modern Greek vernacular for beginners,


as

by

evidenced

the

division

into

Grammar,

and

Texts,

Glossary.
Finally,

before

Translator has

the

English

readers

Professor Thumb's

the

much

pleasure in

placing

Handbook which he used

own Modern Greek

class in

Marburg.
S.

Edinburgh, February 1912.

A.

in

GERMAN

FOREWORD TO THE

FIRST
EDITION.

The

past century witnessed the publication of

grammars

measure

in a certain

decades

different

numbers.

large

in

the

of

corresponds

which, during the

Europe

century,

find that the

modern Greek

output

the sympathy

to

We shall

modern Greece.

This

upon
grammars,

bestowed

number

of

pocket-dictionaries, elementary text-books increased in those

periods in which the Greeks

to a special

degree attracted

the eyes of Europe, so that the mere statistics of publishing


firms could furnish an exact

West

in

index of

the people of Greece

and,

the

past

mous output

in

are to trust our

grown more intense again

index, this interest appears to have

during

the interest of the

we

if

lustrum.

But notwithstanding the enor-

this

only

field,

a small

proportion

is

of

practical service, not a single one of the existing helps being

adequate to the requirements which science imposes even on


a grammar which professes to serve only a practical purpose.
Indeed, one sometimes receives even the unpleasant impression that the

owing
selling

book in his hand

existence solely

its

trade.

contribute

The term

"

modern Greek,"

first,

made

literary

to order,"

of the book-

conditions of

Greece

lack of really serviceable

to this

forms of language

"

to the speculation

The peculiar

partly

a work

is

as

is

helps.

well known, designates two

the living language spoken by the

people and split up into numerous dialects or patois, which

form alone properly deserves the name of modern Greek


secondly, the literary language, the Kadapevovaa,

speech," which

is

i.e.

and,

"

pure

a literary and learned revival of the more

or less modernised

ancient Greek

therefore a product of art

common

by no means

the result of the written usage of

language, and

of recent date,

is

but

centuries reaching back

FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION

xii

The extent to which this stereobeyond Byzantine days.


typed form of ancient Greek admitted and still admits
modern elements borrowed from the popular language varied
not only in different times, but still varies also according
The majority of modern Greek
author and locality.
grammars have this in common, that they present neither the

to

one nor the other form of language exclusively, but select


as a working basis either the learned language or the vernacular without confining themselves further strictly to the
Those who prefer the literary language
standard chosen.
are in the majority ordinarily this form is taught in such a
way as if it were /car ef o;^?;v " the Greek language of the
And yet this literary complexion is not expresent day."
clusively the dominant one even in the province of artistic
epic
poetry belong almost
literature, while lyrical and
entirely to the vernacular, which continues also to gain
ground in other departments (comedy and narrative).
A combined account of both forms of the language
suffers from want of clearness, quite apart from the fact that
in most cases the vernacular in this way is denied fair treat:

ment.

Mitsotakis

both together

so

has best succeeded

far

but he, like

all

treating

in

the others, displays a lack of

the training in philology necessary to do justice to the more


rigorous scientific

demands

he also lacks the necessary

dis-

crimination of the essential distinction between the popular

The former is by no means


and in his grammar appears but too
faintly as a pronounced independent form of language.
The
only elementary grammar of recent date which has essayed
and the

literary

language.

satisfactorily treated,

the task of presenting the popular language

This

volume, the popularity of which

little

immediate appearance of a second

commended

is
is

that of Wied.^

attested

edition, is to

be

by the
highly

to the beginner for a rapid introductory sketch

modern Greek vernacular but certainly those who try


from it a complete knowledge of the copious popular
literature of modern Greece, or to become acquainted with

of the

to gain

Mitsotakis, PraJctische

Grammatik der

schnell

und

Stuttgart and

neugriechischen Schrift-

und

Urn-

xii and 260 pp.


1891 (Speniann).
(12 Marks).
Cf. my review in the Deutsche LiteraturzcifAing, 1893, col. 235 f.
2 Wied,
Die Kunst, die neugricchische VolkHS2rrache ditrch Selhstunterricht

gangssprache.

leicht

Polyglotten," pt.

Berlin,

zu lernen. Vienna:
Maiks).

xi. (2

Ilartleben, in the scries

" Kunst der

FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION


common

the structure of the speech of the

xiii

people, will soon

There exists no text-book that can supply

be disappointed.

and to some extent ample information upon the


modern Greek popular language. An adequate

reliable

facts

of the

text-

book should be expected not only to introduce every scholar


to an understanding of the abundant treasures of the modern
Greek national and vernacular literature, but also to make
the linguist and the philologist familiar with the principle

To fill this breach is the


growth of the language.
my Handbook.
I have already in a separate brochure ^ pointed out that
the vernacular, and not the literary, language should be first
To repeat
learned, together with the reasons for this view.
briefly
those who are familiar with ancient Greek and then
learn the modern vernacular possess all that is essential
while
to understand the modern Greek literary language
those who do not know ancient Greek will never gain a clear
grasp of the linguistic conditions of Greek literature of the
of the

object of

My Grammar

present time.
are

is

not intended for readers

complete strangers to ancient

Greek.

have fully adopted the standpoint of modern Greek

grammar

descriptive

be

must

and

treat a language only in its

rules,

own

longer

for the "

any meaning

is,

on

grammar

of

light.

It

on the long and short


diphthongs " at, ot, ei,, or

e.g.,

for the spiritus asper, the circumflex

possess no

for a

such mine professes primarily to

the other hand, a confusing anachronism in a

modern Greek to lay down


vowels and 77, o and w, or

who

Nevertheless, I

and acute accents, which

for

the

language of

the-

present day, enjoying only a conventional existence in writing.

The grammars of modern Greek with which


drawn up on the model of ancient

familiar are simply

am

Greek,,

because the authors for lack of proper scientific knowledge

were not aware of the wide gulf between theGreek orthography and the form of the present
language.
It is in the department of " phonetics," or rather
in that of " characters," that our grammars betray this unfortunate habit most glaringly and senselessly
but even
morphology cannot escape being crushed into this Procrustean bed to such an extent that its harmony and
of the language

ancient

Die neugriecJii'che Sprache wid Hire Erlernung: Beilage to AUgemeinc

Zeitung, Aug.

6,

1891.

FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION

XIV

symmetry

are

quite

Thus,

obscured.

declension

e.g.,

is

treated according to the scheme of ancient Greek types of


declension, that which is specifically modern Greek being
Descriptive grammar
attached as an accidental patch.
"
that
homogeneous phenomena
demands, on the contrary,
But the criterion of what is to be
should be grouped.
regarded as homogeneous must not be sought in antiquity

or in etymology, but in

My

guage."^
satisfies,

the ever-living genius of the lan-

classification

modern Greek declension


by treating and bringing

of

I believe, this requirement

together under a uniform point of view those elements which,


in the consciousness of those

who speak

the language,

fall

together into groups, and consequently formally react upon

one another.

Deffner's,- as also Psichari's,^ proposed

fication of the declension

forms appears to

that which I have adopted.

me

classi-

less lucid

than

I myself have, however, only

carried into effect a suggestion put forward

grammar

Ltibke in his commentary on the

of

by W. MeyerSimon Fortius

125) a suggestion which he himself did not either


up or carry out in his own classification of modern
Greek declensions (p. 118).
On the classification of verbs
there can exist no doubt since the appearance of Hatzidakis'
fine article " iiber die Priisensbildung im Neugriechischen," ^ in
which the formation of the present stem and its relation to
the aorist are clearly stated.
For the benefit of those who like
to play with the term " practical," and who, in no way
troubled with exact knowledge, regard " scientific " and " unpractical " as almost synonymous ideas, let me remark that the
classification of the contents of a language based upon its own
inner laws facilitates the acquiring of a language more than a
grammar that presents the language on some external model.
I need not specially emphasise that I have not attempted
an exhaustive account of the treasures of modern Greek, as
is clear from the concise compass of
my Grammar. But,
notwithstanding, it contains considerably more than other
grammars of greater size, and is above all a grammar of the
(p.

follow

G. V. d. Gabelentz, Die Spraehwissenschaft (Leipzig, 1891), p. 92.


In his review of Legrand's Grammar, Jcnaer Literaturzcitung, 1879, p.

302.
^

Psichari, Essais de

Kuhn's

iieugriech,

Orammaire

Zeitschrift /. vergl.

Grammatik

historique neogrecque,

Sprachf.

xxvii. p.

(Leipzig, 1892), p. 390

ff.

69

i.

ff.,

88 (Paris, 1886).
and Einl. in die

FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION


vernacular Greek " KoLvrj"

The existence

XV

common and

of a

uniform type of the " popular speech " ( Volkssprache) is, of


course, denied by some, it being maintained rather that
beside the affected archaic written language there exist only

and I maintain
modern Greek " Koivrj"
the language of the folk-songs in the form in which they
are usually published being no more a specific dialect than

The

dialects.

that

we

assertion

latter

dispute,

are justified in speaking of a

that type of language of such popular poets as Christopulos,

and many

Drosinis, Palamas,

perfect uniformity

sometimes

as

just

on

Many

hand

one

the

many

poets

"vernacular"

the

of

dubbed

equally

by

dialect.

correct,

so

side,

yet in spite of all this


contrast

in

i.e.

on the

marked pro-

Vilaras) manifest a

(as, e.g.,

pensity for dialect elements

speak

others, can be

admittedly not yet to be found, for

wide-spread, forms occur side

equally

other

is

the

to

we may
dialects.

folk-songs in the course of extensive diffusion, passing

from place to place, must have had their dialectic peculiarities reduced to a minimum, so that by a quite spontaneous
process a certain

more by

average speech

made a

has also

Pothr]^

instinct

resulted.

Quite recently

similar assertion, guided, however,

than by any

scientific

sense,

and conse-

quently he has overshot the mark in disputing absolutely the


existence of dialects.^

This average popular speech

readily arises particularly in the larger centres

means

which

serves as a

communication which is intelligible not only in


and Constantinople, but also in the country.

of

Patras, Athens,

The

collection of

limitation of

my

Texts served

material

the

less

me as a
common

guide for the


(or

dialectic)

phenomena are

in general only treated so far as they occur

in these texts.

The student

e.g.,

will therefore not expect to find,

the Greek dialects of Lower Italy or those of Pontus

say nothing of Zaconian

to

given in any exhaustive manner.

have exceeded the dialect material contained in the Texts


only when some linguistic phenomena of special interest on
I

more general grounds {e.g. the history of the language) called


Of course, such a selection remains always
more or less subjective and influenced by the personal
for attention.

^ Poi5i7s,
Ta EiSwXa. VXidaaiKT] fieKeTq (Athens, 1893), p. 180 ff. It was
naturally an easy matter for Hatzidakis to refute the " scientific " grounds of

PotSijs' thesis

cf.

'Adrjva, vii.

224

tf.

xvi

FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION

equation.

considered

imperative

ifc

to

cite

patois

produce an approximately correct


conception of the diversity of patois, but also efficiently to
facilitate the study of modern Greek popular literature.

phenomena not only

to

Granwiar or Glossary, T mention


Naxos, Velvendos, Cyprus) as exhibiting
certain philological points, it is not to be understood that
such particulars, given
these occur onh/ in those regions
generally in connection with the texts, mean no more than

When, however,

a definite region

either in

(e.g.

that a form or usage

is

locally restricted.

In the explanatory notes on the history of the language


I confined myself to a selection of material on the same
principles on which I made a selection from the dialect
The relations between the ancient Greek forms
material.
and those of modern Greek are referred to in their salient
characteristics.

My

object

was

to sketch in general outline

their inner connection as the established result of the investi-

gation upon

modern Greek

of the present time,

and to put the

reader on the right track, rather than to explain in detail

all

Those who possess a scientific


knowledge of philology will, with the aid of my directions,
I aimed
experience no difficulty in explaining many a detail.
especially at presenting a clear account of the preservation or
the disappearance of ancient, as well as the rise of new, types.
A further consideration was to safeguard those who approach
the separate linguistic points.

the study of modern Greek against such misconceptions as

have been really exploded for science through the indefatigable exertions of Hatzidakis, but which misconceptions unfor-

tunately

In
haunt the brains of unscientific dilettanti.
my main object to produce a textI have avoided the
the modern Greek vernacular
still

order not to frustrate

book

of

citation

of scientific

apparatus (literature, discussions,

etc.),.

compass the
employment of philological terminology except the most
common grammatical terms. The beginner will do well on
the first reading to omit the section on Phonetics together
with the notes and to go through the conjugation of the

and have restricted

to

verbs before paragraphs


edition].

the

smallest

possible

[ 175-212 of the new


dialect peculiarities will some-

140-164

The annotations on

times be best impressed on his mind by the reading of the


texts.

Let

me

refer those

who seek information on

the aims^

FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION

xvii

method, and tasks of investigation in modern Greek to my


little book, Die neugriechisclie Sprache (Freiburg, 1892, 36 pp.),
which will serve as an introduction to the present Grammar.

The

more recent

older as well as the

literature

subject will be found collected there and in

my

upon

this

reviews in

the Anzeiger der Indogermanischen Forschungen, as also in the


first

part of G. Meyer's Neugriechisclie Studien}

to remark how much I have


by the successful labours bestowed upon investigation in modern Greek philology during the past fifteen years.
First in importance come the achievements of Hatzidakis,
the fruits of which, as I hope, are apparent in this Grammar.
Another work which I have frequently consulted with the
It is almost superfluous

profited

be gratefully acknowledged,

greatest profit should also

viz.

commentary of W. Meyer (Llibke) ^ on the grammar


Simon Fortius. This commentary is the solitary attempt
the

of

y^

to

furnish a brief but comprehensive account of the results of

modern Greek philology.


was a happy thought.
seventeenth century)

His

Simon Fortius
grammar (although of the

only

compares favourably for a

Its association with

not

clear grasp of the material with the


of the past century,

modern Greek grammars

but surpasses them in

scientific spirit.

The Texts, the requirements of which were constantly


kept in view in the Grammar, offer a selection of pieces of
poetry and prose from the vernacular, and from that section
of the artistic literature which is based upon the vernacular.
That the latter is more or less affected by the literary
language will appear from a rapid comparison between Fart I.
In the Grammar or the Glossary
and Fart 11. of the Texts.
I

have drawn attention

language which

to

formally

those elements of

betray

themselves

as

the literary

such (and

which are not altogether wanting in Part I. of the Texts) in


order to prevent any doubt as to what is genuinely vernacular.
The Table of Contents gives the sources whence I have taken

my
^

texts.

From my own

collections I admitted three pieces

G. Meyer, Neugriechisclie Studien.

neugriech. MundsLYteiiforsclnrng"

I.

"Versuch

Sitzungsherichte der

einer Bibliographie der

Wiener Akademie der

Wissenschaft. Phil. -hist. Kl. cxxx. (1894).

Simon

Fortius, Grammatica linguae Graecae viUgaris.


Reproduction de
de 1638, suivie d'un commentnire grammatical et historique par
Wilhelm Meyer. With an Introduction by J. Psichari, Paris, 1889, Yieweg
Ivi and 256 pp.
^

I'edition

/"

FOREWOED TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION

xviii

together with a distich


III. 4 elsewhere, while

Unfortunately no
poets, still

d.

specially

my command

were at

these I have already pubhshed

of

I.

7 and III.

13

superior

authentic

or

(b) are inedita.

editions

some

for the selections horn,

of the

no real disadvantage can have, I believe, resulted.

In general, I retaiued the texts in the form in which they

were found in the editions which I used, in some cases with


In purely orthothe alteration or addition of the headings.
in
no
way
which
affect
the
pronunciation
graphical matters
the orthography adopted

(so especially in regard to vowels)

in the

Grammar

is

part I have taken the liberty to


i.e.

corrections, thus,

e.g.,

make some

I have,

in the case of final

considerable caution

however, in

first

other alterations

present the normally correct popular form in

my Grammar.

In the

systematically carried out.

in order to

v,

harmony with

this respect

practised

21, where forms like avy-^oiprjrd,

{e.g. I. a.

earcoaav are borrowed from the ecclesiastical language).

In

the Texts of the artistic literature the orthography of the


literary language is retained in cases like
for %T, v8 for vr, final

the

Grammar

v, etc., if

a6

instead of

my

such were found in

err,

kt

copy

will be found to furnish adequate information

upon these deviations from

vernacular

the

language

and

In the text of Psichari (II. b. 1) the author's


orthography remains absolutely unaltered, so as to present at
the same time a sample of his proposals toward reform of
orthography.

orthography.

My

by the language

selection of texts

itself,

was determined not only

but also by having in consideration the

history of literature and culture; on these principles the


attempts toward the creation of a popular prose, or those
selections

which

modern Greek

reflect

wide-spread literary tendencies

dress, are inserted

of Eangavis' song (II.

a.

with the ballad literature

14) was determined by


(cf. I. a.

4).

The

dates for the poets will prove useful to

time
for

in

and, again, the admission


its

affinity

brief biographical

fix

their place

and

unfortunately I was not able to ascertain the dates

'I.

Tv7raXBo<;

and some

of

the writers

still

living.

venture to hope that the Texts, in the absence of a similar


collection and in spite of their small bulk, are adapted to
introduce the reader into the world of thought and ideas of

the present-day Greek and especially the

The

final

part

of

the

"

Pw/tto?."

Texts consists of

Specimens

of

FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION

xix

Dialect which give a fairly good idea of the multiplicity and


modern Greek patois. Annotations are here sub-

variety of

joined in order to render the dialects more easily intelligible.

Every one who

at all familiar with

is

how

far the alphabetic

representations of dialect texts fall short of phonetic exact-

why I did not group the


which are attached notices of the
places of origin {e.g. Epirus, Chios, Naxos), under Specimens
of Dialect: at best they are to be considered merely as
reproductions of a common language with dialect colouring.
But in the Specimens of Dialect the purpose was to portray
with as much faithfulness as possible the local patois, which
That from
is more or less the case in the texts selected.
Cyprus (III. 8) is unfortunately very imperfect there exist
but few really reliable texts of modern Greek dialects.
The
second specimen of Pontic (III. 13. b) is taken from my own
collections which I made during a prolonged stay last year in
Samsun, and which represent predominantly the dialect of a
Samsun (Tserakman). But in
village situate east from
ness will comprehend the reason
pieces in the

first part, to

order to secure simplicity in

the

phonetic

transcription a

peculiarity of the pronunciation has been left unnoticed, viz.

that an initial tenuis after a preceding nasal is sometimes


pronounced as a voiceless media (or also fortis) this I must
reserve for detailed investigation on some other occasion.
The Glossary is primarily prepared to suit the texts,
but embraces also aU those words cited or discussed in the
Grammar from it the beginnner may acquire a serviceable
:

was absolutely necessary to attach such


the only handy dictionary, that of
Kind (Leipzig Tauchnitz), is long since antiquated and no
longer serviceable, and the modern Greek-French dictionary
of Legrand (Paris
Garnier) would not cover my texts.
The principles which guided me in orthographical
stock of words.

a vocabulary,

It

because

questions

are

briefly

indicated

in

Generally

n.

speaking, I endeavoured, of course, to harmonise the spelling

with the principle of the historical orthography,


according to the origin and nature of a form

i.e.

to spell

but occasion-

ally I also ventured to simplify as well as to effect a

combetween the orthography demanded


on scientific grounds and that at present most commonly in
use.
Where the present orthography fluctuates among
promise

(" avfji^L^acr/jLOf; ")

FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION

XX

various spellings

in comparatives in

{e.g.

-vreposi)

I adopted

demanded on the grounds


while again from among
the language

without hesitation
history of

that

methods

of

logically

best

in

spelling

vogue

selected

On

the

other

justified.

unusual spellings, like

for rt?, in

To\<i

the same

In

that

hand,

the

of

sev^eral

one philoI

avoided

such a case preferring

way

could not admit


(which Hatzidakis ^
rightly demands on philological grounds), from a desire not to
introduce into a Handbook an orthographical system too much
the neutral sign

spellings,

at variance

l.

like

e.g.,

-irovWo, ttovXXl,

I have frequently aimed


with the general usage.
thus in carrying throughout

at simplification of orthography

forms the

all

writing

etc.

hedel (for

6;^*^

by

avrelvo^; as required

ec in

-rj,

fj)

my

In the question of accents

e-^oi ^ecrei.

restrict the

employment

its

origin,^ or in

and
was to

to correspond to e^^w Ihel

principle

of the circumflex as far as possible,

where it would correspond immediGreek circumflex (yXcoacra) when possible


I carried systematically the same accent throughout a paravavre^, not vavre^), or at least the same
digm (e.g. vavTY)^
Trairdhe^
accent in homogeneous groups (TraTrd^ iraira
affixing

it

as a rule only

ately to the ancient

7ra7rdB(t)

iirarovaa in the singular, but

aere, eirarovaav).

modern Greek forms


words

(like Pov\\\'\a)

regard

as pedantic to accent specific

(like hovka, Kvvry^i, eKOL^oovrav) or loan-

according to the rules of ancient Greek,

frustrating, as it does, a
historic orthography.

it

eTrarova-a/jbe, iirarov-

much needed

simplification of the

Spellings, moreover, like yvalKa r (III.

11) or elirev drev (III. 13. a) are rejected because they are
used by editors manifestly only on analogy of ancient Greek
I at

least

between

97

spelling of
thus,

e.g.,

am

not aware that any distinction can be

fidwa

fiov

and

rf

yvvalKa

/xov.

made

In regard to the

consonants I was guided by the pronunciation,


vv)(ra,

iXevrepo^,

ryeXdarrjKa,

aKi^o),

or

have

expressly called attention to a conflict between pronunciation

more correctly ^/Byuco or (tx^^^


was absolutely necessary
for the reason that some account must be given of the
relations obtaining between the spoken language and the
and orthography,
for aKi^oi,

iv.

etc.

e.g., (r(3i]vo)

this latter course

Cf. napj/ao-cr6s, xviii. (1895) 1

Cf. e.g. B. J.

(1893) p. 306.

fF.

Schmitt in the AeXriov

ttjs iffTopiKvs

Kai idvoXoyiKrjs iraiplas,.

FOREWORD TO THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION

xxi

orthography, and also because the texts in this respect, as

remarked above,

more frequently the orthography

reflect

the literary language.

have here or there committed


beg indulgence.
I

List of Abbreviations

Finally, mention

is

my

an

given on

orthographical

p.

slip,

314.

the name which


The dedication is not to

be made of

should

graces the publication of

of

spite of painstaking correction

If in

book.

be regarded merely as a token of

my

high appreciation of the

pioneer work of Professor Hatzidakis in the department of


modern Greek philology, but also as an expression of my
gratitude for the repeated encouragement and benefit gained
from a most friendly exchange of ideas both orally and by
letter.
I have also for the present Handbook had the

advantage of Professor Hatzidakis' assistance, inasmuch as he

was ever ready to communicate to me valuable information,


and very kindly undertook to read through a portion of the
proofs.

Fkeiburg in Baden, July

1895.

FOREWORD TO THE SECOND


GERMAN EDITION.
On

my book I ventured
by the same principles which appeared to me

the occasion of a revised edition of

to be guided

expedieni fifteen years ago,

my

when

I first offered to the public

account of the modern Greek vernacular.

The plan and

design of the book were on the whole received with general


approval, and

may

therefore be allowed to remain unaltered.

my classification of modern
Greek declensions, another as highly commended it, so that
Some
I had no particular reason to yield to the carper.
inequalities, either pointed out by critics or which I myself
But the volume of the
detected, have, of course, been removed.
book has also been enlarged by the accession of new material
such as will certainly be welcomed by those who use this
edition.
A brief account of Syntax had from the beginning
formed part of my plan, and was precluded in the first
If

one

edition

critic

for

took exception to

purely

external

reasons.

On

the

present

occasion I was persuaded to insert such an account, not only

from a

desire

to

furnish

fairly

complete view of

the

modern Greek, but also by the consideration that


a modern Greek syntax is at least as imperatively needed as
phonetics or morphology for the interest with which the
Koine studies are being at present prosecuted. For I had
more than once observed that the acquaintance with modern
Greek on the part of those philologists who, in tlieir Koine
structure of

studies, w^ere conscious of the necessity of casting a glance at

the later development of the language, was limited to the

my Handbook. Moreover, the abundant citation


examples for the rules of syntax, which will serve the
beginner as exercises, is an advantage on practical grounds,
and will, as I hope, enhance the usefulness of the book.

material of
of

FOREWORD TO THE SECOND GERMAN EDITION

xxiv

These examples will, moreover, facilitate the understanding of


the texts from which they are as a rule selected, being only
In preparing the
exceptionally taken from other sources.
sections on syntax I was, of course, obliged to confine myself
to the most important points, and only quite rarely drew upon
for the simple reason that practically no
dialect examples

work has been done on the problems


conscious that

several

provisional value

of

my

of

syntax.

can

statements

will be quite obvious that in the almost

it

complete absence of preliminary works,

my

remarks and rules

cannot approach that degree of certainty that we

department

for in the

work and experience


afforded

me

and,

it

of

may

Greek syntax,

may

many

in

cases to be the first

syntax for the modern Greek vernacular,

thereby to stimulate investigations

be,

look

which the
centuries may be utilised.
But it

of ancient

a peculiar pleasure in

to formulate rules of

am

claim only

along

and set afoot comparisons between ancient and


modern Greek syntax. It will easily appear that historic considerations weighed considerably with me in the arrangement
of the material, so that students familiar with the ancient Greek
will experience no difficulty in tracing the effects of a two
thousand year development of the language.
I am even
convinced that, on the other hand, the chapter on the Order of
Words in modern Greek will be serviceable for the historical
special lines,

understanding of Hellenistic texts, since

very

little

we

as yet

know but

about the arrangement of words in ancient Greek.

I would also remark that my rules on the order of words


have been drawn only from the prose texts of the vernacular
literature.

The other additions to my book are largely due to the


number of texts. In the course of the last few
years our knowledge of modern Greek dialects has Ijeen so
enriched by a number of excellent works, that it appeared to
increased

me

as obviously necessary to enlarge the third part of the

Texts

with

dialect.

some

excellent

From my own

and interesting specimens

copies I again

contributed

of

a few

my dialect collections from the


Maina, and Asia Minor might not lie completely
fallow (c/. III. 3. 5. 13. b. c. 14. a and another version of
Here let me thank Professor N. G. Politis of Athens
15).
for having most willingly and amply furnished me with the
more

pieces

islands, the

in

order that

FOKEWORD TO THE SECOND GERMAN EDITION

xxv

information asked for upon some texts, especially the


mirologies

desirable

are added

first

it

two

further

and second

characteristic samples of the popular literature

the output of recent years must be taken into

account,

particularly

struggle

over the

having

the

regards

as

progress

which

the

popular language has undoubtedly made

since the beginning of


prose,

considered

the material in the

increase

to

Some

parts.

Maina.

from

(elegies)

present

the

The popular

century.

asserted its claim to the field of narrative

first

now

and more taking possession


so excellently by
writers like Palamas), and is experimenting even on the
Psichari's example has been, and
themes of abstract science.
The weekly paper " 'O Novfia^i " has
still continues, fruitful.
already for a number of years done service to the propaganda
literature, is

^also

of

the

of

popular

the

ever more
essay

literary

Contrast this with earlier days

language.

when newspapers

(cultivated

vernacular were obliged to


The reform movement visibly
suspend after a brief run.
It even seems to me as if
ussumes ever larger proportions.
Hatzidakis himself, the greatest adversary of the " languageheretics," has

in favour

very recently altered his standpoint perceptibly


a

of

At

language.

the pure

in

genuinely
least

Linguistic Question

(cf.

at

popular

the

reform of the

close

his

of

Lectures

literary

on the

the Appendix on Bibliography) he gives

upon a seasonable reform

expression to principles

of the literary

language that must sound to the advocates of the vernacular


as a concession to their

own

views.

If

man

like Hatzidakis

were to lend his support to the reform movement, that were a

consummation

to be wished.

Unfortunately, I

w^as obliged

wishes which w^ere expressed to

to leave unfulfilled

me

in the event of a

my book, and especially that


Hymn to Lihcrty. I could not

some

new

edition of

for the admission of

Solomos'

consent to give only

a few verses, as G. Meyer proposed,. and considerations for the

bulk of

my

book forbade

Krumbacher advised (by

me

to give it in its entirety, as

Further, it did not fall in


with the character of this book to give selections from the
mediaeval literature or from the written language.
I do not
ignore

tlie

letter).

practical object of such proposals, but I believe

that this object would be better served in special collections.

The Appendix on Bibliography

is

intended as a guide for

xxvi
those

FOREWOED TO THE SECOND GERMAN EDITION


who

are interested in the problems and the history of

modern Greek.

me
to

Here everything

is

entered that appeared to

as specially characteristic for the purposes of introduction

modern Greek

offer further

philology, as

is

help in bibliography,

also everything that could


i.e.

could present in outline

the v^hole activity in the field of modern Greek philology.

The

entries

because

my

from

1902 on

reviews

in

are

the

relatively

more numerous

Indogermanische

Forschungen

Such works on the Koine are


selected as take account of the modern Greek standpoint.
After my book has served the cause of modern Greek for
fifteen years, I hope that in its revised form it will continue
to prove serviceable to modern Greek and related studies.
It remains to thank Doctor E. Kieckers for the kind
assistance which he rendered me in the correction of the
extend only to that year.

proof-sheets.

ALBERT THUMB.
Strassburg, July 1910.

CONTENTS
Foreword

Translator's

Foreword
Foreword

.......

to the English edition

Note

to the

....

German edition
second German edition

to the first

PAGE
vii

ix

xi
xxiii

GRAMMAK.
PART I.-PHONETICS

'^

1.

Characters.

Pronunciation.

2.

3.

Phonetic system.

Accents.

4.

......
.......
........
.......
PHONETIC CHANGE.

a.

vi
Vowels and Diphthongs
5. Long and short.
vowels.

8.

6. Initial vowels.

Diphthongs.

function of consonants.
12.
h.

Vowels in the

10. i

9,

Contraction of vowels.

11.

initial syllable.

Stops (Mutes)
13.

General remarks.
vdj

{}ifi,

yy).

14.

16.

Dropping of
and e in the

7.

and

rrr

Less

15.

kt.

common groups

/utt,

j/t,

14

yc

of sounds.

17. Palatalising.
c.

Spirants
18.

Change

to tenues.

19. fs.

20. 6.

Voiced spirants disappearance of.

21. x-

23. Insertion of a y.

y and /3 before ^i. 25. 8 before y.


ing of y and 8. 27. y becoming I.
Liquids and Nasals
30. Pronounced mouilU.
31. X and p.
24.

d.

dropped.
e.

33. Nasals.

Compound and double consonants


35. Compound consonants.

34.
.

Final

26.

28, 29.

32.

Hardeno- and ^.
23

X and p

-v.
.

.26

........
.......
36.

18

22.

Double consonants.

37.

Combinations of consonants.
/.

Accent
38.

Position of the accent.

PART

Inflection of substantives

Use

39. Enclitics

and

II. MORPHOLOGY.
.

.30

of the forms

40.

Gender and number.


of substantives.

28

proclitics.

Composition
42, 43. Function of the Nominative.
41. Cases.

4:1a.

30

CONTENTS

xxviii

PAGE

44-48. Genitive.

49-53. Accusative.

Kender-

54.

ing of the Dative object.


Article

55, 56. Inflection.

Substantives

Masculine Nouns
a.

Nom.

pi. -01

Nom.

.43

63.

pi. -fs.

68.

Some

the different

irregularities

71. ^acTLkids.

66. yei-

sing

(gen.

.46

65. yepovras.

and

Non-'parisyllabic

69. fMaaroprjs.

K\4(f)Tt]s.

TTaTras-.

On

Parisyllabic

67.

TQvas.

62.

.44
.44

Indeclinable nouns, and historical notes.

Terminations.

64.

Terminations and paradigms.

61.

cases.
6.

of.

Classification of declensions.

59, 60.
I.

Use

40

57, 58.

pi.).

70.

Irregularities in the

72, 73.

74. x^^C^**" '~*^- Kapa^oKvpis.


76. Nonparisyllabic plurals to the AcXe^rr/y paradigm. 77.

plural.

........

Feminine

II.

80.

k6vTS.

78.

Ka(f)i.

Terminations.

Parisyllabic

of the gen. pi.


85.

81.

Gen.

84.

pi.

^poaco,

87. 2a/AO,

89.

aXeTroO.

88.

53

Accent
(and sing.).

82.

Kapdid.

86. ^pvai.

Non-'parisyllabic

Mapi-yo).

TTaTTTTOVS.

83. epirida.

d8ep(prj.

vv(j)r),

79.

veve.

Non-parisyllabic plurals in the paradigm Kap8id,

90.

vv(f)T], ddp(f)r].

III.
a.

Neuter
in -o{v)j

-io(v), -I

Terminations.

91.

and

juart,

Parisyllabic

95.

.
.

TratS/.

^vXo.

92.

Non-parisyllabic:

-to.

^vXo.

94.

96.

On

93

the

.59
.59
-'lo,

Xoym.

Xpyos,

-to,

paradigm

97.

Historical note.
b.

in-os
98.

c.

in

-a, -ifxo, -as

104. ypdyj/^Lpo.

Adjective

106, 107.

108.

.63

\d6os.

Terminations.

105.
.

100.

iYo?i-

103.

.64

Trpd/xa,

ovop-a.

Kpeas.
.

66

General remarl.s.

Adjectives in-os

I.

102.

99.

101.

Non-parisyllaJ^ic

the plural, and historical note.

Fornjation of
parisyllabic

Parisyllabic

Terminations.

109.

KoXos.

I09a.

nXova-ios.

.67

Ancient Greek con-

tracted adjectives.
II.
a.

Adjectives in

Oxy tones

-is

(-vs)

110. ^a6Cs.
TT oXvs.

111.

Fluctuation between

-ds

and

-v?.

.70
.70
112.

CONTENTS

XXIX
PAGE

6.

Barytones (-is, -rjs)


114.
113 ^ouXmpi?.

Greek

adjs. in

Adverbs
121.

117.

comparatives,

adjs. in -oy.

Comparative

119.

.73-

from

-vrepos

........

formed with

-repos.

Irregular

118.

Fate of the ancient

115.

d<aiJLdTT)s.

.71

-r]s.

Comparison of Adjectives
116. Comparative in

" than," etc.

120.

Trtd.

76-

Use of. 122. Regular mode of formation. 123.


Comparative and superlative. 124. Adverbs in -cos-.
Independent
Adverbial expressions.
126.
125.
adverbs.

Numerals
a.
h.
c.

Cardinals

.....

127-129)

Ordinals ( 130)
Derivatives and special usages of numerals
132. Distributive numbers, multiplicatives
131. Fractions.

Numeral

133.

134. eyo).

135. iav.

9.

.....

Personal Pronoun

82.

substantives.

Pronouns
a.

80

136. alros.

84

Usage of the
139. Circum-

137.

84

........

personal pronouns.

138. Position.

locutory forms for the personal pronoun.


h.

Reflexive

140. Reflexive.
c.

Possessive ( 142, 143)

d.

Demonstrative
144. avTos.

e.

Relative
151.

( 149,

150)
.

Kuvevas

Kadeis,

Kadevas

.89

.90-

147.

Position

Kan,

of a

tIttotc.

KaOe.

.93
.94

pronominal nature

154. KaTrotos.

156. KdyLiroaos,

Proper Prepositions
160. cU.

165.

okos,

aXKos.

dvTLs.

Improper Prepositions

166.

(uy.

172.

With

162. pi.

dno.

98

167. x^P'-^^

.100'

163. yid.

164. Kara.

hix<*>s.

168.

......

General remarks.

dialects.

hfivas.

95

155.

In composition of verbs.

159.

161. aTTo.

irpos, ox^ ds.

169, 170.

and

tStos, /xdi/os, Tab^s,

Introductory note.

146. (e)KTi'o$'.

........

157. 6

Prepositions

and adjectives

153. Kaveis,

158.

152. ris.

iroLos.

Indefinite pronouns

145. tovtos,

Interrogative

cj.

148. riroLos.

-Sa.

/.

88

Reciprocal.

141.

171.

173.

Preps, combined with

With

p4.

174.

*?.

In the

107'

XXX

CONTENTS

THE VERB.

Preliminary Remarks
175. Voice.

duplication.

Usage

Present stem and Aorist stem

186.

Indie.

Pres.
189.

Aor. Indic.

191.

Future.

....
....

Aldionsart.

187.

184.

Re

Personal endings.

185.

and Moods

of the Tenses

action)

of

Augment.

183.

PAGE
111

178. Tense,

(kind

Aktionsart

182,

Middle.

177.

180.

Intinite.

181.

176. Active.

Mood.

179.

......
190. Pres.

119

Imperfect,

188.

119

and Aor. Subjunctive

Relative sequence of time.

192.

Mood

126
193, 194. Subjunctive.

Imperative.

196.

Formation
197.

Stem

of Verbal

Stem

in modal sense,

.....

and

of pres.

195. Imperfect

129

Table of Classification

198.

aor.

199, Present stems.

Aorist Stem
a.

137

Aorist active
200.

137

201. Sigmatic aorist.


203. Non-sigmatic aorist forms.

Principles of formation.
K-aorist.

Note on the

historic relation of the present

202
204

and the

aorist stem.

Aorist passive and kindred formations


205.

Aor. in

206.

-Br^-Ka.

Enlarged

144

aor. stems.

207.

Aor.

208. Historical note.

in-rjKa.

Perfect passive participle and related forms

148

209. General. 210. Participle in -/xeVoy. 211. Participles


with enlarged stems. 212. Participle in -t6s.

Conjugation of Verbs.

I.

Barytones

Simple tenses

........

Active: 213. Present.

Non-sigmatic
Passive:

tenses

223, 224.

Active:

Future
230.

231.

aorist.

perfect.

of.

151

215.

Imperf.

221.

Aorist.

....

229.

Use

.158

158

and pluperf.

of the

compound

232.

and future

........

Forms

233.

151

Conditional.

Future.

perfect.

234.

and

216-218. Imperative.

228.

Passive

220.

Auxiliary verbs, etc.


225, 226. Future.
227. Perfect

tenses.

Participles

aor. subj.

Imperative.

222.

ompound

214. Imp^erf.

Present.

219.

Perfect, pluperfect,

Conditional.

235, 236.

Usage

of.
.

167

CONTENTS
II.

Contracted Verbs

XXXI

.......

237. Classification of.

First Class

Active

.170

and imperfect.

239. Present

238,

PAGE
169

240,

Im-

243.

Im-

perative.

Passive:

Second Class

Active

244.

Passive

245.

and
Other forms.

242. Present

241,

perative.

Present and imperf.

.17^^

Imperative.

246.

and imperf.

247. Present

imperfect.

248. Imperative.

Other forms. 250. Extent and currency of the


and second classes.

249.
first

Semi-Contracted

252)

( 251,

.......
PART

Principal Sentences
a.

Form and Content

176

III. SYNTAX.

179

.179

Sentences without a verbal predicate. 254. Sentences


without a subject. 255. Interrogative sentences.
257. Interjections.
256. Exclamations.
Connection of sentences
.182
260. Co-ordinate connection (by
258, 259. Asyndeton.
253.

6.

conjunctions).

261. /cm.

Subordinate Sentences
262. Prelimary observations.
.

.185

.186
Attributive and substantival clauses
.
.
266-268. Substantival clauses
263-265. Relative clauses.
269. Indirect interrogative
with va, 77WS, TTov.

sentences.

270.

Adverbial Clauses
271.

Of

place.

Afl^lrmation

283.

272-275. Of time.

Conditional.
280.

Indirect discourse.

278.

Final Clauses.

and Negation

Concessive.

L'81, 282.

"Yes" and "no."

276.

279.

.192
277.

Consecutive.

Of manner.

Causal.

284. "Not."

285.

.199

Emphatic

negation.

Order

of

Words

286.

Preliminary.

members.
clauses.
fications.

Genitive.

Devices.

288.

290. Object.

.200

The verb in a sentence of two


More than two. 289. In dei^endent

287.

293.

295,

Adverbial quali-

291, 292.

Adjective.

Dependent

294.

Clauses.

Attributive

296. Artistic

CONTENTS

XXXll

TEXTS.

......
FOLK-LITERATURE.

I.

A. Folk- Songs
1.

"H

aXaxTi

Trjs

KcovaravTivovTroXis

PAGET

211

211

a.

Passow, Popularia Carmina Graeciae recentioris (Leipzig,


1860), No. 197

b.

Passow, No. 194

....
.

Passow, No. 234


Passow, No. 54

2.

'O AiaKos.

3.

'O 2Tpyios.

4.

'O aTroxaipfTLO-ixos Tov

5.

Oi K\(j)TS Koi
r?is 'U-rreipov

6.

XeXibov la-fxa.

rj

avoi^i.

(Athens, 1880), No. 127


Passow, No. 305

7.

'O Xdpos Koi oi "^vxes.

8.

Xdpos.

Passow, No. 409

do-fxdi

214
214

215.

B. Schmidt, Griechische Marchen, Sagen

lieder (Leipzig, 1877), No. 18

213
2ia

Passow, No. 153


Aravantinos, SuXXoyr) bqi^co^cov

K\e(fiTr].

und Volks-

17.

Xdpos Koi 6 To-o7rdvr)s. Passow, No. 426


MotpdXoyt.
B. Schmidt, No. 15
Passow, No. 517
'O BovpKoXaKas.
To yio(l)vpLTrjs"ApTas. Passow, No. 511
Passow, No. 281
l<iavvdpL(Tp,a.
'H ^evirecd, Passow, No. 323
Jeannarakis, Kretas Volkslieder (Leipzi
'O uTTia-TiKos <f)LXos.
1876), No. 174 .
'H nipbtKa. Passow, No. 493
'H x^p^i'Tpi-a. Aravantinos, No. 426

18

^EpoiTiKov TvapdiTovo.

9. 'O

10.
11.

12.
13.

14.
15.

16.

ii.

p.

445, No. 20

NeoeXXrjviKU 'Ai/aXeKra (Athens, 1870


.

'H x^l^^^^ (VKaipia. Aravantinos, No. 211


Passow, No. 591
20. To (TTafivl To-aKKTfjLivo.
Passow, No. 585
21. 'O -rrands dyaTrrjTLKOs.
Kanellakis, Xta/ca 'AvdXeKTu
22. 'E^o/ioXoyz/o-i.

24. Distiches

....

Aravantinos, No. 360

1890),

224
225
225

(1-3. 5-7. 9. 11. 12. 14-16. 19-24. 27. 28. 32-34. 38. 40.

50 from Passow, 4. 31. 35. 39. 41. 43. 46-48 from


8. 13. 36 from NeoeXX. "AvdXeicra, i. 257 ff.
18. 26.
29 from Jeannarakis, 25. 30. 37 from Kanellakis, 10. 42 from
Brighenti, Crestomazia neoellenica [Milan, 1908], 17 Author's

44. 45. 49.

Aravantinos,

copy.)

B. Proverbs

........

19 from Politis, Uapoifxlat [Athens, 1899 ff.] 6.


20 from N^otXX. 'AvdXeKra, i. 131 ff. ; 5. 10. 13. 15
from Sanders, Das Volksleben der Neiigriechen [Mannheim,
1844] 3. 7. 16 'Ecrrla, 1890, i. pp. 171, 190, 231 ; 9. 11. 18 from
(1. 2. 4. 12.

8.

14. 17.

Jeannarakis.)

221
221
222

224
(Athens,

acrxvixr] vixjir].

221

22.3.

No. 93

220-

222
223

'H

215
216
217
217
219

ff.),

19.

23.

211
211
211

C0:NTENTS

C. Riddles

V from NeofXX.
9 from Sanders.)

6.

2.

(1.

Kanellakis,

xxxiii

'Avd\.

193

i.

3-5 from

fF.,

......

8.

PAGE
231

D. Popular Tales and Legends


Pio, Contes populaires grecs (Copenhagen,
1. To xp^^^ ^epyi.
1876), p. 16 ff.
Pio, p. 26 ff.
2. To (j)i8i, TO (TKvW <al rj ydra.
Pio, p. 34 ff.
3. 'O Kvp AdCapos K ol SpuKoi.

232

''

...

4.

'O (f)Toixos Koi 6

Ol^iXoi.

220 ff.

Pio, p.

6. naJs ({)Tid(m] 6

'H

(Tcopos

No.
9.

Mapadcava.

Tov

01 MvXopBoi.

Politis,

10. Ot Kopes TOV Kda-Tpov.

.242

AcXtlov

f.

.....

Xaycoviico.

ttjs loropiAc^y
ff.), i.

p.

Hapa^oa^is (Athens,

Politis,

355

.244

No. 108

No. 136

UoXejXiCTTrjpiov,

II.

ARTISTIC LITERATURE.

by

Prjyas.

*Av6oXoyia

XoTTovXov (Athens, 1888), p. 6 (and

vtto

TroirjTiKr}

Uapvaaaos

rj

N.

243
244

1904),

Politis,

241

k(u

........

A. Poetry
1.

p. 13

ii.

'EXXddos (Athens, 1883

Trjs

Author's copy

Aap.7rT}86va.

8. *0

Xayos koI to

edvoXoyiKijs eTaipias
7.

NtoeXX. 'AvaXeura,

TrXoucrtoff.

232
236
239

245
245

246

Mi^n-

dndvOiapa

tS>v KXKTOTpa)v Tepa^ioiv Ttjs vias iXXrjviKTJs Trotijcreajs vtto K.

2.

Te({)apUr}, Athens, 1868, p. 16).


Tepos Koi QdvaTos, by BrjXapds.

3.

^iXdpyvpos,

4.

Ot Xdpes Koi 6 "EpaTas,

'laKcXXapiov Bi^XioBrjKT] tov Aaou), p. 58

by the same,

ih. p.

by

61

HocrjpaTa virb

XpiaTOTrovXos.

'I.

BrjXapa

by the same, ib. p. 88


Aiovvaiov
*H yjrvxovXa, by SoXco/xo's.

6.

cvpLO-Kopcva (Athens, 1901), p. 16


7.

8.

2oX(opov
.

"AiravTa
.

(pappaKMfidvT],

to.
.

10.
11.

ZaXoKcoo-ra (Athens, 1859), p. 269


12. NeKpiK?)

1884),
13.

o)Sj7,
i.

252
253
254

BaXacopiTrjs.

p. 1

255

"AiravTa 'A. BaXaa>pLTov (Athens,


.

'H ^apKovXa, by Tv7rdX8os.

14. 'O KX4cl)Trjs,

15.

by

To

by

'A.

"AvOoXoyia, p, 263
.
Uapvaaaros, p. 360
FayKa^TJs.

6p(f)avb Trjs KprjTrjs,

by

'A.

.255

257
257

'A. IIapd(rxov IIoirjpaTa

Ilapd(rxos.

(Athens, 1881), iii. p. 365


.
2k6kov iTrjaiov 'HfxepoXoyiov tov tovs,
16. 'O fjiavd^r)s, by Kokkos.
1890, p. 105

250
251

9.

249

.249

by the same, ib. p. 18


Havopapa Ttjs 'EXXaSo?, reprinted in
'O evyevrjs, by 'A. SoCrcros'.
Legrand, Grammaire grecque moderne (Paris, 1878), p. 252
Bdaavos, by II. 2ovT(ros. 'AvOoXoyia, p. 258
QdXaaa-a^ by TavToXi^rjs. Uapvacra-os, p. 437
Ta "AiravTa Tecopyiov X.
PoSoj/ kg). x^P'^'^Ph ^^J ZaXoKcoo-Tas.
'H

247
248

AvpiKo. otto 'A. Xpt-

(TTOTrovXov (in ^aKcXXapiov Bi^XiodfjKT] tov Aaov), p. 17.


6. 'O Xoyioy,

.246
(in

259

260

CONTENTS

xxxiv

17. 'O

by

XapoKarjfxevos,

by

MapKopa

MapKopas.

T.

(Corfu, 1890), p. 274

IIoiTjTiKa
.

epya
.

Crestomazia neoellen. p. 98
19. TpayovdaKiy by 'l. TlaTraSiaixavTOTrovXos.
Pemot et Legrand,
Chrestomathie grecque moderne (Paris, 1899), p. 98
20. 2r?7 pepaTLci, by T. ApoaLvrj^.
'Earia, 1893, i. p. 33
21. 'H vcTTcpvr] parid rqs, by JIaXap.as.
Tpayov^ia rrjs Trarpldos pov
(Athens, 1886), p. 139
22. 'A(9?>ai, by noXeprjs.
'Eo-rla, 1890, ii. p. 174
18. SeviTcid,

T. KapTrixrijs. Briglienti,

by Upo^eXeyyios.

23. 2rty/iai TroirjTinrjs d^vvaplaSy

157

p.

by XpvaopaXKrjs.
MaratoSo^ia, by "Eppovas.
p. 66

1890,

'EoTi'a,

Briglienti, p. 143

24. "Ovetpo,
25.

Xap.4va \6yia,

2.

Ta ovopard

3.

'H ^corta

ii.

.264

6.

235

by

From To

Psichari.

.265

ra|iSt pov (Athens, 1888),

pas,

rrjs

by

'E(f)TaXimrr)s.

Xapds.

HapapvOi

'Ecrria,

1890,

42

p.

i.

.266

TrpioToxpovidTLKOj

by

III.

SPECIMENS OF DIALECT.

From Bova.

Morosi, Archivio glottologico italiano, iv. (1878)


79
From Calimera in the Terra d' Otranto. Comparetti, Saggi dei
dialetti greci dell' Italia meridionale (Pisa, 1866), p. 76
From the Maina. Author's copy
a. MoipoXoyi from Kitta
p.

2.

....
.....
.

3.

MoipoXoyi from MTroXapiol

&.

4.

Aegina

'O ^aa-LXeas^Ynvos.

Author's copy

5.

los

6.

Calymnos

7.

lieferungen der siidl.


Karpathos. Zaypdcjyfios

^lopedlvos.
:

MoipoXoyi.

.....
.....

Thumb,

iv AlyivT) XaXovpivrjs diaXeKTOv.

d.

iii.

(1891) p. 97

'Aycoj/ ^toi p,vrjpaTa ttjs eXX.

Xaw

(edited

by the

i.

290
291

296

'eXXt^v. ^lXo-

i.

cfypivipos to-* 6 dpdKos.

de linguistique neo-hellenique,

286
287
288
288

dpxatorTjTos

(1891) p. 276, No. 13


^aKcXXdpios, Ta KvirpiaKa, ii. p. 64, No. 19 ^

Cyprus. 'A.
Chios 'O XcoXos, 6

K. Dieterich, Sprache und VolksiiberSporaden (Vienna, 1908), col. 326

^S)VTa iv TO) vvv fXXrjviKM

285

MeXe'rj; Treptri}? arjpfpivrjs

^Adrjvd,

XoyiKos 2vXXoyos in Constantinople)


8.

268

Apoaivrjs.

.270
'Ecrria, 1891, i. p. 9
274
'H BaaiKoTTovXa ki 6 TrapdXvros, by Mdvos. 'Ecm'a, 1893, i. p. 3
'H BpvcTL TTJs Koprjs, by XaT^oTrovXos. 'Eoria, 1893, i. p. 4
275
'H Nt'a Ata6r]Kr), Kara to MaOdalo k. 13, by 'A. TldXXrjs. From
'H Ne'a Aiadrjur] Kara to BuTiKavo x^P^ypcKpo p(Ta(f)pao-pvr) diro
.276
Tov 'A. ndAX77 (Liverpool, 1902), p. 32 ff.
'H (f)iXoXoyia pas, by K. IlaXapds. From IlaXapds, TpdppaTa, i.
.278
(Athens, 1904), 119 ff.
.
.

1.

*1^

265

"Eppovas, T^s Zco^s (Athens, 1904),

5.

263
263

266

1.

4.

261
261

B. Prose

p.

260
260

297
297

H. Pemot, Etudes

(Paris, 1907) 161

ff.

298

CONTENTS

XXXV
PAGE

10.

11.

2.

^aaXes ex ra-iparfk'. P. Kretschmer, Der heutige


lesbisclie Dialekt (Vienna, 1905), col. 544
Velvendos in Macedonia Ol rpns ovpfxrjvis. MrrovvTcovas, MetStw/xaroy BeX^evTOv ('Ap;(eia Trjs
Xerrj nepl tov yXcoa-aiKov
vecoTf pas eWrjviKTJs yXoia-arjs, i. ipt. 2), "p. 119
Saranda Klisies in Thrace TlapaixvOi ttjs npoyovTJs. 2r. B. SCaXr;;?,
QpaKiKo. (Athens, 1905), p. 220
Lesbos

'I

From Pontus

a.

b.

From

c.

From

300

301

304
306

......

307

Pharasa.

Tireboli

'KXeirbv

2apavTi8r]s

'H

'Apx^Xaos,

mittel-

fiir

308
309

310

und neugriechische

Another version
Philologie, i. (Athens, 1880) p. 152.
same from Lada in Taygetos (Author's copy)
.

GLOSSARY

(Athens,

^ivaaos

apKov.

koL

Author's copy

Deffner, Archiv

Zaconian.

....
:

Author's copy

Author's copy
Cappadocia a. Fertek.

'O iv Kcovaravri.

Samsun

the vicinity of

1899), p. 137
15.

^vXXoyos, xiv. (1884) p. 291


('Ajxio-os)
'H Kara koI 6

the vicinity of

TTfvTiKov.

h.

To Xeovrdpi koI apBairov.

j/ovTToXet 'EXXrjviKos ^^iXoXoyiKos

14.

13.

.311

.313

of the

APPENDIX.
Bibliography

Modern Greek Writing Alphabet

....
.

365
371

GRAMMAR.

PART

FIRST.

PHONETICS.
The Gr eeks use the ancient Gr eek characters and
For purposes
of writing, in addition to the forms which we customarily
use, they employ others which approximate to the Latin
running-character (see Modern Greek Writing Alphabet).
1.

orthocrraphy as used by us in Greek printing.

For the Greek dialects of Lower Italy (villages in the Terra


Otranto and in Bova) as well as for the Zaconian (a dialect spoken
on the east side of the Peloponnesus between St. Andreas and
Lenidi)j usually (especially in philological works) transcription in
Latin characters is employed. These Latin (or phonetic) characters
are only occasionally employed also in scientific works upon other
d'

dialects.

2.

The present pro nu nciation

of the

Greek characters

with their phonetic transcription is as follows


a (a) = a (as in father).
j8 = (French) v, i.e. a labial (more correctly labio-dental)
:

ySaXXo) vdlo " I place, lay," ^pe-^co vrd-^o " I


moisten," arpa/So^ stravds " wry, squinting."

voiced spirant

(1) he fore valatal {dental) voiuels

voiced

spirant

(like

German Jo d)

yelrova^ yitonas "neighbour,"

piy^no " I go,"

fid<ypa<;

mdyeras

<yvpo<;

"

(e, i)

7eXw

= y,
yeld

i.e.

" I

a palatal
laugh,"

yiros "circle," irr^tyaivco

cook."

o, u) and hefore con-__


grammars commonly represented by gh\ i.e.
a guttural sounding spirant (like g in ich sage of some

(2) lefor e guttural {velar) vowels {a,

sonants

7)

(in

;,4

:?ANDBOOK

German

MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

'yaXa 3^Za
e.g.
that of the Palatinate)
yofidpL Zomdri " ass," yovpovvi Zuruni " pig,"

dialects,
" milk,"

(ghcila)

ME

OF,

a^yairio aZd'pd " love," \e^(o

ryXwaaa

(3) on
6

U'^o " say," iirriya epi^a " I went,"

Zl(^sa " language," eyvoca

=d

77 and

7/c,

^^na

" care."

15.

'z;.

sonant interdental spirant H ke the English

(dh), a

iBco edo_ " here," Bovtl


so-called soft th, as in then
"
Bp6/JL0<; dromos
way, street."

ddndi

" tooth,"

= (medial)

e,

as in j^t^

J[^^_sounding
between two vowels
envy,"

/^aj't ?7za2!i "

JL(v) = ^

(as

sibilant, like

Fr.

{Rose), or z in

z,

or (North) Geitoan

>nith

g(;

^ovkevco zuUvo " I

together, with."

_g ^.

in feet)

/jLrjva<;

"

minas

month,"

arjKcovco

sikdno " I raise."

^=
"

hard

unvoiced interdental spirant,, like the English

(<A)

]9

"

th,

as

th in

in

6afifjLepo<;

]>amdnos " buried " GiriOa

spi]>a " spark."

^ ^1)

&g/org guttural {velar) vowels

=^,

like Fr. c or 2?^

i.e.

Kanne

before guttural vowels, and almost like Germ, h in

without

(only

breath)

" images," aKovio

k in Kind

(jjcvh'i

sk'ili

(but

" dog,"

" good,"

ikona

eiKova

" I hear."

akuo

a palatal stop approximating the

2), lefore eyi'='H..SM)i

Oerm.

kalds

Ka\6<;

more

Koifiovfiai,

palatal ky)

jcal

" I

Ue

"

and,"

sleep,

itcu^kl

the tongue, aspirate

(or also

k'imiime

peddk'i " child."

^ = m V or
y

7Z

^=ks

mouilU,

3 0.

(sometimes

^= (medial)
^r,

-y.

with

0,

^2;,

15).

as in not.

the point of

pronounced mouilUy 30).


a = s (North Germ. ss\ i.^^wayR " ^^^iVpl^-gg- " or " sharp,"
For the proeven between two vowels (Jcrv esi " thou ").
nunciation of

T=

o-

as

z, V.

^ 29.

f.

j>

=zf nabio-dmxtalV

(1) before the guttural vowels a,

0,

u=

Si

guttural voice-

PHONETICS
sp ir ant like ch in loch, or as in Germ, ach^ Jocli
e;^ft) " I have/' e%ow " they have/

l ess
''

%az/ft)

I lose,"

= palatal

(2) &g/brg ^Ag fal atal (dental) v owels e,i


ich, stechen:
%',.s oft as in Germ,

spirant

max^'^i

rejoice/' fjua'x^aipc

" knife/'

voiceless
%'e?'o

'X^ipco

x^P^^ x'^ros " pig/' ox^

"I
oxi

" no, not."

In cases where x hefore guttural vowels


palatal

it is

written xk

^-9- oixiovpa

(somet imes hz;

i{r_=j?,<?

Compound signs
PC =ij^eY6t9 ex is

t,

"

v.

= dxura

thou hast/' fiolpa mira "

= 6 (elj ^yaLVco vyino " I


ov = iLi ^ovhi vddi " ox."

b efore voiced sounds

==a'yj^e?; (iv), i.e. like

" I cease," avyrj avyi "dawn,'*

pdvo

iravo)

^evpo) ksdvTO " I

know," 7]vpa ivra

" I found."

(2) before voiceless sounds (ir^jc^T,


(a(^,

(/))

In

auT09

the

Spiritus lenis
" the,"

6
*'

fate."

go out."

avpio dvrio
to-morrow/' BovXevco duUvo " I work," ^evyw zSvZo " I yoke,"

a^, eB
"

be pronounced

to

^ 15).

at

av, v (7]v) (1)

is

" straw."

I love/'

On
3.

y, 6,

<r,

g)

= af, ef

modern pronunciation the Spiritus asper ('),


('), and Iota subscriptum have no signification

01 i "

the " (pL), ayio<; dyos " holy " (dyaTrco aZapd

To<i 6tos "

year

"),

aap^a dzma " song."

the dipht hongs and

8_ a7),

<j),

" this," -^jrevTrj^ pstftis " liar."

<:^<!!^s

35..

t,

yi (yi), &,

rcr,

rf,

v.

8, 9,

._

Themodern Greek. v:emacular

"

(apart from dmlet^ls)

therefore has the following phonetic system


(a)

Vowels

(&}JDij2hthflIlg
(oei),

^Xovc,

(c)

^^

ovT))

Liquids

(d) Nasals

g)(.i).
(e)

^)^al,

v.

arj,

(i, 77,

aeL){eiJel,

97,

v, et,

pM[/^),(?rXy)i^QY7.

v^

(0, o),

erj, eei,

aLl)(^{ol,

15,

33)(m7ij[yLti/4),

orj,

^.^
7^:,

-z;.

gtops (mutes):

the mediae

ol),

^.

:(^p)k^)(r^

CWij^

On

(a, a)ix ie, ai,),,i

[^'Xx^i Kt)

g^ d, h, v. 15.

V^

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


if)

Spirants:

y (%

Ik. k)


PHONETIC CHANGE

PHONETIC CHANGE.
{a)

Modern Greek does

5.

Vowels and Diphthongs.


and short
The vowels are of equal

not differentiate long

vowels in the "ancient Greek sense.

length under equal conditions of stress

the stressed vowels

those which bear the accent of the word) are pronounced

(i.e.

somewhat longer than the unstressed, that


approximately

"law" and

vofio^

and
" I

the

to

short

stressed

voifjio^; {otypuo^)

"shoulder,"

0Lxv(o " I show," \v/co^ " wolf "

say " and

know " and

" I

is,

they correspond

vowels

and

am

German.

in

pl(f>T(D

"I throw"

jmolpa " fate," \6ja>

at fault "
also yvcopl^co " I
vofiL^co " I believe," \i6dpt, " stone " and fjLr]T6pa
(f)Tal{y)co

" mother," \v7r0vfjbai " I lament " and KocfMov/jLac " I sleep,"
76po? " strong " and TraiBi " boy," are exactly alike as far as

their stressed

and

their unstressed vowels are concerned.

The a. Gk. distinction between long and short (w, o, 17, c) has thus
disapp eared and given place to another principle- that of giving
Imminence to the accented syllable by stronger enunciation. In
North. Gk. the contrast between stressed and unstressed syllables is
greater than elsewhere {v. 7, n. 1).

Medial

6.

^Unstressed

voivels.

bein^,mostly replaced by an

Kept,

"

before a /> is rare,


candle," ^ep6<i " dry,"

OepLO " animal," alSepo " iron," irXepcovco " I pay," ^eporepo?
{X'^iporepo^) " worse," Kepd (Kvpia) " lady, Mrs."
On the other
hand, jBovrvpo " butter," rvpL " cheese," avprdpi " drawer."
Spellings like ^yjpog, o-KXrjpoc, TrXyjpiovw are not really vernado not present the change of unstressed e to i
(discussed in 7, n. 1).
2. In the Pontic dialect the a. Gk. rj is for the most part represented by e:
epOa "I cam.e" = 7jpOa, TreyaS " fountain " = Tn^yaSi,
i(fiKa " I permitted " = acfirJKa, iTpv7re(Ta = irpvTrrjara " I pierced."
1.

cular so far as they

3.

Isolated change of

" woman," and


6

becomes o in

" meal,"
" I

fxi{v)

fill

"

ryt,o(f)vpi,
;

= fxrj{v)
yjrofia

beside

to e; e.g. in Cyprian yevaiKa


" not " (in prohibitions).

beside

yecjivpi, "

ylrifia " lie," jtojuLa

bridge,"

jco/jll^co

beside yepta

beside yepuL^ay

also dialectically ytopLa for yaipia, alpua " blood."

ov occurs often in an unaccented syllable where

expect

= yvvoLKa

i (77,

f,,

v)

as, pLova-TaKi (/xuo-raf) "

we should

moustache," pLovarpi

HANDBOOK OF THE MODEKN GREEK VERNACULAR

" ladle,"

(/jLuo-TpLov)

and f up/fo)

^ovpl^co

" I

{arjircd) " cuttle-fish," crToviriri {o-rvmrlov) "

shave,"

aovirui

tow, oakum," <^ov-

fiii^w ((prj/jLL^d)) "

I praise," ^ovXevco (^rjXeuo)) " I envy," '^(^ovao^

(Texts

12)

III.

In many

4.

e.g.

Xarov/jLov/xaL

(TKvXos "dog," To-ovXta

(a.

(ip'x6/jb7]v)

dialects (chiefly in Zaconian,

Megara, and Athens) the

by ov

epxovfiovu

;)^/)uc7-09,

a.

"I

Gk. v and
sleep,"

= KotXia

but also in Aegina,


a rule, represented

ot are, as

<tovko

"I came."

= (tvko

"fig," a'ro"oi;Aos

"belly."

In the neighbourhood of gutturals and labials unstressed


(o)) often becomes ov
as, kovBoupo " bell, " acouX-

Gk.) o

Xovpt " cracker, biscuit," kovitl " rudder,"


" I

sell,"

and

TTovpvo

Italian loan-words

also in

"

Trcopvo

^ovjjlc

to kovixclvto "

" broth," ttovXoj

morning," (tkovXtJko "

worm "

command,"

Kovp.-

iravidpco " I accompany," (pXovpl (and (pXcopi) " florin."

The change

an o (w) to ov varies according to dialects.


becomes ov, as in the word ouAos = oAos,
especially frequent in the region of the Aegean.
On -ov for -w in
the end of a word, ?;. 213, n. 3.
6. In addition to the general Greek vowel system we find in the
Pontic dialects also three modified vowels d, o, i) ( = a, 6, u), which
are for the most part a result of a fusion of i-i-a, o, u: 8a/3a = StaySa
"go," TO, 7rVTiKdpd = 7rVTLKapLa "mice," Xovd) = Xy(i)V(ji "I melt,"
5.

Even

= cr7r>^A.io(v)

a-TreXov

= ^a)(iovpia (a^^toupa)

" straw."

The

An

7.

out

" cave," a)(ypd

(Pontus and Cappadocia) occurs only in Turkish loan-words


Ka&dXdK "answer").

vowel
(e.g.

of

stressed o sometimes

if

unstressed vowel after nasals and liquids drops

the same vowel precedes

e.g.

irapKaXco (from TrapaKaXco)

" I request,"

aKopSo (from cr/c6poBo) " leek, garlic," axXovOoi)


(from dKovXov9(b) " I follow."
Also the disappearance of the
i in Kop(j)7] (from Kopvcjirj) " summit," irepiraTOi (from irepiTraro)) " I walk,"

(from

the present day,"

same cause

(if

last

(TKcova)

(beside

" grain,

corn."

" garden,"

irepau

apparently to be attributed to the


older

posit

intermediate

<f)epr6,

eKaraa (beside
a7]/ca)v(o)

"

etc.,

217.

iKuOto-a)

raise,"

forms

rising

Cp. also the im-

^Kopocpij, *7rp67raT(o).

perative forms without

belong

irepij^oXi),

year," a7]p.epv6^ (from arjp^epivo^) " of

etc., is

we

through assimilation
category

(from

irepffoXt

TrepvG-c) " of

crrdpt,

"I

To another
sat

down,"

(beside

acrdpi,)

1. In the continental dialects (except in Attica and the Peloponnesus), e.g. in Epirus, Thessaly, Macedonia, and Thrace, as also
in the northern islands of the Aegean Sea, the adjacent Asia Minor

PHONETIC CHANGE

and in part of the Pontus region, i.e. in the so-called Northern


dialects, the vowel system has suffered a complete transformation, in the extremest form of which {e.g. Velvendos, Lesbos) every
unstressed e and o has become i and u respectively, every unstressed
i or u has either disappeared or been considerably reduced
coast,

Greek

ttlSl = TraiSc "child,"


= c7rayatve "he went,"

kovtl/Slv

x^tptTt

= iKovreve "he
= ;>(atperat "he

Trepm "passes by," tTripvt (eTratpve)


" in, into," raC ( = Kai) " and."

"he

took,"

approached,"
rejoices,"
o-t

= cre

iralvLV

7rtpmt

(unstressed!)

= /cepSe/xeVo? "acquired," eSovKav = eSoo/cav " they gave,"


= 6p/xrjvL<s "advice," (fivrpova-L = cf>VTpoi(r " grew," dyovpa^ov
Tov Aoyov = To Aoyo "the word," irous (unstressed !) = ttw?

KLpSLfjLevov<;
ovpiJiyvL<5

"buy,"

"how?"

= {i)ly}T7](Tv " ho sought, asked," d<fiK = a(fir)Ke "he


= eo-rctXe "he sent," o-kwVw = o-iy/ccoVo) "I lift up,"
icl)o/3rj$Ka = e(fioftrj6r}Ka "I feared," va <fiXd$ = cfivX.d^rj'i "be on your
guard,"
"bride," aKoyu, = dKo/x,>7 "still, yet," Xtovrdp = XiovTapi
"lion," TrydS = 7rr]yd8L "fountain," t = t7)(i/), Aayxev = A-ay/ccvct "he
^i^To-Lv

allowed," co-rAt
vvcf>'-

jumps," vd

=7re6dvy "let him die."


"broth," Kopra-o-rrXo = KopLTcroTTovXo "maid," 8Ae^' =
SovXevet "he works," cKo-a = -^Kovo-a "I heard," a-rda- = a-Taa-ov
"stop " 7rdv = 7rdvo\i "above," tov Tai(f>dX' r (Lesbos) or to Kicf^aXv ar
(Pontus) = TO K(f>dXi TOV "his head."
The modification of a preceding consonant through the ^'-sound
holds throughout: e.g. ex' = Xt, yVe = ytve, ovX'^oXr} Or oAoi,
^fj,L

TTiOdv

= lovixL

liiiydX'vL

= {i)fj.ydX7)v "became

great," Bt,ov^dvs (Lesbos)

= Ta-oirdvrjq

"shepherd."
of

Differences within a paradigm or stem arise through difference


accentuation: e.g. <jf>owd^ = (^wvd^ec "he calls," but (fiiova$L =

icjxova^c aor. ; TortpaTcX' "a little horn," TcrepaTov (KepaTov) "horn";


these differences may disappear by assimilation
e.g. irdyKave for
irayrJKave after pattern of 7rdyKa = 7rdyr)Ka, "they went," ^dXa-ap.
(Cappad.) for ^aXCa-afxe "we wandered, missed our way," after ^aAora
:

= i^dXtara.
Owing to such transformation the North. Greek forms often
appear strikingly unfamiliar, especially if the consonants which
come together also suffer alteration (?;. 37 n.).
phonetic phenomenon the opposite of the dropping of
2.
vowels i.e. the spontaneous development of a vowel between con-

sonants,

takes

place in,

e.g.,

XafX7np6<s

beside Aa/x7rpos "bright,'^

= ndT/xo9, yov8t, more rarely ySt "mortar," <fiovKapLa-Tu>


(Crete) = <^KaptoTo> " I thank."
From Velvendos, cf. o-'TrtV = a-Trtri,
va fxrj o-'TTepg = vd fxrj (nrctpr]^, dcr'-Tatvovfxi al(rTdvojj.ai, ov ya/xTrpo^ovp.
from o yap^TTpos p,ov (but ov TTovov; /x = o ttovos /x,ov) from Lesbos vd
^aa-Ta^Lv from /Jao-Tct^v (i.e. ^aa-Td$ovv), but also ypd(fiTn = ypd(f)Tow,
d(r7rr = d(nrprj, etc., with syllabic n, r.
IlaTii/os

8. Diphthongs arise in m. Gk. from the coaUtion of


originaUy separate vowels '-(^^V^vl is to be pronoimced aidani
"nightingale," Karj/meuo^
kaimSnos " imhaiTp^j," ^Xerj/xvavvn

10 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VEENACULAR


"alms," and

leimosini
" ox,"

Here belong

252

similarly

/9otSt

" clock,"

poXot (ojpokoytop)

(beside

dirkdi

also the verbal forms treated in

p(0Td6L<;, etc., Xeet, irdet, rpcoety

/3oSt,

aKdyei^ etc.

^ovBl)
" side."

(irXdjc)

239 and

An

e-sound

combines with a preceding vowel to form a diphthong in


{ = a.

dlTOf;

" eagle."

Gk. of Tck)
The diphthongs are of secondary
" ass," KeXaiScb (or KeXaSo))
ydtBapo^;
ydBapo^)
origin in
(or

" sing " (of birds),

(or x^Sevco) " I caress."

;)^at8ei/a)

Finally,

diphthongs are to be found in words of foreign origin jairdvt


" string, cord," Kaifcrar]^ " boatman," Xe'ifiovi, " lemon," piaifiov
:

"

rcrdC " tea."

monkey,"

1. Also
diphthong,

{Texts

III. 13. c).

2.

and e-sounds may form the consonantal part of a


in irdt) "1 go" (Texts III. 9 ^*o) or a^rs "so"

0e.g.

peculiar kind of diphthong

Texts III.

3)

an

(epenthesis)

is

found in southern Maina

(c/.

z'-sound generally consonantal ( 9) being transferred


into the preceding syllable and combining with the

= /xarta "eyes," paili = ^alu "he


= iroSLci "apron," KovXXox^pa KovWovpia
iiSdrjTa-e^iSid/SrjKe "he went," 7rau8d {j)eidd) = TraiBtd
etVvta (ez'7za) = Vwa "nine," and c^it8a = ^t8ta "snakes."

vowel of that syllable:


puts,"

fxtiiiprj

= ixinprjy

e.g. /xotVa

TrqiSd

"crackers,"
"children,"
This phonetic principle is operative also between closely connected
vai SiopSwa-ov = va ScopOwa-w "let me mend."
words, as
:

9. Every i- or e-sound, which collides in the middle of a


word with a succeeding velar sonant, loses its syllabic value
and becomes consonantal (i.e. becomes a y = German Jod).
The consonantal value of an i (i, rj, v, eo, oi) may be denoted
by a ^ or ^ printed beneath {i, rj, y, ei, ot or t, y, y, ej, oj), or
by 7^, 7^ etc. this, however, is not absolutely necessary, since
;

the

pronunciation is the rule in the pure


^pahyd^eo (or ^paSyd^ec) vradydzi " the evening

consonantal

vernacular

e.g.

comes," ofiocd^co (op^oid^co) omydzo " I


ever,"

crid^op.ai

{(nd^opLai)

<j)Teidvco ((f>TLdv(o)

" of

silver "

" 1

(adj.),

" I

am

who-

prepare myself, get ready,"

make," ^raj'^eia

to-to?

like," ottolo^ "

" equal,"

" lion," fyevid (yeved) " race," TraX^o?

" poverty,"

aarj/jbivto^;

XtovTapt (from Xeovrdpt)

(from iraXaiof;) " ancient,"

iravd>pto<; {wpalo^) "

very beautiful."
Such an i fuses with a
preceding 7 to one (y) sound ayid<; dyos " holy," ^dyia vdya
" wet-nurse," irXayf^d^co playdzo " I go to sleep," yicopy6<i
:

(yecopyo^;) yorZds " farmer."

In the
{or yy)

initial syllable this

TLdvvr)<s

loidvvrjs

y (Germ. Jod)

" John," ytarpos

is

usually written yt, yt


" physician," yyaXc

(tar/oos)

PHONETIC CHANGE

11

(HaXiov) " glass," ytos (vlos) " son," yioprq (loprri) " feast." In some
an i- (e-) sound, arising through the disappearance of a
consonant, unites with the following vowel and becomes consonantal,
e.g. Trrjaiva (los) = TTTyyatVei, ViLn = \iyovv (Chios).
dialects also

The

even by the

not protected

is

being pushed back

areXeiwro?

as,

" I seize,"

built," TTcdvco

ezrtaa-a,

"

the accent

stress,

unceasing," OefieXicoaa

/coTrtd^co

**

"

I try," eKOTTiaaa,

Kov^evTLCL^co " I talk, chat," eKovpevTiaaa, Xydovco " I dissolve,"

\ycoaa.

Forms

like

cTrXrjcriao-a,

cTcXccoocra

la-qfx^LOicra,

are

not

really

vernacular.

All words, in which an originally stressed

or

pre-

cedes the vowel forming the end-syllable, carry the accent


regularly on the end-syllable
^apeid fern, of ^apu<; " heavy,"
:

^aihid

pi. of

" I

'TTLM

iraihi

" hand," 6a
x^P!^^^ S^* ^^ X^P^
"
(r/Trm) ; eKKXTja-id
church," KapStd

" child,"

drink "

shall

" heart," fxarid " a look,"

and numerous other ferns, in -id


(TKoXeLo " school," /jLayepeco " kitchen, cooking," %ct)/?to " village,"
^010^^ " who ? which ? " iXtd " olive-tree," fM7)Xtd " apple-tree,"
:

and other names of trees and plants originally ending in -ea


^acrtXtd^ {^acnXea^) " king," <ypid (ypata) " old woman," vtof;
:

(veos:)y "

"

young," 'O/Spco^; (E/Spalo^) " Jew,"

rnrXco, irio,

(TrXeov)

more."

The retreat of the accent in appwa-Tia " sickness," axafxyia " weakness," 6p/xrjvLa "counsel," irpaixdrua "goods," <^Ta>;j(ta "poverty,"
-etc., is

to be attributed to the

analogy of substantives like

dXtjOeLa,

/SoTJOeia.

1 0.

)fC

Words borrowed from

the literary language or from

Italian form an exception to the rule given in 9


e.g. dpfiovia
^'harmony," dvhpelo<; (in Eigas, but dvrpeid Texts I. a. 1),
:

fiaaCXeia " kingdom," ^ifiXlo


"

(piXoXoyia "
{beside
P60(i

yS/^o?)

"

"

new "

" beautiful "

"

book,"

darem

" witty," evKaipia

"

comedy," voaoKOfjueco " hospital,"


literature," ^cXla " friendship " ( Velvendos), /3/o?

opportunity,"

KcofKoSia

property

"

Ital.

(Texts

III. 5);

" young),

(vtof;

loan-words

dpxam " old, ancient,"

ar^fiaia
:

e.g.

"

banner,"

oipalof;

Kov^avrapia Commen-

It. hirraria " beer-shop," (nreraapla speceria


apothecary's shop," aKa^rira^ia " a kind of boat," and many

daria), finripapia
''

such.
1.

many

The

older forms in

-ta,

have remained unchanged in


Athens, Aegina, Cyme in Euboea,

-ea, etc.,

dialects (in the old city of

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

12

Western Maina, Lower

Italy, Gortynia in Pelopon., Zaconia, Pontiis,


Cappadocia), so TratSta, pi. of TratSt " child," TraAartov gen. of TraXaVt
"palace," KapSia "heart," crKoruvia (Cappad.) "darkness," <^coTta
" light," TToto? "who? which?" /Sao-iXea? "king," a^trapea " cut with

an axe," IXaia "olive-tree," ^x-qXia "apple-tree," ttAco "more," etc.


2. The i (e) usually remains after a consonant -I- p, e.g. Kpvo<s
" cold," Kpea<s " flesh " (but to Kpiaro), rpia (beside rpta) " three "
comes from the ecclesiastical language.

^05 (beside Olos)

In some North. Greek dialects

3.

not y) are

-ca

and

-ea (half vocalic i

and

^,

differentiated in the pronunciation as ^wrta, but

still

IXYjXed.

4. In several dialects (e.g. in the region of the Aegean Sea and


in Eastern Crete) t disappears after an o- {$, if/,
a^a for a^ta, fem.
" worthy," ypoaa for ypoo-ta, pi. of ypocn " piastre," vrjcrd for vrjcrid, pi.

"island," 8taKocra for StaKocrta " 200," rpaKocrc? for TpLaK6(TLe<i


The loss of the t and e is
(/.), 7rXov(ro<s = 7r\ovcrLo<s "rich."
universal in the following words ^ cwTra (from a-iwTra) " keep
silence," crayovi (arLayoviov) "chin," a-dki (andXtov) "saliva," ifjdOct
of

vrfCTL

"300"

"straw"; also /cepa (Kvpd) "lady, woman" (/cvpta); 6(i)pu>


" I consider," xp^j^^^t^ (xpcwo-rco) " I owe."
Spirantic Jod (Eng. y) has become xt or a- (s) in some dialects

{{f/LaOos)

(OcoipQ))
5.

Velvendos) ottxios = ottoio?, tol


= 7rotos. In several of the islands

= to,

e.g.

or 0-2 develops after voiceless consonants,

o-

= TTOio?, (Teptfl. = Xpta


= TTiavo) "I seize,"

Tro-dvco

In Velvendos

it

becomes

(e.g.

ixdria,

(Crete), tto-o?

Calymnos, Scyros, Nisyros)

and ^

or ^ (z) after

= dSep<f>La " brothers,"


"hands," Tratx^tc^^a = 7ratx'tSta "sports,"
KapdjSl^a = Kapd/3 ta "boats," avp^o = avpio.
a hard k* after
$, <t: t40k'-o<s = TTOLo<i,

voiced consonants respectively


TTcros

/xar'x'ct

e.g.

dep<^o-a

<f>,

= K(Dpd(f)ta, etc. Note also from Chios (Texts III. 9) forms


p^ottera = 'ireioT^.pa "more," ipp^asen = Itriaa-ev "he seized," dg'a

Xovpd(j)K'a

like

= Suo

^ovSta

" two," uudg'a

" oxen."

Finally, in the Cyprian dialect

and kindred patois every t (except after sibilants, where t disappears)


becomes k or Kt, i.e. h' KvpKa/cos= KvpiaKog, TTf.pujrkpKo.^'K^pia-rkpw,
:

" doves,"
x^?^^^ X^P^^J rpiKd (and rpta), aXy\BK^ia. dXrjOeLa
" truth," TTKotds = TTotds, xttpKtct from x'^P'^'^k'^
" cards."
X'^P'^-'^

11.

When

an end-vov^el and an

initial

vowel come^

together a contraction (crasis) takes place

becomes a
becomes o
It-, e-, i' becomes u
e-, ^- becomes e
1- becomes

-a 4- a-j or

+ 0-,
-u +
-0

e -f
'i

4-

or in reverse order,

a
^

is

o-, w-, -e, ^-

it-, e-, *-

-i

i.e.

-o, -u, -e, -i -H

a-

therefore the strongest vowel

For Pontic

a, o

from

ia, zo,

?;.

6, n. 6.

become a, etc.
and swallows up
^

Instead of y.

all

"

"
:

PHONETIC CHANGE
the rest
d. " I

avTo

next in order comes o, then w, e, i e.g. 0^ dWd^co = Od


6d 'yw (eyco) " I shall have," cItt' (aTro)
:

shall change,"

6.) "

from this," r ovofia (to


they built it," iyco

*'

ex'TiO'av) "

{dvai)

me

" she

6fjLop<f)7)

you," ttov

tell

(eScoKa) " I

em?

13

{elaai)

''aau

''

gave him," irevr

where

eft

" I

(rjjjLovva)

vd aov

beautiful,"

is

the name," ro ''X^riaav (to

'fiovva

thou

art

or six," ^pB*

XetV eKelvo^ {Xelirei) " that one


et66<?) " what did you see ?

(vpOe) one came,"

absent," tL '8e9 (rt

In Northern Greek

1.

e is

stronger than w, so

" let

rov 'Bcoku

"

" five

(TreVre)

was," elv

(etTrw)

'irco

tt'

(he)

tp^^Tai

is

Trov

2. In many parts i is not swallowed up by a (or o, u), but combines witli the preceding vowel into a diphthong vaJSu) naido " that
I may see," rojEtSa toida " I saw it" ^ovjlaai piqse " where art thou ?
who
Further, in several regions u + e unite to o oTrox^t = oirov ix^L
Before velar vowels /cat retains the
has," o-oAeya = crov cAcya.
:

'*'

palatal pronunciation of the k: kl avros "and he,"


vowel before a following i k va-repa " and then."

its

and

short words /xe "me,"


6tSes " thou sawest me "

also loses

Moreover, the

"thee," usually lose their e before i: /x'


while, on the contrary, the article r/ ol retains

o-e
;

"the mother came."


within a word takes place in general
according to the same laws as in case of liaison of separate words
its

vowel

from
from

rj

jxavva

contraction

from

TTas (Trag)

e.ff.

{r]p6f)

rjpO''

Vowel

3.

from rpioyeis, olkov from a/cove, Trave


from Acycre, etc., Tvwpvo {jrovpvo) "morning,"

Trayct?, rpcos

7ra{y)ovve^ Aerc

(Similarly Pontic

"^Trpwi/d, i.e. Trpoiivov.

The

12.

unstressed vowel

initial

a.v

is

= ayiov).
subject to various

mutations.

The dropping (aphaeresis)

(a)

of

or a

an

" health,"

irdyo) (a.
'706

and

an

and

more

e,

" abbot,"

rarely

yeid (vjeid)

p^epa {rjfxepa) " day," puGO'; (a. Gk. ruiiavs:) " half,"

Gk. uTrdyco)
" I,"

iyoi)

find," KL

(beside

of

e.g. <yovpLGvo<i (7)yovfjLevo<;)

" I

'3co

go," yfrr)\6^ (a.

and

Kec " there,"

and

ipL-rropoj

and

iBco

"

Kelvo<;

rjp.iropo)) " I

Gk.

l/i/tt/Xo?) "

high,"

here," (BpiaKa) (evpla-fcco) " I

and

can,

am

eKelvo^ " that," fxiropo)


able," pcorol)

and

ipcoioy

" I ask," airepa

(icnrepa) " evening," (pKapLO-Tco {ev')(apL(no))

"I thank,"

(alyiSiov)

7/8/-

bloody," ^v (from ovSiv)

At709 (oAtyo?) "


speak,"

from

Velv.

*'

goat," /jLaTcavo) {alfia)

not," Pontic

'/ct

little," /Jbdrt {opLjjidTi) " eye,"

o-TTtrt {oairiTi) "

house," i/rapt

(a.

Gk.

"I make

ouAct) " not,"

(from
/xiAw

(ofjuXoi)) " 1

oslrdpLov) " fish,"

(usually dyairo)) " I love," iro puaKpd (usually diro

yairu)
"

"

afar,"

ireOaLvco,

= the usual

(Aegina)
2

" cock."

fi.)

iroOaivay (dirodalvo)) " I die," rov '(prl

to avrl

" ear,"

Xa^ropi, (Cappad.)

= d\6')(Tpa^

"

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

14

Aphaeresis may even take place when the initial vowel


secondary origin caused by the disappearance of a consonant
vaxKa (Capp.) = yvvarKa "woman" {cf. 22).

is
:

of
e.g.

(h) Prothesis, that is, the prefixing of an a in most cases,


more rarely another vowel vicpoKo and ave^aXo " cloud," irXajt
and a'7r\d(<y)L " side," arrjOi and darojOi " breast," %etA,t and
a')(iki " lip," d[SZeWa (^SeWa) " leech," Kpvcpd and dKpv(j>d
" secretly," Kaprepco and ctKapTepco
I expect," Trepvo) and
direpvo) " I pass by," Xrjo-fMova) and d\ri<jfjLov(o I forget
:

*'

{elimonizo in the Terra d' Otranto), dOeppSi (Pontus)


" I believe,"
" then, at

and

iav (av)

"

that time," toOto? and irovro^

182,

6/S\e7ra), etc., cf.

cTKid) "
(c)

Exchange

placed by

a,

2);

(on ^Xiirco

and

by

dirdvoi

and

" patience,"

(or i^Tp6<;)

(lBlko^)

own,"

"

"

(also

(usually

" orphan,"

0X09 " whole "

= avr6<;

yLtart
;

fiop<po(;)

" beautiful,"

(ep/jLrjvetd)

or

d-^Tanrohi

d/cel

Pontus

track," dirofiovt}

" I," e8i;o9

oirlaw

above,"

poyTw), in

tp^i^o?) "

op/jLijveia

= 670)

"

eirdvco)

( = epcoT(o,

6jjLop<po<;

polypus," beside

usually

Ionic Islands)

Gk.

enemy,"

eiriaoy

{pp(^av6si)

o/craTToStoi/)

o in

%^'/ot (a.

opiriha (epTTiSa) " hope," 0706

dp(j)av6<;

for another

{irdvw,

" there," dpcoro)

also opwToa, dj^ydpi,

"

or o

o,

" bowels," d\a(j)p6<; (e\a(l)p6<i) " light," d^dhep(^o^

(Pontus) = eVet
(viro/jLovy)

vowel e, i
most cases is disany other vowel dvrepa

vowel

of the initial

" cousin,"

{i^dhep^o^)

ouXo?,

" this "

caKio^; (in patois tV/^rm

while a seldom yields to

Gk. evTepa)

6)(Tp6(;

n.

shadow."

are liable to be displaced

(a.

= dappcj

thou," rore^ and eTOTe(s'), Pontic drore

" counsel,"

= usually

irLaoi)

Si/co?

" behind,"

(')(ra7r6Bi,,

from

(see above) also dfifidrc

uto9

(Chios,

Naxos, Crete,

" this."

In the forms of the

initial

vowel there exists the greatest

These forms are mostly due to


diversity in the different dialects.
an incorrect analysis of the close liaison of words according to 11,
especially in the union of the article and noun or va, Oa + verh:
e.g. TOfifxaTL is analysed into to /xart (instead of to ofx^ixan), vaKaprepS)
into v' oLKapTepi!) (instead
(instead of to, evrcpa).

of

va

Kaprepljj),

ravrcpa into ra avrepa

(by Stops.
13. The tenues tt, k, t generally undergo no change.
On
In some cases they have arisen from spirants (see 18).
the other hand, two exceptionless phonetic laws have decreased

the

number

of the tenues:

PHONETIC CHANGE
14.

and ^T

(1)

The combinations

and kt have become

ttt

0t

Gk.) ttt has become

(a.

15

(^Tapixi^ofxau

TTTapuvfiaL), " sneeze," <f>Tp6 {nrrepov) " wing,"

*'

(darpaTrrec), "

daTpd^TL

" poor,"

it

</)Ta);}^09

(a.

<^t

Gk.

{nTTOi^os;)

lightens," ec^ra

(eTrrd)

/c\e<^T7?9 (/cXeTrr???) " thief," 7r6(f)r(o (TTLTrro)) " I fall."

seven,"

')(T:

Kr

Gk.)

(a.

" I

(KTirn-o))

strike,"

" I

(ktl^o))

%Tt^ft)

{dvoLKr6<;)

dvoi'^TO'i

"

build,"

^^tutto)

open," Sa^j^ruXo?

(Sa/cTfXo?) " finger," Bei')(Tco (from BeUvvfic) " I show," St;!^TL'


(SiKTvov) " net," vv-)(Ta {vv^ vvktos:) " night," o^^tco (okto))
" eight," o-^i^Tc<; (a(l)L'yKT6^) " fixed."
1.

TTT,

KT therefore are no longer to be found in a modern Greek


etc., is a different matter; yet even in this
is often a^' to ; so also, e.g., k6^^ to from

aTT To = d7ro ro,


word.
case the pronunciation

kop{s)

to,

37.

Whenever the
^'looking-glass,"

ttt, kt (KaOp7rTrj<s instead of Ka6pi(f>Tr]<i


instead of axTLva "ray," etc.) occurs in
merely a survival of the historic orthography

spelling

dKTtva

vernacular texts it is
of the literary language, 'pronunciation being ^t, ^t.
2. In the Greek of Lower Italy ;(t and </)t have passed into <^r
(Otranto) and ctt (Bova) respectively: nifta vv^^a (but epetta =
7rcfiTa !) ; estd = cTrrd, nista = vv^ra.
5. (2)

The tenues

after nasals

become mediae,

i.e.

fiir,

pronounced like ml, nd, 7jy {p = ng in German


Engel): dyKaXtd^co angaVdzo " I embrace," TrpLy/cLTraf; priTjgipas
(Lat. princeps) " prince," Xd/jLirco Idmho " I shine," avrd/jua
anddma " together." The same sounds arise when a nasal
and (a. Gk.) ft 7, S come together, so that yLt/3, 77 and vh are
pronounced like ml), i9g, nd, preserving the ancient Greek
mediae but it is better, except in the case of 77, to write
KoXv/jLiro) (a. Gk. koXvjjljSm) " I swim," ijyi^co CTdgizo
(xir, VT
VT, 7: are

" I touch,"

1.

and

6vT6Ka Sndeka (eVSe/ca)

Spellings like koXvixjSw, BevSpov

come from the

literary language

to the

dropping of a vowel, the groups fnr,


pronounced almost exactly

(77), VT begin the word, they are

like
h,

Bevrpo (BeuBpov)

are unintelligible.

When, owing
yK

" eleven,"

" tree."

ddndro

pure voiced mediae,

g,

(or,

more

fjL7rpo<TTd (ifnrp6<;)

i.e.

" forwards,"

yyovL (eyyovi) " grandson,"


cipitate

(from

(*e7/c/37;yLt[i^]oz^),

evBvvofjbai) "

like

correctly, ^h,

North German or Eomanic


""g,

fjuraivoi)

yKpe/jLi^ofjuat,

with reduced nasal)


{ifxiralvct)) " I

" I

go

in,"

hurl down, pre-

VTpOTTTj (eVTpOTTT]) " dlSgYSiCe," VTVVO/Mai

I dress.'

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

16

The change

tenues to mediae after a preceding nasal

of

takes place also in the liaison of words, final -v uniting with

the initial
(mhz), Wf

rov

-yjrevTT}

pocket,"

nd

t (rcr) of a following

(f),

(ndz)

rbv irarepa

= toinhaUra

word

to

mh

" the father,"

tombze/ti " the liar," rr)v raeTrrj tindzSpi (ace.) " the

Kovpd^o)

Tr]v

dei0gzero " I

au Tov

(i/r),

tt

{jogz),

irdprj^

"

tivgurdzo

do not know," hev

andomMris

" if

weary

her,"

Sh

^epco

dembzifd " I care not,"

yjrrjcpw

you bring him."

Note

also

from

Chios (Texts III. 9) {h)ev el{h)^vi^vel en ier^ gani "he saw


nobody," (S)ei/ rjpKovrov tt'^cl en irliutoin h^'a " he came no more,"
7](f)vev Taeli;o<; (

= Kelvos:)

the other hand, initial

ifien

/3,

dzinos " that (man) fled."

t6(v) ^aaL\id,To{v) yd/jio,

On

and y always remain spirants


rr)(v) B6\i,a, Tr){v) yvvacKa (cf. 33,

7, S,

n. 3).

In

2.

many

regions

(e.g.

several of the Cyclades, Lesbos,

cf.

also

Texts III. 12) /att, jk, vr, both when initial and when within a word,
have become pure mediae /xTra/ATrw has become haboi " grandmother,"
{i)lx7ropC) "lean," {e)hor6, (f>yydpi "moon," <figdpL, Sovtl "tooth,"
dodi, KovTo. " near," Kodd, avrpa? " man," ddpa^, dpaj3(j)VLdt,{ov)vTai
" they are betrothed," appafSoivLa^dau
The same phonetic change
extends even to loan-words (cf. e.g. from los KovhdvLa, Ital. compagnia
"company," dpfxafjiedo, Lat. armamentum "fleet," TracZa, Ital. handa
"side"), and to word-liaison, cf from los ro ga(^i = Tov Ka<j>e
"coffee," from Lesbos r ^apSia = Tr)v KapSid (ace.) "the heart," d
:

gaXa/xva =

rrjv /caXa/Aj/ia,

from Saranda Klisies


gaecTKLo-av " they rent

" the

jxrj

dov = (rdv tov (ace. ) " as the " ;


rvxy "may it not happen," t'^

reed,'' era

dvx

= p-rjv

it."

by the nasal of the prehas sometimes resulted in the voiceless initial of a word
becoming voiced, or a voiced initial becoming voiceless, i.e. there
arose a 6 fXTna-TLKoq from a rofji ttlottlkov, a fXTrefxTrw (Crete) from
TOV Tre/zTTo), a govpevo) " I shear " (Lesbos) from rbv Kovpevw, etc., or

The softening

3.

ceding

from
4.

of the initial syllable

final

rrj fx-rravTa

17

Trdvra " side " (los).

The m. Gk. mediae

an originally preceding

are therefore inseparably connected with

no other mediae except in


h, d, g} the corresponding sounds are represented in the numerous Turkish and
Italian words by /att, vt, jk respectively
fxirerj^y Turk, bei " Bey,"
fjLTrdpKa " bark," vTpf3evi, Turk, derren " detiie, narrow pass," vrdfxa.
loan-words.

nasal, there being

As the alphabet has no

signs for

"lady"

(in cards), a-e^vrd'i, Turk, sevda "love," avrto, Ital. adio


" adieu," yKtaovpis " Giaour," jKaXepta " gallery," pindyKa " bank."
So also TKatre " Goethe," Mttck " Beck," and similar foreign names,
although in such cases the educated Hellenise the form (Vol6lo<:

Goethe,

Aai/rT/s

Dante,

etc.).

Sometimes (in Constantinople, especially in Turkish newspapers printed in


Greek characters) the signs /3, 7, 5 with a period underneath are employed.
^

PHONETIC CHANGE

17

In addition to the rules already stated, the tenues


phonetic transformation only in isolated cases and

16.

suffer

dialectically

thus k has fallen out before

" sugar,"

and
k^ becomes

^aK)(apL)
dislike,"

/37,

and

>)(

(from

ai'^aivofxai
/cS

in ^d-^apc (from

o-LK-^^aivoixai)

becomes

7S

" I

^ydWco

(ifcSdWco) " I take out," ^jatvcD (eK/SaLvo)) " I go out," 'yhvvco


" I

(efc-Bvco)

combination

and

undress,"

1.

= aTTo

The
Trdvix)

The

tion.

becomes

(pre

(j)/<:ei6v(o

ySepvco
<j)Kt

" I

(iK-Sepco)

The

Hay."

in (ftKvdpL (*'7TTvdpcov) " shovel,"

(beside ^Teu'ivw) " I make."

disai^pearance of tenues in Chios (Texts 9), e.g. in aopcino


" from above," etdos = trovros " this," is due to dissimilacause of the disappearance of the k in the same region

= aXoyaKL " Httle horse," sendui = aevTovKc " chest," cannot be


determined with certainty.
2. The change of r to k (before i) is found in Zaconian and in
Lesbos (also in Mesta on Chios): thus, (Zacon.) Im' kidzie = KaroiKia,
pr/kixd^^iTTOTL^a (rf. Texts III. 15, n. 9. 2), xf^rld xo-pTi, similarly
afenr/i=--acfiVTr)^ "Mr., Sir," before mediae; (Lesbos) kci^os = rer^os
''wall," a(f>KL = a4)TL "ear," p.dK fxaTC "eye," ixagr]X' = jjcam^ki
" handkerchief." In Zaconian also tt before i passes into k e.g. Idsu
in alodi

= TrLGr(i} " behind."


3. On Crete (and
becomes a spirant

several other islands of the Aegean) r before

to.

ixdOta

= to,

fiaria,

~ tItolo^,

ri6oLO<5

a-TfjaOLiDrrjf;

becomes El
vtl
avaStos drai no?
Similarly
"nobility,
gentry."
also
dpxoSid = apxovTid
Cf.
mdddia (xdno, Terra d' Otranto.
a{cr)6 = crrb " in
4. In Pontus the initial group ar becomes o-(cr)
the, to the," adxr-q - (jrdxrt] " ashes."
o-rpa-tcoTT/s.

"opposite,"

17.

The

palatalising of a

change of he Id

to ce ci, ce ci

/c

before

or ce ci (to- or

and i {y), i.e. the


id ra) is widely

spread (but only in dialects).


This transition takes place in Pontus, Cappadocia, Cyprus^ .Crete,on many islands of the Aegean {e.g. Lesbos, Aniorgos, Naxos, Syra,
Calynmos, Chios), in the dialect of the city of Ather.s, in Megara,
Aegina, Cyme in Euboea, in many regions of the Peloponnesus (also
thus,
in Zacon a and in the Maina), in Locris, Aetolia, Lower Italy
.g., r(Te(jid\L KccjidXi "head," ro-at (ro-at) = Kat' "and," Taaip6s =
i

Araipos

" time," Tcrcpt- K/36 "candle," T<jpd = K^pd (Kvpta) " woman,"
e/cet " there," To-ctro/xat ^ Kctro/xat " I lie," rcrvpa = KV/xa

r(ret (crtrct)

" wave," To-vparcf?^ (Maina)

= Kvpta/cr; "Sunday,"

k6t(tlvo<s (k6t&ivo<;)

"red," kovtctl = kovkl "bean," aKovTae (Aegina) 3 pers.


sing, of aKovKa "I heard," (TT(riCo) = aKL^(x} (o-xtC<^) "I split."
In
To-ov/xw/xai (Chios To-OLixovpat) = KOL/JLOvpat "I sleep," Ta'ovAta== KOtXia
"belly," a-T&ov(3(j)==aKv^(D " I bow," o-ro-ovXt^o-KuAt "dog," and in

= KOKKLvos

other instances (e.g. on Aegina), tlie phonetic change before u is only


This ora
apparent, because this u has arisen from an older f sound.

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

18

may become even era- (or a), cf. e.g. Ppia-cni " he finds " (Chios,
Calymnos, and elsewhere) on a-, v. 28 n.
The media g (yy, y/c) undergoes the same change ai/r^eAos, i.e.
dndzeIos = ayyXo<i "angel," di/r^to-rpt = dyKto-rpt "hook," crvd^evrj'i
(los) = o-vyy 1^7/9 "relative"; or dz, thus di/c?^A.os, etc. (in Cos also
(cTTo-)

dvdyeXos,

etc.).

In Cappadocia (Pharasa) k also becomes d&

The spirants

18.
(tt,

</>,

= iKclvo^.

Spirants.

(c)

tenues

e.g. adzeLvo<s

have a tendency to pass into

%, ^

t) after a preceding s (or after another voiceless

ac,

This is most generally the case with 6, which


becomes t after every a, </>,%: alaTavofiai, (from aladdvofjuaL)
" I perceive," iyeXdo-TTjKa aor. pass. " I was laughed at,"
eajBrjaTriKe " it was extinguished " (from iyeXdaOijKa, io-^rjorOrjKe, but, e.g., irijjLijdrjKa " I was honoured), (^Tavo) (from
spirant).

" I

<l>6dvco)

ypd(pT7)K6 "

(i)\6VTpo^

overtake,"
it

(from

was written," ex^po^ (from

iXevOepo^;)

" free,"

ex^po^i) "

enemy,"

i(j>vXdxT7]Ka " I guarded."

The

1.

that

is,

it

spelling with

Similarly
a(TK7]iio^

fume,"

x becomes

(ciaxvf^o^)

(axoXelop)

or and regularly also after/:


^oaKo^ {{loaxo^) " musk, per-

k after

" i^gly>"
" I

(cr^/fw)

afCL^co

aKoXeLo

{iXevOpo<:, iyeXda-OrjKa, etc.) is historical,

has no value for the present pronunciation.

split,"

" school "

gkolvl

" rope,"

{axotvi)

evKapiard)

(eu^^^aptcrro))

" I

thank," KavKovjiat (Kavxovfjiai) " I boast," evKovfiai (eu^oufiat) " I pray," evKrj

The same holds

2.

as for

{evxn) "

pi'c'iyer."

true for the spelling

ax

(cr;(eSor, a-xoXaa-riKo^)

crO.

3. The change of pO into pr is fairly wide-spread, especially in


Eastern Greek: frequently r}pTa = 7JpOa, "I came," 6pT6<; = 6p06s
"straight." Less frequently px becomes pK (e.g. in Cyprus,^ Rhodes,
Calymnos, Samos, Chios): epKovixai^ epxcfxat "I come," dpK-j = apxTJ

" beginning."
(j)

4.

after

Thus

a-

becomes

"I lock," o-Trd^o) =

o-(^vSovr;

tt

only in some dialects.

in Pontus, Cyzicus,
crcfxi^ii)

and Icarus:

" I kill,"

crTriyyo)

e.g.

do-TraXt^w

= o-^iyya>

= cr<;^aXvt!>

"I press," aTivTOva

"sling."

(Tpe<fiO), Opeif/u), etc.) arising from the a. Gk. law


of dissimilation of aspirates are not found in m. Glc, Opecfxo e^pci/^a,

5.

Tpe'xw

The

variations

erpe^'tt,

or survive only in
^

More

some

rare cases, like iriOrjKa

correctly rk\

(a.

Gk.

PHONETIC CHANGE
from

erWrjv)

dirio

"I

place," irdcfyrjKa

(a.

bury," irpdfftrjKa (a. Gk. irpdffirjv) from


Cf. 205, I. 3, n. 3, and g 207.

uniformly to ps

becomes

\avaa

(yfr)

{K\ai{<y)o) " I

for

vs)

5s,

changes

iBovXevcra (aor. of SovXevco " I


(iravco " I

eiravaa

eBovXeyfra,

from Od^a) "1

iTd<:f>7)v)

" I bring up, educate."

The combination fs (frequently

19.

Gk.

6pi(fi(o

19

weep

") eKXa-yjra,

cease ")

and

work

eirayjra,

so forth

(cf.

")

k-

aorist-

Similarly, Ae'\jrLva = 'EXvaL^, r/


formation, 201, I. 1).
also /cdrae = Kd6{t)<7
KCL-^L (Kavai^) " burning heat "
cf.
;

down

" sit

"

"

(imperat.)

and (Turk.)

fiira^es

from

fjL'jra'^{T)(re<;

garden."

In Lower Italy (Terra d' Otranto) exactly the opposite has


becoming fs: e.g. afsilo = onl/r]\6<s "high," na Udfso =
va KXaij/d) (from KXatu)).
2. The form aro? (v. 136, n. 3) has not arisen from the more
usual atiTo's through the dropping of f but corresponds to an a. Gk.
form ttTo's.
1.

occurred,

\(/

20.

(from
(

TTciOvl)

becomes

sometimes

"affiicted," %Xt\|rt
"

manger

= dv-aplOfjL7)To^)

x'

"affliction" (beside
"

has

"innumerable,"

i^^t^^po?,

')(XiiJbfievo<;,

OXt^epo^,

become

a-Tacjivrj

etc.), 7^a;^^'t

in

dpL(j)V7)To<;

(from aTaOfiTJ)

" rule

(line)."

becomes t,
in
1. In the dialect of the Terra d' Otranto, initial
the middle of a word between vowels becomes s telo = 6i\<D " I
wish," fdnato = 6dvaTo<g " death," Uscn^i = kiOdpL " stone," pesameno =
In Eastern Greek also r stands for
7r6afx/xivo<s "dead."
{cf. va
XarS> for x^^^j Texts III. 13. c, and arpcoTros for a^pwTros, Tp:xts III.
or instead of 6 is especially characteristic of Zacvmian, e.g.
14. a),
(repL=6epos "summer," siUJw=0r]XvK6<s "female."
2. In isolated cases 8a (Velvendos), x^ (Pontus), a (Chios) = the
regular 6d, further iwd (Cyprus) = 6v(v)d (particles to form future
:

tense).

In Zaconian, in Cyprus, South- Western Asia Minor, on


Aegean Islands (e.g. Crete, Amorgos, Cos, Calymnos,
Astypalaea), in the Pontic (as also in the Cappadocian) dialects, x
before e and i becomes s (a-) or even s (a): arpL = x^P'- "hand,"
o-etfitovas = x^^/^^^^5 "winter," eaw; = tx^ts "thou hast," ea-eT = ex^Te
"you have." Sometimes (e.g. in Calymnos) this cr passes into a:
o-epi, cra, 6(TL = 6xi "not," ]/7;cra = vv^ta "nails, claws."
In Bova, x
before velar sonants is pronounced aspirated k (Jch-), before palatal h
(h') ; /i = X is also found occasionally elsewhere.
21.

several of the

22.

Among

the voiced

si:)irants

(/3,

7, 8),

especially

shows a widely spread tendency to disappear between vowels,


and sometimes even in the initial syllable.
This disappear-

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

20

ance of intervocalic 7 (3 and y) is found in the most diverse


regions (in Epirus, Peloponnesus, Macedonia, in the islands

from Cyprus to Asia Minor) e.g. Xecu and Xiyco " I speak,"
(imperf. eXea and eX.e7a), ira{^)aivoy 'in](<y)aiV(o 7rd(y)fo " I go,"
:

Tpco(y)a)

aor,

guard,"

" eating,"

<j>a(y)7}T6

" I

<f>a(y)a

" I

(j)vX(i(y)(o

" 1

\o{y)aptd^(D

eat,"

" clock,"

po\6(y)L

(TvWo(y)oviJLai

" I

reckon,"
"

aa(y)ira
consider,"

arrow,"

'ireXa^yjo

" sea," (o)\/(7)o9 " few," fJbe{y)dXo^ " great," d{y)a7rco " I love,"

eXoLa = yeXoia (Naxos), vpi^co = yvpt^co " I seek,"


= yvvacKa " woman." The 7 is omitted most frequently

i{y)co " I "

vvac/ca

in the first-mentioned verbs.

The combination
(

=7

before

'.'

= yefia

wound."

become one simple sound y

yt (yy) has

This sign

i).

therefore employed to repre-

is

y before velar sonants

sent a
yiofia

e,

" repast,"

ytocpvpL

yLOfxt^co

= yecfivpL,

= ye/xL^co
ytapa^,

" I

fill,"

Turk yara

Cf. also 9.

The omission

of fi is usual in ZidoXo^

BidffoXo<;

" devil."

The

regular omission not only of the y but also of the P and 8


is a marked pecuHarity of the South-Eastern Gk.
dialects, i.e. of Cyprus, Rliodes, Calymnos, and the neighbouring
<^oov/xat == 0o,5ov/>tat
islands, but is not confined to these dialects
"I fear," Kttoupas = Kct^ovpa? "crab," 7rpi(i8)dA.t *' garden," dep(/>09 =
(S)w{S)Ka "the twelve,"
a8p<f)6s "brother," yd{S)dpo<s "ass," 01
6p-n-t(8)a "hope," 7ra(8)api = 7ro(S)apt "foot," vd w<TU) = vd Swcrto "that
(rarely

of $)

may

(let me) give," c(i/)=:SeV "not."


Cf. also d and eVra, 20,
In the Terra d' Otranto the dropping of intervocalic (and initial)
consonants obtains to a still larger extent (e.g. tua = rore, pna = -ore

n. 2.

0, i

= TO,

Tr](v)

steo

a-TeKO)).

In Chios, side by side with the complete dropping of y, (3, 8 we


find also a mere reduction
e.g. vd UXdaiop.^ from ycAw " I laugh,"
6 Vo-iXcs " the king," {^)ovSl " ox," Ka^aAXtVa " horse-manure," ya'^apos
:

Texts

"ass," etc.
23.

vowels:

On

e.g.

dfcov{y)co

" I

(f)Tai(y)co " I
is

quite

III. 9.

the other hand, 7 has been inserted between

d{y)6pa^ "air"

(Chios

hear," Kai(y)co " I

am

at fault "

d'pa<;),

^6(7)09

burn," KXai{y)(o

dycopt " boy " (from

a.

"God,"

" I

weep,"
Gk. daypo^)

common.

This phenomenon

found on the whole mainland, the Ionic


and Lesbos. Moreover, almost
in the entire region of the Aegean as vrell as in Crete and Cyprus
a y is inserted between v and a vowel: Trto-rcvyco = 7ricrrei;o> "I
is

Islands, the Cyclades, Crete, Chios,

"I dance," Ko/Syw "I cut," pdfSyoi "I sew," rptpyoi


" I rub," Trapao-KcvyT; " Friday," /Syayye'Aio "gos]-pl."
The verbs in

believe," ^(opcuyw

;:

PHONETIC CHANGE

21

end, in the Terra d' Otranto, in -So (pisteo *' I believe "), in Bova
"I speak"), in Zaconian in -erdgu {duUragu "I

-evil)

in -eguo {plateguo

work").

In some dialects

III. 1 2 (jetTTe

Often
uvvvecpo
""

*'

= etTTf,

" blood,"

fidXa/ia

twist, plait,"

TTpdypa)

v)

(/S,

= o\o9,

Texts

words

etc.).

=
= dudurta

avyvecfio

I oppress."

regularly

" gold,"

from

yovXo^;

disappear

nfkeypevo^;)
" I

irviyco

before

" I

wonder

irXeKO)

of

Kavpivo<;,

Kd^co)

Kaiw,

" I

drown," irpdpba (from

6dpa

Oavpa,

Oaviid^w),

" burnt,"

puayepevo^

(from

"

p.

(from aaypuptov)

crapbdpL

ipwrep^evo^ (from ipcorevoj) " beloved,"

6ap,d^co

(from

"

= epT]/jLo<;

especially

cf.

"care," dyvdvTia

(from

irXepbevo^

TTi/z/xeVo?

" thing,"

wonder,"

Kapbivo^

= rvpavvS)

7 and v

" pack-saddle,"

"

= euvota

(from p^dXayp^a)

"

the initial

to

yeprj/io^;

in the

7 develops before v

cloud," eypoca

opposite," Tvpayvco
24.

same

= varepa,

yvarepa

even

prefixed

is

al/na
syllable
yalfia
vocalic
" empty," jLSto<; = tSio^ " like, the

bewitched," pipia (pevpba) " brook."

{puayevo}) "

Usually TrpapfjLa, Kapjxiuos, etc., are written with pp. In this


however, those dialects which actually possess double consonants ( 36 n.) recognise only one p in the pronunciation (except
Spellings irpaypa, TrXeypvo<s, pcv/xa, etc.,
with two pp in Chios).
come from the literary language, unless the -yp- in the continental
1.

case,

dialects.
2. V disappears before p only in ^epw beside ^evpn) " I know "
otherwise the v remains aXcvpt " flour," evpio-Kw (^a cvpw) " I find,"
Before v, v has become
;
/xavpo<s " black," etc.
cf. Xdpvui (a. Gk.
:

Aawo)) "I row," pvovxo%

25.

has

" through,

on

{evvovxos) "castrated, eunuch."

disappeared

account

SiaXeyo) " I choose,"

of "

before y (t) in
(ytarl " why ? " = Std

St,a^d^a)

" I

read,"

Bca^aivco

= Sid

yi,d

ri)

" I

but
pass

over," Byo " two," By6apLo<; " jasmine," etc.


26.

In the dialect of Cyprus

manner analogous

we

find 8

and y treated in a

(x, 4) given in 18, the


groups py, pS becoming pK, pr, and /3y, /3S, yS becoming /?k, /?t, yr
apKariq-i = lpyaT-q<i "worker," dpKvp6<; dpyvp6<s "silver," 7r<pTtKiv =
TriphiKa ^'partridge," avKov^avyo ^^egg," /S Kalvpo) = ^yaivo) "I go

to the deaspiration of

= (e)^So/xaSa "week," yrepvio = ySipvo) "I flay." On


Rhodes and the neighbouring islands only py, p8, and ^y undergo
this change
otherwise (e.g. in Chios and Calymnos) this phonetic
movement has usually attacked only pg and /3g, though the second
out," cySro/xaSa

sound

is

takes

out,"

also

found partially or wholly voiceless


Trio-Tcvgw

"I

believe,"

papg'6XXo<i

cf.

figdXXcL " he

= fiapL6Xo<s

"sly,"

22

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

" he departs," avgd and avkd " eggs," Tiiopgis and Vnl)pKi<s =
Fcwpyios, apgdT7]<; and dpKaTrj'^ = dpydTr]<s.
In Terra d' Otr. 8 is pronounced as d (analogous to t for 0, 20,
n. 1) ; there and in Bova y (3) is pronounced g before the vowels

tpv^jL

and

i.

The

27.

a voiced

palatal

has become in the Maina dialect a

(?/)

sibilant:

palatal

"earth,"

tv^TV

e.g.

t,ojxdTo?

I, i.e.

= ye/xdro^

Hava^ta = IlavU-yta, ixat,epLTa-q = /xaycpiKr; "kitchen."


Even the secondary ?/ in ym from 8ta, Ftai/vr/s from 'Iwdvvrjs, etc.
For other changes
(e/. 9), undergoes the same change (^a, Zdvvr]<s).
to which the spirant y is liable, v. 10, n. 5.
"

(yto/xttTOs)

full,"

28. In many parts the sibilants o- and J" are pronounced with the front palate (s) (that is, dorsal) instead of
with the tongue-tip often a (f) becomes a kind of sA-sound
I).
This pronunciation is found over the whole
s,
(s,
5,
Greek -speaking territory, most frequently before i (e.g. eUoat
" twenty ") and before t (fjutar/ 6/cd = fxiar] okq).
The latter
{t) sometimes disappears {rpaKoaa = rpiaKoaia "300," 'ypoaa
;

ypoaa
is

"piastres,"

very rare

S-TTLTi " in

fioa'^o^ "

{e.g.

-y.

10,n.

the house," Kaa-rpo

perfume

for s before consonants

4).

&kv\o(; for ctkvXo^

"

dog

" fortress " in

"

in

Pontua, <jto

Maina,

/jlo&ko^

" in Taygetos), while ks, ps,

are found wherever

is

sounded

ra)
ts (for f
Texts III. 3 and 15

&,

yjr,

(Maina and Lada in Taygetos) afford characteristic examples


of the extension of this pronunciation of the <t and ^ to all
other combinations.

For

(I)

from

palatalised to 6

x ^-

21.

17), e.g. in

In some dialects in which k


Bova and Cyprus, sc becomes s,

is

as

from dcrKr]/jio<; "ugly," a-vXos from cr/cuXos "dog," etc. In


Karpathos and some of the neighbouring islands (also Chios) we
find the transition from crcr or crt to tot e.g. yXcorcra = yXwo-cra, vrjTcrd
= vrjaid ; the transition from ^ to d^ (e.g. TraitZ^w = Trat^co) is more
darr}fxos

widely spread.

29. Before a voiced consonant

nounced

like f (^), tliat is, voiced


prozm^no " await," crfiuyo)
:

zmi7)0

TTpoafievQ)

Similarly with

close

hSni, Tov<; /jLeyd\ov<;

liaison

of

7, fi, v) a is prozvino " I extinguish,"

(/3,

affrjvco

words

tuz meZdlus, a? Xerj az

" I

Troto?
lei, ^*>

join,

unite."

finraivei,

hcoar)

pyoz

az ddsi.

1. Otherwise the cr is subject to few mutations; sometimes it


disappears between vowels if the next syllable contains a cr, as, e.g.,
in Yelvendos (cr'-xovpeL'S = (TVXO}pcrri<;), Bova (lypd<jia-dilypd\l/acn)y
Chios (vd TrXepojr]'^ = vd TrAepwo-T/?), Lesbos (Spoycra = Spocnaa), Pontus
(0avat5 = 'A^amo-ts).
In Lower Italy (also in Zaconian) the dropping
tea = ^cos " God," mdstora
of the final -s is a common phonetic law
:

PHONETIC CHANGE

23

= fjid(TTopa<i "master"

yeldi^yeXdws "thou laughest." In avTp[i]


=6
from the Maina (Texts III. 3) and 6 /SaaXkv va
jSacrtAes va, cva[?] cfjpiyLjxos, etc., from Chios (Texts III. 9) -s has disappeared before a following z or semi- vowel. Final -s may disappear
also through dissimilation; cf. e.g. occasionally 6 7raTpa[s] //.a? or
^waiTo-ei?]

= \(dXo<s

va tov 7rdpr)\ji\ Tcrai


.,
Otherwise the s is everywhere phonetically retained, apparent exceptions (as, e.g., in 17 7roXt =
a. Gk. TToXts) being explained as new forms of declension.
(Chios) X(o\X6 Tcral

rcrat (i.e.

7roAXoi)[g] ^cVov?, (los) rcrr} 8ovAa[s]

(d) Liquids

p,\

30.

V before a

ypcd 7^r\y)d

" old

l\y)onddri "

lion,"

" of silver."

In

y
woman,"

koX),

and Nasals.
become mouille

(t)

rfkto<i

(/, l\

" sun,"

il'{y)os

n):

XtovTcipi

ivuui e7L(y)d " nine," aar) [xev lo<^ asimdnos

many

dialects

between

serted, thougli very often not written

omiidzo " I resemble,"

ofjivoLa^co

rorr)<;.

and

fi

(ivlcl

KaXa/jLPid

ti

mnd = [xlcl
" reed,"

is

in-

" one,"

TrordfivLa

" rivers."

31. Before a consonant

from

aSe/0(^09

'ApffavLTi]^ " Albanian," rjpda


"

{'^(aXKo^)

ySaXXw

from rjXda

metal pot," ^ap/iivo^

" I put,"

Ital. volta (also

regularly becomes

aSeXc/)? " brother," ipiriha

= ekTriha)

" I

e.g.

came," x^pKoyixa

= fia\/jLevo<;,

GTepvm (usually aTeXvco)


^oXna).

p:

" hope/'

" I

pass. ptcp.

of

send," ^opra,

and Z-sounds are very liable to metathesis, i.e. to change


within a word: ap^wTro? from dOpioirof; "man,"
Kpov(Tvii> from Kovpa-evo) " I commit piracy, live by robbery," irpiKos
and TTLKpo'; "bitter," TrovpudpL from Trptmpt "(holly) oak," irovpvo
from TTpuivo "early," cr^pviKos from dpcrci^t/co? "male," dpfieyio from
d/xepyu) d/xeA.yw, " I milk," d8cc/)A. from d8eX.<p " brother " (voc.
Pontus), or dSpicfa for aSipcfa (Ionic Islands), cr/cop^a and o-/cpo(^a
" so"v\\" Metathesis is rarer with other sounds.
If two r-sounds
occur in a word, one of them usually converts to A through dissimilation dXirpL (a. Gk. dporpov) " plow," yXrjyopa from yprjyopa
"quickly," KptOdpi and KXtOdpt "barley," TraXeOvpt and irapaOvpi
"window," TTCpto-rept and TrcXia-TepL "dove," rrXiopYj from Trpwpa
"poop (deck)," (jSAe^dpis from *<^p^(idpi';, the latter again through
transposition from (f>l3pdpL<s "February."
We find disappearance
of X through dissimilation in oAciKcpos^a. Gk. oAo/cArypo? " entire,"
Noteworthy is the disappearance of the p in
<f>avXa = Ital. flanella.
the word xo^o^o? = XP^^^^j Texts III. 12.
2. In the dialect of the Sphaciotes, Cretan mountaineers, X
before velar vowels becomes a peculiar kind of r (cerebral r), which is
1.

their

/-

position

spoken with the front edge of the tongue in a curved position:


appos dros = dXXo<;, Kapos karos
]xirasa

= ddXacra-a.

sibilant

= /caXo9, <^ipo<i firos = (f>LXos, Odpacraa


r = Czech, r is found in Scyros

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

24

(written

x^pt''

(cerebral)

i\

= X^P')-

rjd

^^ Lower Italy intervocalic X has hecome


aAA.os, poddi = ttoAv, ndichedda = ^StKc'AXa

dddo =

= IBlki]).

"more" X

32. In ttXio, irXtd

pelled: TTW,

is

very frequently ex-

TTtd.

In the dialect of Samothrace A and p completely drop out

aoyo
"three," x^rai =
Before a, o, u, A is
tpx^erai "comes," ;(wio = x<^ptd "village."
dropped also in Zaconian, in Naxos and Cappadocia (Pharasa) e.g.
= i.Xa "come," kuidi = kXovBl, kXov/Sl "cage," Odaaora = OdXaaara
" sea," $vo = $vXov " wood."

= aXoyo

"horse,"

Tit

= Tvpt

"cheese,"

Tts

= Tp6r9

Modern Greek has three nasals, //-, v, and n { = n


Enkd).
The last occurs (as in German) only before
in Germ.
/j-sounds (^^ g) aud is written with 7 (c/. also 15).
38.

The
</>>

^j

(a.

Gk.) nasals have disappeared before the spirants

^^</>^

" father-in-law,"

dv6o<; " flower,"

from

acj)Lyx'^^<;,

from

" bride,"

ireOepo^; from irevOepo^i


from avOpoyiro^
man," a^o? from
av^oypco from avy')((opo) " I pardon," (tcJ3L)^t6^
a(piyKT6<; " bound " " fastened."
vvfjbcf)i]

*'

aOpcoTro^;

Likewise before a- in Kwo-rai/rti/os, Kwo-tt}?, etc. (Corisfantimis),


before ^ and i/^ in ea-cfa^a, aor. of a-cfiiyyii) " I press," e-n-cif/a from ttc/xtto)
" I send " (usually o-reAvo)).
2. Forms or spelling like dvOo<?, dvOpioTros, (Tvy)((x)pu), a-vyxpovo^s,
<rvp.<f>(i)vo<; are due generally to the literary language, nevertheless v6 has
remained unchanged dialectically (in the North), as du0o<5, dvOpoiTros.
1.

The nasal
3. Original /x^, yy, vS are treated dillerently, ?;. 15.
disappears before the voiced spirant only in words which have
forced their way in from the literary language and also before initial
y (3, y) 8 ( 15) ; as crv/Saa-t from crv/x^ao-ts "agreement," avyvpL^io
from (TvyyvpL^o), " I arrange, prepare," avSiui {a-vvSlo)) " 1 bind," klSwo^
(klvSvvo<;) " danger " ; spellings like o-v/x^atVct belong to the literary
/3,

language.
4.
{e.(j.

= n.

V also is sometimes, like

/AcAtyyt for fievcyyi

Gk.

Trvvp.(t)v,

"lung"),

in Chios Kaevas or Kavc'as

do," and similarly


34.

a,.

Gk.

p,

changed by dissimilation to A
"temple (of head)," ttAc/xovi

p.rjviyi

or, like

= KaveVas

cr,

is

completely suppressed (thus


Kdvovv "they

"anybody," Kaovv

kcico, koicis, etc.).

Final -v

is

usually only pronounced in such words

as are closely connected with the following word,

when the following word begins with a vowel

and only

or with

k, it, t,

and these sounds then (according to 15) become


f,
the v itself becoming 73 and m before g
g, h, d (gz, hz, dz)
The forms which retain the final -v under these
aud h.
conditions are especially the definite and the indefinite
yjr,

ra,

PHONETIC CHANGE
article, the

orav

conjunctive pronoun of the 3rd pers. ( 136), the

8ev " not," dv "

particles

"

when

"

25

e.g.

" before,"

tt/piV

if,"

adv

" as,

like,"

tov dOpwiro " the man," but to <^tXo " the

^vvalKa " the woman,"


evav ip^aTrj " one (or a) workman," eva ^aatXtd " a king,"

friend," rr^v iriaTL " the faith," but tt]

T7]v elBa " I

saw

her,"

r^ /SXeTrw

" I

Lesbos, however, and other North

know," Be OeXco

etc.) " I don't

see her," Bev ^epco (in

Greek

" I will

dialects,

not," av

Be ^epco^

if thou
thou wiliest," nrplv epdy " before he comes,"
Trpl (t>vy7j "before he flees," aav Trarepa? "like a father," aa
The pronouns avro^; and toOto?
fidvra " like a mother."

a dekrj^

hast,"

" this,"

"

''

if

cKelvo^ " that,"

and

e-^ri'^

together with adjectives, rarely

retain their -v in connection with a substantive, the adjectives

retaining

it

only

when

the substantive begins with a vowel

TovTov TOV feVo or rovrr]

Koko

ddpcoiro

how

Kaipov "

tt)

^opd^ tov koXov aOpwiro or tov

but note ttoXvv Kaipo

long

Even under other circumstances the

1.

tained, especially

"

long time," irooov

"
?

if it

is

sometimes

final -v is

protected by rival forms in

-i/e

(-va)

recf.

"now,

therefore," Kav(e) or /cava "at least, even if," %.vav{(i)


" one, a," r6v{^ Tr]v{<i) " him, her," iKeu'ov(a) " that (one)," 7rotoj/(a)
" whom," aA.Xov(e) " another," tCj xpovC)v() " of the years," and other

AotTToV

genitives

also the verbal forms (fipow{e), e^epav

and

" they

icf>pav

and (i)Ka66Tav "he

came," va

sat," ^/xovv(a) "I was,"


lSovv() " that they may see " (beside e(f>pa,

iKaOovTa, ipxovfxov, etc.).


between, e.g., tove {j-qvc)

But before spirants one has a choice


^XeVw "I see him (her)," i<f>ipav jSijSXlo

brought,"

()/<a^ovTai/

ipx6iJiovv{a) " I

" they brought a book," or ty] ^AeVw, <^epa (3l$Xlo.


2. Following the model of 8cV and 8e " not," we may also use
"not" (prohibitive) and vdv beside va "in order
fi-qv beside /x>/
that" e.g. va (jltjv aKovao) " in order that I may not hear," va /x-^v
7rdpr]<s "do not take," vav TO (f>epr} "in order that he may bring it."
3. In consequence of mistaken separation of words the final -v
was sometimes carried over to the following word, and thus many
words have received a " prothetic " v ; as, votKo/cvpts " master of
house" (fr. oTkos), vryXtos = -^A-tos "sun," vijttvos = vttvo? "sleep," vovpd
vrj = '^
"tail," NtKapia "Island of Icarus," vrj
or,"
^ "either.
veXa (Texts III. 15, Lada) = lAa " come."
Cf. also ^ 15, n. 3.
4. In some dialects (Cyprus, Rhodes, Chios, Naxos, and other
islands of the Aegean, Pontus) the final -v has throughout (and
especially in the absohite final syllable) maintained its place (or has
only been reduced without disappearing), and has often been carried
over to other forms where, properly speaking, it does not belong;
thus, e.g., not only ace. rjixepav, fxdvvav, Koprjv, dSeptfiov, tovtov, ;(0)ptov,
yvvaiKav, /SaaiXtdv, /Spvcnv, neuter ^vAA,ov, (tttltlv, 1 and 3 pi. fnropovfjLev,
fXTTopovaiv, 3rd sing. (c)7r^pev, l^aXcv, but also ovofxav = ovo/xa, Trpa/xav =
:

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

26

aTOfiav

"Trpa/Aa,

~ TO,

= (rrofxa,

TraiSta tov,

l^i(Sr)v

-y]

vvauKav rov =

rj

"he went out"

y/xvatKa rovj
(a.

Gk.

to, Traididv

When

e^e/Srj).

tov
the

nasal is so conspicuous in the final syllable, it often affects, as might


be expected, the following initial syllable ; cf. e.g. ^(fivev d^e2vo<; (i.e.
Tcreivos, klvo<s) " that one went away," (S)kv rjpKovTOfx ^d {i.e. Trid)
*'
he came no more," and so forth. Texts III. 9.
In Chios, Karpathos, and in kindred dialects, together with the
Cyprian, 1 the final -v is assimilated to the following initial before all
sounds except vowels and tt, r, k cf. e.g. from Texts III. 6. 8. 9
:

cfiopdv

/xLOLcfi

= fXia^v)

<f>opdv,

rocfi

cftipo)

= Tb{v)

cfiepo),

va)( )(dpKiDfia

vav ^., t6^ (^aatXidv = tov jS., rjroi le/jidTO = rjTov yefxdTO, ecr a ^X^^~
^\v <T '^X^'-i "^W oii^Vf^ l^ov = TTjy avXrjv fiov, -^(tovX. *\r]vtTcrd = iqcrovv
(kX)X'qviKLd.
Assimilation to k, tt, t may be found in Karpathos
{e.g. ar to Kdfxovv = av to k.).
In the dialects of Cyprus and Chios the
-V disappears when the following word begins with $, ij/ or with
another consonantal group the first part of which is not tt, k, t.
The -V disappears in Chios also in the absolute final syllable {i.e.
before a pause in the sentence) provided an -e does not intrude {cf.
iKovvev-e "he moved," crevToviv-e " chest," Texts III. 9).

(c)

Compound and Double Consonants.

The composite or compound consonants are ^{Jcs), to-,


which under certain conditions (after nasals) become

35.
>|r

{ps),

voiced
of

o-

{gz, dz, hz),

=s

given in

15.

28, there are also the sounds

Corresponding to the pronunciation


ks,

ts, j?s.

correspond to the a. Gk. sounds, while to- and t^ {vrC)


are of later origin,
to; in addition to the Ta {dz) arising dialectically
from K {jk) {v. 17), sometimes takes the place of an ancient r (before
i), e.g. KXrjixara-LSa "clematis," peTo-ivrj "resin" (a. Gk. pyjTivyj), or a
cr{o-), e.g. KOTo-i;(/)i (Kooro-i;^os) " blackbird," TcrojTra^o) (usually (TCOTratvo))
1.

^ and

ij/

am

silent"; cf. also 28 note.


The transition from the sound tl
occurs more frequently in the Pontic and Cappadocian dialect.
TO- {tO is the result also of tlie throwing together of t and cr in
KaTa- = iKdOtae, Toyj = Trjs {v. 55, n. 1), rtTrorcrc {e.g. Crete) from

*^

to

Tcri

Many words with to- {to-) or t^ {Tt, = dz) have come in


through borrowing (from Turkish or Italian) ; as, xo-aKt^w " I smash,"
"I prick," KapoTca "carriage," Trercrt "leather," KacfieTlrj^
To-LfjiTru)
*' keeper of a caf^," (v)r^a/xt "mosque," Tcravapdp (Pontus) "animal,"
Tao7rdvr]<; (Lesbos) dzov(3dv<s "shepherd."
T^ is often written for tct, although pronounced to-.
2. In the Terra d' Otranto $ has become (fio- (ij/) edifse = eSci^e " he
showed," /6Vo = ^cpw " I know " {cf. also Texts III. 2) ; in Bova ^ and
dzilo = $vX.o " wood," dzomi iJ/wjxl " bread."
\j/ have become dz
Zaconian,
3. Other compound consonants occur only dialectically
Cyprian, and the neighbouring South-Eastern dialects possess k\p\ t*
respectively kx, Trcfi, t9, i.e. tenues followed by an aspirate or spirant,
as (Zac.) cdihu da-K6<s " bag," thenu o-TatVw "rise up," tho = \ to, phiru

TtVoris.

Cf. also

^aX

Xeovrdp, iaKuvvejx

fie,

Texts

III. 13. a (Pontus).

PHONETIC CHANGE
"I

o-Tretpo)

sow,"

(fr.

Calymnos)

craytTTa "arrow," KctTr^a

bloom,"

(fr.

A-aK^os

27

= Acikkos

"pit," o-atT^a

= KaTrTra,

^ a.T6r]cn {i.e. avOrjcni) "flowering,


Chios) KOKliaAa "bone," irirha "pitch," Koi;7rha "cup."

36. Double consonants (rr, y8/3, crcr, XX, vv, pp, etc.) ard
merely orthographical in the ordinary language, i.e. they are
(as also in English or German) simplified in the pronunciation
and have only the value of the single consonants thus Kpe^fidrc = krevdti, yXcoaaa = ^Idsa, dXko<; dlos, 6appu> Ipard, etc.
;

The

original pronunciation of " lengthened " or double consonants

German

dialects of Switzerland) is found still in Lower


South-Eastern Greek dialects (Cyprus, Ehodes, Karpathos, Icarus, and also Chios), and in the interior of Asia Minor
(Cappadocia), and that not only in words with double consonants
from the a. Gk. or taken over from another language, like k6kklvo<s
"red," xai^vw "I lose," aXXos "another," reVo-epa "four," Ka7reX\o =
Ital. capello "hat," o-aiTTa = l^Sit. sagitta "arrow," o-aKKovAXt " little
bag," yXwaa-a " language," but also as the result of later assimilation
" wretched,"
Trerrc = Trevre,
^a066<s = $a{v)06<;
xa/Xjuevos Kavfxivos
"fair" (colour), a^^pw7ros = a(i/)^p(07ros "man," vvcficj^rj = vv{iji)(fir]
''"bride," o-v^x^/aw = o-u(y)xwpa) "I forgive" (cf. also 33), rocfi </)iAo
Along with the preservation of ancient double con( 34, n. 4), etc.
sonants the South-Eastern Greek dialects afford examples of the
spontaneous doubling of originally single consonants both in initial
and middle syllables e.g. (from Chios) Tr^orrepa, eVrpwyave " they
ate," Sgo TTpid "two or three," dTTTrtSi "pear," (Spexx!^^ "it rains,"
TTpao-o-ivo? "green," x^^^CC^- "hail," to (Cov/xt "broth," TraXXt "again,"
The conditions governing such
avvoLyu) "I open," fifxe "but."
doubling of consonants have not yet been explained. In part of
the Greek-speaking territory the lengthened explosives are aspirated,
(as in the

Italy, in the

.V.

35, n. 3.

37. In modern Greek the general tendency is toward


Apart
the simplification of original consonant combinations.
from the phenomena already given in the last paragraph and
elsewhere ( 16, 24, 28 n., 32, 33), mention should be made
here of the frequent expulsion of one consonant out of a threeconsonant group e.g. e^eyjra (fr. e^ev^a), kocJ) to (fr. Koyfr^] to),
"
i/reuTT?? (a. Gr. -v/reucrTT^?), /6^tcr6;^T09 " leap-year, unlucky year
This expulsion, however, is
(Lat. hisextus), feuXa (fr. ^evyXa).
arrested, especially when the third consonant is p (ix^po^y
:

(TTpaTLQ)Tr]<;.

fresh massing of consonants

dialects as a result of extensive

note

1.

is

restricted to the N"orth.

vowel syncope.

The consonants which come together

undergo a change

facilitating the

enunciation.

Greek

See examples,

way

7,

often
In Yelvendos a

in this

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

28

dental creeps in between

Z,

w,

and a following

s,

a b between

/x

and X

= yciToj/to-o-9 "neighbouring women," yevvrcTLv yh/vqcriv


"gave birth," ^e'Ars = ^eXcts, jXTrXcd = /xrjXid, or a consonant is thrown
out
(tX.iv = taruXev, TravTpevKiv = TravTpevTrjKev,
KOvaKC = OLKOvcrTrjKCy
kOo-p'^ KpiOdpi, ttvr V = air* ttjv, or there takes place a partial assimila-

ytToj/ro-cris

tion to one of the sounds

oxen,"

ecjjxe

= (l)vy

Ok6<s

also

cf.

On Accent

(/)

= Slk6<s, cfiKivrp = jSovKevrpt "prick for


= exucrej/, and ij/y^xJ/vxT^ (Pontus).

e/co-ei/

38(The_accent usually stands over one of the last three


examples like emaae, iffpdSvacre, jd't^apo^i forming

syllables,

no exception, since

From

diphthong.

counts as a consonant, and ai a

(v)

the standpoint of

modern Greek the exact

position of the accent within the last three syllables cannot be

reduced to fixed rules

it

the ancient Greek rules of accent, from which

^Thefourth

modern Greek

last syllable

\yav{6)

iy\Lo/jbovv(a),

analogy of ep^ovpuow, ep^ova-ow)


etc.).

As

ep-^ovfjueara

a rule, in such case a secondary accent

The

c/".

(on

is

given

On

the

4.

Gk. tKree-syllable law

a.

is

thus

still

;.

Jb

operative in m. Gk.,
but the force of the long ultimate has been obliterated (the dillerence
between long and short being no longer maintained). Consequently
forms like ^vXlvos: gen. $vXlvov ace. pi. ^vXlvov^ from ^vAtvos may be
uniformly accented ivXivov ivXLvov<;, or TrAovVtos fem. TrXovaia as
irXovo'LO's 7rXou(ria, or eKoiOeTO "he sat" iKaOofxrjv or eKaOero IkolOoThis tendency has made itself specially felt in inflexion note
flow.
aOpuiTToi for dOpoiTToi, (and other substantives of similar formation)
after the model of d6puiir(ii{v) dOpcoTrovs, iKd/xav (beside cKa/xav) after
iKafxafxe iKa/jLeTCf or vice VCSa KovX6(jap. (Cappad.) = aKXovOi^cra/xe, " we
followed," after the sing. KovXOcra = {d)KXov9r]ora ; dcjirjKa, tir-qpa (beside
Even the
d<f)rJKa, l-nrjpa) after eSwKa, eOrjKa, cSeo-a, eScLpa, corctXa, etc.
accent of individual words has been changed after the model of others
"
as, dOos a. Gr. duOo<i " flower " after Kapiros " fruit," fxov6<; " single
after SittXos "double."
Moreover, when adjectives are turned into
substantives the accent is thrown back (after a. Gk. model TXavKo<;
yXavKo?) as Adfxirpos (proper name) from XafX7rp6<s " bright," XaAeVa
(place in Crete) from xaXeTro?, crTdxTrj " ashes " = o-raKTy} (sc. rec^pa),
/SpdBv "evening" from (3paSvs.
As far as phonetics are concerned.
1.

6(payafi6 (analogy of ecpaya,

\eyev, eXeyave, ecpayafjue, ep-^ovfjuecTTa, ep^ovaaorove.

accent signs,

can carryj^j!.-^

the accent only when a secondary element is attached to the


end of the word, or where a syllable is accented after the
model of analogous forms rjirai^eve, eXeyeve (Naxos) beside
7]7raL^e(v), 6\y6(v),

generally speaking, governed by

is,

varies only in particulars.

'I

'\

"^

'i

.j

"

PHONETIC CHANGE
the accent has
treated in 9.
2.

alteration only

The modern Greek accent may

or stress,

suffered

though the musical element

39.

Some

29

through the phenomena

generally be termed expiratory


not quite absent.

is

small words have no accent of their o wn

(though writtenT with accent in

many

cases),

accent on the preceding or following words.

liM

"proclitics

are

the

forms

of

the

but lean for

Such

enclitics

conjunctive pronoun

134136), whether they stand before or after the word to


which they refer, the forms of the article, the prepositions,
the particles vd and 6d, the conjunctions Kal " and," /ict " but."
Words which carry an accent on the ultimate or penultimate
receive the enclitic without any change, those accented on the
third last take on with the enclitic a second accent on the
ultimate, as ra iraiBcd /j,ov " my children," y fidwa oov " thy
mother," areTke /jlou " send me," ra <nrLTia tov " his houses,"

T dp/jLard

fia<;

"

our weapons,"

etc.

1. Here also the three-syllable law is valid with this modification,


that the properispomena are treated as paroxy tones ; thus SovXo<i oras
"your servant," cTSa rove "I saw him" (usually tov t8a). The proclitics, except 6, rj, ol (and ts), are generally written with an accent.
Note also that the proclitic lvtu "what" ( 152, n. 2) moves its
accent to the end in cases like Ivrd *6e\ va Kajxrj " what is he to
do ? " ivrd '^Tttte KeLvrj " what was she guilty of 1
2. The principle of enclitics is carried much further in the
dialects.
In Cyprus the verb becomes enclitic after the negative
or after adverbs, the noun after its adjective and (in the voc.) after
the exclamations I, ov, w, a, ySpe: e.g. c/x TrapTrarcc = Stv TrepTraTec "he
does not go," ci/^e? rjfrrafjLey "we came yesterday," KaAos TraTras "a

good priest" (TraTras),


Eudocia" (BSoKia).

edcjievTYj

"ho, Mr.

!" {d<fiVTr}s), /3pe

BSoku "ho,

PART SECOND.
MORPHOLOGY.
INFLEXION OF NOUNS.
Use
40.
line,

subject
in

a.

Modern Greek

No
is

differentiates

trace

the

of

e.g.

to

(mascu-

'

When

has survived.

dual

a neuter plural the verb

Gk.) but in the plural.

permitted

three genders

neuter) and two numbers (singular and

feminine, and

plural).

of the Forms.

the

not in the singular (as

is

construction Kara avvecnv


"

fiaOav 6 Koa/nof;

the world

is

= people)

it."
In most cases the gender is clearly determined
by the grammatical form (nom. sing.). The natural dis-

learned

tinction of sex in animal life

expressed either through the

is

use of different words or by the formation of a feminine from


the masculine stem

e.g.

^ovhi

"

ox

"

dyekdBa

"horse "

(popdSa " mare," Tpdyo<; " he-goat"

or 7ttT09

ydra

" cat,"

(TKv\o<i

"

dog

"

" cow,"

jtBa

aKvXa

aXoyo

" she-goat,"

" bitch," Trpo-

"

TTpo/Sarlva " ewe."


wether
For the male animal a
neuter form is frequently used (which is also mostly the
common designation of the species), as ravpi " bull," (3ovBl

^aro

" ox,"

"

dn

" stallion " (dXoyo " horse "), Kpidpu "

dycopL " boy


1.

ram "

(c/.

also

").

Although

TraiSt

"child"

and

kopCtctl

"maiden"

(beside

KoiriXaf.) are neuter, the use of neuter diminutives (Hke Mariechen or


a. Gk. AeoVrtov) is quite restricted, forms like ^a{v)dovXa dim. of
"fair," ixavvovXa

Maptyw dim.

dim.

of

"mother," 'EAevtVo-a dim. of "Helen,"


usual.
Also the wife or

"Mary" being much more


man is correctly designated

of

either by the genitive or


by a feminine form of the masculine e.g. Kvpa liavayi^rr] or
HavayLoijaiva "Mrs.
"Mrs. IlauATy?,"
Panayotis," Ilai;A.r)Sati/a

dauj^hter of a

MORPHOLOGY
'AyyeXtva (uncommon) " Mrs. Angelis."
TraTTtt?) " clergyman's wife."

31

Note

also

rj

TraTraSid

(from

When some other female relationship not a man's tcife is to


expressed with reference to the masculine the suffix -Laaa is
usually employed e.g. yetrovtcrcra " neighbour woman " fr. yctVova?,
"
jxdyLo-cra " witch " from //.ayo?, vrjcrwricra-a " a woman from the islands
"
"
"
woman of Maina (but '^vptavrj woman
f r. vT/o-twTT^g, MavLaTLcra-a
"be

from Syra" fr. ^vptavos).


2. In Icarus the plural of geographical names

is

employed

in a

peculiar fashion to designate the particular parts or the neighbourhood of a locality, as rjTnjyev eh ras 'AvaroXcts " he went into the
different regions of

went into the

Tra/xcv

Kara

tov<s

and

EvSt^Aovs "

we

Cf. also 103.

Modern Greek has only three

41.

Asia Minor,"

vicinity of EvSt^Aos."

cases, nominative,

These are, however, not always


formally differentiated from one another, since the ace.
(usually without -v) and the nom. in the sing, and pi. of the
genitive,

fern,
pi.

accusative.

and neut. nouns are always phonetically

alike,

and in thtf
and nom.

of mascs. (with the exception of o-stems) the ace.

coincide

also the gen.

and

ace.

sing, of

mascs. (again with

The masc. o-stems

the exception of o-stems) are the same.

best maintain the different cases, furnishing a separate form


also for the vocative,

which

in all other stems identical in

is

the sing, with the ace. without

The

in the pi. with the nom.

-v,

only where it retains its


secured by a vocalic addition (rf. 04).
On the
other hand, through the dropping of -s ( 29 n.) in t!ie Greek of
Lower Italy the decay of cases has advanced further than elsewhere.
Even in masculines in -09, partial decay of nom. and ace. is found
(Pontus, Aeg. Sea).
2. The dative has entirely disappeared from the vernacular
language; at the most it is found only in formal phrases taken
from the literary or ecclesiastical language ; as 6e<Z S6$a " thank God,"
also rwrts)
Ivevrjvra rots etcaro " 90 per cent.," Tiaovri (whence
"really."
On the syntactical substitution of gen. ace. or et? ('9, o-c)
for the dative case, cf. 54.
sometimes limited
3. The gen. pi. is not very frequently used
to statements of measure, dates, or particular expressions ; cf. also
1.

-V,

or

ace. sing, is clearly distinguished

where

this

is

44, n. 2.
41a. Modern Greek having largely retained the power of
forming substantival compounds, we find several varieties of compounds in which substantival elements form part.
1.

{a)

Substantival compounds

Dvandva-formations

avrpoyvvo

"

man and

"knife and fork,"


ywatKoVatSa " wives

e.g. fxay^aipoiripovvo

wife, married

couple,"

and children."
ih)

Where

a substantive

is

more

precisely determined

by an

32

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

"mm"

e.g. yepovroKopiTcro "old maid," KaXoypia


(properly
" a good aged woman "), KaKOKaiptd " bad weather."
Note especially
the combinations with TraAto-, used in a bad sense e.g. 7raXLd(v)0po)Tro<;
" a good-for-nothing fellow," TraXioyvvoLKa " a common woman,"
TraAioTratSo " dirty rascal," TraXioa-TTLTo " wretched hut," and so forth.
(c) Where a substantive is more precisely determined by another
substantive either in apposition or in any other casual connection
as Kaixapofjtpvh "eyebrow" (properly "arch-brow"), cf. also 6 Kvp
68(i)po<s, etc., v^ 63, 64 ; voiKo-Kvpi'^ or a-mro'VOiKOKvpi'; "master of the
house," ySacrtAoVatSo "royal child," r]XLo(da(TiX^ixa "sunset," kX^^toTToXi/xo^ " M'ar with Klefts or bandits," TreTporoTro? " stony place,"
di//xo'ftvA.o5 " windmill," KpefifiaroKajx^pa " sleeping-room."
Formations are rare in which the last element is a verbal noun with no
independent existence, ef. e.g. KavT7]XavoL<f>Tr}<s " candle-lighter,

ailjective

dva^rco "I light").


a verbal stem supplies, somewhat like a participle,
the more precise determination of a substantive e.g. (fiova-KoOaXaaartd
^'stormy sea" (fr. cfiova-Kwvoi "swell').
2. Adjectival compounds
(a) Where the final adjective is more precisely determined by
another adjective (numeral) or by a substantive ; as /xavpoKOKKtvo?
"dark red," oXdvoixTos "quite open," evKoXomaa-Tos "easily caught,"
Se/cttSt7rAo9 " tenfold,"
poSokokklvos " rose red," p.app.apoxTtcrpiivo'i
sacristan"
(d)

(fr.

Where

marble," at6'cpo7rAao-T05 "formed of air." Note also


"amiable," d^ioo-7rovSuorTo<; "worthy to strive after.'
{h) Where the final substantive is more precisely determined by
an adjective (a numeral) or by another substantive; as, KaAoKapSos
"good-hearted," KaXyrv^o^ "fortunate," l3apL6fjiOLpo<s "having bad
pavpo/jidTrj<; "black-eyed," TpLK6iJiixaro<i "conluck, unfortunate,"
" hard-hearted."
pieces/'
criSepoKapSos
Such
sisting of three
adjeciives may again be made substantives e.g. Tpiavrdi^vXXo " thirty

"built of

d^tayctTrr^Tos

leaved flower,"
(c)

Where

"rose."
a verbal stem forms the
i.e.

first

element

(as in 1. d)

e.c/.

rpc/xoxep^? " with trembling hand."

42. The nominative,

sentence,

may

when placed

at the beginning of a

be used to designate the psychological subject

even when the construction

of the sentence in itself requires

another case form, thus usually in instances like 6

aav T
heard

'\

ccKovae, iroXv rov KaKoc^avrj


it,

it

vexed

Tov ^p6e aro vov

poor

child's

(lit. "

iraihl

Xeec " on the

/cal

mind and

')(^copLdTr)<i,

the huntsman,

him much," to

BpofjLo

eVa?

"

it

speaks "

to Karifiivo

way

but

Kvu7]y6<;,

when he

it

came

sometimes

<tto

to the

even

"
eireOave to Traihi tov " a peasant's child died

a peasant (nom.), his child died

").

The predicative nom. is very common and is not confined


merely to verbs of the copula class, like yivojxai, crriKui, /xcVw, etc.
iyo) FpatKos yf.vvr)OiqKa "a Greek I was born," KpSiUvo<s Od
cf.

MORPHOLOGY

33

come off gaining (gain thereby)," 6 7raTpL0iTLarfxo<; ol


" patriotism alone suffices not," Trpo/SaXXci drayi/wptcr/xeVo
TO epyo " acknowledged is the work " (lit. " apjDears acknowledged "),
iXevOepos 6 kXcc^tt/s t,rj k lkev6po<; TrcOaLvec " free lives the Kleft and
free he dies," oXoera t,(rT6Tepo<; </)t-yyo/?oAot>cr 6 17X10? " ever warmer
shone the sun," rpix^i xp^<^o cj^lBl to vcpo " as a golden serpent flows
the water," crTrovSa^ei yiarpo's " he studies medicine " (lit. " he studies

"I

Pyui

will

(f}TdvL fiovos

a doctor

").

43. In

enlarged

its

its

attributive use the nom. has considerably

scope

by replacing, by way

explanatory or partitive gen.

name

e.g.

philology," o-irvpl aLvdiri " a

yjh\xa "

an apron

of apposition,

an

to ovofia

(j)i\o\oyLa, "

the

mustard

seed," /ita irohia

eva iron] pi vepo " a glass of

(full of) earth,"

water," eva ^evydpo Trairovraia " a pair of shoes,"

Kpaai

"

one oka of wine," fieyako itXyjOo^ Tovp/coc

multitude of Turks,"

fxtd

/JLcd

oku

" a great

Be/capia '^povia " ten (a decade of)

This nom., of course, participates in the construction

years."
of the

word

" I see

thousands of people."

which

to

it

relates

cf. /SXeirco

')(^iXtdBe<;

Koa/io

The use of the nom. in comparisons with o-dv (in Pontus afxov)
"as" has been considerably reduced; the object compared
appears in the ace. if it is a personal pronoun or is
accompanied by the definite article e.g. to Trpoa-w-n-o tov eyive aav
TTf cfiiuTid " his countenance became like fire," to fxayovXaKt eXa/xif/e
aav TYjv avyr] " the cheek shone like the dawn," fxavpa (fiopovcre to
<f>T(Dxo a-av Ijxiva "the poor (child) wore a black garment, as did I,"
but vTvv^Tai aa XopSos " he dresses like a lord," 7r</)ret crav ai/^f;^os
" he falls as if dead," f^Kapia-T-qpiivo^ crav (.vto^ " pleased as he."
regularly

Although the use

44.

of the genitive

on the one hand

has been extended as a substitute for the ancient dat.

on the other

it

54),

has been reduced in favour of other means of

are chiefly in the adverbial and


which the ace. ( 49, 50) or ace. plus
preposition ( 161, 162) have been substituted.
Moreover,
the explanatory gen. and the gen. of content or measure have
expression.

Its

losses

ablatival usage, for

given place to apposition ( 43), the partitive gen. (except


in particular phrases like Trore fxov "never"), the gen. of
material, and the gen. of comparison have all been ousted by
prepositions.

methods

of

It is for the gen. pi. that

expression are employed

survivals of the gen. with prepositions,

most frequently other


For
41, n. 3).

(cf.
v.

158.

Ancient usages occur especially in Cyprus: e.g. adnojuimal


" a queenly woman," a-KXa/jos Trj<s a-K/\.a/?tas
yci/at/ca tuji/ ycvaiKcoi/
1.

34

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

" a vile slave," ttov -rropra rrjs -rropra^ " from door to door," Zkvo <f)ope<i
adverhal with verbs of motion e.g.
rjixcpov " twice daily " ;
TToaLvvoi Tov TTopov " I fjjo (on) the journey " (and similarly /caXXtKe/^KOj
rri<i

Tov xrrivov " I ride the mule," SKLajSacvo) Trj<; Tropra? " I go through
the door," /xTraiVco tov x^px^^ " I come up to (into) the village ") ; also
e.g. ({f/offtyjcrev t-^? TretVa? " he perished of
to designate cause or occasion
hunger " (found also elsewhere), a.^ovXe/3i<u t7J<; yvvaiKas tov " he is
jealous of his wife " (^-qXevo) with gen. also elsewhere), iXov$r]v tov
:

"I bathed because of tears, in tears."


In North. Gk. dialects {e.g. Thessaly, Macedonia) the gen. has
but disappeared (cf. 41, n. 3), i.e. the prep. aTro has largel}- ousted

KXa/xoLTov
2.

all

it {v.

161,

6, n. 1).

The adnominal gen. may be employed as the

45. (1)

equivalent of the ancient objective gen.


"

Koa/jLov

(III. 4)

ments

meditation on

the

world,"

rj

e.g.

o-vWoyrj rod

rj

a')(^ecn

rod ^aatXea

"the relation to the king." It is the rule in stateage, time, and measure, like KoweXa SeKa^i, ')(pcvcov

of

"

a girl of sixteen years," eVa? irapdXvTo^i

"

a palsied

" a life of

man

co?

elKocn ')(p6vcop

about twenty years of age," ecpra

seven days," aKoivl

Ee/ca

irij^co "

/xepcov ^coyj

a rope ten cubits

long."
1.

Note

specially the pregnant construction in ttjv

cTp^es

SojScKa

11) " thou hadst her (the daughter) as twelve years old,"
i.e. " during twelve years " (while adverbial definitions of time stand
in the ace).
what kind of ? " is
2. The expression rl Xoyrj? " of what sort ? "
quite stereotyped ; as, tl X. TpayovSi " what (what kind of a) song " 1

XpovCiv

(I. a.

''

3. Even the complement of an adj. stands in the gen.


cpos TOV Koa-fxov " ignorant of the world,^' a^o^o^ tov Oeov "

e.g.

fear of

God "

Cyprus) a7rpaxTo<; t^<j ayd7rr]<s " inexperienced


"sick of fever."
found dialectically (Cyprus) in quite ancient manner

also (in

in love," dppwa-To^

This gen.

av^$-

having no

is

ttjs Tn^pc^ts

as the complement of a pass, participle


e.g. <f>ar}ixvov tov ctkovXovklov
" eaten by the worms," o-KOTw/xevo^ t^s SovXclo.^ " killed by work."
:

4.
gen. qualitatis occurs in expressions like cfiopcfxa t^s ftoSa?
" a garment a la mode," x^P'"''- ''"^^ ypaxj/ifxaTog " writing pdper,"
cTttpScAAc? TOV KovTLov " cauued sardines."

46. (2) The possessive gen. is noteworthy in instances


"at the house of a godfather," eTrrjye

like (TTOV Kov/jLirdpov


(TTOV Tidvvr) "

hurries

to

he went to Yanni,"

his

Tpe-^eL

tov " he
Gk. (eV
dyiov BaacXeiov

crTrj<;

mother," thus corresponding

fidvva<^

to

a.

also for saints' days


as, e.g., r
on Saint B.'s Day," avpio elvat tov M(,')(ar]X ^Ap^^^ayyiXov
" to-morrow will be Michaelmas."

Avhov)

"

The

possessive gen.

may

also be predicative

as, iroiavou

MORPHOLOGY
elvuL " to

whom

does

it

belong

rod (plXov

fjLov "

the book

is

" to ttulSI

King

"Tttvov " the child belongs to

my

35
eivai rov ^acriXea

Sleep," to PljSXlo elvai

friend's"

(cf.

143).

predicative usa.cje of (1) and (2) has extended beyond its


e.g. chat rrj^
original bounds in particular (or dialectical) phrases
fxoSag "it is the fashion," eti/at rov (tkolvlov kol tov TraXovKtov "he
is a gallows-bird," elvai tov (XKOTOiixov "he is death's," eto-at rov vttvov
(in Cyprus) " thou art deep in sleep," et/xat Trj<s Oip^nq^ " I am (still)
feverish," to rpayovSt tv tov KXa/xarov, tov avayeXaafxaTOV "the song
makes one weep, laugh." This gen. is not confined only to the verb
ct/Attt
e.g. vTvverai Trj<; /xoSag " he dresses in fashion," KaTavTrja-e tyjs
fioSa? " it became fashionable," tov Oavarov Trcc^rct " he falls down

The

jx
eppi^e tov OavaTOv (I. a. 11) "severe
nigh to death," tov e/ca/Ae tov dAanov " he salted
"he pommelled him thoroughly."

as dead," fieydXyj appwo-ria

sickness brought

him" =

me

47. (3) The a. Gk. gen. as the


survives only dialectically.

complement

a verb

of

(Karpathos) aKovae /xov " hear me," tyj^ Xvprj<s


" I will forget the maiden," t^? K6prj<s 8e ^cxai/va>
" I forget not the girl " beside t'^k Koprj va ^exo-a-y? " forget the girl."
In Cyprus this gen. accompanies various verbs e.g. Xrja-ixovio " forget,"
dOOvfxovixaL " remember," aKovoi " hear," /xvpL^ofxat " smell (of)," eyyi^co
" touch," i/w^o) " understand," ycXw " deride." Cf. also 44, n. 1.
48. (4) The gen. may be absolute and serve for adverbial
expressions e.g. w tov OdfxaTO'i " oh the miracle " tov )^6vov " next
year," tov kolkov " in vain," /iuds KOTravtd? " with one blow," fjiovoixLd<s
" all at once," fxovoxpovov " in the same year," KovToXoyrjs " in a
word."
Cf.

6a

Texts

III. 7

TTj^ 'TToXrjo-fxov^a-d)

49. The accusative

sense, replacing

Apart from
ing
"

verbs

54,

approach,"

is

(1) the object case in the widest

very frequently the

Gk. gen. and

a.

dat.

note the ace. construction with the follow" follow,"

aKXovOco
"

fityXi^co

keep

d/covco

watch,"

"

obey,"

aTravrco,

^vycovco

dvTafjL(t)v(Oy

dvTiKpv^co " meet," ^e-^wpi^co (also mid.) " I separate (myself)

from

"

(o

eVa?

toi^

aXXo hev

r]^e')(wpL^e),

^ecfyevyo)

" escape,"

irpocprdvco " overtake," ^orjOo) " help," nroXefiu) " fight " (or

with
(somebody or something)," irpocKwo!}
" humble myself before," " do honour to," eXew " give alms,"
avXXoyeti/jiat,
aTrXw^v L^ofjLat " pity," Xvirovfiai " deplore "

yLte),

iTLcrrevco

" believe

(avXXoyi^ofMai) " think upon," ev^op^ai " pray,"


over," "

enjoy" (or with

7kx), da/jua^ofiat "

%at/)ft) "

wonder

rejoice

at " (or with

and avro) ^apeiifiaL " am tired of," KaTairidvofxaL " under-take."


Note also that many verbs are used both as transitives
A locality or place affected
and as intransitives,
176.
(yid

-z;.

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

36

by a verb

of

Kci/jLTTovf; (I.

a.

motion
8)

may

stand in ace.

Kare/Saive raov

e.g.

"he came down through the

fields,"

jupiae

/3ovva Kal XayKcihca " he

wandered over mountain and valley,"


irepaae X0770U9 Kal Ka/uL7rov<; " he marched through forest and
held," Ti}? 0dXaaaa<i ra KVfjLara rpe^co " over the billows of

the sea I hasten

"

cf.

also 51.

How

an originally passive or reflexive verb may through a


pecuHar development in meaning take the ace. as object may be
seen in crTcf)avu>vofjiaL, lit. " I am garlanded " (a ceremony at the
celebration of a wedding in the church, and consequently) = '' I
marry " ; thus, e.g., rrjv o-rc^ai/oivcrat " he marries her."
50.

(2)

double accusative

beyond

carried sometimes
(a) Ace.
crrevT) tt)

vd ^XV^
yi.r)T

'^^

man

"

object

fjLTJre

+ predicative

they have

little

"have God

^^^ ^otjOeta

dvOpcoTTo

either

the

of

(pavraala

very

is

or jycc^cur,"

to be

ace.

power

exowe

e.g.

of imagination,"

as helper," Be

oka pohiva rd
tt)

e;^w ttX^o

cr

^XeTrco " I see every^-

rov Xaov

y\u)(T(Ta

the language of the people ordinary,"

know you

being

Kal TraWrjfcdpL " I consider thee no longer

thing rosy," Xev irpoaruxv


" I

common

Gk. usage.

a.

ere

an honourable man,"

^epco

"

they

call

ddpwiro

tl/juio

'sjrvXXov'^ ivofju^e

"

rU

rov TTidvet

he regarded the axe-blows as fleas,"


he makes him a friend," deXei vd rrrdpr) rr) Ovyarepa
rod PaauXid yvvalKa " he wishes to secure the daughter of
the king for wife," tov e^^aXav (or e^avepfocrav) yjrevrr} " they
To-eKovpih
(piXo "

proved him a

liar," ecj^K^taoe

"

PacnXid
he makes it into gold," or, " he
IvTa vd Ka/xg roaa ypoaa " what will

his house magnificent," tov eKUfiav

king," TO

Kavei fidXa^ia

makes gold out

of it,"

made
they made him

to aTrlrL tov Xafiirpo " he

"

he do with so much money ? " to Kavco SovXetd " I make it my


work (task)," " I apply myself to it," Bevco BefiaTia to ardpt
" I bind the corn into sheaves," rpcavTacpyXXa rd irXeKO)

Kopcove^ " I

weave

roses into garlands."

The

e.g. fx^^
prep, yta is also used instead of the predicative ace.
fipdxovs yta Kpe/3ySart "I have the rocks for a bed," beside ex^
T0U9 Aoyyov? crvvTpocf>id " I have the forests as comrades," rrjv i^7]T'r]ae
yiOL yvvoLKa "he sought her for wife," tov KXaiyio yia Trc^a/xeVo "I
:

Toix;

lament him as dead."


(Jb)

Ace. of the whole

+ ace.

of the part affected (rare)

TOV KevTpcoae to BdxTvXo ev dyKadaKi

him

in the finger."

"

as,

a small thorn pricked

"

MORPHOLOGY
(c)

Ace. of the person (or the object)

with the verbs fiaOalvay

e.g.

37

about, ask

" teach,

for," vcrrepw, (rrepevco "

+ ace.

of the thing
" inquire

learn," ptorw

deprive

of," yefil^co (jiofii^co)

with," (j)opr(ov(o " load with," rayi^a) " feed with,"

" fill

" satisfy

"

cause to drink," x^p'^^^^^


aayiTe^; fie jSapeh " thou hittest
"
fie 6eXi<;

me

ttotlI^co

one (or myself)," and even


with arrows " note also ru
;

what do you want with me, of

me ?

When

the verb is changed into a passive (which is rare, v.


then the double aces, become in (a) double noms. and in (c)
nom. and ace: e.g. inda-rqKav c^lKol "they became (were made)
friends," but rov virvo tov crrepeverat "he is deprived of his sleep,"
apKXa eTvai yLOfxoLTrj if/iopt "the cupboard is filled with bread,"
rj
cfiopTiopvo<s (fiXovpLo, " ladcu with florins."
2. In (c) the accusatives of the thing have to some extent taken
also for the ace. the prep, diro or
the place of the a. Gk. gen. or dat.
as, yto/xwo-ev (or ye/xto-ev) to o-Trirt aTro yvi/aiKc?
fji offers an alternative
" the house was full of women," ot /xotpes ryjv L)(ave TrpotKiVet p oXis
Tts 6/xopc/)ts " the fates had endowed her with every charm."
1.

175),

An

51. (3)
" he sleeps

blame

ace. of content occurs:

e.g.

in Koipdrac vttvo

soundly (deep sleep)," to. (fjTaiw " I am to


rpe'^^ow Ppo-^i-] ra Bdfcpva " the tears flow in

^adv

for it,"

streams," /zeXi rpe^ovv ra fiddia aov " thy eyes drop honey,"

he distils the fluid of life " = " he is


prime of life," Xi^avih pvpl^eu^ " thou are fragrant with
incense," ^yaivw {^yd^o)) irepiiraro " I go out (take out) for a
walk, I go walking," KdOopuai aravpoiroBL " I sit with my legs
crossed," nraipvco dyKoXid " I take to an embrace, embrace."
A local ace. has developed directly from such usages e.g.
eTTtjyav Kvvrjyi " they went hunting (to the chase)," 7ra/xe
aTTLTi " we are going home," to iraipvei airir dov (Texts III.
o-rd^ei TO %v/>to T/79 fo)^? "

in the

12)

"

home
and

he takes

it

home "

analogous also eipai o-7rm

" (beside ctto airiTi).

fast distinction

It is impossible

between the usage

of (1)

to

" I

draw

and that

am

at

a hard
of (3).

ytako yiaXo TrrjyaLvovpe " we


i^ote also the following phrases
are going along the beach," appevt^ovfie aKpyj aKpyj "we are sailing
close along the coast,' TrepTrarw to /Sovvo ^ovvo " I wander over
:

mountain and valley,"

TrepTraroi

tov to^xo toI^o " I

am

walking along

the wall."
52. (4)

The adverbial use

of the ace.

(v.

122

f.)

is

not confined merely to stereotyped forms of the neut. sing, or


neut. pi.

it

is

used also freely in other constructions

designate poioit of time and duration of time, extent

and

to

distance

"

38

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


manner

in space, price, measure, and sometimes


"

(iKelvrj) rr) vv-)(ra " in

one day,"

fita fiepa

e.g.

the (that) night," to irovpuo

"

early in the morning," /xta KvpcaKr) irpcot " early one Sunday,"
Tov iraXio Kaipo " in the good old days," rt? TrpoaXXe^ {sc.
" lately,"

fiepe^)

time," Too-e?
"

" recently,"

(^oXe?)

(j)op6<;

')(.

years,"

board

three years " (note

not laughed for three

three cubits long" (also aavihu

is

three cubits long


fjuaKpeia air

to

to KaaTpo elvat

"),

"

%(w/5io

from the village," BeKa


Tpet? Bpaxf^e^i " the

Bpa-)(/ju<i

TrevTjvTa XetpTci

more

is

for

it

"I (am

r.

Tpel<^

fiepdBLa

tt.

cope^ (rpia /jLiXta)

ofjLopcj^vTepr) "

ten

to fit^Xio KoaTt^et (a^l^ei)

worth) three drachmae,"

(is

how much do you

take

^aKpv " the


/a.
"a board

m-rj-^e^

distant three hours (miles)

fair,"

book costs

TToao TO TTouXet? " for


" I

the fort

(j^ope^;, ')(^iXia

times, a thousand times

Buo

we had

101), to aaviht elvai Tpeh

etc., v. p.

such a long

times," BeKairevre fxepe^

" for

')(^p6vov<^

yeXdaovfMe "

va

6t%ayLt6

many

'so

during a fortnight," rpeU

Tp.

" for

Toaov Kaipo

two

sell it

drachmae,"

"

to Tratpvco

to

irXepoivw

pay 50 centimes

willing to)

for it,"

"in the nicest way," /oax^T (III. 13. c) "in


peace, quietly," Xoyo to Xoyo " word for word," i.e. " little by
uta

(i)/jLop(f)cd

little,

gradually."

tov Kaiy/xeVo
53. (5) Note also the following isolated usages
"the poor (fellow)!" (exclamation of pity), tov Karepydpt "the
scoundrel " tov Kvp oSopo " behold Mr. Th. " KaX(o<s tov " a
Avelconie for him," dm^e/x.a tov?, dvdOefxa eVcVa " curse upon them,
upon thee " vd /xc or yid jue " here I am," vd Toi/(e) (beside vd tos)
"here he is," va ttjv 'Aperrj arov "there is thine A.'' (beside va 6
:

va'rc (v. 218, n. 2) 'ivav -rrapd "there take your one para."
Cf. also vava vava to yiovh fxov in the cradle song, and ^a to 6^6

Xapos),

" by God."

54. Gen. and ace.

compete

for

the function of the

indirect or dat. object.


(a)

The

the pronoun
letter to

Charon,"

gen.
;

the
77

most commonly used both

is

as, eBcoKs
little

x^P^

t^9

(girl),"

^^^

/itKpri<i

tov

Xdpov

irpeTreu

'^^*

of the noun and


to ypd/x/uLa " he gave the

"

KaKo^dvT) "

it

vexed

widowhood becomes her

not," KaKo eVa/te? tov TraiBiov " thou didst injury to the boy,"

tov Kafxav Tocre?


<7ov ^d)va^6

(but
"

TaiptfjuovLe^

Xoyca Kaicd

(f)o)vd^o)

" I

call

he told his mother,"

"

to "

" they treated him so formally,"


he addressed bad words to you
elire T7J<; fidwa^; tov
takes ace.)

jjuoa-TeiXe

6c6<; "

God commissioned

MORPHOLOGY
"

me," Tou Kovvrpaardpet


drjXvKov yvpL^et
"

%6/3ta

TCL

"

they

he

man

the

resists

39
r

hiin,"

dpaeviKov rou

turns to his wife," toO dirXdivave

out their

stretched

hands

him,"

to

rov

"

he smiles at him."
Note also the gen. for dat.,
particularly with dKXovdca " follow," Kovrevoo " approach " (cf,

^afioyeXa

49),

"remind

Ov/jLi^(o

^aXevco, yvpi^o),
" I

(one

^t]tco " beg,

of

something)"; also with


e.g. aov ^tjto) tt) %a/3t

request,"

beseech your favour," avro irov fiov ^aXe-x/re? elvat ttoXv

/jLeydXo

(TEXTS

considerable

"what you requested

2)

I. d.

of

me

very

is

" (also ;j^a\eua) aTro).

1. The gen. may also represent an ancient Dat. ethicus or Dat.


commodi {i.ncommodi) e.g. 6 ^Atos 8k <tov ttjv eT8e (Texts I. a. 11)
"the sun saw her not for thee" vd aov k epx^raL 6 ^tAos aov
"behold, there comes for you your friend," aov OeXo) aKo/xa 8eKa
SpaxfJi^s "I want 10 drachmae more from you" (properly "at your
:

expense
2.

").

The following examples

to the place of the dat.

Trape

will

show how the

tow

irXovanov

gen. has succeeded

to. <f>XovpLd

(Texts

I. a.

8) "take the money of the rich " {i.e. "from the rich "), riroia poSa
Kol Tov Xdpov Kavovv 6jxop(fia to. aTtjOia "such roses make fair even

Charon's breast " (breast to Charon), fxov -mdveT y dvaTrvo-q " my


breathing stops," yid aov "thy health," = "health to thee" (and
analogously also dAAot rov " woe to him," X'^P^ ^"^ " j^y ^^ J^^ ")
(h)

The

ace.

is

not capriciously used as the equivalent

forms a marked characteristic of the Northern


dialects and of Pontus, cf. III. 1 1 (Velvendos, Maced.)
e.g.
avTov Tovv eBovKav dXX' [ivid yvalKa " they gave him another

of the gen., but

wife," Toi) iraalv'-

tt)

yvavKa a Kpvtpo vd

yvalKa r

''

he brings

it

to his wife,"

" tell

tt)

thy wife no secret " ^ from


7rfj<;
III. 12 (Thrace) fie yelire "he said to me," III. 10 (Lesbos)
TOV eKave riblx "he gave him command," III. 13 (Pontus):
e.g. elirev to Xeovrdp rov irdphov " said the lion to the cat,"
arpiovv drov ro ^vXov " they give him a cudgelling."

The

gen.

/jltjv

therefore

regarded as the

normal usage.

ace.

Hapdaxo^,

BaAawptrr;?,

to be

commonly confused by the best writers


poetry.
Thus in our texts the writers BrjXapas,

Neither are gen. and


either in prose or in

is

IToAe/xTy?,

Apoatvrj'S,

M.dvo<s,

IlaAa/ia?,

use the gen. ; while, on the other hand,


both 2ovro-os (of Constantinople), the Thessalian 'Prjya<s <E>eparo?,
ZaAaKtoo-Ttts (of Epirus), and '^vxdpr)'; use the ace.
In general these
writers appear to be guided by the usage of their home, still the
Epirote ZaXaKUiaras in contrast to the Epirotes BiyAapa? and

'Ec^raAtwTT^s,

IIciAAt/?

^KXixpav

/Sao-iXid

the king's hen."

rou

irXi

(IIL 11)

is

therefore to be translated " they stole

40

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

uses the ace. in his tales from Epirus (Texts I. d. 1, 2,


the other hand, writers from Northern Greece also employ
the gen.
apparently because of the usage of the majority ; cf. ejj.
%ovT<jo^, Texts II. a. 9, />to9 mdvcT r/ avaTrvot] "my (to me) breathing
stops," beside rj y/Xtocrcra fxov fie SeVcrat "my tongue is (to me)
shackled."
BaXaco/otrrys

On

3).

(c)

The

*9

prep.

datival gen. or ace.

(o"6,

eZ?)

may

thus the Texts

be used in place of the


I.

a. 8, 1, d. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6,

examples also of '9 e.g. eScw/ce


TT) PovXa cTTo iratBl " he gave the boy the signet-ring," elrre
cTTov irarepa rov " he said to his father " or even a mixture
of construction, as va fjurj '^^pova-ra^ ere TrXova-to, <j)TQ?'^bv va
(I. b. 7) " be not debtor to a rich man, lend not
fjuY] haveL^r]<;
to a poor man."
Even the higher literature employs '9 as
well as gen. or ace.
e.g. ri ai(^e\el aro ^evo " what use is
?
it to the foreigner
" (Paraschos), 'X^apl^ere ra /Bi^Xia aa^
arov<i ^6vov<; " you give your books to foreigners " (Psichari),
aXkoijjLovo arr) Xvyeprj " alas, for the maiden " (Chadzopulos).
in addition to the gen., give rarer

noteworthy fact that the writers who employ the ace.


pronoun for the clat. apparently avoid the ace. of a noun, i.e.
they prefer '?.
In the case of the pronoun, '9 is used only with the
fuller forms ( 134 ff.)
e.g. a avrov xp^ottoj (I. d. 2) " to him 1 am
1.

It is a

of the

debtor," avro
to

Sh

eTvat rtVoTe

ifxeua (I. d. 2)

" that does not matter

me."

2. The verb {b)jxoLa.t,oi " I am like, resemble," may be construed


with the gen. or the ace, with the preps, '9 or fxi, or with o-dv
{eixoiaae rj (iacriXda tojv ovpavwv crav dvOpwTro'i (TextS II. b. 6) " the
kingdom of heaven is lik^ a man ").
With the nom. this verb
means "appear," e.g. p^otd^eL rp^XX6<s "he appears to be crazy."

ARTICLE.
55.

Forms

of the Definite Article


Sin^jular.

Nom.


MORPHOLOGY
different

rl?

now more common than

is

by gen.

replaced

or

ard

and

ace.

aTo{y)

combinations, in sing.
{(JtU),

41

also

<TTr}{v)

re?.
The dat. is
by the prepositional
aro, in pL cttol'?, crrh

54).

(rf.

In the Ionic islands, in Epirus, Crete and other Aegean


rcr- forms are to be found

1.

islands the following initial

Plur.

Sing.

m.

Gen.
Ace.

The forms

much

being

n.

m.

t(tI (tctoI)

f.

2s^ora.

rarj

(r^-Jy)

= rrj^ and

t a-rj

Tcrl (to-^)

TO-oi'(s), To-t (tctoV)

t(tI

= tls

are

n.

f.

Tcrl

most common, the others

rarer.

2. ov for 6, TQv{v) for tov ; r*- d*- and v (fr. t,v) = Tq(v) ; t or rf*
and d = Tov; t? = t^;, tov^ (in A^elvendos, Lesbos) the forms being
governed by the phonetic laws of the Northern Greek ( 7, n. 1).

Lower

Initial r drops out in

Italy

The

3.

Gk. form

a.

= t6,

become

dialect, <tt6v^ arTr)(v), crro, etc.,

= rri{v).

cro, <ty}, etc.

at (e) is still

In the Pontic
cf.

16, n. 4.

found in Lower Italy (Otr.)

the ace. pi. /. ras (beside rt?) still


masc. as well as fern.
survives in Chios.
The more important new dialectic formations in
addition to those given in n. 1 and 2 are i = 6 in Northern Gk.,
Velvendos, Saranda Klisies, and Lesbos, tI = tov in Saranda
e.{}.

for

Klisies, tI

= tov,

rrjs, to)v,

and the Maina,

tovs,

tI<s

also for

rts

in Pontus,

ace.

m.

pi.

tow = twv

in Cephalonia
in Karpathos, Saranda

Klisies.

Some

4.

for

nom. and
56.

have reduced the forms of the article to very


thus (in Cappad. and also in Pontus) to is used

dialects

small dimensions

ace. sing., to. for

The

numeral "one,"

Indefinite
v.

nom. and

ace. pi. of all genders.

Article

is

identical

with

tlie

128.

Only in Cappadocia (or rather Pharasa) the indef. art. has a


special form a or (before vowels and explosives, v. Texts III. 14. b)
dv for j/as " one." The oricjin of this form is obscure
possibly due

to a transformation of va (*ttva).

The Definite Article is placed before proper names


and before geographical names (countries, islands,
cities, mountains, rivers), also before names of months and
days eg. 6 TidvvT]^ " John " (pi. ol Tidvvi^e^ " people with the
name John "), 77 Map La (pi. ol MapU<;), 6 Acdfco<i (well-known
AapPlvo<;, 6 (Kvp) Ad^apo^ " (Mr.)
hero of Greek liberty),
57.

of all kinds

'.

'

'

L.," o 'AXrj
6l6<^ "

iraad^

"

Ali Pasha,"

God," o Xpta-ro^

'Iy8/e?,

r)

Kprjrr],

r\

rj

rj

Evpdyiri],

Xlo, ol Wape^,

MeXiro^ivT) (the Muse), o


r)

1]

Tepfiavia, 6 Moptd<;, ol

IJoXi (Constantinople),

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

42
j)

'

A6r]va, 6

KafJb7ro<;

rfj^

yLO(f)vpL

Evpci)Ta<;',

"Apra^

rod MapaOcova
" the

6 ^ATrplXc^,

bridge

" the

of

plains of M.," to

A./'

"OXi^/xtto?,

irapaaKevt] "Friday," to

tj

crd^paro

" Saturday."

Indeclinable expressions may also receive the article e.g. /xe


"with to-morrow," to dve/3a kol KaTi^a (imperat., v. 218,
n. 2) "the going up and down," ra o^oo "the outside."
On subordinate clauses with the art., v. 266, 1 n., and 269 n.
1.

TO avpto

The

art.

is

always

when

repeated

an

adjectival

or

substantival attribute follows a substantive with the def. art.


also usually repeated (almost

it is

the articulated attribute precedes the word to which


e.g.

always before names) when

6 BopiCL^ 6 7raya)fjL6vo<; " the icy Boreas,"

r)

copa

77

it

refers

(opcapbevrj

the hour appointed," aro Be^l x^P'' '^^ yvpuvo " in the naked
right hand," o Karjpbevo^ 6 Tidvvr)<^ " poor J.," tj KarjfjiivTj rj

"

l3oaKoirov\a " the

wretched shepherdess," to
ra piaKpLva r darpa " the
TO. TToXXa TO, BuKpva " the copious tears," to
" the other bird " (Texts I. d. 1 beside ot
" the
other physicians "), ara epr^pua to.

" the

evil

look,"

desert foreign land,"

mother"

(I. a.

wretched man,"

2.

the

As

art.

little

bag

"King H."

of pearls" (c/. 43).

a consequence of this rule the gen. never stands between


for exx. v. 294.

The

employed with predicates, e.g.


a German," hev elaao ^ptcTTiai^o? " you

indef. art. is not

T6pixavi<^ " I

am

crov " the

child

is

"

Oavd ireOalpa)
a Greek I will die," ae ^epw
dOpwiro " I esteem thee as an honorable man," t6v

thine," TpaLKo<i

eXeyav Ad^apo " they called him


"

ytuTpol
" in

Note
you
water," to aaKKovXc

are not a Christian," to iraoBl ehac Blko

TifjLLo

^eva

and substantive ;

58.
etpiai,

to ttovXI

dWot

iaelf; ol avrpeicopieuoc "

braves," to irorrjpL to vepo " the glass of

TO piapyapiTdpL "the

dWo

the
crKvXa y Kepd crov " the bitch, thy

r)

16), 6 ^aai\ea<^ {o)''Tirvo<i

iycb 6 Ka7)fjL6vo<; " I

KaKo to fidrL
distant stars,"

L.,"

top eKapuav jSaa-tXid

they made him king."

1. Kather unusual is cTpai eva^ AopSos (Texts I. d. 5) "I am a


lord"; but the c?e/. art. maybe employed with the predicate: e.g.

" I am death," et/xaL 6 TLdvvr]<; " I am J."


may be remarked that in general the indef. art. is used
more sparingly than, e.g., in German compare the beginning of 11.
eTfiaL 6 6dvaT0<s

2.

It

b. 4, or, e.g., ^x^t


p.vT7]

wpaio

o-ttltl

" he has a large nose,"

" he has a beautiful house," tx^i fxeydKr)


tt}s

pawovXas

crov

rj

vxv ^^

'*'^'

7^"-

MORPHOLOGY
KJivXaxTo crov "

va

43

thy mother's blessing be a protection for thee," ^rcoxoi/


"do not lend to a poor man," aro x^pi- /^acrra

8avt^r/s

fxrj

14) "in his hand he holds a lightning-flash," 6


KaXvTpo Trpafxa (I. d. 6) " Christ made a better
thing," aWrj cf3opd "another time," aXA.77 ^opecrid (I. d. 1) "another
garment." In such cases, however, the indef. art. is not impossible.
aa-TpoTreXeKL (11.

Xptorros

a.

^cfiTLa<j

Substantive.

59.

The most convenient method

the declension of substantives

In this

way

groups or

may

similar forms

declensions.

of classification of

according to their gender.

is

be best reduced to uniform

the masculines

All

fall

again into

two sub-groups according as the nom. (and ace.) pi. ends in


-01 (ace. -Of?) or -e?.
All the feminines have -e? in the nom.
(and ace.) pi.
The neuters in the nom. (and ace.) pi. end in
-a (more rarely in -rj).
According as the sing, and pi. are
parisyllabic or non-parisyllabic there are further subdivisions.

In all the paradigms two case-endings have the same method of


formation, viz. the ace. sing, and the gen. pi.
the former being
identical with the vowel-stem (v), the latter always ending in -^v).
On linal -v, cf. 34 ; in the following paradigms this -v is omitted in
the noun, as it occurs only dialectical ly in the two cases in question.
The gen. pi. on the mainland frequently ends in cove, especially if
the o) is accented (/cXe^Twi/c).

60.

The following declensions are accordingly

differentiated
I.

Nom.

a.

in -09,

I.

in -a? (-a?), -is

pi.

Masculine Nouns.
-ot,,

(-779, -5?, -t?),

'parisyllabic

non-parisyllahic:
II.

in -a, -i

(-77,

-t),

-e? (-?), -ou?,

pi. -e?,
pi. -Se?.

Feminine Nouns.

-0 (w), -ov,

parisyllabic

non-parisyllabic
III.

-e,

pi. -e?,
pi. -Se?.

Neuters.

a. in -o(p), -io{v) [-to(i/)], -u (-l),

jiarisyllabic

pi. -a,

(non-parisyllabic

pi. -la, -to).

to

be

44

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


h.

in -09,
parisi/llahic

pi

"

MORPHOLOGY

45

patronymics in -TrofXo? ^ (Jrj/nrjTpaKOTrovXof; " Son of Dimi-apo<; (Traihapo^ " bigger


in
tracis "), and augmentatives
Proparoxytones like dyye\o<; " angel," dvfjLo<; " wind,"
d6p(07ro<; " man," airccnoXo^ " apostle," e^iropoq " merchant,"
" teacher," 7r6\6fio<; "

hdaKoko^i

war," avvTpo(j)o<^ " companion,"

in the
undergo change of accent
proparoxytone, in the pi. paroxytone

ddpcoTTO
dv/jLO(;

is

ddpcoTToi

dd p(t)7roi{u)

dve/jLOLy GvvTpo<f>o<;

not quite general

thus, ddpcoiro^ dOpcoTrov

d6p(t)7rov<;,

8daKaXo<;

avvrpo^ot.

is

SaaKuXoi,

This rule, however,

sometimes in the gen.

accentuation {dvefiov)

may

they are usually

sing,
;

sing, the ancient

retained, while in the pi. d{v)6p(oiroL

be found.

Notes on the several cases.


Instead of the voc.
some proper names or appellatives (JSIko^;, Uerpo^,
XprjaTo^, AiaKos:) used as such form a voc. in -o NIko, Uerpo,
also Xova-rpo for Xovarpo^ " shoeblack."
etc.
To ^eo9, ^to?
" God," voc. {dee and) 6i
In Pontic dhe(i>Xe "
brother
')(p6vo^ "year" gives gen. pi. ')(pov(o(ve)
(usually dSepcj^e).
beside %/oo^'w
so also Texts III. 3, ddpcoirSive from ddpwiro^.
62.

in

-e,

On

the plural-formation X0709 Xcyca,


1.

Gk.
ace.

In some

dialects,
e.f/.

tctI

etc., v.

96, 100, n.

1.

Aegean region, in the North.


Minor the nom. pi. is employed also for the
<f>LXoi = Tov^ <^tAovs (Thera, los), tovs aOpuiiroL, and other
dialects, especially in the

and

in Asia

In Cappadocia the cases of the pi. have generally fallen into


desuetude: e.g. (Texts III. 14. b) nom. ol Xvt^ol "the wolves," gen.
Tov AuT^oi, ace. Tot XvT^oi. Pontic has advanced farther on a way of its
own ; i'j\ the following paradigms, in which those forms are bracketed
that are required merely according to the North. Gk. vowel laws, or
that correspond to the common Gk. forms
exx.

S.

Nom.

a^pcDTTOS 2

6 aOpuiTTOv, aOpioTTOV

Gen.

t' ddpoiTTL (t

</)tAos 2
^

dOpttiTr) *

ah.\<^6<i 2
^

6 d8X(j>6v

tI <^t/\ovos

r dScX^t

o (^tXov

dA.7ros ^
^

6 dXeirov
(t'

dXeTrov)

(t dSiXcfiov)

Acc.
PI.

Nom.

(to ^iXov) (tov dSeA<^di') (tov dXeirov)

(tov a6po)Trov)
(ol dOpwiTj

(ol (f>lX)

a.8\<f)'

dOpo)7r)

T dXvTTOvh'i
(ol dXcTTot)

Gen,

r dOpoiTridv

t\ ^tXttov

Ace.

(t d^pwTTs)

(tI <f>LXTs)

dScX^twv
T dSiXffii

t'

T dXiTTOvSe
(t dAcTTovs)

Literally " youth," " son "

Without the

Witli the definite article.

On
4

= Lat. 2mllMs),

but treated as a

suflfix.

definite article.

the other hand, ri deaKoKopbs from 6 de^KaXov

**

teacher."

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

46

2. In Scyros the nom. sing, both of substantives and adjectives


ends in -eq (ace. -c) e.g. TrAarai'es = Trkdravos " plane-tree," ai/aAarc? =
avaXaro? " saltless, stale," f3dT<; = jSoltos "bramble-bush," ao-Trpe?
"white," ya/xTTpis "son in-law," ypajxixeueq "written," KaAcs "good."
But all appellatives in -os do not take this transformation.
:

Some nouns

63.

according

that

their

to

inflection

should belong to this category are indeclinable when they

name

precede a proper
76^0?

" old

" leader "

man,"

as a

Such are Kvpio^

title.

" saint,"

wyio<;

KaireravLOf;

"

" Mr.,"

captain,"

thus, o Kvp Aa^apo^^ 6 yepo-KoXoKOTpcovr}^ " the

aged K.," 6" A{'y)L-Ti,dvv7j<^y 6 Kairerav

The masculines

NLKrjTa^;, etc.

same a. Gk.
examples have indeed been
replaced by diminutives in -t ( 97), some have also partially fallen
into the following group ( 66 n.)
while, on the other hand, this
declension in -os (in addition to loan-words) has been somewhat
enriched by words like yc'pos, etc., 65, n. 1.
2. Of the a. Gk. formations the contracted nouns, the so-called
Attic declension, and the feminine o-stems have disappeared.
A
fragment of the contracted class (v. also adjectives) is still to hand in
1.

Many

declension.

of

in -os correspond exactly to the

the

ancient

"mind,"

vovs

nom.

pi. vo9

"intellect," ace. vov{v), pi. vovSes:

are not really vernacular.^

gen. sing, voos and


ancient contracted

The other

forms have been replaced by new words e.g. ttAoDs by ra^iBi.


"hare"=:a. Gk. Aayws, is inflected like any other masc.
The old feminines were supplanted in various ways:
(a) they became masc.
e.g. 6 TrAaravos " plane-tree," 6
:

Aayo?

rpd<fioq

"grave"
{h) they remained fem., but dropped the -s and passed over into
another declension e.g. rj ^dfjio " Samos " ; r. 87 ;
(c) they became neut. in -o(v) (to /Sdcravo " agony "), or -os
(to 8poVos " dew ") ; cf. 92, 99 f.
(d) they became fem. in -a (irapOiva '* maiden," KaurjAa " camel "),
or were otherwise transformed by the addition of a fem. ending
rj TrXxtTavid " plane-tree," Spocnd " dew," dpKovSa "she-bear"
;
djxTreXL " vine,"
(e) or supplanted by the diminutive forms
:

" island," pa/SSi " stafl"" ; or


(/) were replaced by other words: Bpo/xos for 68o's "way,"
/xovoTTttT " path " for rj drpaTros, appwarta " sickness " for rj i/oo-os.
vTjaL

All the other forms do not belong to the common tongue ; the
old forms are still to be found sometimes, but only dialectical ly ; v.
The same word may occur in different modifications
87, n. 1.
:

TrAaravos, TrAaraj/ta, TrAaravt.

B. Nom.
64.

The stem vowels

are

PI.

-6s.

a, i (t,

rj),

e (e), it (ov),

unite with the terminations in the following


^

More commonly rd

/xvaKa

" brain," to

manner

Ke<pd\i

"head."

which

47

MORPHOLOGY.
Non-parisyllabic.

Parisyllabic.

Singular.

Nom.

-a,

-i-, -e-,

Gen.

-a,

-i,

-e,

-u

Ace.

-a-

-i-,

-e-,

-u- (n).

-u- s

Plural,
in place

-a-, -i-, -e-, -u- des

of the

-a,

stem-vowel

-e,

-i,

do(n)

-tc-

-a-, -i-, -e-, -u- des.

Analogous to the usage cited in 63, there are indeclinable


forms of TraTra? " priest," and %aTf^)9 " pilgrim " e.g. 6 irairaJ;;//,7JT/cit9" Priest (Father) D.," o ^j^aT^^-KwcrTa? "Pilgrim K."
:

Parisyllabic.
65.

o yipovra^;

"old man."
Plural.

Singular.

The

Nom.

ryepovTa<;

Gen.

fyepovra

Ace. (Voc.)

jipovTa

jepovTco
yipovT6<;.

following are similarly declined


" ether,"

ai6epa<i

neighbour," epcoTa^

^'

father," <j>v\aKa<; "

" love,"

"

yelrova^

prince,"

KkrjTrjpaq " constable," irarepa^

watchman," ^etfiwia^

practically all barytones in

This class had

a(j)pa<; " air," " wind,"

" ruler,"

dp^ovra^

"

1.

yepovre^

"

winter

"

that

is,

-a<?.

its origin in

the

a.

Gk. masc. consonant stems

Out of the old ace. sing. ypovTa{v) a new


(or so-called 3rd decl.).
nom. (ycpoi/ras) and gen. (ycpovra) were formed corresponding to
Quite mechanically stated, the rule for
decl. form
their nom. sing, by attaching a -? to the ace. sing. ; yet all the a. Gk.
nouns have not been re-modelled in this fashion, yepo? "old man"
and Xapos "Charon" being found at least equally frequent alongside of yeporras Xapovra?, 6 apxo<s " the leader " alongf^ide apxovTa<i,
and SpctKos always for a. Gk. SpaKwv (a monster frequently met with
KA.e</)T7??

this

in

KXe(f>TT]

formation

fable).

Cf.

( 68), etc.

is

the

also

a.

tSpos

Gk. masculines of the 3rd

"sweat"

(tSpojs)

beside

and

lSpTwa<s,

"president" (borrowed from the literary language). ^ The


inflexion is the same as for ^tAo5 ; but note voc. yepo, Xdpo (beside
The consonantal decl. has been very
Xape), SpoLKo (beside SpctKc).
frequently ousted by the creation of diminutives in -t (v. 97),
Avhich are often employed side by side with the other forms da-repL
(dcTTcpas) "star," Oept "animal," kovSovvl
"bell," o-kovX-^kl (and

TTpoco-Tos

The word

6 -jrapu^v)

remains indeclinahle

6,

" the one present"


i],

to

irapu).

also from the

literary language

'

48 HANDBOOK OF THE
"worm,"

(TK^XrjKa^)

MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

Bovtl "tooth," TratSt "child,"

"boy," "fellow";

Aiovrapt " lion," TTohdpL " foot " beside the rarer ttoSl and TvoSas (as
in Otranto).
Other words have been ousted by entirely new ones,
as a. Gk. kuW by a-KvXt (or ctkvXos) " dog."
2. The a. Gr. paradigm vcavias, ra/xia?, etc., has as such dis-

appeared or
3.

no longer distinguishable from KkrjTrjpaq.


for TrevyJTitiv, Texts I. a. 7 (Cephalonia).

is

TTci/y/TCDv

The

66.

paradigm

decL of masculines in

given

just

ace.

Plur.

yeL7ova<; "

neighbour

fyeiTofot,

Gen. 'yeiTopov
Similarly

yeiTovay

^eirova

Ace.
:

KopuKa^,

into the

pi.

-o?.

Sing.

Nom.

shows

frequently

and nom. and

transition in the gen. sing,

jeirovov^.

and

(f>v\aKafi, ap^ovTa<i,

Note the change

of accent

others.

especially in the gen. sing.

Many

masculines in -05 have taken on in the nom. sing, theending -a?; as, eyyom? " grandson " = cyyovo?, c/xTropa? (and efXTropos)

"merchant," Ka/?ovpas "crab" (a. Gr. Kafi^Lpoq), /xayepas "cook"


Gr. ixdyupo<s).
These are declined like yLTova<s (nom. pi. also-

(a.

accented thus

Some

67.

Ka^ovpoi).

C/XTTOpOt,

irregularities

avrpa^; " man,"

ixrjva<;

"

month

"'

and fMrjvoc) have dvTpa)(u), fi7)vo){v) in the gen. pi.


these nouns and irarepa^ " father " have also occasionally in

(pi. fjLrjve^

the gen. sing, avrpo^ (and avrpov),


(alongside tov avrpa,

firjva,

ixrjvo^

(and

/jltjvov),

On the other hand, fr. Trarcpa?, gen. pi. twj/ 7raTcpa)(i/).


occasional transition into the non-parisyllabic class, v. 73.

Sing.

the-

Gen.

KXe(j)r7j

K\6(f>T(o(v6)

KXe(f)T7j

ArXe^re?.

Similarly
" sailor,"

Plur.
/cXe(/)Te9

K\e(l>rr}<;

Ace.
" mirror,"

SLaffdrr]^ " traveller," ipydr7](; " v^^orker," Ka6pe<^Tr]^


p.adrjrr)<;

" pupil,"

/iou/JTarTy?

" citizen,"

TroXtTT??

" tailor," x^icrTi)^^

"

mason,"

"

'\|reuTi;9

" liar,"
;

renegade,"

" prophet,"

'n-po(^i)T7}<^

in -r?;? denoting place of origin

art,(OTr)<;,

and

all

vavrr]^
pd(f)Tr}^

the proper

as, Mopicorr]^,

Xirer-

Xtcor?;?, MavLdrrj^, etc.

Many have
70.

On

68. o K\e<i>T'n^ "robber," "Kleft."

Nom.

names

irarpo'i

irarepa).

secondary forms like the non-parisyllabics

v,.

MORPHOLOGY

49

the a. Gk. mascuHnes in -rjs of the 1st


which, so far as they have at all survived,
may be declined according to this paradigm.
2. Such occasional forms as a voc. in -a or a nom. pi. in -ai
arise out of the literary or ecclesiastical language ; thus, ScWora
"bishop," "priest" (Texts I. a. 19), or e/aacrtrcxvat
fr. 8ca-7ro7T75
"amateurs," "dilettanti" (Texts II. b. 7).

This

1.

class represents

decl. (note gen. pi.), all of

69.

corresponding to that of yelrova^

decl.

uncommon

rather

/jbdaToptjf;

66)

is

(beside fidaTopa^;) " master "

is

thus declined
Singular.

Nom.

Plural.
fJidaropoi, fiaaropoi

fjidaropr)^

(and

fjLdo-Top<;)

Gen. fxaaropov (and fido-ropov, ixdaropa)

fiaaropw

Ace.

fiao-Topov;.

fidaroprj

Similarly,

nom.

ace. pi. K\ej>TOL,

Texts

III. 14. b.

Non-parisyllabics.
7ra7ra<; "priest."

70.

Singular.

Plural.

Nom.

iraira^

irairdSe^

Gen.

Traird

irairdhw

Ace. (Voc.) iraira


"

Ke<j)aXd<;

irairdhe^.

words in

Similarly, all

blockhead,"

-a? with accent

kogklvcl^

" miller," (payd^ " eater," "

"

" sieve

gourmand,"

on the
maker,"

final

e.g.

p^vXcovd^

yjrapd^; " fisher,"

yjrcofjidf:

and especially numerous (Turkish) loan-words


baker "
dyd<; " Aga," d/iipd<; " commander-in-chief," " ameer," Kavydf;
;

" quarrel,"

pLTrovraXd^;

" para " (coin), pi.

"

thickhead,"
"

also

"

6vTd<;

money," Tracra?

"

room,"

Pasha,"

irapd^

aov^id^

" pen-knife."

The

Gk. especially Hellenistic)

suffix -a<j is very producbodily peculiarities


Kc^aAa " bighead," Kc^aXa? " big-headed," x'^^^'- " ^iPj" x""^^^ " thick-lipped " ;
and partly to designate a trade or calling a/xa^a " carriage," a/xa^as
"driver," "cabman," yaAa "milk," yaAara? "milkman," koctklvo
" sieve," Koo-Ktvas " sieve-maker," TraTrXw/xa " bedcover," TravXwfxaTas
" manufacturer of or dealer in bedcovers."
2. There is also a plural Trapdhta " money," from Trapa?, Texts
1.

tive,

(a.

to express certain

partly

III.

9.

71.

ing
"

to

Nouns

the

last

north wind,"

in (-ta? -ea?) are generally declined accord-

paradigm:

(povcd^;

"

e.g.

fiaaiXid^

murderer,"

"king,"

'^aXKi.d^

Bopid^

" blacksmith."

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

50

But instead of ^aacXed^;, etc., some dialects show ^aaCKea^


(gen. and ace. tov, to ^aatXia) and plural

Nom. PacnXeihe^
Gen. ^aaL\eih(o{y)
Ace.

Paai\ilhe<^.

Xote that the form jiaorLXea'; is not confined to the dialects


mentioned in 10, n. 1 ; it is found, e.g., also in los, and is a
1.

favourite in the written vernacular

{e.g. (Tvyypa<j>ias in Palamas).


(except Boptas) have arisen from the a. Gk.
nouns in -ev?, in the same way in which yepovras has come from
yepow; -eas passing into -la?, according to 9.
gen. (SacnXLois ( =
a. Gk. ySao-iAews) for the usual f^acnXtd (fSacriXia) is of rare occurThe pi. ol /Jao-tXets comes from the literary language.
rence.
3. In place of such -ca? substantives, forms in -is occur in Lesbos,
Chios, in W. Crete, and other parts of the Aegean (e.g. Icarus), and

N"ouns in

2.

-ta?

also in

gen.

Saranda Khsies

and

e.g.

jSacnXes for /Sao-tA,eas, 6 ^oi/es for

<f)ovea<;,

ace. ^acrtXe, etc.

72.

transition into the o-decl., analogous to yeiroi'a'i

jlt6vol, is rather

uncommon

"
(yoveoi) yov(c)oL " parents
(yovect))

yovLco

(yov6ov<;) yoviov<;.

Here belongs the sing.


Family names in

yovi6<; " father " (a.

Gk. yovev^^ yovei^).


form their pi. in -aloi,
{ol): rpi^a<;
TpifialoL "family of the Griva," 'AvSpovraa^
'Ai^BpovraaLOL, T^a^6XXa<;
T^a^eWaloi.

-a? regularly

73. Sometimes even barytones

syllabic plurals
"

laugher,"

"

shallow

TTare'/DtSe?,

in

-tSe?

^^^

%X^^^^
"

fellow,"
depa^;

or

-aSe?

aeptSe?,

"

-a? form non-pariregularly, %%<?

" gaper,"

yjxGKa^

swaggerer

in

thus,

rarely

Ku^ovpa<;

irairarpkya^

and

irarepdBe^

Ka^ovpdhe^i,

dp^^opra-:

ap')(^ovrdhe<;, etc.

74.
" negro."

^arK?

" pilgrim,"

'Apdirr]^ " Arabian," "

Plural

Singular.

^Xom. ')(aT^r]<i 'Apd7r7}<;


Gen. ^aT^V) 'Apdirrj
Ace.

%aTf^7 'ApdiTT)

Similarly, Turkish
Ka(j)T^f]<i "

Moor,"

j^art^rjhe^ 'ApdiryBe^;

p^arf/JSo) 'ApdirrjSo)
'^aT^/]B6<; *Apd7rr]he^.

and other loan-words

keeper of a coffee-house,"

in

--^9

fjiovarepri^

7ra7rovrafi<^ " cobbler," leveKeT^rj^ " tinker,"

"

(-?/?)

e.g.

customer,"

and other names

of

MORPHOLOGY
occupations in
grocer,"

-rf^)?

fjLTraKdXrj^

"

*'

/Seftp???

51

Vizier,"

shopkeeper,"

"

Bey,"

Vlamis

"

green-

Tao7rdvr)<^

"barber,"

^ayLcaX?;? "porter." jui7rapfjL7rcepr]<; (Ital.)

"shepherd,"

^XdfiTjf; (Alban.),

"

fiai'd0r}<i

fXTrer]^

brother in a feud."

Note the Xorth. Gk. forms nora. sing, bipbeps "barber," gen.
nom. pi. InphepSeq (Lesbos).
2. vTiXrj " brave " (Texts I. a. 9), a nom. without -9, is the unaltered Turkish form deli; (n6p "Mr.," "Sir" (Texts IIL 5), the
1.

and

ace. hipbip,

unaltered
TOV (TLoprj.

Ital. sior{e),

The nouns

75.

the Grecianised decl. being 6

(from the last in

-t}?)

o-Loprj^ (o-idpis),

differ merely orthographically


Kapa^oKvpc^ " owner of a ship,"

in -t?
:

e.g.

" captain."

Plural.

Singular.

Nom. Kapa^oKvpL^
Gen.
Ace.

Kapa^OKVpiSeq

Kapa^oKvpt.

Kapa^oKvpcBco

KapajBoKvpL

Kapa^OKvpihe^.

Similarly, vocKOKupLs " master of a house "


agentis in

man,"

like fiapKdpi<i "

-dpL<^,

'iT6p{i)^o\dpi<^

" Basilius," rccopyi^i "

George," rpr)y6pi<;

man

in -ovXL<f, like avrpovXc^ " little (poor)

(diminutives) in
all

-dKL<;, like

diminutives

"

family names

Xar^cSaKt^, TuavvapdKL^^ as well as

other names of persons and of families in

"John," MavoXr)^, "Emmanuel,"


"

" horse-

"

" butcher,"
huntsman,"
fiaKeWdpt^
" gardener
also
names
and
of
persons,
like
"

Kvvr)yapt<;

BaaiXi^

and the nomina

boatman," Ka^aWapi^

-is

Tidwr}^,

Michael," ohcoprj^f

Mt')(dX'r}^''

Theodore," Kcoaravrrj^; " Constantino," UepiKXi)^, ^rec^ai/^?,


AeXrjyidvvrjfi,

TpcKOVTTTjq,
ri(opyi,S<;,

"

formation oi iroaoiralpvLhe^
the expression
1.

(-iSes)

The
is

irocro Tralpvei^

spelling fluctuates

thus

Apayov/jLr]<;',

Tidwrihe'^, TlepLKXrjBe^;,

the

the bribe-seekers,"
"

how much

between

-ts

sometimes uniformly written

and
in

will
-rys

all

plurals

The comic

TptKovirrjBef;.
is

pi.

you take
in the

from
"
?

pi. -iScs

words (thus also

;>(aT^t6s, 'ApcLTTtSc?, etc.).

Words

-is are transformations from the a.


Gk. in -109
rtwpyi? = Tcwpytos), the number of which has been
considerably increased by the Lat. suffix -apis {-arius).
Cf. the
neuters in -i, 95 ; but while the latter (in -i) have in all the cases
except nom. and ace. sing, been faithful to the o-decl., the masculines
in -IS have entirely deserted on the analogy of the other substantives
in -is.
Genitives in -ov, like Kvpis Kvpov, Mai's (Marys) " May," Maiov

2.

(kv/ois

in

= Ki;ptos,

or Matov, are rare

the

names

of the

Ma'pris, 'ATrpiAis, etc., usually follow the

months

Fcvvapis,

paradigm given.

^XcySapis,

The words


HANDBOOK OF THE MODEKN GREEK VERNACULAR

52

in -apt?

still

preserve (beside

Ka/SaWapoL (fr.

and

tions -dpis

-apLoi),

pi. Kovpcrdpot

Many

76.

form in the

also the old

= Ital.

pi.

corsaro " pirate

substantives

parisyllabic

category of 68 take leside the

thus,

KovporapiScs

").

belonging to the

in -e? also a

pi.

pi.

The termina-

KajSaXXdpo), KaPaWdpov<s.

are interchangeable in Kovpadpi^,

-ctpos

beside Kovpa-dpos,

-tSes:)

and so

pi. in

-aSe?

or -9;8e9:

A, pov\evTri<; " delegate "


l3ov\6vTdBe<:
"
SiKaardSe^;
Sfc/cao-T?;? "judge
Sou\VT7]<; " worker "SouXeuraSe?

OepLari)^ " reaper,"


KpiTTj^ "

judge

"

pupil," " apprentice "

fiadr]T7]<; "

poet "

TTocrjTT]^ "

OeptaTdBe^i

Kpirdhe<;

7rouXr)T7]<; "

vendor "

Trpa/jLarevTrj^; "

iia6rjTuhe<i

7roi7}TdBe<;

TrovXrjrdBe^;
"

merchant

TrpafxarevrdSe^;
Tpayovhtarrj'i " singer," " poet "
rpayovBLO-rdBe'i

'^(ppevTrj^ "

B.

dancer

"

'x^opevrdhe^;.

Mr.," " father

d<pevr7](; "

"-

dcfyevrdSe^; d^eurrjSe^

"
8eo-7roT7;9 " bishop," " priest
Kke<f>T7)<^ "
pd(f>Tr]<i

kleft

" tailor "

K\<f>T7]S<;

pac^raSe?

" singer "


"
p^TtcTT?;? " mason
'\jrdXrr}<;

'X^copiaTr}';

BeaTrordBe^; SecrTroTT^Se?

"
pd(f)TrjBe<;

^IraXraSe? ^frdXrrjBe^;
'^riardB7)<; '^riarrjBe^;
"

" peasant," "

boor

x^pcdrTjBe^.

Many

popular writers manifest a propensity for generalising this


A), and so extend it even to new formations e.g.
dcpoKOTravLo-Tijs, pi. -KOTravta-raSes " one who beats the air, swaggerer."

type

(esjDecially

77.
Plural.
Ka(f)6S<;

Ka(f>Sco
KacpeBe^;.

So also (mostly Turkish) loan-words


Ka(f)V<;

" coffee-house,"

/lax/J^ovrU';

" violet," fiivap<i " minaret,'

On

(SaarLXes,

t;.

71, n. 3.

KarL(f)h " velvet,"

(Turk,

coin),

fieve^h

reveKe'i " tin," </)t8e9 " ver7mcelli."

54

HANDBOOK OF THE MODEllX GREEK VERNACULAR


Plural.

Nom.

Kaphie^^

Od\aaae<i

/lepe^;

Gen. KapSLO)(v)

fipa)(v6)

Odkaaaoyivd)

Ace.

fiepe^

dakaaae^.

An

KapBc6<i

extraordinary

paradigm

e.g.

number

substantives

of

woman," (f)opd " time "


"lady" (when used as a

(1) 7/3ta " old


fois), Kpd

yXwaaa

" tongue,"

"

language," Bo^a

follow

this

(in enumeration, Fr.


title

" glory,"

indecl.

63),
Boi/Xa " maid-

servant," fjbolpa " fate," " goddess of destiny," irerpa " stone,"

awLda

" rock,"

"

spark," rpvira " hole," a>pa " hour," " time,"

" o'clock."

(2) Substantives with suffixes

Abstract nouns in -(e)m, and particularly in -id

(a)

and partly modern


derivatives
from apellatives, mostly employed only to
designate a property or sphere of activity
also names of
trees rarely feminines from the same stem as the masculine
the

partly

latter

of

ancient

origin

e.g. dXrjOeia " truth," appcoarca " sickness," aTevo-^iMpia " perplexity " {cf. 9), dfiapTcd " sin," fiayid " magic," opLop<f)id

" beauty,"
dp')(^ovTid

Kavovtd

"

"

" light,"

" fire,"

"

irapa^evid

peculiarity,"

" stitch of

^ekovud

a needle,"
cannon-shot," fxartd " glance," irerptd " stone- throw,"

spoonful," vv^rtd " night-time," XP^^^^ " (course


year," Trpwro/xayLd "1st May," "May-day," ^irfKid

fcovraXcd
of)

(fxDTid

" rank," " nobility,"

"

apple-tree," rpLavracpvWid " rose-bush," TraTraBtd " wife of

the clergyman."
(b)
"

actionis in

running," dc^povnaid
(c)

"

Nomina
Abstract

black

cloud,"

-o-id

as,

irepTraTrjaid " walking,"

" carelessness."

nouns in

^wlXa

"

-IXa,

sour

-ovpa,

-fidpa

taste,"

Kovrafidpa " stupidity," o-rpa/Scofjudpa " blindness,"

For the numeral nouns in -aptd, v. 133.


{(i) Fem. nouns in -rp{L)a, -aiva, -iva, -laaa

"woman
(e)

x^P^^'^piO^ "ballet-girl";
Augmentatives in -dpa e.g. fivrdpa
tailor,"

(/) Diminutives
" little

" little

in

-dKa

arrow," p^awovXa "

little

"

"

e.g.

pd(f)Tp(c)a

" big nose."


e.g. fjua/jidKa

small stone," cratTtrcra

mother," ^apKovXa

boat"; on ^oaKorrovXa "shepherdess,"

bother,"

" blinding."

further, 40.

-ovXa:

(rare), -Ircra,

mother," 'EXevlrcra, Trerpiraa

cf.,

fiavpiXa

e.g.

crKorovpa

cf.

61,

"

small

MORPHOLOGY

55

apdBa " row,"


and other loan-words
"
"
room," Kafjuwdva
cat," Kafiapa
jSovXa " signet-ring," ydra
" bell," KuTra " cloak," Koireka " girl," Kov^ivra " conversation," " talk," TTopTa " gate," " door," aayLTa " arrow," aKuXa
" staircase," arpdra " street."
(Lat.)

(3) Ital.

1. Most of the nouns named in 1 and 2 correspond to the a. Gk.


In m. Gk.
feminines of the 1st decl. and are inflected like them.
those nouns ending in -a (in addition to those under 3) have been
often enriched, partly at the expense of those in -yj {e.g. hovXa

"maid"

for hovkyj, TovXovTra

" tortoise

= ToXvirrj

by the formation

partly

"),

"coil," "roll," x^^*^^oi


X^^^^V
of new words or new suffixes,

aKvXa " bitch," irapOiva (rf. 63, n. 2), 17 rpeXXa " madness " fr.
" mad," r) vtKpa " rigid death " fr. vcKpos " dead," 7} ^cpa
" mainland " fr. ^epo's "dry," 17 iriKpa "sorrow" fr. iriKpo^ "bitter,"
and,
rj yXvKa "sweetness" fr. yAv/co?, 17 KXonJ/a "weej^ing" fr. KAatw
lastly, by augmentatives like KccfidXa "big head," KovrdXa "soupThe nom.
spoon," and the substantatives in -dpa, -tVo-a, -ovXa, etc.
and ace. pi. in -s has been taken over from the old consonant decl.
cf.

rpeXXos

(83).

--

In the dialects mentioned in 10, n. 1, the productive suffix


In all other cases -ta comes from the
-ta takes the form -ta or -ea.
literary language, as, dp/xovta " harmony," Bva-KoXia " difficulty," <^tAta
"friendship"; or also from the Ital., as KovfxavTapta name of a fine
wine f. 10.
For -e = -ea as in firjXe = firjXca {/xrjXLa), cf. 71, n. 3.
3. In some dialects (Chios, Icarus, Pontus) the ace. pi. has still
preserved the ancient ending -as ; cf. /xcpa?, Texts I. a. 22 ; Svo ^opa?,
Texts III. 13. a. When such an ace. occurs in the poets it is merely
an intruder from the literary language.
In Xorth. Gk. ( 7, n. 1) we find the ending -ts for -cs: e.g.
2.

ovpfi-^vL^

= op/xyveus

(Velv.).

The accent

82.

on the

final

Trerpod,

Tpvira

(as in

vLo-aco,

"

duck

a.

(opa

rpviro),

"

irdircco,

di)p(Jo,

dXrjOeca

Many

Kafiapa Kd/Mapco.

entirely into desuetude

83.

?7

fiaalXtaaa

{cf.

dXrjOeLay^

/SaaiXLaao),

o-airco

but also

yeirovLCcra

yeiro-

genitive plurals have fallen

41, n. 3).

ipiriBa "hope."

Singular.

Nom.

ipTTiBa

Plural.
ipTTiBeq

Gen. ipTTiBaf

ipTrcBco

Ace.

ipTrlBe^.

ipTTtBa

all

which usually bears the accent


Gk.) thus, jXcjaaa yXcoo-aco, irerpa
pi.,

fiiXiaaa fieXtaao), Kd/xapa Kafxapcj, aatra


Trdiria

through

of the noni. sing, is carried

the cases except the gen.

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

56

" week,"
" newspaper,"
So also
i^BofjidBa
i(f)7]/jLepLBa
Ovyarepa
"daughter," fn^ripa "mother," opviOa "hen,"
:

irarplha "fatherland," irephiKa "partridge," (7Ta(j)iha "raisin,"


(f>povTlSa " care," (j^repovya " wing," etc.

\a/ji7rdSa " candlestick,"

(mostly paroxytones),

and the abstract nouns in -dBa

as,

Xafjurpdha " brightness," voari/idBa " pleasant taste," Trpaaivdha


" green(ness) " (of fields, etc.), e^virvdha " wakefulness."

This group is descended from the a. Gk. feminine consonant


stems (known as 3rd decl.).
new nom. and gen. have been
formed from the ace. sing, on analogy of x^P x^P-^ X^P^Mf ^^'
stated in other words
the ace. sing, minus -v became a nom., which
was then treated exactly as a noun of the a-decl.; cf. 65, n. 1. The
nom. (ace.) pi. -cs remained and was transferred also to the ancient
a-decl., 81.
But even here all the nouns have not been remodelled
in the same fashion the a. Gk. abstract nouns in -t>79, -Tr]To<;, in

addition to this new form {rj iSior/^ra "likeness," rj TroLOTrjra


"quality"), have also another more vernacular in -ttj ; thus, rj vcott}'^
"youth," OeoTY] "divinity," avOpoi-rroT-q "humanity."
Moreover,
many fems. (especially those in -wv) have been replaced by diminutives in -L ; as, to dr/Soi/t " nightingale'," aevTovL " linen-towel," xcXlSovl
" swallow," xtoi^t " snow," xcpt " hand," /cXaSt "key." Other nouns
have been completely ousted by new words e.g. a. Gk. fns by fxvTr}
"nose," KXijxa$ by a-KoiXa "stair."
:

84. Note the accent of the gen. pi., in which this paradigm differs from the preceding.
Only a few dissyllables
and y yvvatKa " woman " (which on historical grounds belong,
here, not to 81, v. preceding n.), give -co(v) in the gen. pL

These are 17 vv)(Ta " night," ifkaKa " plate,"


" wasp," (jAi^a " vein," (f)X6yd " flame," %i}z^a
gen.

pL

" slab,"

a(f)'fjfa

" goose,"

and so

vv)(T(b(v), yvvaLKcoiv), etc.

Here also an a. Gk. phenomenon has been preserved


Cf. 67.
even yet one may occasionally come upon the ancient gen. sing, in
-6?: e.g. ywaiKos, vv;(tos (usually yvi/at/cas, vv^ra?).
Sometimes the
accentuation on the final extends its scope further than can be
;

historically

justified;

as,

e^8o/xa8(o(v)

"week."
Forms like rj c/cXa/ATrpoTT^?,

alongside

i^SofxdBo),

fr.

e/SSofxdSa

Trarpts, Trarpc'So?, tols p(tpas, etc., in

the

poets belong to the language of literature.


85.

vv(l)v

Nom.

vv(l)rj

"bride," aSept^^; "sister."


Plural.

Singular.
dBep<f)r)

vtxpe^;

aSepc^e?

Gen.

vv<pr}<;

aSep^?}?

vv(f)0)(ve)

dB6p(f>a)(v6)

Acc.

vv(t>rj

a3ep<^>;

vv(f>6^

dSepcpiii,

Or even

quite commonly

ra PLdra.

MORPHOLOGY
So also:
fiVTTj

"

dawn,"

"

yvcofir)

" nose,"

opinioD,"

"

ifk'qyr)

wound,"

abstract nouns in -Gvyt]


"

as,

"warmth,"

^ecrTT]

" ashes,"

(rrd'^Trj

57

^(juvt]

ahyr)

" voice," ^v')(r) " soul "

and

yXjiyopoavvi] " swiftness," Kokoavvrj

goodness."
This class corresponds to the

indeclinable
yyy,

t^9 y^9,

The

yrj).

Texts

86.

Gk. 1st

decl. in

nouns

transition of

ppvai,

^pvac,

So

also

countenance,"

^pvcra,

17

class

uncommon.

/Spucre?, dvfirjae^.

6v/jLrjaL

" understanding,"
(of

a knife),"

" faith,"

Tricrri

6vfir)a6<;

[/^pvac!)]

6viJL7)crc<;

yvoiai

-rj

Plural.

Koyln " edge

" heat,"

(beside

"remembrance."

dvpuf^ai

dv/irjart,

Gen. ^pvo-L^,
Ace.

yjjs

in -a into the

Singular.

Nom.

Note the

--q.

t^

ace.

III. 15, Lada, or TrXcoprj for Trpwpa) is

^pvat "fountain,"

-j;

a.

y^? "the earth," gen. t^s 7^9,

17

Ti]

(as Ka/xa/ar/,

"

Koprj "girl,"

" breath,"

avaTrvor]

" sunset,"

Suo-t

"

/cp/crt

judgment,"

feVt
o-v/rt

iroXc " city " (usually applied

to Constantinople), irpa^i " action," /3%t " back," " ridge (of a

mountain),"
"

spring,"

%a/9fc

charm," " grace," aXcoac

"

" decision,"

aiT6(f>aaL

"

capture," dvoi^o

" sugar,"

^dx^P''

KairirapL

" caper-bush," irapaTrjprjai " observation," " notice," avvelBrjo-t


" conscience."

The gen.

pi.

of

this

paradigm

the language of the present day


of this
S.

kind (^pvaw,

There

Sporades.

is
{cf.

Trpa^co, etc.) are

is

a gen.

pi.

very

little

in use in

Forms
more common on the
41,

KciinTapw

fr.

n.

3).

Kainrapi,.

formally identical with the preceding, only


It embraces the ancient barytones in -19
(7roXt9, 7roAew9), which have passed into the class of the 1st decl. feminines in --q, so that they may be also spelled 17 ttoAt;, 17 a-n-ocfiacrrj, etc.
Moreover, many of these appellatives come from the literary language.
TO TTavqyvpL (also 7rava[y]i)/3t) "ecclesiastical popular feast " = a. Gk. 17
TravyyvpLq^ has become neuter; to (ficSt "snake" = a. Gk. 6 o069, has
1.

This paradigm

historically

enlarged

itself

Forms

is

different.

by a

suffix.

or nom. ace. pi. Xe^a?, found in the poets


and authors, have been taken from the literary language.
2, Even the a. Gk. nouns in -v<s have been subjected to the same
like

<fiv(n<:

rj

remodelling; thus,

A. Gk. 6
o^/3V5

o-T axv9

17

Trrjxv

"cubit,"

rj

pd-n-v

"rape," " turnip."

Trrjxv'i

TTTjxpi

irTixv

Trqx^s,

(frequent)

" ear " (of oats, etc.) became to ardx^ (do'Taxv), yj


cfipvSi; 6 Spvs rov Spv to 8pv "oak," is rare,

"eyebrow" to

"

58
7;

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

^eXavLStd being the word


(rv<s,

/36Tpv<;,

TTovTLKL "

mouse,"

fjLv?,

TO TCTLKovpi

in use.

Similarly, v/ords like

have been ousted by others (to

xo^po's " pig," TO a-racjivXi " grapes," to


Lat. secuHs] " axe," and so forth).

[ii\

The

3.

commonly

7ri\Kv<s

lxOv<:,

" fish,"

ij/dpL

Gk. diphthong stems ypavs and vaC? have disappeared,


Gk. ypata) "the old woman," being used for the
and to KapdjSi " ship," for the latter, to ^ovSl " ox

ypid
former,

a.

a.

{i.e.

7]

(dycAaSa " cow") for


87.

"

^dfio

J7

^ovs.

rj

6,

Samos," ^poaw, Maptyu), female names.


Singular.

So

Nom.

^djjio

Gen.

Xdixo<i

^p6aci)(;,

Ace.

XdjJio

^p6cr(o, MapLjco.

many

also

" los,"

ndrcvo

^Apyvpco,

KanyKco,

77

irapdheiao

"paradise,"

pi. is

rarely used, yet a pi. ol

word

7]

" Chios "

rj

dXvao

97

yLte^oSo

/jbedo8e<;

may

Nl6

'AyaOa>,

Xpvaco, and

XatSto,

d^varcro " abyss,"

female

Kvirpo, MrjXo,

Xlo

Tf]vo,

Mapiyod^

islands),

(esp.

" Corinth,"

Patmos," P6B0,

77

KopOo

as,

'EXeyfcco,

appellatives

"sand,"

"

names

geographical

pet names

and

^poam, MapLyco

" chain,"

few

r]

d/xfjuo

" method."

The

be formed for the

from the literary language.

fieOoSo taken

1. The paradigm is a transformation of the a. Gk. fem. o-stems,


though the majority of the appellatives have been remodelled otlierTrapaSeto-os was originally masc.
wise, ?;. 63, n. 2
In some dialects
(Rhodes, Chios, Scyros, Pontus) the old forms are still to be found
(esp. in geographical names): rj "Af.nreXo';, rj *Efxopy6<s ( = 'A.), rj
KvTTpoq, 7) %dixo% ; rj dixfxo<; "sand," rj Spocro^ "dew."
The names of some islands have been remodelled on the fashion
;

of TrXaravos:

TrXaTavid

thus, NiKapta " Icarus," 'A^ta (also "A^a)

"Naxos."
2. The a. Gk. forms rj r/xd), y Xexd), rj alBd)s, rj r)d><; (cojs), etc., have
been replaced by new words duTtXaXtd " echo," Xexovcra " pregnant
woman," vTpoTrrj " shame," auyrj x^pavyrj " dawn," etc,
:

Non-'parisyllahics.
88.

?7

dXeiTov (dXcoTTOv, aXovirov) "fox."

Singular.

Nom.

Plural.

aXeirov

aXeirovhe^

Gen. ttXeTToO?
Ace.
Similarly

dXeirov

pLalfiov

"

dXt-Trovhio

aXeirovhe^.

monkey," yXcoaaov

" gossip,"

" miller's wife," virvapov " sleeper " (fem.), cpayov "

fivXcovov

gourmand,"

MORPHOLOGY

59

-y^apov " fisherwoman," ylrcofiov " baker's wife,"

and other

fern,

designations parallel to the masc. in -a? of 70.


1.

in the

These feminines are rarely declined like the

parisyllahics,

i.e.

pi.

!N^om. aX.ov7r<s (also aXovTres)

2.

suffix

Gen.

aXovTr(i)(v)

Ace.

aXovTTiS.

The paradigm dXcTrov has arisen from the a. Gk. (Ionic)


-io, which is especially prominent in abbreviated names, and

already played an important


89.

j)art

in Hellenistic Gk.

" mother."

1/61/6

Singular.
veve

i/ei/eSe?

Gen.

vvi<;

veveBco

Ace.

vvi

vepiBe^.

Similarly, Turkish

-7j

pi.

" wife," "

Mrs."

fidvva " mother "

XVP^

"

widow

"

summit

/cop(l)i]

"

vvt^T] "

bride

fjLajjLpjrj

"

= a>.

"

/ce/jaSe?

')(7)pdh<i

dhepcj^dSeg
"

KoptpdBe^

vvjidBe^

midwife "

fiapLfxrjBe^,

1 quart) always oKaSe^i,

III.

Neuter Nouns.

A. In
91.

76 have non-

feminine nouns in -a

jxavvdhe^;

"
dSepcj)!] " sister

7]

in

many

in -dBe<; (rarely -ijBe^)

Kpd

oKa (measure

mother,"

a special m. Gk. formation.

is

secondary plurals, so

have a

" Sultan's

^aXiBe

like

As the nouns enumerated

parisyllabic

and

words

This paradigm

'Efiive, ^arfii.

90.

Plural.

Nom.

-o(v), -io(v),

-t.

Tabular view of the terminations:


(Non-parisyllabics).

Parisyllahics.

Singular.

Nom.
Gen.

Ace. -o(n)

-u

-^,

-i-(n)

~i-u

= ya.

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GEEEK VERNACULAR

60

Plural.

Nom. Ace.

-a

-i-a, -i-a

Gen.

-o(n)

-io

Some

non-parisyllabics in -o with a

here;

v.

pi.

= -ya,

-yd

= -yd.

in -ata also belong

^ 94.

Parisyllabics.

In -o{v)

9 2,

^v\o

"

wood," jSowo " mountain."

Singular.

Plural.

Nom. Ace. ^vKo


^v\ou

Gen.
Similarly

nouns

the

also

^ovva

^uXco

^ovvoi{y).

hat," Kovfidvro " command,"


water," irdcrao " step," /3oO;^o or pi.

"

vepo

" clothes,"

povxa

^vKa

Povvov

Zevrpo " tree," KairiXo

" apple,"

firjXo

^ovvo

"

(firepo

" retail-shop "

pLiraKuXiKO

-dSiKo like irairovTadhiKo

and other such

/juavd^r}^,

(fr.

" cobbler's

114

"

KOKKaXo

" butter,"
'

(c/.

person," etc.

jxavd^iKo

like

(f)vWo " leaf "

/jL7raKdXT)<i),

shop

"

" greengrocery,"

(fr.

The accent

n.).

and

in

TraTrouro-T}?),

of

the

gen.

dXoyo " horse," ,SovTvpo


bone," XovXovBo " flower," irpoacoiro
thus, dXoyov and dXoyov, ^ovrvpov and

proparoxytones

fluctuates in

" face,"

wing," " feather,"

-cko

in

*'

like

The compound neuters like dvrpoyvvo " married couple,"


dp^o jToaiT IT o "lordly house," "noble family," iraXioiraLho
" street-arab," and similar {^v.
41, a), also ^aoriXoirovXo
"king's son,"

etc.

61),

(c/.

usually maintain the accent of

the nom. (thus gen. iraXioiraihov).


Dialects

1.

this

which maintain the

the

in

also

pi.

ephelhudicon sometimes show


fxayovXa " cheeks " ) ; cf,

-v

p.ayov\av

{rk

= ra

34, n. 4.
2.

TO

^U),

Alongside to
TOV ^OV,

^coo, etc.,

TO, ^a, TtU

"animal," there

is

found the inflexion

^W.

93. The nouns in -lo,

-i6,

and

to

are declined accord-

such exx. belong here


to the preceding paradigms
^aalXeco " kingdom," adXto " saliva," KairrjXeto " retail-store,"
ing

cTKoXew

^L^Xlo

" school," cttoix^io " spirit," " ghost," %/Ofco " village,"
" book."

Nouns

like ^ifiXio or voaoKOfielo " hospital,"

or such as elKovoGTaaio "shrine" ("place for images"), or

avfi^ovXLo
savants.

" counsel,"

and dTfioirXoco

" steamer," are

mots

MORPHOLOGY

61

Non-par'isyllahics}

The

94.

neuters in

beside the regular

-o(v')

in -a occasion-

pi.

form their pi. after the model of the neuters given under
aXoyara for aAoya, ovctpara for oj/etpa, irpocroiTrara for Trpoataira.

ally

In -V or

95.

-i:

to

"eye," to Traihi

/jlciti

" child."

Plural.

Singular.

Nom. Ace.

jMaTL

iraihi

ficiTia

iracSid

Gen.

jjuaTLOv

Traihuov

/jiaTico(ve)

iraihiSi^ve).

The words coming under


numerous

In

{a)

(1) uSip^L "brother,"

paradigm are exceedingly

this

-'l.

"silver," yio(j)vpi, "bridge,"

da-rjfit

summer," Kapd^i " ship," Kepdat, " cherry," /c(j)dXt


"head" KopiTCTL "maid," XovXovSl " flower," /za;j^a//)t "knife,"
iraLyviBi " game," waWrjKdpL pallicar, brave fellow," irapaixvOi
KoXoKaipL

"

'^

" tale," "


"

TTOTa^iL " river,"

myth,"

watch,"

"

" pair,"

TaLpL

poXoyt (oDpoXojLop)

" clock,"

" song,"

Tpaire^t

mate,"

TpayovSi

" table," ^^rdpL " fish."

(2) drjhovi "nightingale," daTepc "star," Sovti "tooth,"


KovSovvL " bell," opvidi " hen," oevTovi " linen-napkin," p^e^t
"

%toi/t "

hand,"

snow."

Nouns

(3)

(rarely) -ovXi

in -aSt, -dpi,

XajKdBc

" lion,"

XiovTupL

-iht.,

diminutives in

-a/ct

-ovhc,

" valley," TrrjydSL " fountain," " spring,"


" foot,"

TToSdpL

"wheat," Ta^ihi (Ta^eiSc)

" stone,"

\i6dpi

"journey,"

(puSc

hand," dryyeXovBt "

" little child," %e/9aA<:t " little

aiTapi

"snake," TraiSaKt
angel,"

little

yiovht " little sod," hevTpovXi " small tree."

Note

also the

Lesbian dim.

suffix -eA(i),

e.^.

TcnpariX' "little

horn."

(4)
cTTTLTc

Many

loan-words

iraXdTi (Lat. palatitwi) "palace,"

house " esp. Turkish daKepi


vTepXeTL " government," irairovTat

(Lat. Jiospitium) "

Xt/jLpi,

aapdyt

" castle," roix^e/ct "

camp,"

(5) 8a/c/3u

"

musket," ^ecrt " Fez,"

"

army,"
" shoe,"

%az/fc "

inn."

"net" (now only orthographi-

"tear," Bl)(tv

cally different).
(h)

In

(1) jSovvL " moimtain,"


Kpaai " wine," fiaXXt " hair,"

-/.

yvaXi "glass," KXaBl "twig,"


aKvXi " dog," airudi " sword,"

y^wpii " bread."


1

C/. 95, n. 2.

HANDBOOK OF THE MODEllN GREEK VERNACULAR

62

(2) avTL " ear," Bepu " animal," KXecSt " key."

(3) PpuKc (Lat. hraca) " trousers," irovXi (pullus) " bird,"
(TKafJbvL

(scamnum)

" florin,"

" footstool,"

<f)\ovpi (Ital.

florino fiorino)

iTov^^i " purse."

(4) ^ajL " eating," " food," (piXt " kiss."

Those dialects which retain the final -v, or extend it parasitihave the termination -iv: e.g. ftovSiv "ox," Kw-qyiv "chase,"
^eptv "hand," TratStV; this -v is present even in the pi., e.g. ra
TratStdv Tov " his children " (Naxos) ; cf. 34, n. 4.
2. In those dialects which show the peculiarity mentioned in
10, n. 1, the accent remains on the -t-; thus, TraAart TraXarLov, Traihi
Traihiov TratSm.
And SO the neuters in -t are to he treated as nonparisyllahic,
a fact, however, disregarded in the common speech
since i has become
1.

cally,

t.

Moreover, for the decl. of these neuters, all the other phonetic
changes to which t or t are subject must be taken into account ; cf.
ypoora for ypocna (ypocn, Turk, coin), etc., 10, n. 4 }xd6La, 16, n. 3 ;
;

or

p.dT'-x'-OL

= fxaria,

10, n.

TrcpicrripKa, etc.

= TrepLo-Tepia,

In Pontic -ta becomes


In North. Gk. (
6); thus, rd TrevrtKapa = TrcvriKapta.

TrauSd
n.

= fid-TLa,

TraiSid, etc., 8, n. 2.

lb., /xaira,

-a

(?;.

7, n.

6,

1)

drops out; thus Xeovrap (Pontus) = Aiovrapt, o-^xtV' (Maced.) = o-7rtri,


rcTLcfidX' (Lesbos), or to KccfidXv dr (Pontus) = (to) K(f)d\i tov ; consequently Turkish loan-words in this region retain their original
termination, as, to xat'^ai/ (pi. ra x'^^ftdvd) "beast," "animal," to
TrpivT'i " rice," to a-etp " condition " (Pontus).
3. In Pontic note the gen. sing. tI o-aK/ct fr. to a-aKKt, i.e. with
the i maintained throughout, as in /cAec^TT/s KXecfiTrj or (3a6v{<s) ^aOv,
etc. ( 110).

few masculines in -09 form their pi. in -la, like


X0709 " word," pi. Xoyca, '^p6vo<;
neuters
"year," pL %/ooi^ta and ')(^p6voL] cf. also 61, n. 1, and 100,
96.

the

preceding

n. 1.
97. 1. The forms discussed in the preceding paragraphs represent on the whole the a. Gk. neut. o-stems ; the neuters in -t came
from the ancient type in -tov through a process that was already
completed in Hellenistic days. Both forms may still sometimes
be found existing together; thus, O^pto and BipC, Karw^At and
KaTcfiXLo{v)
(Velv.) "threshold," a-dXio and (rather rare) <raAt
"saliva."
The neuters in -t (-apt, -dSi, -tSt) have considerably extended their territory at the expense of other forms, and, having
lost their original diminutive signification, they have largely sup-

planted the parent forms ; cf. the exx. in A. 1 and B. 1 in place of


the a. Gk. nouns like TpdTre^a and Trora/xos or /cAaSos; A. 2 (and
partly 3) and B. 2 in place of the old consonant stems.
The words
given under A. 5 and B. 4 have found their way into this category
as a result of phonetic decay (^ayt and cjuXt are really survivals of
infinitives equivalent to a. Gk. <^ayetv and ^tAeij/).

MORPHOLOGY

63

2. The contracted neuters (like the masc. 63, n. 2) have disappeared, TO KOKKaXo " bone " being now employed for to oo-tow, and
TO Kavi(TTpL or TO KoKdOi " baslvct " (or other words) for to Kavovv.
There is also no trace of the Attic decl. of neuters ; dvwyt " upper
chamber " can trace its ancestry back to avwycioi/ found in a. Gk.

B. In
98.

View

-o?.

of the terminations:

Parisyllabic.

(Non-parisy liable.)

64

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


acTTpo

and

8ta</)opo(v)
KOLo-Tpo

acrrpo? "star," pi. aa-rpa, acrrprj,


"
"

and

and aarpia

gain

Sta</)opos

" fortress," Kda-rpa, KdaTprj

and p-eTpos "measure,"


(TKeSio and cTKcStos, Texts I. d.

fxirpo

5.

Some

mascs. (and fems., v. 63, n. 2) in -os have been transformed into neuters in -os ; thus
"
TO ^l6<s for 6 /3tos " property," " means
"
TO 8poo-os for rj Sp6ao<s " dew
TO 7rati/os for 6 eTrairo? " praise "
TO Oprjvos for 6 6pr}vo<; "lamentation"
"
TO 7rkovTO<s for 6 ttAovtos (nXovTrj, ttXovtlo) " wealth
TO ;(pwos for 6 )^6vo<; "year."
The neuters in -os have in this way been increased in numbers,
and have also taken into their ranks new formations like to \f/rjXo<;
" height" (fr. i/^ryAos "high"), to ^rjXos "envy" (fr. ^rjXw), to Kovpao^
Tu Kovpa-rj ^^ piracy" (fr. Kovpa^vu)), etc.
But sometimes neuters in -os
have deserted to the mascs., thus in some dialects 6 a^os for to
dvOo<;, with the accent shifted.
The blending of neuters in -os, -ov, and masculines in -os finally
resulted in some masculines like 6 ^aVai/os "torment," 6 /?pa;^os
" rock," 6 a-T(l>avo<s " garland," Xoyos " word," xpoVos " year," taking
neut. forms in the pi. (/Sdcrava, /Spdx^ia and l3pd)(0L, (rTi<f>ava, Aoyta,
^povca and ^poi^ot).
2. Sometimes the pi. termination in -rj has been treated as a
neut. sing, in -i
TO a-Tr]6o<;
to. oTrjOyj
TO. (TTTjOia ,
TO CTT-qdl
:

This misunderstanding
in

(to ;)(tAos)

TO.

TO

TO. ;)(tAia.

{d)x^t\.L

may

x^^^V

be said to have given rise to the

pi.

-ta.

{Non-parisyllahics.
101. Sometimes neuters in -os form a non-parisyllabic pi. in
-r}Ta ; as, to Odppos " courage," pi. to. Bdpp-q and to. OdpprjTa, KepSos
"'
gain," pi. TO. KpSr] and to. KipBrjTa.

C.

In

-a -Lp.0, -as.
'

Non-parisyllahic}

102. The three paradigms of this class

another only in the nom. and


cases.

the

The

gen. sing,

ace. sing.,

differ

shows the same number

of syllables as

pi.

Plural.

Singular.

Nom.

Ace.

-a,
"

Gen.

im^o{n),

-as

-aia

'

(-atos) -dtit

^Excluding the type given

from one

agreeing in all other

-dto,
in 104 n.

MORPHOLOGY

65

103. TO irpa^a "thing," ovofxa "name."


Singular.

Ace.

ISTom.

Gen.

Like

ovofiara

nrpajxaTOV

ovofidrov

Trpa/idTco

ovo/jbdro).

are declined
" letter,"

ypdjjLfjLa

" blood," yifia or yiofia

al/jLa

Scbfjua

"

arofxa " mouth,"

and

lie,"

pi. apfjuara "

only in

Like

ovofxa

" cover,"
;

" gold,"

fidXafia

" coverlet,"

irdiTKwfxa

(TTpdre/jia

"

Trdrcofjia

army,"

also pure verbal

vawdptafxa

" lullaby,"

" story,"

aKeiracrpia

" floor,"
"

^opefia

nouns {nomina

garment,"

" conversation,"
"

/jLTrdXayfjLa

TnjBTjfia

improvement,"

p^ap/cr/xa

actionis) like fido-Kapia

bewitching," " evil eye," BdyKapua " bite,"

tion,"

" terrace,"

apartment,"

sin," KVfMa " billow,"

mattress," x^/^^ " ground," yjrefMa {-y^rofia) "


arms " (from Lat. arma).

(TTpco/jLa "

"

Trpdfiara

wonder," Kpt/ia "

Odfia "

" gift "

ovofia

TTpdfjLa

" repast,"

Plural.

TTpdfjLa

" leap,"

pilXrj/jLa "

KaKicopia
" fishing,"

yjrdpe/jLa

proclama-

" sickness,"

" fishery,"

aairovvKTfxa " lathering."

Some
KXap^ara

abstract nouns have a preference for the


"

weeping," x^p.ara

"

earth "

(i.e.

" piles of

pi.

earth

as,
"),

jepdfiara " old age," irepvyeXdapLara " laughter," T^vplypara

(Texts III. 14.

b), "hissing,"

"whistling."

in -a- have pretty faithfully preserved the


1. The neuters
corresponding a. Gk. decl. and have not seriously lost in numbers.
In the gen. sing, -drov is more usual than -aros (Trpa/xaro?, oj/o/xaros)
in the gen. pi. the accent may also be proparoxytone, tco a-Tpwfxaro),
Tuiv TraTT/Voj/xaTco.
Gen. sing. TvpafxaTLov, pi. TrpafiarLovv in some
dialects (e.g. in Lesbos).
2. yoAa " milk " is declined like Trpajxa

= a.

Gk. yovv) " knee," yovdrov yovara

;
so also yoVa (or yoVaro
Sopv has been displaced by

Kovrdpi " spear," " lance."


3.

Those

dialects

final -V (v. 34, n.

which maintain and tend to generalise the


nom. and ace. sing, in -av thus,

4) give the

ovojjiav, Trpa/jLav, aKicrfxav, o^ro/xav, etc.

4.

The

pi. 01 vo/xaTOL fr. oi/o/xa

means " persons," " individuals."

104. TO ypdyfrip^o "writing," "handwriting."

PluraL

Singular.

Nom. Ace.

ypdyfrifio

ypayjrLfMara

Gen.

(ypay{ripLaTO<;) ypa'\frLfidTOv

ypaylnfidrco.

So also the abstract verbal nouns (nomina actionis) in 'cri/.Lo,


" binding,"
Seac/jio
^ydXaifio " dislocation,"
BoalpLo

like

" giving," 6dy{np,o " burial,"

to KXeLaLjjbo " locking," to vrvaifio

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

G6
"

on

putting

" scraping,"
*'

command,"
"

(TL/jLo

to

(clothes),
"

pd-^ifio

"

rpe^L/jbo

^eySuac/jio

sewing,"

putting
"

off,"

"

vow,"

(f)Tai^ifjio "

being at

These nouns often serve as a substitute

for

^vcrtfjuo

promise,"

running," cf)epai^o " behaviour,"

" arranging,"

making,"

"

rd^ifMo

(fiKetd-

fault, guilt."

the obsolete

infinitive.

parisyllabic

clecl.

{cftipa-Lfxo,

(fycpcriixov)

is

occasionally to be

found, while, vice versa, some ancient neuters in


parisy liable

in -ara,

pi.

105. TO

Kpea<; "flesh"

(more rarely to

Kpedrov

Gen.

more

Kpui^).

Kpiara (Kpidra)

Ace. Kpea^;

So also TO aka<;

make up non-

Tlural.

Singular.

Nom.

-o

94.

v.

" salt "

Kpedrwiv).

(though to dXdrc, tov dXaTiou

is

in use).

1. The two nouns just given are the only survivors of a class
that even in a. Gk. was rather limited in number ; o-e/?as is to be
attributed to the literary language, while Kcpa? and repas have been
displaced by Kiparo, sometimes also Kpidro, and reparo respectively.
For TO yrjpa^ " old age," to, yepafxara or to. yepareta.
2. The remaining a. Gk. neut. stems have been ousted partly by
different words and partly by new formations, as, to vp6 " water" for
vhwp, rj avoL^L "spring" for ^ap, to crvKwri " liver" for rjvrap, to -n-qydhi
"fountain" for <j>piap, rj cfxjjTLa "fire" for nvp, to avrC "ear" for ov<i.
TO jxiXi " honey " is decl. like cnriri (p^ekiov, fiikta).
On yova, v. 103,

The forms

n. 2.

TO

<^5is

to

<f>w(Ti,

tov cfiwcnovy

to, <jf)W(na

are found alongside

"light."

Adjectives.

106. In m. Gk. the dividing line between adjective and

is hard to determine as in a. Gk.


A. Gk. adjs.
were converted into substantives and vice versa {cf. Xvyepyj
" the young girl," literally " the slender (one) "),
a process
which is still operative in the language spoken to-day e.g.
uya7rr)TLK6<i " beloved " and " lover," i^eo? vl6<; " young " and
" young man,"
" strange " and " the stranger," rd |eVa
f ei/o?
" the foreign country," (/>7a);)^o? " poor " and " the poor man,"
^a(v)e6^ " blond " and fa(i^)6'7; (^avOovXa) " a blonde " (" little
blond "), or vice versa jepo^; "old man" and "aged," x^pcdrTj^;
" peasant," " boor," and " boorish."
But national names and
the adjectives from the same are generally carefully distinguished from each other as, Peofjbio*; and pcofiauKo^;, TovpKo<i
and TovpKLKo^ " Turkish," " peculiar to the Turks," ^pdyKo^ " a

substantive

MORPHOLOGY
"

" (adj.), " in

European
and lyy\e^LKo<: " English," " pecuhar to the
Only it must be noted that in expressions like

European," and ^pdyKLKo<;

European

67

fashion," 'Iyj\e^o<;

Enghsh."
"(the) Turkish

soldiers,"

"(the) Enghsh physicians," "(the)

m. Gk. employs the national name (not

European

scholars,"

the adj.)

thus, (ol) TovpKot, arpaTicore^, (ol) 'Iyy\e^oc ycarpot,

^pdyKOL Xoytoc.
Eor the position of adjs., u 293.
The adj., whether attributive or predicative, agrees
number with its noun. If the attribute belongs to

(o/)

in

and
nouns

in gender
several

of different genders, then the adj. accommodates itself to the nearest


noun, but tends to be repeated with each ; thus, /caA.o Kpaal kol (KaXr})
fXTTcpa or Kpaal (KaXo) Kal fXTripa KaXrj "good wine and good beer,"
The adj.,
avTpuMixivoi avrpes kol yvvaLK<s " brave men and women."
when predicate, is masc. when it goes with persons, neut. when it
goes with things thus, avrpe'S kol yvvacKes kol TratSia ^ravc Tpiyvpicrfxevoi OLTTO Toy's TovpKov<s " men, women, and children were surrounded
by the Turks," to Kpaal koI tj /xirLpa ctj/at KaXd " wine and beer are
good." In longer enumerations of things the subject can be summed
up with oAa ; but, generally speaking, such a remedy is avoided by
the repetition of the predicate ; thus, koAo (etvai) to Kpaal kol KaXr] r}
Expressions like " a mother's love is something noble " run
fjLTTLpa.
When
T^S fidwa^ 7) dydirr) etvat KdTi^Ti) XafXTtpo or Xa/xTrpo irpafxa.
the subject is a demonstrative pronoun it usually agrees with the predicate as, avTo<i etvai (6) </)iAos [lov "that (he) is my friend," avr^ dvai
avorjcTia " that is nonsense," but one may also say avra ihai avorjaU<:,
;

107. The declensions of the adjective correspond almost

Eor some pronominal

exactly with those of the substantive.


144, n. 1, 156.
for masc. fem. and neut.

forms,

V.

fall into parisyllabic

All adjectives have separate forms


Adjectives also, like substantives,

and non-parisyllabic.

Taking the masculine as the standard, we differentiate


I.

II.

I.

108.

Adjectives in

-os.

Adjectives in
a.

Oxy tones

h.

Barytones

Adjectives in

A:aXo9 " good."

-is.

(-v<i).

(-t9, -7/9).

-os.

68

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


Masc.

MORPHOLOGY

69

This suffix also serves as the feminine of substantive?;,


(fern.) (Texts III. 13. c).
2. Note that /xiya? lias been replaced by /xcyaXos ; the neut. /xe'ya
for /xcyaXo, however, occasionally turns up.
3. The voc. of the masc. is sometimes used also for the fern. ; as,

yoTa-ajxdveva).

"fox"

e.g. dAcTTfo-a

KttA-e

"good mother
The nom. pi. masc.

/xdvva

" for KaXrj fxdwa.

the noun, 62, n. 1) serves also for


the ace. e.g. Texts III. 5 (los) vd \r]s iroXXol ra-ol xpoj^oi, or III. 14. b
(Capp.) /Atts lySyaX' apou "he regarded us as sound."
Note also ha
KaXo drpixiTTo^, Texts III. 14. a (Pontus).
4.

(as in

109. 7rXouo-to9 "rich."

Masc.
Sing.

Plur.

Neut.

Fern.

irXovaio^

irXoxxjia

irXovaio

irkovcTLov

iT\ov(7ia^

TrXovaiov

itXovg io{y)

ifkovd La(v)

irXovo-co.

irXovaLOi

TrXoucrte?

irXovaia

TrXova i(o{v)

irXovaico^v)

7rXovaL(D(v)

'7rXovcnov<;

nrXovcne^

irXovaia.

Similarly, all adjectives with a vowel, usually i (or y),

termination;

the

before

"

aKepio<^

unhurt,"

ayio<^

as,

" untouched,"

"capable," jaXd^io<; "blue," StVto?


"

unlucky,"

" heavenly,"

"

rifjuto^;

right hand,"

" ancient,"

" fair "

the

adjs.
"

" cold,"

ovpdvio<;

young," iraXio^ " old," %X|09

reXeuTato? " last,"


in

-tVto?

e.g.

womanish," dpviaio^

tions of material in -evio^


8ei/o? " of

"wild,"

worthy,"

"just," ^oXio^

(SLKaco<;)

Kpvo<;

darelof; " witty," d')(pLo<;

dp')(CLLo<^

<yvvaLKL<TLo^

new,"

"

a^io'^

honourable," rpvino^ " pierced," Sef to? " on

(vo<;) "

vi,6<;

the mots savants

"

Kaivovpyto<;

"holy," a'ypto^

" pure,"

" bad," "

0DpaL0<;

tepid "

"

common,"

(beside

(opLo<^)

j3ovvl(no^ " mountainous,"


" like

e.g. dariiJLevLo<;

lamb

"
;

designa-

" of silver," ffeXov-

velvet," fiapfxapevLo^ " of marble."

1. Except for the accent, the old fern, form has been retained,
though even here the fern, formation in --q is found e.g. ySe/3at>7 fr.
:

"certain."
In dialects in which

fie/Sacos ''sure,"
2.

after

a-

disappears

(/;.

10, n. 4),

note

= a^ta, 7r\ov(ro<; 7rXov(Ta = '7rXova-Los TrXovaia, etc. On


indeclinable a(y)t = ayro9, v. 63.
aytos "saint" has also the fem.
dytd ('Ayta Mavpa = Leukada) and the masc. pi. ol ayioL
forms like a^a

The

ancient contracted adjs. (aTrXoCs) have disappeared


thus, aTrAos " simple," SittAos " double,"
;
Xpvo-os "golden" (but x^'^'^tvos "of brass," /xTraKi/oeVio? "of copper,"
or p.TTpovvThvo'i "of bronze," for xc^Akov^').
Most of the forms do
not practically differ in pronunciation from the paradigm of xaAos

109a.

or passed into the class in -o?

70

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

Several of the exx. given


(xpvo-i} like KaXrj, xp^^^ ^ike KaXd, etc.).
above show that the adjs. in -os have been enriched to the detriment of others; cf. also 110 n.

11.

Adjectives iu

-is.

MORPHOLOGY
ill

-09,

and especially with those in

the normal forms),


A-aATo? "

e,g.

-t/co?

71
(mostly alongside

bad," " vile "

KaKecd (Texts III. 3 KaiTcra)

dyaTTTjTLKOi^ " lover "

dyaTrrjTLKeLo,
"
appe/ScovtaaTiKetd
dpp^(0VLa(7TiK6<; " fiance

euyeviKO^ " noble," " gallant "


eXXrjviKo^; "

"

Greek

iraarpLico^ " clean "


(J>v(7Lk6^ "

natural

"

euyeviKecd

'\7jvLTad,

Texts

III. 6

TraarpiKeLd
(fyvaiKeid.

Even barytones have sometimes such a feminine


KaKo^oLpo^
fated

Many
using this

" ill-fated "

Ka/cofjuotpetd

(KaKOfjLoipa

"

ill-

woman ").

representatives of the popular literature are very fond of


-eta form.

112. TToXu? "many," "much."

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

72
"

chestnut-eyed,"

/jLavpo(f>pvB7}^ "

with dark eyebrows," o-yovpo-

fidWrjt; " curly-haired."


1.

No

following
2.

value attaches to the spelling


except in writing; cf. 75, n. 1.

(here

-779

and in the

Diminutives

"somewhat

do-TrpouA-i?
like
"rather white," juafcpovAts
long," (^twxovXi? " poor," give do-TrpovAt, ^rwxovXi, etc., in

the neut. (nom. pi. masc. and fem. do-7rpoi;A.t8e9).


The fern. pi. may
take also parisyllabic form e.g. /xavpofxaTes fr. pavpo/xaTrjs " darkeyed."
:

114.

(iKaixdrr]^ "lazy."

Fem.

Neut.

dKa/jLcirtaaa

aKapbdriKo

Masc.
Sing. aKa/jLdT7]<;
aKafidTr}

ciKaixdricra-af;

aKafjudrcKov

d/cafidrT)

dKa/Jbdrcaaa

d/ca/jbdrLKO.

dfca/jbdrtaae^;

aKafidrLKa

Plur. dKafjLdrrjSef;

Similarly

dKa/jLdrrjBo)

dKafjudrtacrco

aKa/jLaTCKO}

dKa/jLaTrjBei;

aKa/jbdrLaae^;

aKa/jbdriKa.

" darling," fiaKapiTTj^

KavaKdpi^

/jbaKpo\ai/jL7]^ "

long-necked,"

" blessed," " late,"

etc.

The fem. form sometimes fluctuates between this paradigm


and the immediately preceding thus the fem. of ^ov\uipL<^ is
ypividpL^ " peevish " has two ferns, ypividpa
also ^ovXtdptcraa
" red-nosed " KOKKtvo/jLvra and
KOKKLvo/jLvrrj^i
and ypiVidpLo-aa,
-/jLVTLaaa and even kokklvojjuvtov, aravpoTrohrj^ " with crossed
legs " aravpoTToSa and aravpoTroStaaa.
;

j/^eurrys " lying," if/e-uTpa.


" ^^g^y/' KaKOvSid, ;(pv(ro/xdAA>;s ;)(pi;(ro/>iaAA,ovcra
" the golden-haired "/.
Masc. substantives in -a? have corresponding
fems. in -ov ( 88) and neuts. in -dStKo e.g. i//-w/xa? ij/wixov ij/iofxdSLKo \
those in -d8t/co designating the place where a trade is carried on as,
if/apdSiKo "fishmonger's shop."
ij/iofxdSLKo "bakery," "bake-shop,"
For other suffixes of gender, v. 40, 81 (2) d.
115. Both the preceding paradigms are m. Gk. formations, their
'The ancient
decl. following that of the corresponding substantives.
adjectives in -779 {^vy^v-qq) have disappeared from the real vernacular^
being replaced either by new adjectives {ahtdvTpoiTo<s " insolent " for
av6d8y]<;, ycpos = a. Gk. vyi-qpo^ " healthy " for vyLy]<;) or hy for^ris in
-05
aKpL^o? " dear," dfjiaOo? " unlettered," 8td(/)ai/os " transparent,"

aKaiiaTt]^

Note

even forms a fem. aKafxarpa, and

also /caKovSy/?

Sv(TTvxo<i {Sv(TTvxi(Tixivo<i)

"becoming,"

aTrpcTro?

" uufortuuate,"

"unbecoming,"

TrpeTros == etiTrpcTTTJs

"proper,"

"of equal weight,"

ia-o^apo^

TpLo-^aOos " very deep," dXr]6Lv6<s " true," cvycvtKos " polite," \f/evTLKo<:
Other types of the a. Gk. adj. have also dis"false," "falsified."
appeared ; thus, e.g., OrjXvs and dpa-qv have been displaced by 0r]XvK6<;

" female," and

dpo-ci/i/cos (crepi/tKos)

vd)8rj^hj fxvpovSdro^ "fragrant."

"male,"

7r\-^pr]<s

Forms such

by

ycjxdTos " full,"

as euyei/cis, o-vyyems

MORPHOLOGY

73

ace. pi. of cuyei/rjs "noble," and cruyyevrj? "related''), or


" accurate," vcvpwSr;? (gen. vcvpwSov?) " nervous," come from
But such adjectives from the literary
the literary language.
language may be conformed to the vernacular paradigm e.g. o-vyycvr^?,
">;,
-T^Sc?, v/\a/8rys, ->;, -TySes, fem. o-vyyeVtcro-a
(rarely uAay8>yStcro-a),

and

(nora.

uKptySr^s

neut. (Tuyyci'tKo.

Comparison of Adjectives.
116. The adjectives in classes

comparative

so far as it is in use

stem (what remains after cutting


that

is

to -0- or -v-

thus

and

form the

II. a.

-Te/)09 to

the nom.,

off -9 of

v. n.

the
2),

strong " yepcorepo^

*'

76/509

I.

by adding

evKoXo^i " easy " vKo\(t)T6po<i

warm

fe(7T09 "

" ^6(TT6Tepo<i

" little " \iy(t)Tepo<;

Xuyo^

flLKpO^ " small " /JLLKp6TpO<i


<j>p6vLfio<i "

070)^09 "
'\jr7}\6<;

"

reasonable "

poor "

high

<f)poviiJL(jiijepo^

(j>TCi)^6T6pO<i

" '\lr7]\6r6po<i

irXovaio<; " rich " 7r\ovaicoTpo<;

^aOv<^ " deep " ^aOvTcpo^

^apv^

"

heavy

>y\vKv<; "

sweet " yXvKVTpo<i


long " /jLaKpurepo^;

fjLaKpv<; "

Tra^ik

The superlative
comparative
declension

is

as,

"

" ffapvTepo<i

thick " nra-^vTepo^.

formed by placing the

is

fitKporepo^

"

the

article before the

smallest,"

The

etc.

the same as that of a corresponding adjective

thus, /jLLKp6T6po<;, fiLKporepT], fiiKporepo, etc., like,

c.//.,

eXevrepo^.

yepos (a. Gk. yepwv) " old."


2. The distinction between cvKoA-w-repos and (fiTOix-6-Tpo<s is merely
orthographical, having no value for the living speech.
But since in
the majority of cases the comparative in -repos is formed exactly like

Note

1.

that of
of

-o-

a.

ypovT6Tpo<s

fr.

Gk., the present-day orthography maintains the a. Gk. rule


and -w- after a preceding short,

after a preceding long syllable

although this rule has no meaning for genuine m. Gk. forms like
XLyiOTpO^.
3.

The

occasionally

a.

Gk. superlative in -rarog

is

in the so-called elative sense,

still
i.e.

found only
throw into promi-

to be
to

nence, translated by verij e.g. XafjiiripoTaros " very bright," KaAwraro?


"very good." These forms are somewhat freely employed in the
vernacular literature in imitation of the usage in the written language.
Still it is more customary to employ ttoXv (also Trapa iroXv) or TroXXa
:

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

74

or other

good,"

words signifying " very

The

etc.

Finally,

" ; thus, 7roA.i> {ttoWo) KaAos " very


the adj. serves the same purpose (i/^r/Ao

" a very high mountain "), or compounding with KaraKaraKOKKLvos "quite red," OeorpeWos ''quite crazy."
281, 1, n. 2.

xj/qko /Sovvo

or Oeo-

doiiblijig of

e.g.
rf.

117.

number

paratives in -UT6/309

of adjectives in

-o?

form their com-

those most in use are

Ka\6^ " good " KaXvrepo^


KUKo^; "

"

bad

KaKvrepo^ and KaKa>T6po<;

fxeydXo^ " great " pLe'ya\vT6po<^


also

kovt6<; " near " KovTVTpo<;


fjbavpo<i "

and Kovrorepo^

black " fjLavpvT6po<;

fair " ofiopcfivrepof; and opbop^orepo'^


"
iTpcoTo^ " first " nrpwrvTepo^ " earlier
6/jLop(f)o<^ "

rpavo^

"

great "

in

{e.g.

Maced.) rpavorepo^ and rpa-

VVT6pO<;

yovrpo^ " thick "

The orthography
-etTcpo?,

or

-iTepo<5,

" coarse " '^ovTpvTepo<i

')(^ovTp6repo<^.

fluctuates, the spelling usually being -rjTepo^

even

and

-T^'rcpo?,

/xeyaXetrcpos,

/>tyaXr^Tcpo9,

and

so ixeyaXvTepo<s

may

be

S[)elled

KaXvrepo?
or fxcyaXyrepo's,
Gk. KaXXCoiv). The spelling -vTepo<;

/-teyaXtrcpo?,

also KaXXiTpo<; (on account of a.


corresponds to the origin of the form, comparatives in -vrepo? being
formed on analogy of the adjs. in -vs. The adjs. with double forms
served as a model j cf. p.aKp6s jxaKpvs jxaKpvTepo'Sf yXvKos yXvKv?

yXvKVTepo<;,

Two

118.

adjectives

employ

different

words

for

the

comparatives
TToXv^ "
1.

much "

Cf. also TrXeTLpov in

employed only in
K.ano^

"

bad

irepiaaoTepo^ and

Velvendos

'Tr(X)6i6T6po<;.

TroXvrepos

and TroXAorepo? are

dialect.

"

yepoTepo^

(^^etporepofi)

"

worse "

(beside

KaKurepo^, 117).
2.

Instances of double degrees of comparison occur in TrXetorepo?,

Xc(t)poTpos, the old comparatives TrAetwv, x^^P^^

common m. Gk. compar.

having been rein-

termination -repos.
The older
The old formation in -uov
language had still more exx. of this kind.
is retained intact in the neut. KctAXto (occasionally used) ( = a. Gk.
KttA.Aioi/) " better," in addition to which a KaXAtos (m.) and KaXXia (/. ),
or even (in Crete) a 6 KaXXids, rj KaXXtd "the better" (??z. and /.),
and an adverb KaXXta or KaXXtd (neut. pi.), were formed. In Eova,
forms like plen gcilia {koXXlo) and pleh-li-iru {x^lpov) have taken on
the compar. particle ple{n) = irXiov.
forced by the

"

MORPHOLOGY

75

119. Beside the mode of comparison with -T6po(;, there


equally common method which corresponds to that
another
is
languages
Eomance
the
of

Ka\6^

better "

irto Ka\6<i "

\1709

IT 1^0

Xiyo^ " less "

o ttlo KaX6<i "

"smaller"

TTcb iJbiKp6<i

/jbiKp6<{

o ttlo

the best

puKpo^ "the smallest"

ol ttlo Xiyot " the least."

1. The particle ttlo (also ttAio, ttlo) is the old ttXcoi/ (still used in
It occurs as an independent adverb (7rXid[t/],
the written language).
TrAta, TTta, in the Terra d' Otranto^Zeo) in the signification "more,"
" now," " already," as Se fjuropio ttux " I cannot any more," <f>TdveL ttlo.
" it is enough now " ; but note h\v ttiVo) TrcpLa-aoTepo " I drink no

more (than a

definite quantity)."

This method

modern

employed

is

foreign)

(or

chiefly with adjective forms of

with

origin,

compound

adjectives belonging to II. b, with participles

and other
and generally

with polysyllabic adjectives


Kaivovpyiof; "

new "

irib Kaivovpyiot;

T6pLire\7}<i " lazy " ttlo Tefi7re\7]<;

7e/xaT09 " full " irto ye/jbdro';


6/jLop(t)o^

" fair " ttlo ojiopc^o^i

^7)Xtdpi(i

"jealous"

TLpL7)fievo^ "

irio t^rfKidpL^i

honoured

" itlo

Ti/jL7)/jLvo<;

dfiapT(i)\6<; " sinful " ttco d/jLapTco\6<i.


2.

One may

occasionally say for emphasis

the simple KaXvrcpos or 6

ttXlo

ttlo KaXvrepos beside


arepvorepos "the last," "latest" {cf.

118,n. 2).
3. The periphrastic comparative has almost ousted the a. Gk.
mode in Lower Italy. A diflerent periphrastic method borrowed
from the Turkish predominates in I'ontus and elsewhere in the

Black Sea;

KaXos aKo/xav KaAo? "better," ro-tTr KaAo?


region of the
"very good," "best"; similarly in Saranda Klisies Kop, {i.e. aKo/xr/)
/caAds " better," 6 Ko/z KaAds"the best."
Finally, foreign influence
has resulted in the complete loss of the compar. form ; cf. Texts III.
13. a, ds cVcj/ piLKpos " small from thee" = " smaller than thou."

120. In the comparison of nouns, "than" after the


is translated by diro with ace, less frequently

comparative

by irapd with nom.


TidvvT] " G.
^(07]

is

taller

irapd aapavra

as,

TiO)pyi<i

than

J.,"

')(p6v(ov

elvat fjLeyaXvTepo^ diro 10

icaXvrepa jjnd^ wpa<; iXeuOepij

aKXa^td

" better

one hour of

liberty than forty years of slavery."


1.

Trapd (Yelv.

adjectives,

Trapo,

TripL)

id or

is

used especially for the comparison of


ttov for comparison with a whole

Trapa

"

76

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

sentence:

e.g.

voice was

more

rj

^o^epa

cfx^vy rjTo Tnpicrcrorepo

^rjTtaveid

Trapa.

"the

fearful than entreating," KaXvTipa va rovv liripvL^ tov

Ki(f)d\L TTc/at TOV ttXl (Texts III. 11) " better you had taken his head
than the hen," kolXXlo va (XKacnxi Trp^jxa ivapa va jxr] ca? 6v]jL7}0io " better
tliat I should perish sooner than forget thee," Skv vTrdpx^t dWo
<t>o^pu)Tpo irapa ttov ^TraOa "there is nothing more terrible than
what I have suffered." Finally, Trapd means "except" (Lat. nisi):
e.g. hkv ^$p irapa ra iraXid fxa's "he knew nothing except our past
history," hlv kwu Tvapa ovtip^v^Tai "he does nothing but dream."
2. Tlie genetlvus comparaiionis is occasionally to be found with
the personal pronoun cf. pi rovv rpavvripo <t [i.e. a-ov] kovkklo. va p.y
o-'^TTcps (Texts III. 11) "sow no beans with him that is stronger
tlian thou " (" have no business partnership "), Sev rjvpa dSep^o
KttAAiai/ TOV (I. a. 15) "I did not find any brother better than he."
;

The more ... the more " oao (aWo) rocro.


The best of all " runs to KaXvrepo air oXa. The a. Gk.
partitive gen. after comparative and superlative has been
thus, o pLeyaXvrepo^ air tov<^ hvo " the
displaced by cnro
"

"

greater of the two."


"

As

oao

/jLyaXo<;

as "

= TOGO

(elpuat) iyco

oao

or

or

aav

(KaC)

thus, elvat roao

aav koI

elvai, pLeyaXo^;

pueva "

he

is

as tall as I."

The Adverb.

121. The adverb

not connected merely with verbs

is

good "), but may be


Gk. e.g. rj piiaa Ka/iapa
" the middle room," rj kcltco 77) " the lower world," to aTrdvo)
Trdrco/jia " the upper storey," rd Kadavro ovopuara " the proper
names " in some phrases it even becomes a quasi-substantive,
or

adjectives

employed

(ttoXv

kgXo^

"

also attributively as in

very
a.

" in

as OTTO 6^/}?

the future,"

o-to puera^v " in

57 n.
122. To form the adverb take the

the meantime ";

further,

exceptional

ad jective

cases

the

as, dfcpLp6<; "

neut.

dear

sing.

" dKpLJSd,

neut.

the

of

pi.

c/".,

only in

corresponding

dyopTaaTo^ " insatiable

"

dyopTaaTa, ffXr)yopo<i " speedy " yXrjyopa, Bwaro^ " strong,"


"loud" Bward, cato9 "equal" caia "even," "forthwith,"
KaX6<; " good " KaXd, kovt6<; " near " Kovrd, Kpv(fi6<^ " secret
pcopLauKo^ " Eomaic," " modern Greek " pcopuauKa,
/cpv(f)d^
"
TrpMTo^ " first " Trpcora, yjrr}X6<; " high " yjrrjXd ^apv^; " heavy
fiapeid (and in dialects ^apv), puaKpo^ and pLaKpv<; " wide
;

pLUKpeid, ^ovXidpi<i " jealous "

and iroXXd,

^ouXtdpcKa

(6)Xi<yo<; " little " (6)Xiya,

ttoXu? forms iroXv

{SyXiyo or XiyaKi.

MORPHOLOGY

77

123. The comparative of adverbs is the neut. pi. of tlie


though the neut. sicg. is relatively more frequent
than in the positive KoXinepa " better," ^aOvrepa " deeper,"

adjective,

" less,"

Xcycorepo

and

iTioTepo or

KoXd,

KaXvrepaj

more

" worse,"

higher degree,"

"ttlo

^aOvTpa

parison

is

TO Trcb ^(eipoTepa

(-o),

(or ttco

ttlo

KoXyrepo, to

Emphasis

(-0).

com-

of

secured by iroXv {ttoWo) " very," and other such

words, or by repeating the adverb


gradually," o-iyd
"

or ttlo

etc.,

^adetd

iSaOvrepa), etc.

rrto

Superlative to 7r(\)io KoXvrepa and to


TTto

irepiaaoTepo

(beside

"

Trtorepa), ')(e{i)p6Tpa

TToXv " to a

iTLo

"

Trepiaaorepa

dyaXia dydXca

as,

aiyd "very slowly,"

i(7(t)a

even," Kdrco Karco " quite under," fitXa

"he speaks modern Greek most

"

very

"just so,"

Lo-(t,)a

KoXa Ka\a pco/xauKa

excellently."

1. Forms like (^vaiKwraTa "most naturally," iWrivLKwrara "in


genuine Greek style," come from the literary language.

Adverbs with no

corresponding

adjective like dirdvco


Karco " under," form the compara-

" yonder,"

" above," Trepa

tive exclusively with tt^o

thus,

ttco Kdroa, etc.

7r;to 'irdvco,

Xote adv. raxvrepov " later " (IS^axos) from

2.

Ta)(y<s.

124. Compared with this mode of forming adverbs the


forms in -w? have survived only in isolated

(old) adverbial

cases in the popular speech


"

perhaps,"

KaXo)^

Kokm

ripde<i "

welcome

" well," in

as, dfjueaco^i

aravLKm

"

(popd " once," TroXXe?

Kdde fiipa

for all,"

simultaneously,"

"

suddenly," o-to /xeTa^v

is

"

at once,"
" in

Xuyo

ard

Xecyfre " it

had almost

by an

126.

wanted but

fMcd

" soon,"

Tv(f>\d " at

the meantime,"

rendered by means of the verb

Xiyo

long

him,"

life to

"

" often,"

(f>ope<i

" daily," ere

"

"

and prepositional expressions


e.g. rov kukov " in vain,"

are sometimes stereotyped as adverbs


p^LCL

I'crco^

unwillingly."

125. Even substantival

immediately,"

the expressions /caXw? (hplaare,

welcome," or koXcj^ top

to him,"

"

Kal koXtj " once

arov
etc.

Kovrevco " I

little "), e.g.

tSto

random,"
"

am

eKovreva vd

Kacpo

fxe

pud^

Almost

"

near " (or


ireaod " I

fallen."

Many

adverbs have either never been accompanied

appellative, or have lost all

formal connection with


such in the course of development of the Greek language.
6

78

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

Such are

The most important are the

of various kinds.

following

Adverbs of Place.

1.

irov "

where

" airo ttov (also irovQe) "

where," irovOevd
negative sense
TLTTore,
iBco, 8o6 "

Trov^erc^;)

{irovireTa,

"

nowhere

"

whither

(cf.

"

" kclttov

153), ottov, ttov "where," relative


^'

farther

on that side

avrovvov)

(evToif,

"

in

the use of Kaveva<^ and

"
here," " hither

that way,"

aXKov

any-

anywhere,"

KeL,'KeL " there," " thither," " in that place," rrapaKel


"
"

avTov

''

" there," " in that

place

"

"

elsewhere

"
TravTov " everywhere

everywhere," " on

"

okovOe

(udvov), diroTTdvw

airdvct), irdvo)

Kdrro

all sides
"

"

above

"

(Kdrov) " under," " underneath," irapaKdrw " farther


under," " lower down," dvwKdroi " up and down," " pell-

mell

"

p^a/xft) {'x^dfjLov,

more rarely

%a/iat, x^H'^'')y ^^^o Karayrj^; "

on

"

of ft)

the ground
"
(o^ov, efft)) " out," " outside

fjieaa {diro fjueaa) " inside," "


ofjLiTpo'^

"
TTiCTft),

Kovrd

" in

"

"

fiTTpoo-rd " in

front," " before,"

"

oiriaid {iriaov) " behind,"

Lesbos
cn/jbd,

Trape/juTrpof;),

{ifnrp6<;,

forwards

within

"

back

"

(note iricov iriaov in

the course of time ")

near

"

"
hiiT\a, diro hlirXa " close by," " alongside
"
TrXdi irXdl " side by side," " alongside
avTiKpv{<i) (dvTiKpu, djvdTia) "opposite"
"
"
fyvpco,

Tptyvpov, oXoyvpa

around

irepa (eKecOe) " beyond."


Cf. also combinations of two adverbs of place, like cKet kolto)
" there underneath," " below," ckci Travw (iKfdv Pontus) " there
above," and especially (e)Kt Tripa " yonder," cSw Trepa " here," " in

this case."
2.

TTore

"

when ?
now "

"

" ever,"

(also
"

Adverbs of Time.

irore rrore

never

"

Kairore
"

{cf.

sometimes
Kal

irore)

irovOevd)

"

sometimes,"
sometimes/'

"

now
iroje

"

"

MOEPHOLOGY
" formerly," "

a\\oT

once

79

"

"
T0Te(9), eT0Te(9) " then," cltto lore^ " since

Tutpa " now," " at present


"
j\7]yopa " soon
" already," "

KLoXa^

"just

fjLoXi^

"

even

now"

ofcofia " still," "

yet

"
avrdjjLa " at the same time," " together
"
"

wdvTa

always

TToXi, irdXe "

"

again

"
6\o, oXoeva " continually," " incessantly
UTV(;, d/jLaco^, 6'^ouov'; (e.g.

"
Chios) " immediately

"
Trpoyra " first," irpcorvrepa " before " " previously

varepa (Chios varepc, los vaT6pd)Tepa), eirena^ KaTOin,

direKei

" afterwards," " later "

dpyd,
(to)

"
vcoplrepa " earlier

{ivcDpi<i) " early,"


"
"

v(oph

late

^ot)pa<;

^paBv^;) " in the evening," (to) ra'^y " in the

Ppdhv (also
"
morning

(e);(;Te9, (e)i|re9 "

m'po')(Te<;

" to-day," diroy^e " this

<jif)iJLepa

"

avpLo

yesterday,"

to-morrow," fiedavpco

6Xr)iJL6pL<; "

the whole day

</)eT09, e(^eT09, (e)(f)6To "

"

evening

day

this year

next year

day before yesterday

"

"

after

to-morrow

"

"

nrepvcFL (Trepat) " last year,"

Xpovov

"

"

"

irpoiripva-L

"

two years ago

" (rov

").

Here also combinations like ix^h ^paSu? or e^rcs to /3pd^v


^'yesterday evening," dpya t aTrorax^id "late in the afternoon," etc.

Adverts of Manner and

3.
77009

how

"

"

"

Kairco^;

Quantity/.

somehow, anyhow,"

adv

" as "

(in

comparisons)
ercri "

thus "

eVcrt

era-t,

" so

aXXtcoTLKa " otherwise,"

dXXLa)<;,
{d)7rdif(i)

Kdro)

"

and so
" else

"
"

"
about," " approximately," " nearly

"
t6vtl<^ " really
e^a(f)va, d^acjyva, ^d(f)va)

fia^L " together," "

(fi6i>, jjLovov),

dpKerd

"

enough

"suddenly,"

fiovofjuta^ **all

"

^^X^P^) "apart," "separately"


"
fjLovaxd " alone," " only

X^pi^f^ (X^P^^"^^'

fiovo

with

"

at

once"

"

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

80

XtyaKL

"

little

irapaTToXv " too

"

much

"

TO iToXv irokv " at the most

TO

Xi'^o

Xlyo " at least."

Numerals.
(a)

Cardinal Numhers,

eVa?, yuia, eva

2 Bvo
3

Tpeh, rpla (rpid)

4 Teaaepi^ (reaaepoi,
aepa, and ricraapa)
5

Tecr-

30 Tpidura
31 Tpidvra em,
40 arapdura
50 Trevi^vra
60 e^rjVTa
7

Trivre

e(/)Ta

etc.

e/SSo/jLT/vra

80

(ojBorjvra) ojBovra

evevrjvTa

8 6)(ra)
9

100
101
102
111
121

eVi^m

BeKa

11

evTEKa

12

BcoBeKU

13
14
15
16
17
18
19

BeKarpet^i

eKaro
eKaTo(v) eVa?, eKaro fiid

eKaro Bvo
eKaro evreKa

eKaro eiKoaieva

BKaT(Ta6pL<i

BeKairevre

BeKd^L (SeKae^t)
BKa<f)Td

BeKo^To) (BeKa

6)(^t(o)

heKavvid (BeKa epptd)

20 eLKoai
21 eiKoaieva
22 eiKocTL Buo,

etc.

200 BiaKocrioi, BLaK6aL<;, SiaKo-^


[aia^y
220 BiaKoaLa eiKoai,
300 Tp{i)aK6(TL0i, -^69, -ta
400 TerpaKoatoi, -ie?, -ta
500 irevraKocnoc, -t,e<;, -la
600 e^aKoa-ioL, -ie<;, -ca
700 e^Ta/cocrtot, -te?, -ta
800 oxTaKoaioL, -te?, -fa
900 epviaKoaLOc, -ce<;, -la

1000 '^iXioL, ^tXte?, '^iXca


1894 ')(iXi,a oyiaKOGia ivevtjvTa reaaepa
2000 a^o xtWSe?
3000 Tpe?9 ;j^tXt86?, etc.
10,000 Se/ca ;j^tXtaS69
100,000 eKaro ^^^tXtaSe?
200,000 BiaK6aLe<; ^tXtaSe?
^

The

before the ending

is

always consonantal

i).

MORPHOLOGY

81

1,000,000 eW fiiXkiovvL (eKaTOfifivptov)


2,000,000 Svb fiiXkiovvia (Bvo iKarofifivpia)
(1,000,000,000 x*^te:aTo/A/it;/9ioz^ Milliard)
(1,000,000,000,000 BcaeKarofjLfjLvpLov Billion).
Of course the last two high numbers are no longer in evidence
in the vernacular, since they lie outside the sphere of the usages
and conceptions of the people.
128. The numerals from 1 to 4 inclusive, and from

'200 up, are declined

thus

Fem.

Masc.
eVa?

1.

fiitd

(ei^o?) kvov,

evom

fJi'Ca<;,

va(y) (evave)

Neut.
eva (evav)

(fivta)

(ei^o?) evov, vov<;

fiiavrj<;

eva (evav).

ficd^u)

After the analogy of jjLtavrjs there is even a gen. masc. /xcavov.


In Pontic the nom. (masc. and fem.) cts, ace. Lvav (m.), evav (f.) are
in use; in Saranda Klisies the nom. sing. neut. to h "the one."

Bvo nom. and ace. of

2.

and

all

genders

gen. sometimes Bvcj^ve)

Bvova)(ve).

hvo {koX 01 hvo) " both," Kal ol Bvo

01

" both of

fj.a<;

us."

On

1.

34,

iJLia,

hvo, cf. 10,

n.

on neut. Ivav

(like a-rofxav, etc.),

n. 4.

lxLavrj<s,

Svovwv,

itvave

have been affected by the pronominal

declension.
2.

fjLtav

KOL Sv6 like " one, two, three "

= " immediately,"

" forth-

with."

masc. and fem.

3.

T/3e?9,

4.

Nom. and

{rea-aapa)

ace. masc.

are also found

nom. and

ace. ri(Tcrapov% or Tco-crapovs,

5.

rpia (or rpca) neut.

and fem.

recro-ept?

gen. rpi(o(v).

neut. reaaepa

gen. rearadpcaiv).

The following forms

is

The declension

nom. m. reWapot

ace.

of the other

f.

(rco-o-epot),

Trecrcrapcg (Tccrtrcpe?).

numerals (hiaKoaioi,

etc.)

the same as that of corresponding adjectives.

On

rpaKoa-a, rpaKoa-a, etc.,

V.

10, n. 4.

129. The examples given in the table show how the


numerals are combined
the larger number precedes, the
:

smaller follows without Kal.

Numerals are combined with substantives

as in

German

or in English, the numerals being always used as adjectives


thus, ZiaKoaie^ 'yvvalKe';^ Bvo p^fcXtaSe? dOpdiHToi.


";

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

82

Ordinals.

(b)

"the

130.

"

first" o tt/dwto?

the second " o hevrepo^

" the third " o rplro^;


"

the fourth " 6 rerapro^;.

To express ordinal numbers higher than " the fourth


the cardinal numbers (in the neut.) are employed with the
dcf. article placed before them
thus, 6 Treure " the 5th;'
6 efe "the 6th," o ecprd "the 7th," o r pidvr a " the oOth,"
ifcaro "the 100th," 6 hiaKoata, 6 '^IXia, 6 Svb ^tXtaSe?, 6
;

fiCSXiovvL

ei^a

The ancient

ordinal numbers have disappeared out of the present


popular language.
Those from 2 to 5 occur partially in older or
"
modified forms in the names of some week-days Bevrepa " Monday
"
"
"
"
(rj SVTpr}
the second "), T/atrr;
Tuesday," TerpdSr]
Wednesday
(but rj TTapT7j " the fourth "), ttc^tt; (also Trip^rrj) " Thursday " (fr.
Note also to ScKaro " the tenth," " tithe," r) aapaa. Gk. TripTTT-q).
:

Koo-rr/

"Lent,"

TrevTrjKoa-rrj

Derivatives

(c)

piLar)

"

Special Usages of Numerals,

ijllcto^,

" the

(opa,

"Whitsuntide."

and

131. Fractions:

hour

rj

pi-ic^ri,

half "

connection with other numbers


evd 'pLiav {pad 'pLiov) Ih, Suo
'pLtav

51,

If

/^^cro

pLvao.

"half

"half,"

When

an

used

takes the form {rj)p.Lav

it

in
e.g.

2 J, rpeZ? rjpLiav 3|, Trevre

'pULav

6 J, BeKa 'pnav

ef' rjpLiav

10 J.

a substantive follows such numerical terms there are

two usages
" 2|-

to

(1)

e.g.

years," etc.

pud

'putav oicd "

1| oka," hvo

'pucrv ^(^povia

or (2) pna okcl koI paar), Bvb y^povia Kal

pLLao.

rerapro (also eva Kdpro) " a


rirapra " three-fourths," " three= rpca rerapra rf;? w/^a?.

{eva) TpiTo " a third," eva

fourth,"

"

quarter,"

quarters of an hour "

The
fifth "

uiro

rpla

larger fractions are expressed periphrastically

= eva

aTTo

rd or ard

rd (ard^ BeKa

irevre

(Kop^pLdria),

(sc.

KopLpLdna)

xV

" one-

= ^^b

or dirb (rd) BeKa (rd) Byo,

etc.

Per cent.
e.g.
5 per cent. = ttcVtc (or)Ta c/caro (literary
1.
language, ttcVtc rots eKarov; c/. 41, n. 2).
The cardinal numbers are employed
2. Dates and o'clock.
" one o'clock " = />iia wpa, " five o'clock " = ttcVtc wpa, but more
usually " one o'clock " = (o-Trj) ptd, " three o'clock " = (crris) rpcis
" half -past one," " half-past three " = {o-Ty]) pid 'picrv, (o-tU) rpet?
:

;;

MORPHOLOGY
"quarter past two"

7jfjLi(rv;

four"

T(ra-pe<;

{(TTLs)

"a quarter to
"twenty minutes past five,"

8v6 koI rirapTo;

(o-ris)

irapa rirapro;

"twenty minutes

to six" {(ttls) irivT^. koI eLKocri, (crris) 4'^e Trapo.


one (two) o'clock " eivat /xta wpa, Svo wpc?. " On the 1st,
10th, 25th April " (a-Trjv) irpwrr], or ((TtU) 8e/ca, dKoanrivTe {tov) 'ATrpiXi
"to-day is the 15th of the month" (rqp.pa etvat (^xop-e) ScKaTreVrc tov
fxYjvos; "the first of May" ("1st May") Trpwro/xaia, "1st Jan.,"
eLKoat

"

"New

it is

Year"

"in (the year) 1910" (o-ra) x^^*-^


"Sunday, 13th Dec. 1909," KcptaK^ ScKarpcts (rov)

-n-pwroxpovta

h/viaKoata SeKa

SeKefSpL ^t'Aia ivviaKoata ivvid.

132. Distributive numhe7's are formed (1) by placing

before the cardinal, or (2) by repeating the cardinal thus,


eva<^ va<; " one by one," " one at a time," airo hvo or Zvo hvo

cLTTo

"two and two,"


"

avro Se/ta or

How many

times

(occasionally also by /3o\a)

"twice," "three times,"


"

Note

twice."

fois) "

tens."

by

expressed

is

<l)opd

/xia (f^opd " once," ^uo, rpel^ (^ope^

iroae^i <^o/)e?

times," " often," aTro

many

^ope<; "

"by

heKa

Se/co,

(Fr.

"how many
Bvo

/jllol

</)opes^

times," TroXXe?
"

every once,"

also x^\ia fxepdhia 6fiop(l)VTtp7] " a

thousand

times fairer."
In multiplication <f>opd is omitted as, rpets (oi) 8c/ca kcHvovv rpiaVra
"three times ten make thirty." The following are exx. of other
;

arithmetical calculations 8v6 koI reo-crepa (Koivovv) e$L " two and four
make six," TrcVre diro SeKa (Kavovv) ttcVtc " five from ten leaves five,"
irevre aro BeKa {kolvovv) Svo " five into ten gives two (goes twice)."
:

"

" For the first time, second time," Trpcorrj, hevrepr] cpopd
the tenth or twentieth time " BcKa, eUoaL <^ope^.
"

Single "

= ^01^09

or aX\o9 Too-09,

'*

or dirXof;, " double," " twofold " SittXo?


three-, four-, five-, tenfold " rpel^, reaaepe^y

BeKa ^0/369

Trevre,

Tocro,

or even T/3tSt7rXo9, TTpdBL7r\o<;,

etc.,

7^6^'Ta8t7^Xo9, etc.

133. The

number

definite
of ten,"

e.g.

substantives

persons or things

Ka/mid BeKapLo, dOpwiroi "

" twelve,"

Kapid

Numeral

of

"

dozen

in -apid denote a
heKapid " the number

some ten men,"

/jua

vrov^ivd),

eLKoaLTrevrapid, Tpiavrapid, SiaKoaapid

"a crowd

30, 200,"
(fern.)

"
;

The

"

(also

But "the number


about

suffix

of

one hundred"

hcohe-

elKoaapidy
of
is

20, 25,

eKarocrrv

fifty " irdvco Kdrco irevrjVTa.

-dpa

is

especially

coins the value of a definite

names of
which the
5 Lepta piece," heKapa

employed

number

most common in use are irevrdpa

"

of

for the

units, of

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

84

"10 Lepta

and analogously Svdpa,

piece,"

elfcoa-dpa,

Trevrjv-

rdpa, etc.
Similarly the neuters Svapt, Trevrdpij

1.

{e.g.

SeKdpi " tener in cards

iKaToarTapi, etc.

ScKotpt,

").

2. The abstract numbers in -aSa (a. Gk. -a?, -aSos) are rare, and
employed only in specific senses rj^kyia TptaSa " the holy Trinity,"
lit.
"the number twelve," then "retinue" (e.g. of a
7) BwSeKaba,
:

King).
3.

An

number

indefinitely large

is

expressed by

x'-^ta ^^o

in a

similar sense k^rjvTa hvo.

The
*'

suffix -dpLKo is

'TrevTjvrdpLKo,

employed

sum

containing a definite

"

in the

e.g.

same way

to

denote

BeKdpiKo, elKocnirevrdpiKo,

eKaroardpcKo "10, 25, 50, 100 drachma piece


x'^XidpiKT] fjuirorikLa "a bottle holding 1000

bank note,"

or

BpdfjLca."

The masculine
particular age "

suffix

-dpi^,

On

age" (fem. Tpiavrdpa).

of

fem.

-dpa,

denotes " of a

as, rpiavrdpi'^, k^rjvTdpi^ " thirty,

for designating age,

^'.

sixty years

the employment of the gen.

45.

Pronouns.
(a)

134. First person

Personal,

eV^o "I."

Absolute.
Sing.

Plur.

Nom.

iyoa " I

Gen.

/jL6i>a

Ace.

(eyLte) e/j,eva, jjueva

Nom.

ifjuek "

Gen.

(eyu-a?)

Ace.

eyLta?

me

" of

*'

Conjunctive.

"

"
fMov

(ifxevave) "

me "

we

"

/le.

fia<;

us

"
ytta?.

nom. 'yw and (in dialects)


1. The following forms are also found
oyw, ew, also in Cyprus {^jyiw and lyLwvr], in Otranto evo gen. sing.
ifxov, ifxevov, ifiovvov, also i/xi (Texts I. a. 24. 41) ; ace. sing. />ioV and
ifjiova ; the gen. pi. fxa<s (formerly also ifxu)v) is quite rare (cf. e.g.
:

Texts

I. a.

24. 23).

c/xct?, c'/^as for a. Gk. rjfx'L<;, T^/xa? have been formed


on model of the sing. eyw. t/xet? (in North. Gk., e.g. Velv.) bears
only apparent resemblance to the a. Gk. t^/xcis, an unaccented e
becoming i everywhere (cf. 7, n. 1), and so even lyw = y<x).

2.

The forms

dpdfxi is

a unit of weight, nearly 2 drams avoirdupois (400

dpdfji.ia

=l

okcl).

MORPHOLOGY
135. Second person eav "thou."
Absolute.

85

";

"

"

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

8G

^ipet "

paiT(h, at'To?

when

say,

e.g.,

e<y(o

Xiycoy icrv

say," " thou askest," " he knows," only

intended to throw the subject into prominence

it is

aayira

e.f/.

may

Accordingly we

termination.

" thou,

ecrv

keep

eXa

still,"

<7V

gov

/xouo'i

come

thus,

" thou,

thoit alone," and especially in contrast


e.g.
iyco e-^co
hovketd, eav irepTTareh " / have work to do, you are taking
:

a walk."

In the oblique cases likewise the absolute form stands


only in isolation,
alliance with

the texture of a sentence, mostly in

or, if in

the

aimed

pronoun

conjunctive

but unless special

pronoun is used in
"
the sentence thus, iroiov ipcorrjae^ " whom didst thou ask ?
aeva " thee," " thyself," fie pcora " he asks me," aov 'Xe<y(o
emphasis

is

at only the conjunctive

know

" I tell you," TO ^epQ) " I

know him,

*'you

sake of emphasis,
"

On

ifjueva fie ^epei<; "

what do

tou? yvcopi^ei^

it," t6p(6), Tr)v{e),

them."

her,

the other hand, for the

me you know," iaeva irm

it ? " avro Oikovv kol


what they also wish," auTov<i OiXco va (tou?)
desire to see them," a eVa? ro 'ira " to you I said it

oe (paiverac

think of

yoic

Kelvoi " that is


Iho) " I

(or TO

Va

(J

icra^ " I said it to yoio ").

moreover, is quite frequently


1. The pronomen conjunctum,
inserted pleoiiastically in instances like, e.g., to 'jSprjKc to />tepo? " he
found (it) the region," r aAAa rd ^jSpav Kvvrjol " the hunters found

(them) the others."


Note also the idioms
(TTcpvttTc) " how do you do

rrjv

hraOa "I

fell

into

it," ttcos

to.

Trdre

2. The nom. t6<s, ttj, rot appears in va. ro% " there he is," vd rot
" tliere they are " j more rarely ttov dvat \o<; {ttov
ro<i), ttov dvat
*Trj " where is he, she ?

For other usages of the

conj.

v.

140-143.

The conjunctive pronoun

verb, except with the 2nd.

"

138. The position of the personal pronoun

the examples given.

me,"

pron

hk

pers.

imperative

rove " see him," 7rdp(e) to " take

regard me,"

ireo-re

tov<;

" tell

them."

is

clear

from

precedes the

Bcoae p,ov " give

it,"

Kyrrd^ere

When

a verb

jxe

is

accompanied by a particle of negation, tense, or mood (6d, vd,


a?) the pronoun stands between such particle and the verb
as, Beu Tov l8a " I did not see him," 6d aov Scoaco " I will give
you," vd ad^ (et)7rw " let

him

call

her"

(but:

me

iixeva

tell

he

you," a? Tr)(ye) (fxovd^r) " let


fie

^poorrjae,

avrov 6d tov

In combinations with the auxiliary eyjja there is an


option between, e.g., tov elx^a. ISet " I had seen him," 5e /jlov et;i^e
tiKQVGO)).

MORPHOLOGY
he had not told me," and

eiTrel "

when an

auxiliary

fluctuates

rod

et;^a

elirel, etc.

With

treated like 6d.

6e\w

r)de\a the usage

between ere ijdeXa TrapaKokecrci and rjOeXa ae nrapawould request you." For the compound verbal

" I

KoXeaei
forms,

is

87

r/.

223

ff.

In Cyprus, Ehodes, Crete, Chios, and other islands, and in Asia


Minor (Pontus, Capp.), the rule for position is different, the pronoun
being placed after the verb as, iraipovfx fie " they take me away,"
1.

A.eet

Pontus,

^/xaOa to, i<f>u)va^v rov, icftoprMcrav tovs in


Aeet arov " he tells him," cySAcV arov " he sees him."

aKOva-d rov^

fjLOV,

e.g.,

',

When two pronouns come together the indirect object


always precedes the direct e.g. aov, era? to Va (to elira) " I
said it to thee, you," va tou? to arelXrj^ " see that you send
it to them," 8e Oa /la^ ra ^epere ; " will you not bring it to
:

us

The

2.

enclitic,

rov to

"

bring

still,

it."

properly speaking, unaccented (proclitic or


it generally is written
account of the fluctuating orthographical usage

conj. pron.

39)

him

me

Scoa(e) p,ou to " give

and similarly with the imperat.

"

it," (jiepre

is,

in the proclitic position

On
with an accent.
no hard and fast rule can be laid down.

139. Besides the personal pronouns, the ordinary people


in addressing a person) peculiar forms of
e.g. rj a^evTid aov, rj eiryeveia aov " your lordship."
courtesy

use

(especially
:

Instead of the pronouns

common with

very

"

thou, he, you, they," periphrasis

is

the aid of the stereotyped genitive toO

\6^ov (which took its rise from a mutilation


thus
hid \6yov [aov] " at thy command ")

of the expression

"
Tov Xoyov aov " thou

ToO Xoyov aa<; " you


ToO Xoyov TOV,

TOV Xoyov T0U9

Tr}<i

"

" he,

she

"

" they."

These forms remain unchanged in all cases tov Xoyov aov Bh


r/aovva aTo aTrlrc " you (Monsieur) were not at home," toO
Xoyov Tov^ Ti Kdvovv " how are their worships ? " e^ay Kaiphv
:

vd

IhCi

7rd/ji

TOV Xoyov

t?;? " it is

%/9t9 TOV Xoyov

When

aa<; "

the expression

is

a long time since I

we

saw

her,"

6d

will go without you."

joined with the prepositions (l)a,

Bid, diTo, or even with fte, the art. is generally dropped


ae
Xoyov aa<; 6p')(0jxaL " I am coming to you," fr^Tw diro Xoyov
aov " I request of you," iirepiraTovaa pue (rod) Xoyov tov " I
went walking with him (with Monsieur)."
:

88

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


The

person tov Xoyov

first

the reflexive

/jlov

(/na?)

aicndvonai tov \6yov

e.g.

is

fjuov

used to express
KaXvrepa " I feel

myself better."

For the pronoun


1.

"self,"

^.

157.

In addressing a person the vernacular always employs the

2nd pers. sing. the use of the 2nd pers. pi. is a foreign affectation
and confined almost altogether to the educated and to city centres.
;

Beside the forms already given, evrov ( = avrov) is used as a form of


courtesy for ia-v e.g. evrov va to Ka/xr/s "do it (thou)."
2. Note the following rules of concord
cyw kol a-v Ba 7rd/x rojpa
" you and I will now go," ia-v kol 6 <f>i\o<s crov c^vyarc yX-qyopa " you
and your friend went away quickly."
:

(b) Reflexive,

140.

1st Person.

"
(tov ifiauTov fJLov " of nie
"
TOV ifjLavTo /JLOV "

tov ifxavTov

me

tov

fia<i

" of us ")

ifxavTo fia^ " us."

2nd Person.
TOV i/JuavTov (TOV " of thee,"
TOV i/jLavTO aov

"

thee

(tov ifiavTov TOV " of

TOV ifjLavTo ToVf

T7)<;

tov ifiavTov

"

aa<i " of

you

"

tov ifiavTo aa<; " you."

3rd Person.
him "
tov ifiavTov tou?

" himself "

tov

i/iavTO tov<; "

" of

them ")

themselves."

is also employed instead of {ifiavTov) i/iavTo,


To make emphatic, tov Ihiov iavTo
and in the same manner.

(eavTov) eavTo

jjLov

or TOV eavTo fiov tov

lBlo, etc., is

used.

These formations are merely stereotyped forms of the a. Gk.


In Crete a
reflexive with the gen. of the pers. pron. following.
different expression is employed, tov airaTo /xov (aov, etc.); for tov
Xoyov /jiov, cf. 139.
2. The reflexive is not much in use, often a middle voice taking
1.

its place, v.

177,

2.

141. The reciprocal

pronoun "one

another,"

"each

rendered (1) by combining o eva^ "the one" and o


aXXo? " the other " (thus o em? tov aXXo, y fxia ttjv aWrj,
other,"

is

KovTa TO va

one another
"

fi

(dvafiTa^v

aWo

tcl

TTiOcoora " I

by (dva-)/iiTa^v,
among," and the gen. pL

")

between," "

TO

fjLa<;,

or (2)

fjueTa^v

ca?, ficTa^v

placed them beside


avd/jieaa (dvafiea-o)
of

tou?,

the pers.
dvdfiecrd

pron.
tov<;)

but frequently the middle voice* expresses the reciprocal idea,


V.

177, 2.

MORPHOLOGY

89

In Capp. (Pharasa) an unchangeable (adverbial) 'n-VVTd(/3)o is


employed; as, SwKa/xe Trevivrao " we struck each other" perhaps a

remodelling of an expression

va{v) t akXo.

d7r'

(c) Possessive.

142. In m. Gk. there

denoting possession

it is

is

no special adjectival pronoun

supplied by the genitive of the con-

junctive pronoun placed after the noun


"

my

father,"

" his,

r)

;
thus, o iraripa^; fiov
fxdvva aov " thy mother," to g-ttLtl tov, tt;?

her house," ra TraiBcd


nriaTo^

children,"

their

aa<;, tco(v) (tov<;) "

/jLa<i,

KuXrj aov dSepcpT) " thy good sister,"


" his

my

my, thy,

dear friend,"

r)

B6\ia rov [xavvoiiXa

77

rj
idvLKi) aa^ jXcoaaa " your national
tou? Tr]v KapBcd " with their whole heart."

unhappy mother,"

tongue,"

As

"

(piXo^;

fiov

fi

oXrj

the examples indicate, the pronominal form leans upon a

preceding adjectival attribute (but

to,

yXvxd

fidrca tt;? rd

when the adj. is placed after the pronoun).


commonly
less
attached to the second member (77 BoXca
It is
rj
'AperovXa /jlov " my unhappy A.," to Bvarv^o vtjctl tol"?
" their unhappy island ").
" her sweet eyes,"

by no means absolutely necessary


and
in indeterminate expressions
it drops out in addresses
as,
"
/JLOV
yXvKeid /jlov dydirri " my sweet
(my)
mother,"
ixdvva
love," KaXrj aov puepa " good day to you," elvat <f>lXo<i fxov
" he is a friend of mine, my friend," eVa? 0tXo9 aov " a friend

The

definite article is

of yours," fie irodo

Instead of
5 (los)

rr/s

rov

also

To-T/s (17 Koprj

T(T{r))

etc.) "

same

as

with longing for

with

Instead of

T(Tr]<i).

Gk. dialects

especially in North.
aSep(J3-tj

(/jlov,

a\ rov raK^aX t, ov

7,

ttoj/os /x,

ov

art.

/xov,

n.

1)

and

aov {tov)
;

it

thus,

(me)."

Texts

pron.,

/i,

/xawa

rj

III.

a* (r'),
f.i\

r/

Note

yafjL7rp6t,ovfx ( 7, n. 2).

Texts III. 3 (Maina) e.g. to ^oSl /xa. The final -v


sometimes retained before the possessive gen. of the
3rd pers., cf. Texts I. d. 5 the resultant dov, dv/'s, dov^ is occasionThe Pontic axre stands isolated,
ally generalised, c/". Texts III. 12.
also fxa for /xag,

of the

noun

is

cf.
tpTj

rov KU)Xov axT, Texts III. 13. b, beside tov,


arOV, TO aiTiTtV CLT.

143.

hiKO!; (also

ehiKo<i) "

and

Slt

" (my) own


combined with the gen.

or with emphasis

own,"

is

personal pronoun
Bck6<; /lov,

ToO hiKOV

T)

BiKt] /jlov,

ft.OV^

T^?

e.g.

y)

used predicatively (or as a sub-

If the possessive is

stantive, " mine," etc.,

oltov,

to Blko

hLKri<;

/lOV,

/jlov

"

mine

"

TOV BlKOV /lOV

"),

(0)

of the

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

90

TO hiKO

Trj

/jLOV,

ol htKoL fwv,
BtKO)

TO)

Tou?
Similarly

fiov,

))ook is mine," to

TO Blko aov
"

Note
''

all,"

jjlov.

tov,

^t/co?

Blko^ era?

jJLOV

ra Slku

fiov,

/jlov

is

" his,

t?;?

" yours," 6 St:o9

Tft)(i/)

" this

fjuov

^i^Xlo (more rarely to (Bc^Xlo to

book," to /Sl^Xlo elvai to Blko

the book

mine, not yours,"

/xe

fiov, 6)(t

Bvvafii Sik)} tov

strength."

ol Bv6

fjLa<;

"

the two (both) of us,"

oXoi,

/la^ "

we

all of us."

The

1.

"

own

with his

Biko

my own

hiico /jlov) "

TM BlKM

fJbOV,

St/ci?

/J.OV

BcKa fiov

tcl

avro rb ^l^Xio elvai Biko

e.g.

TO BlKO

yLtof,

" thine,"

hers," o Sto9 /a<x9 " ours,"

or Tou? " theirs "

flOV,

BlKCO

Tt?

aov

Blko^

TM

fJLOV,

Sck:ov<;

hlKYJ

ol 8t/ce9

sometimes thrown into emphasis also by


y ayaTr-q /xas ^Texts I. a. 24. 23) "owr

poss. pron. is

the method of 137,

cf. ifxas

love."
i

2.

dich&Ma mu, su (my, thy own daughter) Texts

d' Otr.) is

equivalent to

diminutive

suffix.

Oko's (in

Velv.)

is

^17

hiKikXa

aov,

fxov,

i.e.

III. 2 (Terra

with

8t/cos

a phonetic transformation of 81K09

(?;.

(ital.)

37

n.).

The fem. 17 SiKcta (cf. 111) means "my wife," "my beloved."
3. Modern Greek, compared with the ancient, has lost ground

in

Only the Pontic and Cappadocian dialects retain


the poss. pron.
the ancient possessive in various forms and modifications ; thus, in
the dialect of Trapezus, e/xos or r* ifxov "mine," r icrov "thine,"
{i)lJLTpo<i "our," o-eVcpos " your," and even Keti/cVepos "their," and
dyVA.ti/repo5

r aaov to

"belonging to others."
" thy death."

C/.,

further,

Texts

III.

14. a.

^((XTorLfio (t

(d) Demonstrative.

144. The pronoun auTo?

a demonstrative

" this, that."

136)

is

employed

also as

Besides the declension already

given the following additional forms occur

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Sing. N. avTovo^; (avTovvo<;), avTeivr] (avTelva) avTovo (avTovvo)


'

avTelvo, avTCivo

avTetuo<i

G. avTovpov, avTivov
Ace. avTova (avTove)
Plur.N. avTeivoi (avTelvoC)
G. avTovMv, avTEivoiv

avTeivrj^
avTeivrjiv)

avreive^
avTovcov, avTeivodv

Ace. avTOvvov<:, avT6Lvov<; avTeive^;

same as Masc.
same as Nom.
avTava, avTelva

same

as Masc.

avTava, avTeZva.

arovvov, dretv?}?
{Itovvov)^
whence Towo = avTo, in
1. Also
Otranto gen. tunii and tunu, Bova ettuno =^ avTovi'dj gen. (et) tunii^

MORPHOLOGY
etc.

rf.

also

avTiV7i<;, etc.,

Pontic ar^iv

becomes

= avrelvoL.

91
In

Gk. avrovvov,
In Saranda
This pronominal

i!^orth.

according to 37 n.

dcjivov, a<j>vrj<s

Klisies the ace. sing. masc. is avTowa (neut. avrova).


termination is found also in the pronouns of the following paragraphs
(KtVovi/a, TTOLOuva, and also KavctVavva, aWovva, f.vvava, fem. Ketvva
fr. Keivqva, 7rotai/i/a, Teroiavva, etc.), and has been extended even to

oxytone adjectives

^tKpovva, fxiKp-qwa, ahpvvva),

(e.g.

The voc. avre (aTravre) is used when one


name is unknown, or for the moment forgotten

is

2.

there,
3.

For

hear!"

euToi'

= cVu,

v.

139, n.

addressed whose

aKovcrc, aure "

you

1.

Instances like " George's house is larger than John's {that of


are rendered ro cnrtTi rov Tcwpyi elvac {xcyaXvTepo arro (to
Tov Tidwr].

John ")
(TTTLri)

145. T0UT09, TouT09 "

this."

Fem.

Masc.
Sing.

Plur.

Nom.
Gen.

{e)Toi)Tov

(e)TOVTr)<;

{e)TOVTOV

Ace.

(ijTovToiy)

(i)TOVTr}(v)

(i)TOVTO.

Nom.

{i)TovTOL

(i)T0VT6<;

{i)rovTa

Gen.

(e)Toi)7(D{v)

(i)T0VTC0(v)

{i)TovT(jo{y)

Ace.

(e)Toi;TOL'9

(e) 701^X69

Forms with
S.

Neut.
(i)TOVTO

{e)T0VTr]

(e)Toi)T09

N.

-v{o)-

G. rovTovvov, Tovreivov

rovTetvrj^

A. TOVTOV, TOVTOVa

TOVTTJVe, TOVTTJVa

PL N.

tovtovvoVj Tovreivov

Tovreivh

Tovreivoi

G. T0Vr0V(0(v), T0VT6L-

TOVTOV(o(v), TOV- TOVTOV0)(v), T0UT6LTtvco(v)

vo){v)

VOi{y)

A. TOVTOVPOV<;, TOVTlVOV<i TOVTiVe<;

The

pron. aovTo<i or dftovTo^ "this"

declined exactly

like rovro?

nom. pi. dftovTexv\ Texts III. 13. a. In


Chios note tovo<; and ^rovo^ with dissimilatory loss of the middle r,
in Bova the neut. forms are tiindo = rovro and tdnda = rovra.

is

peculiar to Pontic

146.

iKelvo<^

Sing.

Nom.

^Kelvo<;

cf.

and

Ketpo<;

"that."

Fem.

Masc.

eKeivr]

Gen. eKeivov, cKeivov

KeLvr)<;, Kiv7]<i

eKeluov, eKeivov

Ace.

eKelvo{y), i/c6L-

eKelvr)(i>), Kl-

eKeivo.

Nom.

etcelvoi,

Gen.

i/ceiVQ)(v), eKeLvo)v{e)

Ace.

EKeivov^, iK6Cvov<; eKeive<;

vova, eKeivove
Plur.

Neut.
eKeivo

eKeivoi

vr)va
eKeive<;

= Masc.

eKclva

= Masc.
eKelva.


92

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


Sometimes

1.

{i)KL6^ for eKcti/os

in Pontic also cctvos.

{)t(T(xvo^

mentioned in 17. In Chios ra-eivoa-ey


Texts III. 9, shows the supplementary c of the ace. also in the nom.,
only, however, in the absolute final, and in like position in Chios
final -s of any nom. is generally supplemented by -c ; as, XwAoo-e =
Ao>Aos " crazed," and so forth.
2. The m. Gk. demonstratives correspond to the a. Gk., but they
have suffered much by assimilation in their declension in tovto<;
T and ov are carried through (compared with a. Gk. ovto9, Tavrrjv,
etc.), to{)tos and iKcivdy^ produce irovros and kcii/o?.
The accent
of avTos gave rise to forms like iKcivov (or tovtov), just as, on the
other hand, avros (8ai}ros) is accented after model of rovro?; and,
lastly, formations like avTcivov, tovtlvov, etc., have really been produced by the forms of cKti/os (iKuvov), and have finally given rise to
pronominal forms like tovvo^, etc. Such remodelling on analogy has
assumed huge dimensions; apart from jxtavov, ixLavrjs ( 128), ef. also
the

in

(racti/os)

dialects

the forms to be cited in the following paragraphs.


3. The neut. klvo in Texts III. 12 means "that and that"
" such and such is the case."

147.

K6ivo<;

When

one

of

is

rovrrj q 'yvvalKa " this

iraihaKL

"

woman,"

eKelvo " that

fjLov

book

dvrpa^

"

word

to

rj

fcetb

yuvaiKa

is

" this

to

tovttj,

The gen. of the


which it refers, as

the husband of that (woman)."

Moreover, avrof; and


"

eKelvo ro irathi,

of mine."

pron. stands preferably before the

e.[/.

toOto?, or

avrpa^

thus, avTo<; 6

that child," or also 6 dvTpa<; avro^,

TO fft^Xto

eKeiVTj^ 6

avT6<;,

connected w^ith a substantive, the substantive

always preceded by the article

man,"

pronouns,

the

avTO iTov or eKelva

eKeivo<;

serve to point to a relative

ttov " that

which,"

rrjv a>pa uvtt)

ttov

the hour in which."


in this capacity may be strengthened by the
avros 8a, cKetvos 8a " this one here," " that one there."

The pronouns
particle 8a

e.g.

148. rero^o? "such

reroia

TeToio(v)

reroca^i

TeroLov

TeTOLo(ve)

Teroiaiy)

TeToio(v)

rerofe?

reroia

Plur. rerocoL

Thus
"

reTOL(o(v)

reroLwiy)

rerot(o(y)

reroLov<i

reroie^;

reroia.

reroLo^ dvOpwiro^ " such a man," reroia

such a
1.

a."

riroLOV

Sing. TCTOio?

TidKLo<i in

of TCToios,

Pontic.

ofjio^ri

Kopr)

fair girl."

V.

Velvendos (Texts III. 11) is a phonetic remodelling


The form deiKos " such a " is peculiar to

10, n. 5.

MORPHOLOGY

93

2. The a. Gk. tolovto<s has been ousted by tcVoio?, really a remodelling of an older rC-roio, i.e. " somewhat such."
3. Also ToaovTo^ has been thrust out by too-o^ "so much, as

the neut. t6(to{v) " so much," " so very," is


as many, so great "
common. Moreover, one may say, e.g.^ rpiavra fxipis Kal aAAe9
Too-s wxTcs " thirty days and as many nights," r6(Ti}i ^ovw d6p(jD7ro<5
" a man of so many years," rocra kol roara " so many," i.e. " number" So great " is rendered by tocto^ in the sing, with the indef.
less."
thus, cva tocto Ko/x/xart or cva KOfifxari Toaro
article, in the pi. by /cart
"so great a piece," pi. ko-ti Tocra $vXa "such great logs"; generally,

much,

quite

too-o /xeyaXos " so great " is also

however,

employed.

(e) Relative,

common

149. The most

irov (also

oirov),

oirov,

lit.

"

relative

the relative adverb

is

where," which remains the same

numbers, and cases.


To express the oblique
pronoun is usually attached to the verb of

for all genders,

cases the conjunctive

Examples

the relative clause.

aOpco7ro<; (6)7rov rjpOe "

the

man who came," ol fyvva2K<; ttov fi icficova^av " the women


who called me," o yiarpb^ ttov tov eareiXa " the physician

whom

I sent,"

r)

ttov ttjv ypd(j)L 6 ^ovprj^ " the

i([>rj/jLpU

paper which S. edits," TO ^l^XLoitov to 'Bid/Saae^

"

news-

the book (that)

you read," ra iraLZia ttov yveopL^co rrj fiduva tou9, " the children
whose mother I know," o /juadTjrrjf; ttov tov ()B(OKa to ^l^Xlo
" the

pupil

whom

to

I gave

^acr'\ia<; ')(avovvTav f.dTi

so

dear" (Texts

The pronoun
of learned origin

the hen which the king held

III. 11).

6 oTToio?

and

"who," "which" regularly declined


used by the common people.

is

little

oTTOLa,

OT oTTOio^ KL

o7roio(v)

0(709

" as

" whatever,"
" all

took as
oTt

CIV

" whocvcr,

what-

declined like Teroto?.

much

" as

great,"

especially in the forms oao

oaa

book," tov ifkl irov ob

the
"

150. Kelatives with a specific meaning:

oTTOLo^,

ever,"

avTo

too-o

that, as

many
(oTfc

oao

articles as

as,"

kl

much

as,"

irrfpe

correlative to rocro?,
dv) " however much,"

oaoi "

all

who," (pKdy

irpafidTeie^ oVe? I'jdeXe "

he

he wished."

KL dv) " that which," " whatever," " all that " (for

which also oXa on)


" whichever hour."

" as

many

as "

(6<to

otc Xoyfj^; " of what(ever) kind," otc copcL

Also a conjunction,

v.

275.

94 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


1.

and

Other forms of the

gen. pi. otlvihv are

article

forms

possible for

a.

still

Gk.

met

are rare; a gen. sing, otlvo's

o(ttl<s

In Crete and

with.

rov, ttJv, to serve as relatives.

on

Gk. the

S.-E.

Moreover,

to.

or oo-a, as, ra '/3a\cs (tto vov crov Slv eiv

is

also

dXyjOLVc

*'what you have got into your head is not true." This ra is sometimes in dialects employed instead of the relative ttov.
Note, finally,
rov for TTOV in Cappadocia, Texts III. 14. b.
2. oytos "qualis" (properly 6 oTos) is current in dialects
e.g. on
the mainland and also in Syra.
:

Cf.

263

ff.

for the construction of the relative sentence.

Interrogative,

(f)

1 5 1.

iroio^ "

who

"

"

which

"
?


MORPHOLOGY

95

Aegina vrd, in Pontes vt6. These forms originated from tC eTv(ai) tu


(to).
Note also from Pontos too-olo^ ttolo? (Texts III. 13. a).
3. TovXyo<5, f. TovXyt) "what?" "of what kind?" (Texts III. 12)
is a new formation from tl Xoyrjs.

and quasi-pronominal

(g) Indefinite

Adjectives.

153. fcavehf Kaveva^ "any," "anybody" (adjective and

substantive).

Masc.
Sing.

Neut.

Fern.

Nom.

KaveL<i, Kaveva<;

Ka[i([i)Ld

Kaveva

Gen.

Kavevo^, Kavevov(^)

Ka(iJL)fjLLd<;

Kavevo^^ Kavevov{^)

Ace.

Kaveva{ye)

Ka(/jL)iiitd(y)

Kaveva.

With a negative or in a negative reply it means " no one,"


" nobody " Kaveva<; dOpwiro^ hev to elire " no man said it,"
:

Kaveh Bev to

^epet "

nobody," ypOe
"

body."

nobody knows

one

Bev elSa Kaveva " I

anybody come
may be rendered also by eVa?.

Kavei^

Any

it,"

" did

"

KaveL<;

saw
No-

1. /cavcts does not appear in instances like Skv cXaySa ypa/>i/xa "I
Teceived no letter," Slv e^o) TrapaSe? fjia^c jxov " I have no money with
me " ; in the first instance KavL<s may be inserted if no is emphatic.

"
rfcaTi,
.as,

Anything," " something," when

when

KCLTiTL

pcoTM

positive

is

kutiti,

or

in a negative or quasi-negative sentence TLiroTe


TTpeiTei

va yLvy

KCLTITL, TTpiirei

"

something must happen," a ere


V oLTTavTa^ " if I ask you anything you

must answer " but eyei^ TiiroTe yia [xeva answer tlttote
" have you anything for
me ? Nothing." ecpepe^ TtiroTa
TTpafiaTa " did you fetch any articles ? " KaTi (Xtya) /SL/SXia
" some books."
" Nothing " in a sentence is rendered by TiiroTe and the
negative hev rjTav TiTroTe " it was nothing," hev elSa TiiroTe
" I saw nothing."
" Some," " a little " (adj.) kcltl (indecl.)
hwae fiov kcltl
" give me a little bread
KaTc
'sjrcofjLL
with
a plur. means
"
" some " (" several ")
KaTt o-TpaTccoTe^ " some soldiers," kciti
TratBid " some children."
;

2. Beside Kavcvas sometimes Kaevaq or Kai^eas ( 33, n. 4), Kctj/a?,


Kara (gen. Kavov), and KayKavevaq KayKapid KayKaviva ; also Karwri
for Kctrtrt ; tCttotc is quite plastic phonetically
e.g. rtVore?, TL-n-ora,
:

TtTTora?, TtVoTts, TL^oTCTL (Crete).


3.

The

ments in

a.

Gk. indefinite

rts

has been lost except in the frag155) ; the use of Tiva<s==

TL-7roT, Ka-Tt(Tt), Ko.di.-TL's KOiOi-TL (

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

9G

and not genuine vernacular. The word /cavci? (also written


that has supplanted tU is a combination of Kav, i.e. koI av,
and els ; Kav (Kav) " at least," " even " is also employed as an independent particle in a sentence e.g. a h\v cTvat oAo, as dv ha jxipo^
K(xv "if it is not all it is at least a part."
The /ca- taken from
Ktti/eis, Ka(/ji)fXLdj etc., occurs again in Ka-ri.
Moreover, with this Kavor Ktt- the indefinite adjs. Kdfji7ro(To<s and KaTroios ( 154, 156) and the
adverbs KciTrws "somehow," kolttov "anywhere," KctTrores "sometimes,"
were formed.

rts is rare
KOLViis)

4'.
Kaj/ets is noteworthy as exhibiting a survival of the old
nominative form (as in /carets "every" beside Ka^eVas and in the
Pontic ets = eras).
Occasionally an ace. Kavet(v) from Kaveis is found.

1 5 4.

/cdiroto^i

{KaiTOiOL TTov

"

"

anybody,"

some who

")

is

"

somebody,"

declined

like

"

pi.

some

reroLo^

"

but

note the additional forms of the gen. KairoLovvov, Kairoiavy)^,

and

ace. Kawotove, gen. pi. Ka7roLova)(v).

155.

"

Ka6ei<^

KaOeva^ (also

Masc.

Nom.

Ka6eL<;,

Ka6eva{v)
"

Neut.

Fern.

KaOeva^

KaOeva

KaOefiid

Gen. Kadevo^, Ka6evov<;


Ace.

KaOeva^) as substantive

" each."

every one,"

Ka6e^ia<;,' KaOefiiavrjf;

= Masc.
KaOeva.

KaOefiidiy)
"

every " is KaOe (more rarely Kada),


Kude XP^^^ " ^^^ year," Kade (^opd
" every time," fie Kd6e Tpoiro " in every way," KaOe \oyr]<; " of
M. Gk.
every kind," Kd6e t/5669 /xepe? " every three days."
here employs the definite article where German employs the
e.g. fidyeve rrjv
indefinite (em jedes) and English no article
KdOe KapScd " she charmed each heart."
Adjectival

indeclinable

each,"
thus,

"

Each, every (one, thing) " subst.

KdOerc, with or without the article


ryeverac diro dvd^Kri

"

also KdOerc^, neut.

is

(to) KdOeri irov yeveraL^

everything that happens, happens of

necessity."

Note in Pontic Ka^a ets = Ka^cVas. Beside Ka^e or KaOa, iraa-a


found (properly fem. of a. Gk ttSs) for all genders Trao-a
wpa "each hour" (Velv.), Trao-a [Spdhv "every evening" (N"axos)
similarly Trao-aeVas " each one," gen. Trao-avos, etc. {e.g. in Crete and
1.

is

also

Cyprus).
2. KaOcvas originated from the a. Gk. KaO^ ha, which became
stereotyped and passed for the ace. of a substantival pronoun.

156.

Kd/jL7roao<;

"good many," "pretty much," "con-

siderable," " several " (Kdfnro(To<i Koa-fio^: "

good

many

people ")

MORPHOLOGY
"

or " fairly large " (Kd/jLTroar) ttoXi


city

"), pi. "

Neut.

Fern.
kujutoo-t]

Kd^irocro{y)

KafiiToaov

Kd/JL7ro(T7)<;

Kd/jLTToaov

KdfjL7roao(v)

Kd/jL7roar}(v)

Kd/jLTTO<To(v)

KdfjL7roa-<;

Kdfiiroaa

/cd /jL7roa-(o(y)

Kafjuroacdiv)

Kdfi7rocr(o(v)

KafiTToaov^

Kd/jbiToa<i

Kdfi7ro(Ta.

Plur. also KafjLTToaoi,


"

Some

may

and

sing. Kafjuiroa-o';, etc.

be rendered also by fieptKoi or KdiroioL and

by Kdn ( 153); thus,


" some (men)."
(dOpcoTTOL)
KdiL

KdfjLTroaoc, KaTrowc, fxepitcol,

(adj.) also

in

6\o<;,

"

many

parts

Koafiof; " the

o\o9

(rather) large

Ka/jLTTOo-ofi

Plur. Kd/jLTToaoc

"

a pretty

some," " few," " several."

Masc.
Sing.

97

with our whole heart "

takes no
night."

art., as, 0X77

If

whole," "

"

ov\o<;

whole world,"
;

oX?;

//.'

the subst.

if

all,"

6Xo<;

may

rrjv

fia<;

vv'^Ta "all

okr)

ci/a 6. o-tt.

is oXaKcpos: e.g. oXa/cepo to


" a whole house."

dX\o<; or eva<; d\\o<; " another, one


"

\jr(o/j,i

another [piece of]

more

dWa

bread,"

"

The word

2.

"other" (Texts

Trao-Kct

III.

14. a)

"

"the

[eua]

ypoaia

" a

and
aXXe?

(subst.

e.g.

is

o-Trirt

dWo

(cf.

eKarb

dXko<i " the other


hundred piastres more "),
adj.)
sometimes with the article repeated
ol jvvaLK(; " the other women."

6\a

rov^ " all of

aa<;,

"Whole," "complete"

1.

Kaphtd

take the article

and rd 6\a " all." Note specially oXot /jLa<;,


us (we all), you all, they all (all of them)."
whole house," or

" all "

indeterminate b\o^

is

^epa "all day long,"

used as a subst.

pi.

ol

of

Turkish

origin.

o\o<;

and dWo^; are declined

forms are also found, like gen.

3.

In Pontic (Texts

(cf.

adj.,

oAa

aW = dX\o

12)
to h, ^ 128, 1

but pronominal

etc.

III. 13. b) neut. pi.

m Saranda Klisies (Texts III.


"the other foot"

an

oXovcov, ace. oXovvov^, gen.

dXKovvov, dWeLvrj^;, ace. dWove,

sing.

like

pi.

(fr.

e.g.

^oXia) for oXa;


dXA.' to TroBdpL

n.).

157. o tSto9 "the same," "self," declined like ifkovato^

109);
fiovof;

"I myself," o-et? ol lBloc "yourselves."


when meaning " self " is combined with the gen.

670) 6 rSto?

the personal pronoun

(ifio))

pLovo^ fiov

of

" (I) myself," (avTo<;)

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

98

fi6vo<;

/jLou

"

Tov

himself,"

(e/Ltei?)

or dro^; fiov

employed

etc.

o eavro^

so also

or aTraro? /zov (aiTaTr] fiov),

\xov)

{cltt]

" ourselves,"

fia^

fjuovoi,

(fiovdxo^) is similarly

liova')(p<;

etc.,

" myself."

to) TaSe() " the so

(17,

and

so," " certain," "

you-call-it," is usually indeclinable

TaZe{^)y

gen.

sometimes also gen. tov Tahtvov,

and

the what-dotov, rov

ace.

TaBcpi]<i.

T7]<i

In the

same sense also

6 Belva^; koI

Nom.

o Becva^^),

Gen.

TOV,

Ace.

TO,

Trj<i,

to Belva
Selvo^;

TO Beipa.

T7J,

TaBe^ " the

rj,

tov

one as well as the other,"

" all

together."

"alone"

/Aoi/os

and

iiov6<s

"single"

are

treated

as

regular

adjectives.

Prepositions.

158. The

the ace.

fixed formulae;

may

Prepositions

from before,"

"

how

163,

long
2).

v.

161, 6. n. 2, 162, 4. n. 2, 164 n.


govern an adverb {e.g. diro /jLirpoo-Tci

also

" in front," cltto t6t<; " since then," w? ttotc


and sometimes even a nominative (c/. 161, 1,
The most commonly used prepositions are ek, diro,

"

fjL,

prepositions are regularly joined with

j9?'0295r

the (old) gen. has maintained itself only in a few

")

yid, less frequently KaTa, irapd

and in dialects
arise from the union
ft)9,

The proper

0%,
of

tt/oo?.

{v. n.), dvTi<;, %ft)/)t9,

^t^w?,

The improper prepositions

an adverb with a proper preposition.

from the a. Gk. ; here m. Gk.


has suffered considerable loss. Occasionally obsolete preps, turn up
in the vernacular texts through borrowing from the literary language
(thus irpo).
Some a. Gk. preps. apart from those used in compound
verbs ( 159)
survive only in an altered or a quite limited usage.
Thus Trapa appears with the comparative ( 120), with dates ( 131,
n. 2), in expressions like Trapa rptxa " within a hairbreadth," Trapo.
(eVa) ypoo-t "a penny too little," and as a conjunction = Tim ( 120,
n. 1) or "but" ( 260).
Note TrapaKaro) ''farther under," "below,"
TrapaTTOLvo) "farther over" "higher up," etc., and also dialectically
Other a. Gk. preps,
(in Cyprus) Trapa ywvias " in a queer fix."
survive only in adverbial expressions in which the meaning of
the prep, is often more or less obscured ; cf. avajxera^v " between,"
"amongst," cttittoi/ov in iraipvin i. "I lay to heart," Trto-ro/xa "on the
mouth," "prostrate," irpb Kecf>aXrj<s (Cyprus) "at the head of the
table" in dining, 7rpoxTi<s "day before yesterday," Trpo/xvra "on the

nose.

preps, are inherited

MORPHOLOGY

still

9D

159. In compound verbs the following prepositions are

in active use

aTTo-

1.

e.g.

" bid

leave,"

farewell "

act (perfective)
" fall

airoXvvw " release,"

asleep," aiToheL)(y(a

TO

Cf. also

"

d7rocf)d('y)i,

" prove,"

fragments

take
completed

denote a

to

" finish

air orpony co

e.g.

especially

"

aTrox^ipeTL^co

eating," uTroKoifiov/jLac

aTroTeXeccovco

" complete."

after dinner,

left

broken

meat."
ixera- or fxaratiarafijaLVQ) "
1.

down,"
"

again."

an independent adverb, " again."

fidra occasionally serves as

Kara-

(Kare-):
"

KaiaTTLvo)

Kare^aivco

"descend,"

drink

one

Cf. also

butcher."

"kiss once more,"

fieracptkot)

/jl6):

(y.

come out

in

116,

/care/Safo)

draught,"

"let

KaTaa<f)d^(o

n. 3.

Trapa^alvco "transgress," Tra/oaStSo) " surrender,"

IT a pa-:

nrapaKdvco " exaggerate," irapaKoifiovfiai " sleep in," iraparpMyco


"

overeat myself," irapaKovay " I hear wrongly," " disobey."

Cf.

also 7rapayL6<; " adopted son," irapap^dvva " foster-mother."

The

2.

preps, cts

employment
by,"

"

TTpoacfiepo)

and

8ta

(o-e),

6.g. crefiaLvo)

7rpo5 are quite limited in their

" enter " (usually

/x,7ratVo)),

" pass

ai/a- (dve-): dva^alvco (dve^alvro) " go up," dvafievoy

2.

" await," dvaaepvco "

f everbal

prefix
"

from,"

escape,"

^6ypd(f)ay
" rest,"

" sigh aloud."

draw up," dvaarevd^co

denotes separation, release, also overcoming, heighten-

ing or completion of an act or state, and


"

^ejStBcovco

unscrew,"

is

the most
"

^ejkvrcovu)

^eKdvco " put aside," ^ecjivrpoouco "

" erase,"

" recreate,"

^eTpeXkaiV(o

Cf

Sta^SatVo)

offer."

"

^eScyjra)

" drive quite

quench

my

" exceed,"

^eirepvco

thirst,"

^ecpcovi^co

mad," ^ereXevco "

common
get

free

grow up,"
^eKovpd^co

"

cry out,"

finish completely."

also ^ecrKeiro^i " uncovered."


1.

For the origin of

ie-, cf.

/8yatVo>, ySyaAXo), ydipvo), yXvTcovo),

182, n. 2
etc.

= a.

the form Ik remains in

Gk.

K/3atVa>,

ck/JoAXw, k-

Setpto, K-AvToa).

^avait

(f

rom

ef

+ az^a-)

once more," ^ava^Xeiray

denotes repetition: ^avaKavco "do

" see again,"

^avaXeyco " say again,"

" repeat."

an independent adverb " again."


Other a. Gk. prepositions are found only in certain verbs, and
are for the mo^t part entirely obscured ; cf. e.g. (i)ixTraLVQ> " go in,"
2.
3.

^avtt serves also as

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

100

" enter," fnrd^io " bring in," {tjvrpiTrofiai " am ashamed," 7rep(t)7raTo)
^*
walk," 7rpoKo<^Ta) " make progress," {v)TravTp^xn)i " marry," (v)7raya)
''go," o-wa^o) "collect."

Proper Prepositions.
160.

wise

et?,

before the article usually

{elae)

o-e

" against,"

"in,"

"to,"

"on,"

"at,"

55), other-

(v.

"into,"

"toward,"

denotes

Place or local relation in answer to the question

1.

tvhither

(either as goal or direction)

elvai,

e.g.

aro

vjliere

(tttltl "

he

in the house, at home," e;^6t aro 'x^ept " he holds in his


hand," fica ycovta (ttov rj\to " a nook in the sun," Kuderac aro

is

irapaOvpL " he
"

he

(TTo

is sitting

is

sitting at the

on the

window," KaOerai

chair," Trrjyalvo)

^ovvo, arrjv 'Adijva, aro

(tttju

KapeKka

(nr)v iroXi, arrjv i^o^ij,

Xifjuiva " I

am

going into (to) the

into the country, to the mountain, to Athens, to the

city,

^dWco ctto rpaire^t " I lay on the table," KaOi^o}


aro Tpaire^L " I take a seat at the table," aTjKcovco ra %epta
arov ovpavov " I raise my hands to (toward) heaven," arov^
^pdyKov<; " among the Europeans," a avrrj ry (prcoxv f^opr]
(Texts III. 4) " with this poor maid," 77^76 gtov Trarepa tov
" he went to his father," eka ae pieva " come to me," earetXe
(TTO paaiXid " he sent to the king," to e^j^o) (jto vov puov " T
harbour,"

have

it

in

my

mind."

For

et?

supplanting

the

dative,

54, c; for the genitive construction after et?, v. 46.


2. Point or duration of time in answer to v:hen ?

long

e.g.

ae Kaipo

same epoch,"

orrrjv

" at a (in) time,"

copa

"at seven

liow

arrjv cBta eVo^^r; " at the

rov " at the right time," ard '^IXia

o'^raKoa-ta ivV7]VTa irevre "in (the year)


[ftj/je?]

v.

o'clock,"

o-e

1895," arl^ eirrd

irevre p^epe^ "in,

within, five

For the
function,
52.
same
accusative (without prep.) in the
cf.
3. A state or action during which something occurs, or
which is regarded as the goal (or object) e.g. arb ra^lBt " on
days,"

ere

Xiyo (Kaipo) "in a short time, soon."

the journey,"

ere </>Ta)%Aa9

dvdyKrj " in the grip of poverty," err

darpT) " in (the light of) the stars," crrd o-Korecvd " in the
dark," Pyaiv(o aro acpytdvt " 1 go for (on) a walk," irriyaivay
(TTO Kvvr\yi "I am going to the chase" (cf. 51), KocpTco ard
Bv6 " I cut in(to) two," KarayLverat ere ypd-yjnpo " he is engaged

(at) writing," Kddtae (tto (fiayi " sit down to table (to eat),"
irepLopi^opai ae tovto " I confine myself to this," TrdyaLve arb

'>'''>>

MORPHOLOGY
go in peace," " success be with you "

"

Ka\6

means

went away about

also " he

{iirrjje

his business

'

l^'i^'

crro

koXo

").

Note also Trpoa-ixia <ji " I care for," ^Xkitm o-tol fxana /xov " I see
with my eyes " (usually /xc), rbv Trepvw o-to rpiiifxo " I surpass him in
running," opKc^ofxaL o-e "I swear by, upon," a-ro Geo (crov) "by (thy)
God," o-T dArj^eia "in truth," "indeed."
:

For ek in the improper prepositions,


161.

aire,

ire,

cLTTo (also UTT,

and airov)

"of,"

a(f>

v.

17

before the article; in dialects

"from," "out

of,"

"ago,"

"by,"

denotes

The point of departure in place or time rjpOe airo rrjv


he came from (out of) the city," to vepo rpe-^et air to
irrj-ydSi " the water runs from the fountain," (pevyet air
to
Xc^pf'O " he flees out of the village," dir^ ottictod " from behind,"
1.

iToki "

CLTTO %6/\fc ere

" I

say

xet\t " from lip to lip," Xiyco air' ttjv KapStd

from

(it)

my

heart," dirb roVe (also d.

r.

/jlov

Kal BcoOe)

from that time," " since then," diro Si/ca w/je? " ten hours
Th Tpek " since three o'clock," dir ttjv avyr) " since
dawn," ^ diro Kaipo ere Kaipo " from time to time "
with the
nominative diro irai^i or diro p^iKpo^ "from childhood," diro
it\ovgio<^ eyive ^7)Ttdvo^ " from being a rich man he became a
"

ago," d^ro

beggar."

Notice the peculiar rendering in

irepvS)

diro ttjv iropTa

go past your door," irepdaave diro KaTco " they went by


underneath," iraipvco diro to, fiovvd " I take the way over the

crov " I

mountains," 6d
eirrjye

dir'

KUKo airaOC
his

Trepdcro) diro ttj ^/jLvpvr] " I will travel

dWrj iropTa
dXko BpofjLo

e^yrjfce dir

undoing

via

S.,"

"

he went out through another door,"


" he went another way " (irrjye dirb

(TEXTS II. b. 5) " he went to the war to


with an evil sword] "), Tridvco 7r(o) to p^e/Di

(tto (recpepi
[lit.

" I

grasp by the hand," Bevco a7r(o) to BevTpo " I bind to the


tree," dp^i^o) diro to, evKoXwTepa " I begin with the easiest."
2. That (person or thing) from which one separates (by
becoming free or differing, etc.), against which he defends
himself, or which he fears
tou9 -xaypi^cD tov eva dir tov dXXo
" I separate them from one another," d')(wpiGTo<; diro " in:

The

expression

(yu^pes, xP<^'''tt)

vk rbv

"not
IdCo

for a

longtime"

{without a negative)

is

peculiarly rendered: ^x^ Kaipb


seen him for a long

"I have not

time (for days, years)," irbaov Kaipb ^xets va Tras arrju Trarpida <rov ; "how long
have you not been in your native land ? " rpeTs xP^vov% etxa/ie va yeXda-oiine
(Texts III. 4) "we had not laughed for three years."

102 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


airo to Odvaro "I rescue from
tou? BpdKov<i " he freed himself from

from," jXvtwvco

separable

death," iXevdepcoOijKe

the monsters,"

t^ ^poxn

aKeTTTj dir

air

TOL'9 BpdKov<i

he

is

evil,"

"he was

afraid of the draki" (but cj)o^ov-

takes ace).

from Athens, he

aTdfiva diro

" I

ffpvat

tt)

eka^a eva

fountain,"

guard against

" a roof against the rain," iaKLa^ovTav

Origin or author: elvai diro

3.
(TiTLTi "

" I

to kuko

(puXdyofjuai, dir'

/jLid

fiai " I fear "

cltto

is

^AOi^va, diro fieydXo

ry

the pitcher from (at)

the

fill

ypdfjujjLa

ttjv

of a great house," yefjLi^o)

diro ttj fidvva fiov " I received a

from my mother," e;^w (^rjTco) ttjv dBeia diro to jBaaiXid


have (seek) permission from the king," aKOTcoOrjKe dir tov^
TovpKov^ " he was slain by the Turks," (pcona/jbivo diro tov

letter
" I

rjXio "

illuminated by the sun," iKoirrjKe dir

to

fjLa)(^alpi

"

he

cut himself with the knife."


diro /judpfxapo " of marble."

4.

Material

0.

Cause or motive: yiveTai

necessity,"

dir

dppooaTijcre

tcl

diro dvdyKt) "it happens of


yepdfiaTa " he became sick

^XojLa "he died

through old age," direOave diro

ttj

small-pox," TO Kdvet, diro

diro

it

through

(f)6^o,

fear, for joy," dir'

avTo

ttj

of the
%a/3a tov " he does

yvcopi^co " I perceive thereby

(from that)."

am

After verbs like Oaixdt,o[xai "I wonder at," ^vTrd^ofxat "I


astonished at," yia and ace. may be employed equally with Sltto.
6.

Partitive sense

KaveU

diro tou?

friends," eVa? Bpdfco<; diro aviov^; "

diro Tou? i^Tpoix; "

many

of

<j)lXov<;

"

none of the

one of the monsters," iroXXol

the enemy," o fjiyaXvTpo<;

dir'

6Xov<; " the greatest of all," Beiirvdco diro %ft)/xa


" I eat (of) earth,"

Bev ^epet, Be voicodet

(TEXTS I. a. 10)
diro tovto " he under-

stands nothing of this."


v. 170, 172; w^ith
distributive usage, v. 132, whicli

For diro in improper prepositions,


the comparative,
is

v.

120

not absolutely confined to the presence of a numeral

e.g.

diro I3pd8u " every evening,"

little," "

diro Xlyo Xlyo

" little

cf.

by

gradually."

The

Sltto has partly taken the place of the a. Gk.


and partly the place of the a. Gk. gen. (cf.
it also competes with the present usage of the gen.
cf. e.g.
44)
;((o dvdyKr) drr^ dvairax^i " I have need of rest," or rjO^Xe. vd Trdprj
o-Ke8io9 ttTTo TO a-TTLTL (Texts L d. 5) " hc wished to make a plan of
the house." In this way the gen. pi. can be avoided (cf. 41, n. 3),

1.

prep8.

ii,

preposition

Trapa,

vtto,

"

103

MORPHOLOGY
and in

dialects (^N'orth.

into the background

by

Gk.) the gen. has altogether been pushed


oltto (cf.

44, n. 2).

with the gen. is found in some stereotyped formulae like


ttTTo KttpSias " from the heart " (Texts I. a. 6), d7r' avcfiov (Icarus)
"away from the wind," i.e. "south (of the island)," ttov pt^a?
"from the ground" (Cyprus, where aTrd with gen. is of more
2. 0,770

frequent occurrence).
Ate (a. Gk. fieTo) "with" denotes:
Accompaniment or presence and coincidence in time
exava ra^lBi, fjue to (plXo fiov " I made a
also Ataft, 173)

162.

1.

(cf.

my friend,"

journey with
^ovjxe "

va
va

irapa

TovpKov^

fjue

fie

depia KaXvrepa

better to live with wild beasts than with Turks,"

oiTLTt, pL6 T/?6t9

TTaTwcrte? " a house of three storeys," yipo^

man with a very white beard,"^


to vTovcpeKt, " he lay in wait with the musket (in
his hand)," XP^^^ 1^^ %poi/o " year after year," t^i' avyr) fie
yeveia " an old

fie KCLTaa-TTpa

ii^vkae

/lie

{/jLta

(cf.

vvxra)

dawn

"

T^ SpoaouXa

fie

at the time of (with) the early dew,"

to (jieyydpt

"

(one night) by the moonlight

also 3).
]S^ote in

addition

ttoAc/xw ixi

"I

fight with," KovfnravtdpeL fx4 "it

with " (Texts I. a. 24. 27), fiotd^ni fi " I resemble " (rf.
" I speak with (to)," also with gen. and ace. ; olvtl 54, c. n.), /xlXQ) fxe
\aXdL fte /u-eVa "echo answers me," Ovfxwvoi /xe "I am angry with,"^
cTttcv fil TO vov Tov " hc said to himself (in his mind)."
suits," " agrees

2.

Means

or instrument

to iaKeiraae

fie

Korra tou

ttjv

with his cloak," to eZSe /ue to, fiaTia tov " he

"

he covered it
saw it with his own eyes"
ovXa Tcb fieaa " he sought
Xepi

" I

my

hold with (in)

eKoyjra fie

to fiaxdipo

'^laTpiKo " I

160, 2 n.), to yvpeyire /xe


means," KpaTco pue to
by

(cf.

it

all

hand,"

fie

my

"I cut with

to.

TroBdpta " on foot,"

knife," jtaTpevco

cure with a cure," QeXin va

Vw

//,'

avTo

pu

" I

eva

mean

yu-e
can also express material (c/v
(wish to say thereby) "
KcCXv^a
irXe'ypevif)
pue (^Tepe? "a hut woven of
161, 4):
;

ferns."

C/. also 50, n. 2.

Accompanying circumstances Sia^d^co pie to Kepi " I


read by candle-light," pbe (pbeydXr]) xdpa " with (great) joy,"
3.

/xe TToj^o "

shouting,"
<f)vye

heart,"
pu

pue
p.'

with pain," pe 6vpLo kol


pue

to,

Kapevrj

Trju

KapBcd

oXo tov iroOo

6Xo TOVTo

pie (j)Q)ve<;,

piaTdKia x^f^V^^
"

"

" with

wrath and

with downcast

eyes,"

he went away with a sad

" with, in

spite of all the longing,"

" in spite of all this," irov ira^^

pe TCToia

'sjrvxpcL

104 HANDBOOK OF THE


"

MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

where are you going in such cold

^uvaro fiopLa

"

Manner

4.

updBa

we
:

"

/xe

eW

" /le

rrjv

o-rjKcoOijKafMe

set out in a boisterous north wind."

tI rpoiro " in

fie

what way

how

dpdSa) "in order," iirepifieve /.le irpoaoxn


he waited attentively," fjuik-qae fjte irapa^oke^ " he spoke in
parables," havei^o) fie arjfidhi " I lend on security," voiKLd^co fxe
(also

ctttjv

*'

TO

firjva

" I

by the month."

Note also adverbial


re? (pov'^TC's " in heaps," fie
etc.) " in earnest," " really," fie Xiya Xoyta " in

rent

expressions like
TO. <ra)(TTd (/Jbov,

to acopo,

fjue

fjue

a word," " to put

it briefly," fxe ttj o-vcjxovia " on the condition,"


TO Trapairdvo) (TEXTS III. 11) "still more"; to Kapd^c fie
Tr]v irdvTa (TEXTS I. b. 16) "the boat (rides) on the side."

fi

The

preposition

/xc continues to perform the duties of the


only in a limited way.
Thus the temporal usage
'* after"
has disappeared from the vernacular, for expressions like
jxk Tov Katpov,^ fxk Kaipovs "in time,'' /xe
XP^^^^*^ "with (after)
the years " belong under the usages of 1 or 3.
The form //.era is
still found in dialects {e.g. in Pontus), and also in connection with
the personal pronoun of the 1st and 2nd persons (/xera o-eVa, /xer'
co-ei/a), and finally in a few stereotyped formulae {v. n. 2).
2. The construction with the gen. is found (partly, no doubt,
from the influence of the literary language) in some expressions ; as,
/! jxiaq "at once," /xera ^tas "with efl'ort" (Texts II. a. 2), /xcra
Xapas " with joy " (Texts II. b. 6). In Cyprus /tiTa takes the gen.
of personal pronouns and proper names, e.g. /xtra /xov "with me,"
7r^e/x /Lttra tov Tpo(f>7J " he went with T."

1.

a.

Gk.

yaera

163. yid(Bid,v.

25) "on account

of," "for,"

"to,"

" as to," " because of," denotes

Motion or extension in time


ttjv IIoKl " he departed
i^yrjKe yia 8vo a)p6<; " he went out
1.

<l)vye

jia

to a goal or conclusion

to
for

(for)

Constantinople,"

two hours," jia Tpia

Xpovia " for three years," yea paav clvol^l " for (the duration
of) one springtime," yta irdvTa " for ever," yia vaTepri cpopd
"

for the last time."

2. An aim or purpose
water (to bring water)," tov
:

leading

TnjyaLPCi)
ttclv

yea

yta

vepo

Kpifjuaa/jLa

" I
"

go for

they are

him out

for hanging (to the gallows)," eToifidaTrjKe yia


he prepared for the wedding," ehat, yta x^P^ " it is
for joy," elvat yta (pyXaxTo aov " it serves thee for amulet,"
yta (to) koXo fiov " for my good," 8ev elvat yta TtiroTe "he is

TO

ydfjLo "

With

(good) for nothing."


^

the nominative

Also "at the stated time."

rjpde yta

hovXo^

MORPHOLOGY
"

he came as servant

105

be a servant)," irepva yia

(to

o-o(p6<i "

he

passes as a sage."

For the competition


sense,

50,

v.

the double accusative in same

of

2. a.

yea tovto " therefore," yiaTL " why,"


your sake," yia ovofia rov deov " for God's sake,"
evKapLGTM ryia rrjv KoXoavvT] aov " I thank you for your

Proposed reason

3.

jLCL era? " for

/jlov Kav6<i " I am doing


on account of the benefit which you did me," rove dafid^ay
yea rU yvcoae^ rov " I admire him for his learning," 'x^alpofiat
yia TOVTO " I rejoice on this account " (avxctipo) yid " I con-

kindness," to Kavoo yta to koKo, ttov

it

gratulate on

yea /xavpa

"),

am

black eyes

fjuciTia

I perishing,"

'^dvofjLai,

am

" I

i.e.

*'

for the sake

of

desperately in love

with black eyes."


Less commonly ytd gives the motive e.g.
TO *KajuL yid e)(^Tpa (usually diro e^Tpa, v. 161, 5).
4. The advantage (protection) or disadvantage for that
:

(person or thing) in regard to which a declaration


" that

avTo elvat KoXb yid akva


hev

jjieva

^rjTco^

avTO

yi

(iraiBi)

is

made

good for thee," oti yid


yvpevco " what I do not seek
is

for myself I request for this (child)," TrXepcovco yid 6\ov<i

pay
Be

for all,"

fi

(f)povTi^co,

<j)offovfjbai

"

5.

"

Concerning,"

we spoke

"
;

me

" in

of you," Bvh

on the Chiotes
quant

" I

yid tlttotk;

jxeKei

fieva iMvdTrjpio " it is for

yid

" I care

for, fear

worry about nothing,"

*'

for,"

elvai yid

a secret."

regard

to," e.g.

fiiXijaa/jie

\6yia yid tov^ Xicot6<;

oao yid means " as

for," " in

"

yid aeva

two words

regard to " (Fr.

a).

Price

6.

ytd irivTe hpaxp^e^^

" for,

at 5

drachmae

" (c/.

52).
the

1.

The

a.

Gk. Bid with

preposition yta
ace.

in

has

addition to preserving the usage of


acquired the function partly of the

old dative and partly those of cTrt, Trcpt, vTrcp, ovtC.


The local
meaning of 8ia w. gen. has entirely disappeared (cf. /nccra, 171).
2. In connection with pronouns (especially of the 1st or 2nd
person) ytd often takes the form yiard (like /xera beside yae, 162,
n. 1)
e.g. ytara ixiva; note also yiart avro, Texts III. 11 (Velv.).
:

164.

1.

The

KaTa

(rarely Kd) denotes:

direction

toward,

to,

something

cf.

yid)

village,"

(so

far as

the

come into consideration


he is coming towards the

actual reaching of a goal does not

KaTd to %<pto "


yvpva KaTd to yipo " he turns to the old man,""
ep')(eTai

106

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

iirripe

to Bpofio Kara irov rov

he took the way in the


Kara to fieyaXo to

^B6C)(y6 "

direction he pointed him," KVTra eKetSa


SpofjLo "

look there toward the highway."

/cuTa to vofio " according to the


According to "
law," KaTa tov Kaipo "according to the weather," 0X170 KaT
oXlyo " little by little," " gradually " KaTa ttw?, KaTa ttoO,
"

2.

V.

281,

1.

We

The a. Gk. usage of Kara is consequently greatly reduced.


miss above all the meanings " down " and " against " for the expression Kara twi/ SvvaTwv, Texts II. b. 7, is taken from the written
language.
It is found with the gen. in the adverbial expressions
Karayyj^ "on the ground" ( xo-fJ-ov), KaTajx(Trj<; "in the midst,"
Kara Oavarov " fatally." The construction Kara Sta^o'Aou " to the
devil," lit. "in the direction of the devil," must be taken like ets
w. gen. ( 46).

165. a z;t/? "instead of," also dvTh yLa: e.g. va


av olvtU ifieua (az^rt? top a^ep^o fiov) or auTh yta p^eva

7ra<i

"

go

you in my place (instead of my brother)," iKpifiaaav olvtU


avTov TOV irapayio tov " they hanged his adopted son in
place of him."
166. w? "to," "up to," "till," of place and time: w?
T^v iropTa " (up) to the door," ai<; ttjv wpa " till this hour,"
" until now " (in Cyprus 009 t?}? copa<;), w? to Ppdhv " until

evening."

Also

co9

Ta

an]p,6pa

" until

to-day,"

cw9

to,

" until

;\;Te9

yesterday."

167.

%/ot9,

Sl-^o)^

(also /ze

KOTTo " without trouble," %&)/ot9

out

fail," 8t;^&)9

d(f)opfi')]

"

Blxco^)

dWo

"without":

" at all events," "

l3ov\a " without signet-ring,"

hi^co^;

%ft)/0fc9

with-

{Kap,ia)

without (any) cause."

In Cyprus

takes the gen. of a pronoun x^pis a-ov, Stp^cos <tov.


are rarely used
1. Trpos " toward," of place and time, e.g. Texts I. d. 3 ; the
employment of Trpos is in most cases due to the influence of the
literary language.
2. x w. ace. ( = a. Gk. ck)
e.g. in Vilaras, Solomos, and in the
Ionic Islands, ox or a^ in Pelopon., instead of d-n-o ; cf. 6x rov kotto
^'
in consequence of the effort," x to vov jxov " out of my memory."
The genitive construction has persevered in 6xovov<s i$ ei/09 ; ii
ovpavov "from heaven," is ecclesiastical; in Icarus {i)^avixov "from
the North, in the North," is used.
3. Pontic employs ds instead of (and along with) diro: e.g. d?
168.

it

The following

MORPHOLOGY

107

rrjix tf>v\r]v tv " he is from our tribe,"


" he was caught by the snout."

/xrpov
<jdXo<s

liriAa-rev do-o {i.e. ds to)

Improper Prepositions,
169. The improper prepositions denote mostly spatial
temporal or other relations.
The component
adverbs (otherwise used as independent adverbs) are con

relations, rarely

verted into prepositions

means

of

with the

'9, o-Tro,

or also

by a genitive coming
The simple gen.

/te.

(enclitic) conjunctive

after or
is

by.

used only

pronoun.

1. The line between proper and improper prepositions is more


pronounced than in a. Gk,, for the reason that in m. Gk. the

presence of a proper preposition

is necessary
in the improper.
can be drawn ; for, on the one hand, avris
by the occasional addition of yid ( 165) approaches the improper
prepositions, while, on the other hand, we find in dialects an
approach between the improper and the proper through the former,
like the latter, taking the simple accusative
e.g. oirCcroi roK Xovpov
*' behind
the rock " (Icarus). Neither can a hard and fast line be
drawn between adverb and improper preposition ; thus expressions
like /jLaKpeid /xov "far from me," TrovOevd rov "nowhere with him,"
TTore fxov "never by me," iravTov /xas "everywhere with us," or
jxaKpcid oLTTo, irovOeva oltt rrj x^P"-i Travrov 0.77 oAovs, are on the border
between substantival and prepositional construction.
2. The improper prepositions, compared with the a. Gk., are
quite new formations, although the adverbs employed therein come
from the a. Gk. or are formed from a. Gk. material.

Still

no hard and

fast line

170. The improper prepositions are divided as below

according to the auxiliary

prepositions

'9,

diro,

'9

fie:

presses a simple statement of proximity or approach,


definite standpoint or point of departure, fie distinct

ex-

oltto

accom-

paniment or connection.
The adverb sometimes comes after; in addition to the exx.
cf. also the Pontic and Cappadocian prepositions given

given passim,

in 174.

171. Exclusively or usually with

'9:

Kovrd \ "(near) at, by, to"; (1) of place: Kovra o-rrjv


TTopra " (near), at the door," kovto, ctttj \ifiv7] " by the sea,"
oV ol d^LOL Kovrd aov " all the saints (be) with thee " ypde
;

Kovrd Tov

"

he came up to him,"

passed near him


^

"

Also expressed by

irepaa-e aTro

(2) of time, " about, at,

Trivia Kdrco, e.g.

it.

k.

/j-eadyvxra

Kovrd rov

around

"

"

he

kovtcl

" about midnight."

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

108

crro SeiXivo " in

the course of the afternoon," kovtcl ctto ytofxa

yiofia " exactly at

co7nparison with "


meal time " (3) "
fa TpLavrdcjivWa ')(^a,vovTaL kovtcl a icre, ara koXXtj <tou " the
roses lose in comparison with thee, with thy fairness "
(4)
Kovra ar aXka " besides, moreover."
;

(TLfxd 's is

1.

/jLeaa

used like

kovtol (but less

commonly).

"within, inside, into, between,

among";

(1) of

aro air It l (or otto air It l fiecra) " inside the


house," fieaa arov ovpavo " in the midst of heaven," fjuiaa /jlou
" within, with me," rov efiTraare fjueaa cr evav ovrd " he led

2Jlace

him

/juiaa

into a room," fjueaa a-raol iroXXol yjLarpol (los) "

many

the

2.

Note Texts

(2)

among

physicians."
III.

12

fxia arrj gioXa /xeVa

Of time and other

relations

heat," fiecra ae

(midst of the)

weeks" (cf. 160, 2), etTre


fjL(Ta ar aXka "inter alia"

fxeaa arrj ^earrj " in the

Bvo

fjueaa

"into the pool."

/33oyu,aSe9

"

within

two

tov "he said to himself,"

3. The abbreviated form /xecr' 's is almost a proper prep., since


cannot be distinguished in the pronunciation and may equally
well be dropped e.g. ixifr {(t)to iriXayo " in the sea," /xeV (cr)T^ /xco-itTOV x'^P'-o^ "ill the midst of the village," jxicr (a) ha 7r{r))yd8{L)
"into a fountain" (Lesbos), /xeV (o-)to KaXoKatpL "in the middle of
summer." dvdfxea-a "into, in the midst of" is used like fieVa, e.g.
dvdfjLecra (tto (TiTdpi "in (into) the corn."
4. TO dTTWfjLevo fX(To TOV Upo(f>-^Tr) (Texts II. b. 6) "the word
(spoken) in the prophet" is rather unusual.
'9

'

of,"

used to render " from, from the midst


through the midst of " rov e^yaXe puea

(aTTo) /jbia cLTTo is

or " through,

aiTo TO KLpovpL " shc brought

KophovL

airo to

fjLea

him out

BaxTvXlSL

"

of the grave," irepva to

he draws the cord through


" he passed

the ring," iirepaae airo fieaa airo tov^ i^Tpoixi

through the midst of the enemy."


hiir\a '9 or '7T\d(y)t '9 "beside, at": BiTrXa
fjLou "

my

beside

/jLTrpocTTd

crro aTTLTt

house."

'9

or (e)/A7rj0O9

'9,

opLirpo^ '9 (on

the

'9, cf.

fiea '9)

"before," "in front of," "in the presence of"; (1) of space:
IxTTpoGTCL
a-TTj

"

'9

Trjv

\ipLV7)

"

come quite near

before me, in

before you,"

TTopTU " bcforc thc door," eXa epurpo^^

my

<f)vye

to

the

ifji7rpo<i

pond," fiirpoaTd

fiou

presence," kvttq fe /juirpoaTd <tov " look

diro 'fnrp6<; /lov " get out of

my

sight "

MORPHOLOGY
also et9 TOP Koo-fjLov

ofjLTTpo'i

" before (the

109
eyes of) the world "

ra ^dcrava irov el^e rpa^rj^et


(2) in contrasts or comparisons
t6t, Tjrave TiirojevLa /j,7rpo<j ara arjfieptvd tov " the
ft)?
:

agonies which he had as yet endured were nothing compared

with his present," KaveU Be ffyavvet


compare with him."

dvTLKpv \
space

and in comparison
"

(TTaOpio

" opposite
5.

dyvaTca

or

Note

the

hotel

is

6/j.7rp6<;

tov

"

none can

"opposite," "over against," of

'9

to ^evohc^elov elvac dvTLKpv ctto

opposite

the

avTiKpv

station,"

tov

him."
)8yai/

yveVra /xas (Texts III. 14. b) " they

came

to

meet

lis."

ire pa

\ "over

(across)

to":

i7r7]ja/jL

irepa aTov ^A'i-

TidvvT) "

we went across to St. John's (chapel)."


^dfjLov \ or KdT(i)\ " down in," " below in "

povya

%/ioi; o-ttj

"

below in the street."


(a)7rdv(o \ (a. Gk. eV avco) or (a)7rdvov (in dialects Tra
(a)7rdvQ) ctto Tpaire^i.
\) " above, upon, on "
(1) of place
:

upon the table " (also metaphorically " at the table,"


" at dinner "), diravw aTa yovaTa fiov " upon (before) my
knees " irdvco ae fjuia yfrd^a " on a straw mat," eireae gt
dyKdOia dirdvov " it fell upon the thorns," irecjiTovv kut
cLTrdvco TOf? " they fall upon them," Bev e%a) irapdBe^ dirdvd)
fiov "I have no money on my person," oltt' dirduta tov
" away from him "
rjpOev dirdvco gttjv u>pa " he
(2) of twie
came on the hour " (i.e. " punctually "), TrdvoD gttjv ovala " in
the prime of life "
(3) extended to different senses
cf. e.g.
opKo^ iirdvca gtov ^Tavpop " oath by the cross," to Tralppco
Trdpco /jLov "I take it upon me (make myself answerable),"
6\a " in addition to all, besides "
cLTrdpo) G
(4) seldom
" (above)

" about,

concerning

"

e.g.

KpiGi dirdpco g' epa TpajovBi " criti-

cism about a poem."

To render " over,

above, beyond, out of " airavoi is combined


to a-iraOi tov orKia-TrjKcv dTrav' ano ttj cf>ov)(Ta " the sword
went to pieces in (over) his fist," irapaTrdvio airo " beyond (a certain
measure)," aTro to Va Kai irdvo) " beyond, more than the one."
6.

with

aTTo

7.

e.g.

Note

oiTrdvoiOiv,

Texts

I. a.

= dTraj/w.

Tpcyvpo) \ or Tpiyvpov '9, okoyvpa '9 (also with


around, round, round about " e.g. (Tpi,)ryvpQ) gto (air to)
"
round the altar," (Tpi)jvpot) tov " around him," Tpiyvpco
^(Ofio
GT^ fiovpd " round about on the mountains."
'yvpw

cLTTo) "

'9,

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

110

172. Exclusively or usually with airo:


fjuaKpeta airo " far from " e.g. fjuaKpeid ijlov
:

" far

from me."

efo) (of ft)) aiTo, airi^co (aTro^co) airo "outside, without,


iu front of "

(1) of 'place

of) the house," 6


"

diro Tov<i <f)i\ov^ " except

= " the

iSco

beyond, except, besides

"beyond the measure,"

(a7r)efco airo

e^w air

(praeter)

"

my

e.g.

e^o)

(2) figuratively
airo

avrd "besides

air

efo)

to GiriTi " outside (out

devil "

lo fxerpo

(this),"

e^oi

friends."

Kara) dirOy dirotcdrM diro (also irapaKarw diro) "below,


beneath, under, from under "
e.g. (diro)KdT(o diro to Kaaipo
:

"

under the fortress," diroKdio) dir^ to irohdpi tov dXoyou


" underneath the horse's hoof," diroXdei dirofcdTO) diro Tt]v
Kuiroia TOV " he brings out from under his cloak."
(6)iri(Ta) diro, diroirlcrai diro " behind"
e.g. iriaw diro ttjv
iropTa " behind the door," vd ^Brj<; irlaco aov " look behind
More rarely {o)iTLao!) \ e.g. iyw irdvw irlao} a avrov
thee."
:

" I

go behind him
Similarly

/xas "

cTrea-c

we drag

"

(Texts

I. d.

KaroVt tov " he

2).

behind him,"

fell

a-epvofxe KaToirt

after us."

dir eBoi diT 6 or diro

iBco

"on

diro TO iroTd/jLc or dirb to iroidjui

this side "

iooo "

on

e.g.

dir iBco

this side of the

river."

diro irepa diro or direKei (direKel, irapeKet) diro or

Kal

d'TTo

ire pa "

on that side, beyond": e.g. diroirepa (dirifiec) diro


id avvopa or diro Ta crvvopa Kal irepa " beyond the border,"
diro Bo) Kal irepa " from here, beyond."
Similarly irapairepa
diro "further than, beyond."

vaiepa

diro "after," of time: va-Tepa diro Xiyo Kuipo

(diro Svo fiepe^) " after a little while (after

diro

iroWd

yvpefjuaTa " after

much

two days)," vaiepa


Note vaiepa

searching."

diro fxeva " after me."

irpwTVTepa diro, irplv diro "before," of time: e(f>Ta(Ta


irpcoTVTepa diro aeva " I arrived before you," irplv diro ri?
8eKairevT (tov) 'AirpiXt "before the 15th April."

But time past


Tcopa Kai

e.g.

("

live years ago," Toopa


" I

was

ago ")

is

rendered by

(dir')

eyive (dir) eBco Kal irevie y^povia "

in Greece

-^povia irov eyive "

iScb
it

Kal BeKa '^povca rjfiovv aTrjv

Kal or

happened

'EWdBa

ten years ago," or also elvai (Tcopa) BeKa


it

happened ten years

ago."

Kpv(i>d diro "secretly, without the knowledge of" (Lat.

MORPHOLOGY
clarri)

Kpvcpa

e.g.

e.g.

hpa-x^fih " the

^'

'La{i)a fie

Laca

/Sovvov
" till

"

up

noon

to "
to

the

lip," tcria

up

to,

dyaTTM

Tpel<;

ccra

fie

yefidro

Kopcp'i]

to

rod

fiecnjfiepi,

(fiejdXo) oaia

fie

irevre

fi

Bpa-^/jit<i
:

my

Note

aeva "he

tcrta crro

" as far as the

is

not like you."

x^pio " up into the village,"

to-ta

Kara rov

ku/xtto

field."

(Tij(fi)^cova fie
fie TOL/9

also

"
rov
5 drachmae "
(3) " like as, just like
"
iraihi
him
Xaia fie
I love
as
own child," Bev
fiou

about

elvai lata fie


2.

"

of wine."

rrjv

fie

mountain," ccna

eva (povvTovKL " as (large) as a nut,"


"

(j)i\ov<;

to Kpaal Koari^et

(2) in statements of measure

tov<;

fie

with thee

(1) of place or time

to the top of the

"

fie

"

"together with."

/xe

"up

'x^elXta " full

rd

fie

till,"

fia^l

aov

drachmae inclusive

costs 3

Similarly avrafia

without his wife's

knowledge."

e.g.

fia^t

rb yefia fia^l

meal

"

fie:

with his friends,"

" inclusive "

my

"(together) with":

fie

" together

1.

without

173. Usually with

/aa^l

rov

jvvalfca

rr]

Kpv(f)d /jlov "

knowledge,"

air

11

"in accordance with," "after," av{fi)j)wva

vofiov^ "according to the laws."

1 74.

Other formations of similar kind are foimd in the

The Pontic and Cappadocian

dialect,

which

dialects.

reveals a propensity for

placing the adverb last, gives, e.g., diris ( = d7r' eao)) or iroiriq ( = a7rb
aVcVco) "in, within," etc. ; cf. ttoios dTroTrecr' icrovv (Texts III. 13. b)
*'
who among you," o-tol Tr-qyaZta ttottc'; (Texts III. 14. b) "into the

fountain " ; cf. also cro rpvirlv kuko. (Texts III. 13. b) - a-ro rpv-rrlv Ik^Z
fcaro) "into the hole," aito rpta fxrjves ofirrpo (Texts III. 14. a) "three

months ago."

THE VEEB.
Preliminary

OhserfatioTis,

175. In modern Greek the verb has two voices, an Active


and a Passive ^tuttw " I strike," 'xrvireLovfiat " I am struck."
The passive forms are, however, much less in vogue than in
G erman or in English. The modern Greek passive serves not
only as passive but is frequently employed (like the ancient
middle) to express an action, or a condition, or even as a
:

reflexive.
1.

The

a.

Gk. middle has only formally disappeared, its original


The special middle verbal forms (aorist)

signification still survives.


112

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

have become obsolete, the passive forms maintainmg the field and
appropriating the meaning of the middle.
Thus, generally speaking,
the m. Gk. passive covers the usages also of the old middle, only
that the delicate distinctions between the active and the so-called
" dynamic," or the indirect reflexive middle, are lost.
2. A remarkable peculiarity of the m. Gk. verb is its faculty of
forming compounds with a substantive or with another verb. The
former (with a substantive) started with such a. Gk. formations as
However, the combinations with an
OavixaTovpyu}, Ka/37ro(^opw, etc.
adjective outnumber those with a substantive
cf. e.g. ixoa-KOfxvpilo)
" I smell of musk," KaXowepvu) " I live well," KaA-oyi/wpt^w " I perceive
well," apyoaaXevw " 1 move slowly," aKpavotyco " I open a little,"
;

" I kiss affectionately," kovto-ottcVw " I drink a little,"


"I meditate with bowed head," /SapnaKovo} "I am
hard of hearing, hear with difficulty," /xio-avotyw " I open half-way."
As we should expect, participial combinations are specially frequent,
as TToAvxpoveyLteVos " one worthy of many years," x^poTcvrw/AeVo?
''stark in death," xt'^toTrarr^/xeVos "trodden of thousands {i.e. oft)."
Two verbs can unite to form a dvandvac construction ; as, dvoiyoor^aAi^o) " I open and shut," ave^oKarc/SatVo) " I pace up and down,"
TpiJiO(T/3rjv<o " I tremble and die away."
C^. 41, a. 1. d and 2. c for
the verb in compound substantives.

y\vKo<j>LXu)

XaixrjXoXoyLalo}

also

176. The

very

Active voice has

an

frequently

meaning, and

vice

versa

besides the transitive

intransitive,

middle

or

intransitive active verbs

reflexive

are often

employed as transitive e.g.


"
(a) aXXttfo) " I change " trans, and intr., dvoLjo) " I open
"
"
"
and stand open," ^oaKco I feed trans, and intr., {^)a7r\(ova>
" I spread out " trans, and intr., yefML^Q) " I fill " and " am
full," ryXvTcovco " I rcscuc " and " escape," yvpi^o) " I turn
(round)" trans, and "return, turn back" intr., OeixeXioyvay
" I establish," " found " and " I have, obtain firm ground,"
KaOapi^w " I purify " and " am pure," /coXXm " I glue to " (trans.)
and " grow to," kovvcj " I move " trans, and intr., Xvoovco " I
"
loose, dissolve " and " melt " intr., ^e-^wpl^o) " I separate (from)
trans, and intr., ^eairdo) "I break off" trans, and "break
"
forth," irpopdWo} " I hold forth (propose) " and " advance
"
"
intr., aKopiTL^o)
I scatter " and
am scattered," o-TapbaTcj
" I cause to stop, prevent " and " stop " intr. " remain," aepvay
or rpajScJ " I draw, drag " and " withdraw, go " intr., rai.ptd^a>
" I associate, pair," and raipcd^ei, " it is becoming," rpofxa^co
" I terrify " and " am terrified," ;j^aXz^w " I spoil " trans, and
intr., xopTaivo) "I satisfy " and " am satisfied," 'xrviroi "I strike,"
:

intr. of

the clock (also " dash againsi;,"

"

am

flung against

").

"

MORPHOLOGY

fie

/jLov "

(f>cov^

and
and

am sick " and


by my screaming "),
" I

appwarcb

(h)

darpdcjiTco " I
" I

113

make one

" 1

darpdcjiTec "
" I

thrash one," ^apaivw

am

(e.f/.

lightens

heavy, weigh

rains "

" it

sick "

it

"
"

and ffpexo
cause to
and ^povrcj " I beat down,"
yeXo) " I laugh " and " deceive," ^m " I live," and " I keep
alive, preserve," Kadl^Q) " I sit " and " place, seat," Karavro) " I
degenerate " and " reduce into a state," ^virvco " I wake " and
" rouse from
sleep," irepvoi " I pass by " and " surpass,"
" exceed," Trerw " I flee " and " throw away," injyalvco (irdyco,
a. Gk. vir-dyco) " I go " and " I bring," " lead," amirS) " I am
silent " and " keep secret," (f>Tdv(o " I arrive " (cfyrdvet, " it
suffices ") and " I attain, reach."
Note also a word of a
different kind, fiadaivco " I learn " and " I teach."
burden," Ppex^i

rain," jSpovra " it

The

thunders

causes of such

" I

"

numerous

between transitive and


Gk. itself cf. a. Gk.
ltj/jll,
which by the ellipsis of an object
ktvttu), o-twTrw, vw, and vet, which even in
trans, and intrans.
This usage persisted
the a. Gk. status e.g. iryjyaLvo) and Trayw
to-day predominantly intransitive, klvC) "I
transitions

intransitive are to be sought partly in the


ayo),

kXlvw,

iXavvo), klvw,

became intrans., or Katw,


antiquity served both as
and occasionally reversed

"I go"

Gk.

(a.

move, depart"

virdyo)) is
is

a.

intransitive only

levelling of verbs in -aw, -cw,

and

koww).
Moreover, the formal
204) has contributed to the

(cf.

-t^w (v.

levelling of their functions.

1.

177. The middle is found


In the so-called deponents

direkiTL^ofiai " doubt,"

Biyovfiat " relate,"

epxpfiai

" sleep," aixaivopLai " feel


^ofiat,

" think,"

Xjoio-povpeiovixai

" need,"

"

pbeXkerai

aicrrdvofiaL " feel,"

yawn,"
" is

come," KdOofiat

"

become,"

" sit," Koifxovfjuac

an aversion," aroxd^ofiac, avWoyl" fear,"

(prapfiL^ofiaL

x^lpo/iaL

" rejoice,"

cfio^ov/xaL
"

like

d(j)tKpov/jLac " hear," ytvo/iat

about

many

In

to."

" sneeze,"

%piafo/z<xt

instances

the

middle has developed as of secondary nature from an original


passive or

reflexive

(fcovpd^fo "
*'

make

become dry

pretend,"

"

tired

meaning
"),

(^epau'co

e.g.

Kovpd^ofiaL "

^evcrevofiai, "
"

dry

iSaardto/jLaL " collect

"

trans.),

myself

Kafifjovofxai

" (/Saard^co

opKL^ofiaL " swear " (opKL^co " cause to swear


"

wonder,"

'Trepr}(f)avevo/j,ai,

intr. {irviyco

" strangle,

begin," aKid^oixai,
" reveal,

disclose

am

drown

" fear,"
"),

"

tired

" I

" feign,

bear

"),

irapa^evevofxai,
"
proud," irviyop.aL " drown

" trans.),

"

"),

aid^ofiac " set about,


"

appear " {(pavepcovco


manifest myself, appear,"

^avepaovo/juat,

(jjalvofMai,

am

go abroad," ^epaivoiiai

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

114

" perish,

'X^di'o/jLai

(X^^vf^ " I lose ").

am lost," also " am


On crrecpapcovofjiaL

The majority

1.

phenomena.

"

with

for, in love

wed,"

of these cases represent the

Sometimes modern Greek

has increased

cf.

"

49.

same or similar

a.

Gk

following ancient models

stock of deponents ; cf. e.g. ;(at)oo/xat for


after XvTrovfxat " I regret," etc.
Both are

its

somewhat

Xaipo)

eager

Gk.
found

a.

together in Oaixd^w and Oafid^ofxat (a. Gk. Oavfid^u)) "admire" or


"wonder" (both with ace), ^avrd^u) and <^ai^Ta^o/xat, "imagine."
Note, further, Kat(y)o/i,ai " I burn," intr. beside kulw trans, and intr.,
and crTKo/xat " I stand," beside the more common aTeKm, after model
of K(iOo/xai.

Conversely the active form has displaced the ancient middle


in i^rjyC) "explain," Ovfxwvw "am enraged," TrapaiTU) "abandon."
2. Only a few traces of the dynamic middle are left ; thus, e.g.^
beside l^oh^voi "I spend (money)," "incur expenses," we find
i^oSevofxai in the intensive sense.
e.g.

2.

As

Reflexive

(a) Direct reflexive


"

bathe

"

wash

(myself),"

vrvvofxai " dress (myself)," Xov^ofiai


"

^ovpL^ojjLai,

(myself)," x'^evl^o/buaL "

shave

(myself),"

comb (my

hair),"

irXevofiat
arjKcovofiat

myself, rise," o- id ^o fiat, " prepare (myself)," avyvpL^ojuaL


adjust myself, prepare," orKOTMvo/uLaL " kill myself," rafiTrovpoi}-

" raise
"

"

vovrat

they

entrench

myself to perceive,"

themselves,"

(j>opTcovo/uLaL

(pvXdyofjLaL " (protect myself),

"

(jyavepccvofjiaL

"

allow

load (burden) myself with,"

guard against."

may be emphasised by the addition of the


157): ^ovpc^o/xat /xoi/o? (fiovaxo?) p-ov "/shave
myself,'' aKonoOrjKi 6 i8ios or dT6<s tov " he killed himself."
The

reflexive sense

pronoun "self"

(h)

Eeciprocal

reflexive

ajKaXLa^ovrai

"

they

embrace

each other," airoxai'p^'TeiovvTai " they take leave of each other,"


"

"

they recognise one another," ipcorevovpTai


they are in love with each other," KaXy/j^epi^ovvrai " they

yvcopL^ovvraf,

bid

good-day to each other," fia^covovrac

"

they assemble,"

they intermarry," Kvi^rjyeiovvrai " they chase


one another," irLdvovrai " they take hold of each other (to

iravTpevovvTaL

wrestle),

come

"

to close quarters," (fycXeLovvrai " they kiss each

other."

The

reciprocal idea

6 wa<s TOV

dXXo and by

may

also

be expressed by or strengthened by

(dva-) /xera^v /^as, etc. (v. 141)

e.g. jxaX<x)vovv

or /xaXiovovvTat /xcra^v tov^ " they scold each other."

iruiveTai
(c) Causative reflexive, generally with a negative
he allows himself to be caught," he yeXeierat " he does not
:

"

MORPHOLOGY

Il5

allow himself to be deceived," Se fMiXeieTai "he refuses to be


interviewed/' to Kpaal tovto Bev irlveTai " this wine cannot be

drunk."

The active may likewise


"I got a house built,"

(TTTiTL

express the same meaning e.g. exna-a


/xaAAta jxov "I caused my hair
:

cKoi/^a to,

to be cut."

178. Altogether there are eight Tenses, which


subdivided into two classes, simple and compound

I.

Simple.
1.

II.

Imperfect.

3.

Aorist.

Compound.

1.

The

{cf.

229).

2.
;

Present.

2.

5.

Future present (Fut continuum).


Future aorist (Fut. absolutum).

6.

Perfect.

4.

tions

are

7.

Pluperfect.

8.

Future perfect

tenses 6, 7,

and 8

much

are

less in use

than the others

Only the simple tense forms correspond to the


the compound tenses are m. Gk. formations to

a.

Gk. forma-

fill

the places

of the ancient forms that have disappeared.

179. There are four Moods: three simple, Indicative,

Subjunctive (Conjunctive), Imperative

As

the Conditional or " Unreal."

concerned the Subjunctive


Indicative

it

is

and one compound,

far as

perfectly

terminations are

identical

with the

possesses a special form only in the aorist stem

and passive).
The subjunctive is employed always in
dependence on conjunctions or particles {vd, 6d, a?) {cf. 193 f.,
and also the rules for subordinate clauses, 264 ff.).
There
(active

is

a double imperative, representing both present and aorist

mode

of action (Aktionsart)

but only the 2nd person sing,

and pi. has distinct forms of its own, the 3rd person being
supplemented from the subjunctive.
The conditional has
likewise two forms, for present and for past time.
Compared with the Moods of the ancient language m. Gk. shows
an impoverishment the optative having quite disappeared, and the
subjunctive being considerably reduced.
Indicative and subjunctive
are only orthographically distinguished from each other in some of

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

116

va
a. Gk. fashion: {na) ^rdfis ypa<fiiiq indie,
^rdfome ypa^ojuc va ypdcfuofjic ; but in the spoken
language both forms are absolutely identical.
their forms in the

ypa<j>rj<s

subj., (na)

180. If modern Greek has suffered

pared with the parent language,


its

resources.

It

has

not

it

many

losses

com-

has not failed also to enrich

only preserved

the

distinction

between present and aorist kind of action ^ (continuative or


repeated action and a simplex [point] act) in the difference
between imperfect and aorist, and in that between present and
aorist imperative and subjunctive, but it has also developed
further along the same lines in the analogous new creation of
two futures, one of duration and one of simplex (point) act
thus

"

MORPHOLOGY

117

remarkable fact that other languages of the Balkan Peninsula


(Bulgarian, Albanian, Roumanian) also share in this loss.
The
infinitive survives as a living form only in the Pontic dialects.
It is a

Elsewhere

it is preserved merely in stereotyped shape in certain


verbal forms (for which v. 227, n. 1) and in a few substantives {to <^ayt *' eating, repast " = to <f>ayLv, to cjukt " the kiss " =
TO cfiiXelv, ?;. 97, 1).

compound

Verbs
whether simple or composite
182. Augmeiit.
beginning with a consonant regularly prefix an augment,

i.e.

the vowel

of

the indicative:
"

ryvpi^co

to the historic tenses (imperfect

e-,

turn "

"write"

ypdcftco

imperf. inrrjyaLva " I

turned,"

and

"I

eypayfra

aorist)

wrote,"
"

Trrjyaivco

go

(f)oj3ovfiaL " fear " aor. i(f)o^rjdr)Ka

went,"

" I feared," fxayepevco "

^(pvrpQ)V(o " shoot

" I

eyvpco-a

aor.

aor.

cook

forth "

" imperf.
aor.

ifxayepeve " he cooked,"

^(f)VTpco(Ta

Kadl^Q) " sit " aor. iKadca-a " I sat,"

" I

Karaka^alvay

"

shot

forth,"

understand

"

eKardXa^a
understood," Kare^alvoi
descend " aor.
inarePrjKa " I descended," irepiixevw " await " imperf. eireplfieva
" I

aor.

"

was waiting," irpoaexw


heed," Kark^w (in dialects)
" I

"
"

" aor. iirpoo-e^a " I

take heed

know

" imperf.

" I

eKdreya

took

knew,"

KaKoirepvS) " live well " aor. iKaXoiripaa-a " I lived well."

Usually the augment

upon

fall

it

employed when the accent would

is

thus in cases like eypayjra

fr.

BlBo) "give,"

fr.

fiaOaivco

e/SaXa aor.

" learn,"

fr.

^dXkw

earetXa

aor.

aor. fr. (jievyo) " flee, depart," etc.

the accent would not

fall

fr. ypdcfyco,

ehcoKa aor.

"place, lay," efxada aor.

fr.

o-reXvco " send," ecpvya

On

the other hand (when

upon the augment

if

used) the

augment may be omitted ypdyfra/jie " we wrote," ffdXafie " we


laid," ^aarovaa imperf. " I was carrying "
and in polysyllabic
:

verbs

yvpiaa, arevdaave

jjbiariqKa

"

escape

(aor.
"),

fr.

^opLcra

"

they groaned,"

(j)Tapjiil^ofMai,

(^opt^co

"

sneeze

" exile "),

arpa^oTrdrrjcra (o-Tpa^oTrarco "

make

"),

(po/StjdrjKa, cj^rap-

^ecj^vya

KardXa^a,

a false step

(fe(/)eu7
Karefirj/ca,

"), etc.

1. ]N"o uniform rule can be laid down, because the augment is


treated differently in different regions.
Southern Greek, i.e. the

which best represent the common vernacular, shows most


in prefixing the augment especially to words of two
syllables.
In many regions the augment is always employed, in
others (in the K"orth) it is avoided in verbs of more than two
syllables.
The augment is easier omitted the farther the accent is
removed from it: e.g. aKOTiovai "kill" aor. ia-KOTwa-a "I killed,"
a-KOTdiOi^Kave 3rd pi. aor. pass. " they were killed."
dialects

regularity

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

1 1 8

The augment

not so essential a factor in m. Gk. as it was


Even in forms like eStoKa it disappears in
liaison ; cf. to 'SojKa = to cStoKa, tov VretXa = tov tcmtXa
the e must
disappear after preceding a, o, u, according to the laws of word liaison
In Lesbos and elsewhere 8a)Ka = 8wKa (cf. also '6iKv, Texts
(^ 11).
11. 13. c) takes absolutely no augment.
The augment having thus become practically negligible as a
sign of tense, augmented forms were often generalised, i.e., for
example, (tov) eVai/oo could be used beside /cava) "I make," etc.
KaT/3atVw and ave/Sacvio "I go down, go up," are quite common.
Note, further, dj/e^r/Tw " I seek, inquire after " and (Texts II. b. 6)
a-vyeTrvtyo) " choke."
The very common verbal preposition ^e-, a. Gk.
come from augmented forms e.g. a. Gk. iKcfiivyio aor.
$-, has
i$(j>vyov = m. Gk. iecjievyu)
(c)^^vya.
The augment has penetrated
even into substantival derivatives
e.g. KareySao-ta " catarrh " (lit.
"what runs down").
2.

is

in tlie ancient language.

183. Verbs beginning with a vowel as a rule undergo

no change

augment

for

" delay " aor.

apyrja-a,

aKouco " hear " aor. aKovaa, apyo)

leave " aor. d^r^aa, avej^alvay

"

a(p7]v(o

" ascend " aor. ave^rjKa, iyyi^co


"

hope

6/xa)vo)

vofjbovva,

"

epiriaa, alcndvofiat,

aor.

"

"

swear

"

aor.

touch " aor. eyyi^a,


" perceive "

ojjLoaa,

ovoixd^o)

ipTrl^o)

imperf. alara"

name

"

aor.

Only a few verbs


beginning with e- give preterite forms with an i (written ele^co " have " fcl^a, ep^ofjuai " come " aor. rjpOa, imperf.
or ^-)
7]p')(^ovjjLovv and ep^ovfxovi^, evplaKco (/SpiaKO)) " find " aor. rjvpa
(but imperf. evpiaKo).
Here also the defective aorists elha
" I saw " and elira " I spoke."
Also a few verbs beginniDg with a consonant augment
ovofiaaa (also spelled co^oaa, wvo/jLaaa).

with ^- instead of
(r}^ep(o) "
<f)6pvfo "

know

bear

i-

thus, deXco " wish, will " ijdeXa, ^epco

" rj^epa, ttlvco "

drink "

rjina,

and

less frequently

" T^cf^epa.

Aegean Islands the augment i (17-), instead


model of the verbs just given, has become practically
the rule
'5</)aya " I ate," ^/ca/xa *' I made," rjXaf^a " I received,"
^Trat^a "I played," rjtnacra "I took," ^0u(y)a "I went away,"
r)Pya\a " I took out," rjKdOoviJiovv " I sat," 7)7rp6(rTa$a " I commanded,"
1.

of

-,

Especially in the

after the
:

etc., for
2.

ment

the usual

<f>aya, t/ca/Lia, etc.

Verbs beginning with


in

y- (i]Kovcra

= dcf)r)Ka "I

= uKova-a,

a-

take likewise occasionally an aug-

yya.TrrjO'a

a.yd7rr](Ta,

-^voi^a

dioi$a,

discharged," etc.), or (in Asia Minor especially


and in the islands on the coast of Asia Minor) instead of retaining
the a- in the historic tenses they take an e- like verbs beginning
with a consonant (cf. eKO-a = aKOVcra, in-evTca-a d-rravTrjcra in Pontus,
Finally, the proximity of i and e proipX^ytca = dp)^ivL(Ta in los).
y(f>7]Ka

MORPHOLOGY
duced a form
Texts III. 5).

eSave beside ctSavc (los,

v.

184. Eeduplication entirely disappeared with the exit is wanting also in the perfect

tinction of the old perfect

(209

participle passive

and

like exe beside ctTre

119

ff.).

185. The modern Greek verb possesses for active and

passive separate personal endings which are attached to the

tense stem.

All the terminations

groups, present and preterite


also a separate

may

be divided into two

in addition to

termination for

2nd

the

The present terminations are valid

which there

is

imperative.

sing,

for the present

and

for all

moods, the preterite for the imperfect indicative and for all
For details on the terminations, cf. 213 ff. on the
aorists.
inflexion of the verb.
1. The m. Gk. endings correspond essentially to those of a. Gk.,
although they have undergone much modification in details. The
distinction between primary and secondary endings is maintained
(and as in a. Gk. many endings are alike in form). The uniform

declension of all aorists and imperfects (apart from dialect variations)


is especially remarkable.
2. The dual has entirely disappeared, as in the noun.

The Use of Tense and Mood.


Present

and Aorist Stem,

186. The distinction between present and aorist action


a. Gk. in the
formation of two futures ( 180).
Even the present in

(AJdionsart) has been carried further than in

dicative,

at

least

verb

the

in

irrj^aivco

and

Trdyco

" go,"

indicates the beginning of such a distinction, i.e. the creation


of a separate " aorist present " (irdyco)
thus, irrj^aivofie " we
;

keep going, go
contrast

Tra/i-e

and again, go without

aTTtTi "

we

Cf., further, o (BaacXiaf;

act).
T?}<?

to

again

^ray^rj^ to o-ttItl

(Texts

16)

"

to)

go

"

the partridge goes to drink

or cTTo

(TTTLTL fiov

TrrjyaLuo), irdyco

rj

" (this

"

in

(single
avTrj<;

king heeps going every

girl," irov

but Trdyec

resting,"

home

Kade vv)(ra a

ira'yaivei

III. 4) " the

night to the house of this poor

do you (continue

are going (go)

irayaivet^

iripBtKa va

"whither
irifj (I.

a.

time, " point " action),

va irdpco to

yfrco/jLi

(I. a.

9),

am on my way home, I am going to fetch bread." Or it


may be said of a dried up fountain to vepo irdet " the water

" I

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

120
is

gone (goes, and

distinction

maintained

does not

between
;

cf.

irrjyaivo)

irrjyalvec

e.g.

come
and

and says

this

not consistently

is

arov rrarepa

1) " she goes to her father

(I. d.

Of course

again)."
irdyro

Tr)<;

koX rov Xeeo

As

to him."

a rule

and
The latter is specially prominent in the
historic present, which stands in vivid narrative beside an
aorist as an equivalent
e.g. to rraLBl fijrrJKe fieo-a, fiplaKei rov
^ApciTTT] " the child came in, (and) finds the Arab (Moor),"
the present combines cursive (durative, continuous,
aorist

etc.)

action.

arrj (pcoria '^ovfidet, e/coyjre

he

TovpKov^; aTreipov; " into the

The

rushes, (and) slew countless Turks."

Koi \e6L "

and says

(just as Xiei " says

"

with a preceding aorist

he

fire

association of

is

very

common

" in parenthesis).

1. The vivid effect in the course of a narrative secured by the


interchange of historic present and aorist is seen, e.g., in Texts I. a. 9,
1.
16 ff. {(pipvcL "brings out," a^povrdet "casts down"); but the
present serves also for vivid description of a situation, the central
event being related in the aorist; cf. Texts II. a. 14, strophe 9.
2. The present sometimes has a future meaning when the connection leaves no doubt as to the time, as in Kave to Trpcora k vo-repa
ySAeVov/xe " do it first and then we (shall) see," or avpLo to irpoii
Trepvco air to (nrLTL eras " early to-morrow morning I (will) go past

your house."
3. In Cappadocia (Silli) under the influence of Turkish the
present continuous is expressed in a peculiar way by the addition of
Kt Kdcrov/j.L, i.e. kol KaOofxaL
e.g. p)(ovfjii kI Kaaovpt " I am goi^ig."
:

187. The present stem presents an action in progress

without regard to
action),

and thus

duration

the

is

its

beginning or to the result (cursive

well adapted to portray the circumstances,

or repetition

of

an

action.

denotes a single action complete in

itself

The

aorist

stem

or conceived as

complete and as a whole (" punctiliar " ^ action), and also the
beginning (initial point) or the result (final point) of an
action (terminative, or ingressive and effective action).

m. Gk. vernacular shows a decided preference


the subjunctive (future) and imperative

The

especially in

for the aorist

stem

against the present.

In contrast to the classical Greek we find already in that of the


Testament a decided preference for both the indicative and

New

subjunctive aorist, so that the process had already set in in the


Hellenistic vernacular.

The

translator has borrowed this term from Moulton's Gram, of N.2\ Gk.,
3rd ed. p. 109 (T. & T. Clark), the Avord "punctual" having been
already assigned its duties in English.
^

vol.

i.

MORPHOLOGY
188. The Imperfect

121

employed

is

In a narrative to emphasise that an action (not in


momentaneoiis) or an occurrence (of the same kind) was

1.

itself

conceived as

in

progress,

the

result

the

of

action

being

vd rov koL Kare^aive raov


"
behold, there was coming a knight
KajbuTrovf; KaPeXkdpi^
down over the fields" (Texts I. a. 8), i^e-^vxova-e dirb dydirrj
(II. b. 3) " he was pining away of love," rrjv rekevTaia tt;?
irvor] 6 Xdpo<i ipo6ovo-6 (II. a. 21) "Charon was about to
sip her last breath," eSeve 6\a rd hevrpa fie irera-e^ (I. d. 3)

entirely left out of question

"

he was engaged binding

e.g.

the trees with cords," y SovXetd

all

KoXd " the work was progressing excellently," ii^ovaave KoXd " they were living well," dyairovaa eva vkov Kal
TOP d'yairo} ttoXv " I was in love with a youth and I love
him dearly (still)," iarTafidrrjo-e /c' eTrept/jbeve "he stopped
and kept waiting," rpeU cop6<i iwoXifiae " he was struggling
Trdyatve

three hours."

The imperfect is therefore to be employed to represent


an action as a situation which forms the background or
consequence of an event ^povrovcre koX daTpa(\>Te e^j^re? koX
copa " there was thundering and
6fi(i)^ irepiraTTjaaixe iroWrj
:

we took

lightning yesterday, but nevertheless

a long walk,"

p,epa e^yatve irdXt y paoiXoirovka, etc. (II. b. 4) " one

fiid

.,"
ecpKetaKav eva
came forth
irakdrt Kal ^ovaav fia^L "they built a palace and lived
together " and especially when a circumstance (or property)
e.g. Bev
is narrated
ri^evpa " I was not aware," fila cj^opd
"
once there was a king," e'/cet eKaOojave
ijrave eva^ ^aatXea^

day

the

princess

again

01

hpdKot

"

there dwelt (were dwelling) the monsters," rov

eXeyav Ad^apo

" his

70 Xayo, 6 birolo^

name was

^Tp6')(

(they called him) L.," dirokdei

ttoXv (Texts

6) " he lets go the

I. c.

From

hare which ran (had the property of running) well."


the nature of such instances the imperfect

common

is

relatively

more

in accessory clauses.

Note, cXcye in Tnjy rj ydra kol o-yovporpi^ovrav koI fxiaovpt^e kol


Tov iXeyc (Texts I. d. 2) is a kind of attraction to the preceding
descriptive imperfects.

The Imperfect

2.

at, or

action

non-completion
:

also calls attention (a) to the attempt


of,

an

action,

and

(a) tov eBcve TrapdBe^ vd tov

(wished) to give him

money

to allow

(b)

the duration of an

diprjarf fieo-a "

him

he tried

inside," Kuviva^ Bev

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

122

ave^atve ttote arrfv

Kop(j)r)

11. b. 5) "

rov ^pdxov (TEXTS

nobody

ever attempted (succeeded) to climb to the summit of the


rock," Bep eKLvovcre to /capd^c
Beu dveyvcopL^e

in

*'

the boat would not move,"

he could not perceive,"

Bei^

him

to

5) " he refused to allow

fiea-a (I. d.

came

**

all

the same)

e^ptfe

rot"?

(b)

rov

d(j:)rjv6

(I.

va

^fiTrrj

in " (but he

come

2) " he kept

a.

a eKVTra^a "'vayopra-^a k ipooraya (I. a. 19)


" I was gazing insatiably upon thee and kept asking," iypolKovva ra KaWrj aov (I. a. 24. 12) "I was (always) hearing of

scolding them,"

thy fairness," TrXovracve

"

he kept growing richer."

This meaning of the imperf. can be strengthened by the repetition


e.g. tyjv i-n-rjyaLve Trjv i-n-yyaLve " lie kept leading her still
farther" ("lead and lead"), SovAeve BovXeve "he kept working
without interruption."
of the verb

3.

Hence

imperfect

to

(from
present

which

that

employment of the
was customary or the

the

arises

2)

of an occurrence
yita?
e^ya^e irepliraro, //.a?
(TEXTS II. b. 2) " he used to take us out for a walk
and used to instruct us," t^9 eXeav oXot " they all used to
tell her," rov ipcora (I. a. 2) "he asked him again and again,"
So/jbicTTLKoi, Tov
BL(o')(yave (II. b. 4) "the courtiers used to
chase him," a-ra crKoreiva rrjv Xov^<; (I. a. 11)" you used to
wash her in the dark." For the imperf. in temporal clauses,

repetition

i^idOaive

cf.

272-275.

Note Texts

I.

d.

1,

tov " when he


one after the other)."

ra-Lov-n-pes

1.

past

crav cc^racre crrb cnriTi tov, tov

came home

189. The Aorist Indicative

is

him

ot

(the

employed:

To portray simply an action


it is

pwrayav

his daughters asked

or

occurrence of the

therefore the usual tense in progressive narrative,

numerous instances of which are supplied by every narrative.


The action is not necessarily a punctiliar or uniform act
e.g., rjpOe " he
came," iirriye " he departed "), it may
extend over any length of time, and may even consist in a

(like,

repetition of

occurrences:

'ipueLv

Aulico<^

arr}

(ficortd

"

D.

remained in the fire," e^rjaav oXrj rrj ^corj rou? KoXd " they
irpayovBrjae
lived well their whole life," yia paav dvot^c
t' drjSovL (IL a. 12) "throughout a whole springtime sang
.

the nightingale."

kind

of

action

When

a verb

(Aktionsart)

is

the

colourless in regard to its


aorist

often

lends

it

MOKPHOLOGY

123

(terminative) meaning,

punctiliar

or final point of the action

i.e.
designates the initial
to Kapd^i KLvrjae " the boat

e.g.

to move," dppcoarrjaa " I became sick," KoXvfiTrrjcre aro


he dived into the water," e(f)v<y6 " he went away," eTrrjje
" he departed," ecfyepe " he brought," eTrrjpe " he took away "
or " fetched," eireaav ra XovXovBlu " the flowers fell," ifxavpcae

began

"

vepo

" it

grew black."
2. The aorist indie, denotes an action just completed the
Here
effect of which still continues
into the present.
German employs the perfect or present, and English also
the perfect or present, or more rarely the preterite e.g. efiaOa
" I (have) learned " and so " know," ra ecjiepa " I (have)
brought them " and so " have them with me," erai OeXrjo-e 6
:

God

6e6^ "so

attained

it,"

willed, so

^AirplXt^

here," vv'^rooae "it


"

TrajcoTui

"

the

became

did you hear

to Karac^epafxe

it,"

"

came

April

"

"we

(have)

and

so "

is

night, night is come," eirayjrav rd

ceased,

frost

ireivaaa

past,"

is

" I

grew

x^^Vf^^ " I am undone," aKovae^


In cases like (jiepvco " here
do you hear ? "

am hungry

hungry," "

is

(f)Tacr6

I bring," a/cou9 " do

still,"

you hear

"

the present

may

also be

employed, but in other cases like iravovv rd 'Traycorui the


present would not properly express the idea of completion,
since there
1.

is

" aorist " present.

no

The idea of completion and of the

re-enforced

by composition with

onro-

eating, ate up," to eTSe Kal to ctTrdctSe

(only too well) "

an action is sometimes
d7ro<^aya " I (have) finished

effect of

e.g.

"he saw

it,

and saw it perfectly

159, 1.
2. Even completion in the immediate future (and so the function
of an aorist present or a future perfect) may be expressed by the
;

cf.

provided the connection leaves no ambiguity about the time


intended (cf. 186, n. 2) e.g. kl av fxk aov/SXtcreTe, cvas FpatKos e^a^r^
(Texts I. a. 2) "even if you impale me only one Greek perishes
(shall have perished)."
Sometimes a Tract is placed immediately
before such an aorist.

aorist,

190. In the present and aorist subjunctive or impera-

tive, as

well as in the two futures, this distinction of kind of

action {Aktionsart)

imperative,
1.

v.

similarly maintained

repeated

hev

12) "I

elfi'

am

examples for the

for the futures, 191.

The Present Subjunctive

(occurrence, etc.)

11. a.

is

196

depicted
d^Lo<;

in
iyoj

denotes
progress,

timeless

either

t6toio poSo vd

action

durative
(f)op(o

or

(Texts

not worthy to bear such a rose," t^9

fjiav-

124 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


vov\a<; (Tov

pdaKa/jLa

r]

vd

v^r]

(I. a.

yia

^vat

^vKa^TO

witchcraft touch thee not," 8e fiov


(i>evyco (r. a.

aov, va

fjuvj

ae

iridvrj

14), " thy mother's prayer be thy protection that

"my

24. 12)

SIS'

6 I'ou?

/jlov

reason allows

me no

longer to

ttXio

(think of flight)," tou elirav ol BpdKot va irrj^alvovv

va
flee

rrjv

fie

dpdha ytd vepo " the clrald said to him they should go for
water by turns," he fXTTopoo /cade fiepa vd ep'^^^cofiai vd iraipvco
vepo " I cannot come every day to fetch water."
vd with the pres. subj. is always used after apxt^o) (ap;(tvw, etc.)
" begin " ; as, dpxLvi-o-av va rrjv pwrovv " they commenced to question
her," apxi^L<; va ytVccrat cnrXaxi^i'Krj *' thou beginnest to be merciful."
If the paratactic construction with Kat ( 261) is preferred to vd, then
the imperf. must follow ; as, apxtpyjcre 6 ytarpo? k cAeyc to TrapafivOt
"the doctor began to tell the fable." Note also the expressions va
ra KovTo\o{y)ovp,^ va pLrjv to. fiaKpaLvovfxe. "in a word, to put it
briefly."

The Aorist

2.

Sitbjunctive denotes a single action

complete

in itself or conceived as a whole, including, of course, the

and the

initial
(TOV

"

KaOlar)^ " I beg

vd

fii]

point

final

long to run

Xa^^rapco vd rpe^o) aTr)v dy/cdXv

are
irapaKaXo) vd
KokXio vd o-Kdaco irapd

thy embrace,"

into

you to take a

seat,"

" 'twere better that I perish

crd<; 6ufjLi]0a)

vd ^rjay

of thee (forget thee)," ^epet

fie Tifir] "

than not think

how

he knows

to live honourably," tov elire vd irepfiaTrjo-r) rpet? w/oe?

(Texts

him to walk three hours," to ^oXUl


Bev
fiiropovaa vd (rrjKcoaQ) " I was not able to lift the burden,"
I.

d.

1) " he told

Trpiiret

put

vd

off,

UoXl vd

^opeo-rj^;,

vd

your cloak."
fiocpday

^'yd\r)<^

to ttciXto " you

Note Texts

eXer]/jLoavve<;

"

II.

b.

4,

must put

on,

KaTe^aive aT7]v

she used to go

down

to the

city to distribute alms."

The usages under 1 and 2 may be brought out more clearly


some contrasted examples in which the present and the aorist stem
may be viewed in proximity a Slv ^epcts Kdnrt, TrpeVct va pwra?
aAAoi;? " whenever (every time) you don't know anything you must
ask others," and TrpcTrct va ip(x>Ty(Trj<s dXXove yta to irpafxa avro "you
must ask (once) somebody about this (definite) matter"; diro Tiopa
OeXo) va Tpdiyui (t dXXo ^e.vo^ox^'io " henceforth I wish to eat (as often
as I eat) in another hotel," and o-c TrapaKaXu) va (f>a<s avpio ctto (ttvlti
/xov " I request you to dine at my house to-morrow " ; to aKova-e x<>pt5
va KaTaXafSaLvrj " he heard it without being able to understand it,"
and x^P'-'^ ^"- KaTaXd/3r] "without grasping it"; 8c /xiropG) ttXlo va
cAtti^w "I can no longer indulge in hopes," and 8k /xTropw ttXlo va
cA-TTtVo) " I can no longer hope at all " ; 8c OiXo) vd rove fiXirroi " I
don't want to see him (have him before my eyes)," and ^cAw va tovc
in

:
;

MOKPHOLOGY

125

"I

want to see him (catch one glimpse)," yeVeo-at TovpKo<;, ttjv


aov v' aWd^rj^, va 7rpo(TKVva<; eis to r^a/LLL ; (I. a. 2) "are you
turning Turk in order to change (once for all) your faith, and
(henceforth) pray in the mosque ? " irapaKoXicre tov Trarepa tt^s va ra
Siixry K evav ^ApaTrrj va tov orTiXvrj ottov OeXet (I. d. 2) " she begged her
father to give (single act) her a Moor whom she might (at any time)
send wherever she wished." Cf., further, Texts 11. a. 10 for the
marked interchange of both kinds of action, or 1. a. 17 for the two
presents va o-Ktovco to. /xaraKta fxov, va pixv dcTTpoTrcAeKta (practically
" I will play the coquette with my eyes ") among pure aorists, all of
which have " effective," or " terminative," value.

'Su)

TTLO-TL

Texts I. a. 8. 14 f. (where va ;)(apo{)v and va xatpowTat are used in


proximity and under like conditions) shows that sometimes it
depends merely on the caprice of the speaker how he will formulate
his ideas.

191. The usage of the two Futures

is

already clear from

the fundamental distinction of the aorist and the present stem


discussed in the above paragraphs
1. Oava (TOV crreXvco fj,d\afia (TEXTS I. a. 14) "I will (from
time to time) send you gold," av')(ya av')(ya 6a po^oXav (ttov^
va tticlvovv Tovp/cov9 " full oft will they
KOLfiirov^
descend to the plains (again and again) to seize the Turks."
.

The

future continuous (fut. pres.) has sometimes potential value


^a etvat (raxa) ; " who will (might) it (perhaps) be ? " Trotos

e.g. TTOtos

6a KTvira ;

(II. b. 3)

"

who

The

can be knocking ? "

aoristic future

here would give no sense.

6d

2. TpaiKo^ Oava nreOdvay " a Greek will I die," 6a <f>vy(o,


^evirevTio " I will depart, I will go abroad," t) okrjdeLa 6d

fieLVT)

dXTjOeia (II.

of time)," Trdvra
"

b.

1) " truth will remain truth

6a

KarahtKaar)

crd<;

t)

(till

iTnaTrjjjL'q

the end

(II. b.

1)

always will science condemn you."

C/., further, ^a yvpt <rov /a c hvo rpcts ^^XiaSe? -^povia Triao) Ka\ 6a
TrepTraTovfxe aTr]v dyopa va poiTovfie ktX. (II, b. 2) " we shall turn back
(one act) two or three thousand years and we shall pace over the

agora (like our forefathers) in order to ask (in the usual way)," etc.
TO x^Lixuiva 6d TrryyatVo) Ta\rLKa (tto 6cdTpo "during winter I will go
regularly to the theatre," but avpio 6a Traw ctto OiaTpo " I will go tomorrow to the theatre."

Gk.

192. The relative stages of time are usually


as in a.
only by present, imperfect, or aorist and future,

marked

the
{fut.

new compound forms

for pluperfect

and future perfect

exactum) are rather rarely employed;

ordinary

narrative

the

value of a pluperfect
9

aor.
cf.

e.g.

indie,

if.

may have

tl ytoyLtartae

229.

In

exactly the

(Texts

II. a.

3)

"

126 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


^*

had dined."

This usage of the aorist

dependent clauses, and


i 272,

is

almost general in

the rule in temporal clauses,

is

v.

1.

2%e Moods,
193. The

secondary

Suhjundive

clauses,

that

has

sphere principally

its

on

dependent

is,

in

conjunctions,

Also in principal sentences it is usually disThe independent subjunctive


tinguished by vd (neg. va fit]).
especially vd.

vd has

-with

1.

to

happen

Kdvco
"
"

Deliberative (dubitative) force


?

what must we do

" shall I

rt

va

^ivrj

va to Kdvco

"

do

or shall I not

it ? "

"

va

rj

what
/jbrjv

vd aov

ji

is

to

Vw

what am I to say to thee " tl vd tt}? evKrjdovfie


what shall we wish her ? " cw? TroVe, TraWrj/cdpLa^ vd ^cofiev
?

_^Td Jjrevd

in the passes

(TEXTS

II.

a.

1)

"how

long, boys, are

we

to live

This subjunctive is closely akin to the potential (a. Gk. optative


with av) e.g. ttoio? vd Vat; "who might it be?" tt-ws va Travco (TTOV
" what shall
a<j>ei/Tr} fxov ; " how can I go to my master " tl vd '^w
I then have ? " tl va ^Sfjs ; " what can you possibly see 1 " yiart va fxe
yeXd(Tr]<;; (I. a. 11. 22) " liow can you laugh at me?" ytart va /nrjv
For
ipOrJTe ixT^s; "why then could you not come yesterday?"
other forms of the potential, cf. 191, 1 n., and 195.
:

'i

Voluntative

2.

(in

the

1st

person)

" I

dvoL^co

(vd
wish to open a business,"
Very frequently it is
iBov/jLe)
I (we) will (wish to) see."
preceded by an encouraging yid, eka, arjKco, divTe^ etc. " now
then " " come " e.g. ytd vd tSw " now then, I will see,"
let us play," ytd, /3ya vd TraXi-^co/jue
\a vd iral^coixe " come

TTpa/JLaTevTaBcKo

vd

IBcb

"

"'now come let us wrestle."


than vd; v. 194, 2.

a?
~~"

is

more frequently used

The conjunction is occasionally re-enforced by rrd as, cyw va ua


" I want to (will) bring it to you," va tto, TTdpoijx^v 8a
<f>pta
;

<T

TO

"we

(Chios)
7ra(y)a)

will fetch it"; this ird is a stereotyped 3rd sing, of

" I go."

vd ^rj 6 6e6<; "God be


dir
^vXdyeTai
Kaveh
dvdpcoTrov^i dyevelf; (II. a. 8), "may everybody be on his guard
against men of low birth," vd firj fjLd<; TrXaKcoa-y TeToto Ka/c6
Optative

3.

praised

"

may

^ened

(have

meaning:

the

ho^a

glory),"

vd

It may be strengthsuch an evil not overtake us."


eWe
e.g.
by the particles etde, a/iTrore?, or jxaKapi
:

'

MOKPHOLOGY
(fiGKapi)

VOL

')(^L\ia

^7](Trj

"may he

%/3oz^ta

live

127
a thousand

years."

A request

may he

(in the imperative)

optative expression

(crcri)

va

poHtely introduced hy the


so kind,"

"may you Hve" = "he

lijarys

"kindly."

Imperative meaning, both in the 2nd and 3rd person


va 7ra<; %ct)/)t9 aXXo " depart without fail," va 7rci'\jrr)<; arb 6^rj<;
" cease for the future," va ^/ja^ere ttjv idviicr} jXcoaaa " keep
on writing your national language " strengthened yia (or
4.

ttPj^ "

va

aiJKO), etc.)

oBrjjo^ " let the

a?

law be your

more common;

is

come now,
v.

1.

After

is

^vat tt^wto?
sing,

used:

and as prohibi-

as negative voluntative

firj(v)

vd

In the 3rd

2.

194. The subjunctive without vd

v6fjLo<?

guide."

first

194,

tell,"

tive (neg. imperat.) beside va

/nrj

193):

e.g.

firjv

rpxov/2e

want to run," /jltj (f)o^daaL " fear not," /nrjv d(j)7]pr]<;


rov "A'yio BaaiKi va (jyvjy erac (TEXTS II. b. 3) " let not the
holy B. so depart," firjv K\aL<; " weep not," fjut} Xiyrjii " say
"

we

don't

not,"

jjbTj

<^6J7?79 "

In cases

like

go not away."
KXaire,

fx-q

fxr)

a'KOT(i)veTe (I. d. 2),

/xyj

<f)oftr}OrJT,

fjirj

the imperat. and the subj. are identical in form.


As
a prohibitive the aorist subj. is on the whole less commonly used
than the present.
TTLo-Teif/eTe, etc.,

2.

With

the particle a9 (neg. a?

/jli])

to

denote the 1st

person voluntative and the 3rd person imperative: a?


" let

us see," a? /xyv direkTnl^ovpbacrTe

oTTo-^ei fidria,

" let

him,

193.

a? PXeirrj "

may

he,

who has

come,"

a?

" let

eyes let

Ihovv " let

us

'Bcovfjue

not doubt,"

him see," a?
them see."

epOrj

Cf.

2, 4.

which corresponds to a. Gk. a^eg (fr. d^tTy/xt = d<^>ji/a>)


This a?,
" leave, allow," or to a. Gk. eacre
has sometimes purely concessive
force
e.g. as etvat " let it be (as far as I am concerned)," as AeVe " let
them (have permission to) speak," and so is employed to form concessive clauses ; v. 278, 3.

In a few formal expressions like 6 ^eo9 (pvXd^jj " God


and with the adverb icrco^ " perhaps " as, tW9 ^povfie
perhaps we may find " beside tcra)9 va (also 6a) ^povfie (but
3.

forbid,"
"

60-0)9 (Tov elire "

perhaps he told you

i^ote also eXa

apya

/ae

(Texts III. 9) " now then, pay me,"


her dress slowly " (followed below in this

TrXepwrjs

vTvOfj (I. a. 12) "let

").

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

128

connection by vd with subj.) and a/jLc ro-at jxdvva yio


(III. 5) " well, let the mother kiss her son," etc.

^LXrjcrri

kt\.

The Imperfect has modal force in expressions like


must (have)," " was fitting," rjOeXa (ya ^ipco) " I
should like to (know)," Taipia^e " it was proper, becoming,"
(l)rav6 "it sufficed me," 1X6769 "you might have said,"
fi
" you would think, have thought " (but Xe? " you
v6fiL(^6<;
might say, mean ").
The imperfect is converted to conditional (v. I 230) by taking 6d, etc.; for unreal conditional
195.
eirpeire " it

clauses,

'y.

pressed by

277,

An

4.

impossible (unreal) wish

or ap^irores:) vd "

is

ex-

by a? and the
imperfect e.g. (fiaKapt) va rjfjLovv TrXovato^ " oh that I w^ere
only rich," va fiiropovaa " if I only could," a? to '^676? " had
you but said so," va
d/cove " would that he could hear me,"
"
a? el')(apL irapdhe^ would that we had money," vd (a?) ytta?
eKafivav rrj x^P^ " ^^ ^^^^ ^^^7 1^^^ given us joy," vd jjltjv
elxa yvv7)6fj " would I had not been born."
Moreover, the
imperfect or aorist may be converted by vd to past potentials
in questions and exclamations
vd yeXdcrTTjKa ; " could I
have deceived myself ? " vd purjv rjpde 6 Xdpo<i gto crinTLKo
(Ta<i ; " is it possible that Death entered not thy house ? " vd
"
fiTjv ijaovva /jLedvo-/iievo<; ; " were you not (possibly) drunk ?
"
"
7700-69 /xep69 vd TjTav ;
how many days might it be ? irov vd
" where can he have gone ? " to vd \avav ; " what
irrjye ;
could they have done ? " irov vd '7X^77^9 iKel ttovttovXov ; (III.
11) "how could you see a multitude there?"
Finally, the
probability of an occurrence in the past is expressed by 6d
with the aorist indie. thus, 6d to ''Kave " he will, of course,
have done it."
(fjuaKcipL

that," or

/jl

Sometimes the last mentioned mode of expression is extended to


an action completed in the future (c/. 189, n. 2) e.g. rC 6a crvve/Sr],
TTpCiTa va (TToxao-Tys (Texts I. b. 14) "consider first what will have
:

happened."

196. The usage of the

sing,

and

1.

rouTO ^Xeire
"

aor.

and

pres. Imperative

(2nd

apparent from the following examples


7rd(y)aLve (tto KaXo "go to success " = " farewell,"
pi.) is

"

look (often) at this,"

keep awake," crreKa

"

crcoTra "

keep

still,"

^virva

keep standing."

Notice, however, that the imperatives in -a (rpexa " run," <fivya


off," etc., V. 218, n. 2), no doubt aff'ected by eAa, take also

"get

aoristic force.

129

MORPHOLOGY(yia)

2.

good-bye,"

And

"just look," ardaov "stop,"

IB6<;

"stay," irep^drTjo-e

fielve

(I.

a.

a<^<76

yecd "say

11) "get started."

even an action which in its nature is durative or remay be summed up into a whole by the aor. imperat.

peated

'^aprjre tovttjv rr)

^(dyj

me

/xe

(to the last),"


(I.

Kd/jLV7}<;

fiT]

"

enjoy this

to Blko aov

5) " with

b.

life," Ovfitjaov /xe "

koI

(f)dye

think of

True fcal Trpay/jLareid

thy neighbour

eat

and drink

together, but do no business (let the good fellowship cease in

money

matters)."

Compare, further,

(f>vTif/e TpavTa<f>vXXid ktX. kol Trort^e ra


and keep nourishing it with
4) " plant a rose tree . .
ypd(f> fxov TaxTiKo. "write me regularly," and ypai//e /xov,

^axo-pi (I. a.

sugar";
TTore ^a 'p6rj<i " write me when you are coming " ; TrtVcre /cpao-t " drink
wine (from time to time)," and TrtcVe eva KpacraKi " drink (now) a Httlc
glass of wine."

Stem Formation of Verbs.

Two

197.

stems of the verb must be taken into account

in the formation of tense, the present

The former
the

and the

simply that part of the verb which


(or -ofiat in the middle) of the 1st pers.

-co

is

we

stripped off; for the latter

strip off

aorist stem.
is left

when

sing. pres. is

-aa or -a (1st

pers.

sing.) of the aorist.

From
perfect

the present stem are formed the present and im-

with their moods and the future present


from the aorist stem are formed the aorist

tenses

{continuum)

tense (active) in its different


tive)

and the future absolute

tenses,

v.

223

ff.

The stem formation


participle pass, is in most
active

moods (subjunctive and imperaFor the compound

(aor. future).

for details,

v.

of

205

the aor.

pass,

and the perfect

cases identical with that of the aor.


ff.,

209

ff.

198. According to the varieties of the present and the


aorist forms, verbs may be classified as follows

Present stem.
I.

Barytones
1.

(in -ca)

Aorist stem.

Aorist form.

Labial

(a) simple

(b)

labial

-f-

labial

-tw

{-(f)V(jo)

tt,

/LtTr,

v
labial

(-cprco)

or -vo)

4-cr=:i/r

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

130

Present stem.

Aorist stem.

Aorist form.

Guttural.

2.

() simple guttural

guttural

(h)

k,

77, 7, p^
'v(o
or
\

-ro)

guttural

+ =f
o-

Dental.

3.

{a)

simple dental

t,

S,

^,

o-,

dental
\-

?(<7<r)

dental

(J)

4.

In

5.

Nasal or

= (T

or f

(-cttco

vay,

guttural
various

-(TKco

liquid.

(a) radical

fjt,

v,\

p-\- -(y)(o

(a)

-alvco

(h)

or

or
-tco

minus

non-aivco

sisjmatic
(/8)

Vowel

6.
1

(a,

2^)+-i/a)

e, z, 0,

Contracted verbs (in -w)


(a)

in

(b)

in -i^w

(c)

semi-contracted

-av- or -7)va, e,

i,

0, it

-co

-i,

e,

0-.

a, i

various

The a. Gk. division of verbs into those in -w and those in -fjn


holds no longer, as the latter class has disappeared in m. Gk., the
verb et/xat " am " being the solitary survivor of the -/xt verbs (v.
All the rest have passed over into one or other of the
224, 2).
above present forms ; thus, TiOrjixt became Oiro), tcrrrjixL became ar^voy
became

became StSoi StVw 8wi/(o, KCLfxat


became KaOofjLai, Kpi/jiafiaL became Kpcfio/xaL.
The verbs in -vvfxL became verbs in -vo) (but /xLywfxL became a-fiLyo),
Others have been lost or replaced by new
TrrjyvvixL became tt^/^w).
verbs ; thus, Svvajxai by {k)inropCi (beside 8wo/xat 2), oTSa by ^evpo),
^>;/xt by Aeyw or AaXw, TrifirrXrjfXL by ye^at^w, and so forth.
or

crTvo), LCTTafjiaL

became

<tt/c(o, 8tSa)/>tt

KetTOfxai,^ KaOrj/xaL

199. Present Stems.

Barytones.

I.

(a)

In

(i)vTpe7rofjLaL "

In

-/LtTTO)

In

-(j)(o

dpicpo)

-TTft)

am

^dcfxo

XdfjLirco

"

fiXeTTco

ashamed,"

(rare)

(rpe^o))

(rare)

irpeireL

(also

"it

is

iffXeTrco)

becoming."

" shine."

dye,"

" nourish,"

>ypd(f)co

arpicpco

" write,"

" turn,

^tcjxa

twist,"

" turn," Karaarpecjio) " destroy."


^ /ceirat,

Texts HI.
Texts I.

Uvajxai,

13.

c, is

a. 3,

" see,"

a solitary instance.

comes from the literary language.

" press,"
arpecj^co

MOEPHOLOGY
In

-^ft)

" cease," ko^co

Trauft)

131

" cut," vlIBcd "

wash,"

rpi/Bco

" rub," Kpv^Q) " bide," a/cv^co " bow," yevofiai, " eat, try," dXL^a>

beside

a\L(j)co

Verbs in

" set "

fiaatXevco
"

KovTevo)

yfrapevot)

are very numerous

fia^evco

e.g.

dp^iveveo " begin,'^

" seek,"

(of sun), yvpevo)

approach,"

o-7)fjbahev(o "

" ride,"

"anoint."

-evco

" collect,"

"

BovXevco

TnarevcD

work,"

" believe,"

(fnXevco " greet, entertain," cjivrevco " plant,'*

mark,"

" fish,"

TovpKevco

Kovevay

" stop,

" turn

spend

Turk,"

(act)

the

night,"

KapaXkiKevco
" start,

fiLo-evco

depart on journey."

in

In the region of the Aegean with Crete (but not in Aegina) and
Cyprus these verbs end, not in -vo (-^(o) but in vZo (-ySyw) ; thus,

VL^yw, Ko/Byo), Kpv/Syo)

',

SovXevyo), fxa^evyca, Tno-revyoj, ^op^vyai " dance,"^

Chios (.vena) ; ^ev'yw " yoke " and <^evya> " flee " are formally
identical with these, wherefore also ^cvw, ^evw, e.g. in Pontus.
These verbs appear in Bova in the form -eguo {plaUguo " speak "),.
in Terra d' Otr. -eo (pisteo), in Zaconian -eTdgu {duUragu).

etc. (in

(h) -^TO)

dvd(f)T(o " light, kindle," acrT/?a(/)T6A " it lightens,'*"

KX6(f)Tco " steal,"


" dig,"

TricfiTO)

aK6(pTo/jLac

(TK0VTd(f>7co

"fall"

(irreg.), pd<l)T(o

" consider," ')(d^T(o

and aKovrdcpvco

"

"

am

"sew,"

greedy

cr/ca<^Ta>

for,

gulp,"^

stumble."

The partition between the forms of a and b is not consistently


maintained; many verbs take now the one and again the other
mode of formation ; thus, ypacfuo and sometimes ypd<f>Tw, /ca^(y)a> and
KavTO) (KacfiTUi) "burn," KA.e/3w, KAe<^(u and KXe^TW " steal," Ko/?(y)a>
and KocfiTu) "cut," pa/Jyto and pa^roi "sew," o-Ka^(y)w, cTKacfiu) and
a-KOL^TOi "dig,"' etc.
-K(o'.

-77a)

acpiyryco "

-70)

dvotyco "

" choke,"

a/nlyo)

(j)vXdy(o "

-;^w

press together, squeeze,"

open," dpfiiyo)

"

" blend,

with,"

" cough,"

(by

(&)

shine."

milk," Xe7a> " say,"


rvklyco

irviyco-

" envelop,"

^pex(o " moisten, make wet," B')(^ofiao


e;)^ft) " have," Karexoo (in
dialects)

ep^ofiat " come,"

know, understand how,"

yjrdxfo

unite

(ftiyyo) "

watch, beware."
)S7;;^a>

" receive,"

"

TrXeKco " plait."

2. (a)

Trpoa-exco

" attend,"

rpe^dy " run,'*

feeling) " search, feel."

-%Ta)

Se/^Tft)

" show,"

Stw;^Tft)

"

pursue,"

pi'X^(*>

" throw."
-;^z^&)

pL^vco

dBpd^vco

= pt^Tft),

" seize," Zei')(y(o "

a'irp(0')(yoi

show,"

" push," yjrd'^vay

Blco-^vco " pursue,'*

= yfrd^o).

1. On the interchange of -xtw and -xvo> and of 2. a and b, c/. the


note above ; -xvw is more common than -xtoj. The form -ki/o> or -xva>

HANDBOOK OF THE MODEKN GREEK VERNACULAR

132
is

specially wide-spread in Cappadocia


there, too, (fivyvw " flee."
;

TrXe/cvw, SaVi/w

" bite," (S^x^^j

rpixvoi

Some

2.

of a

"

am

into this class

fall

guilty " (for


3. (a)

-6co

-TOO

derco " place," Keirofiat " lie."

"

aXedct) " grind," d/jLTroodco

" spin,"

yvedo)
"

which properly belong elsewhere, by the insertion


thus, 7rX6(y)oD "sail," and <;6rat(y)(o
which also cfiracxo)),

verbs,

23)

" spin,"

kXcoOco

push," avayvcoOco " read,"


" notice,

voicoOco

TrXddco

feel,"

form."
-B(o

only in

" give "

BlBco

(with

which other forms are more common,


-creo

dpeaKco

dpeacD " please

TEXTS

-o-aco
-^co

and

dpe^co

(beside

compounds), for

its

6.

dpeyco, rarely

d. 5, Syra).

I.

see following note.

Tratfft)

(trans.), TTjJfo)

-d^co

"

v.

"become

these

" play,"

" shout,"

<TKovt,(o

"

\ov^(o

bathe

"

firm, curdle."

verbs are very numerous

" boil,"

/Spd^o)

hia^d^co " read," Kpa^co " cry," Trpd^co " do," o-Ka^o) " explode,"
" drop,"

o-rd^co

" slay,"

a4>d^co

" promise,"

rd^co

" enclose,"

command,"

"

exchange," dp7rd^(o " rob, seize," ^aard^a)

(j)pd^(o

TrpoG-rd^M

" buy,"

*'

dyopd^o)

"

dWd^co

endure, hold,"

SiaaKeBd^o) " entertain," Kvrrd^co " behold," Oafid^co " admire,"


(e)feTafQ) " prove," fioLpd^co " divide," vvo-rd^co " fall asleep,"
" tease,"
" study,"
" cover,"
crTrovBd^co
aKeird^co
ireipdt,(o
crrevd^o) " sigh," Tpofjud^co " fear,"
" cry,

and

^avTa^w

"

imagine,"

(l)covd^(o

shout," dyKaXcd^o) " embrace," ^ovXcd^co " sink " (trans,

intr.),

(SpaBvd^co "it becomes evening," Bu/jLLd^co "sprinkle

with incense," Koind^a)

" try,

take pains," Xoyid^co

"seduce,"

^ekoytd^ay

meditate,"

{oJpLOid^w

" consider,

"resemble,"

TrXayid^co " go to sleep," crid^o) " arrange," avwecfiid^o) " becloud," (poyXid^co " dwell, nestle," ^peid^ojjLai, " need," opBtvLd^o)
"

command."

Many

verbs in -^o> are transformations of a. Gk. verbs in -crorco


the latter present form occurs still in some regions, as in
Crete and other Aegean Islands and in Cyprus ; thus, nrpacrcroi " do,"
Ttto-a-o), rapatrcro), etc.
Also Karavvfrao/jLaL " am excited " belongs here.
1.

(Att. -tt(d)

-1^(0

(-v^cj)

KaOt^ci)

dvTiKpv^co

found,"
dpfiePL^co

"

" vacillate,

" fill,"

yepLarl^co

" turn

(back),"

" sit,"

aKL^co " split," xrijiw " build,

meet with,"
swing,"

dpyifyy

" dine," yvcopl^co "

BaKpy^co

"

d^l^o)

weep,"

"

"

am

w*orth,

commence,"

cost,"
yepbi^a)

know, recognise," yvpi^o)


^at/e/fo)

" lend,"

e'yytfo)

MORPHOLOGY
" touch,"

" congratulate,"

KoXoTvxi'^co

" think,"

vo/jbl^co

lo3

"

opi^co

command,"

" blush,"

kokklvi^o)
"

nraaKi^co

endeavour,"

o-KopTTL^co " scatter," acpvpt^o) " hiss, whistle," TcraKi^a) "

(v)^pi^co " insult,"

keep watch,

*'

^vyKi^ci)

"go walking,"
2.

on,"

in wait," ko(ttl^co " cost," aepyiavi^co

"smoke

tobacco."

api^o) " please," evKaipi^a) "

smash,"

" rely

aKov/jLTrl^co

am

at leisure,"

" wear."

rare

(5)

"strike"
4.

lie

TafiTraKi^co

(in dialects)

-eXco

<l>opiC(a

" bestow,"

^aptfa)

(cf.

g-kI^vco

suffix

fipeaKO)) " find,"


{a7ro)fjL6V(o "

also

cf.

-o-zco)

rare

is

in

commonly used ^plcrKM

besides the

" split," fipiaro) " find," /Sapurra)

4).

The present

language

(Pontus)

/jlviJo-kq)

ordinary

the

(evplaKO), also

(also /iveaKco), aTro/jLvrjo-Kco


" die "
airoOalvco,

remain (behind)," aTroOvrjaKco

" swell," ^apio-KO)


and ^apio-KO)
^6(TK(> " feed," irpriaKw
" strike " (usually ^apoi))^ j(aaK(D " gape." Cf. also apkcTKda, 3. a.

The usage is only locally further extended; thus, e.g.^ in Cyprus


irXwicrKOi irXvvio, TrXovrvvLcrKO) =
the suffix -vLCTKOi is in vogue
In Pontus the suffix -o-kw is commonly employed
ttXovtwo), etc.
to form the passive: e.g. rayi^u) "nourish," rayicr/cov/xat "am
nourished," but is also otherwise employed ; as, KacrKovpai (Texts III.
13. c) "I seek aimlessly."
:

5. {a)
-fivco

-fjLfi)

Tpe/jbco

Ka/iivco

" tremble," KpepLofiat

and

(beside Kavfo

Ka/jLco) "

"

hang

" (intr.).

make, do."

-V(o
airofxevco " remain (over)," Trepifjuevco or m-poafxevco
expect, await," yivofiat and fyevofiat " become, take place,"
:

**

"speak"

"judge");

and
march " in

ave-,

fiTralvco "

in," yLaivco " heal," ^aivco

jcpLVQ)

Tredaipo)

go

Kpivco

Kare-,

(and airoOdvo))

(also

Bca-,

ore-^aivcOy

and

" die," (j^alpofiai "

-ffaivco

"

^yaLvco

go

"go,
out,"

^dv(o " card wool,"

appear

" ("

show my-

self").

-\(\)o)

paX\(o

" place,

put, lay,"

^ydWco

" take out,"

-TTpo^dWco " bring forward," yjrdWco " sing."


1. Instead of pdXXoy, etc., we find also jSdvoi, /3ydvo}, Karaf^dvoi
" cast down," and even fiacvio (Aegina), also ySa^w, jSyd^o).
The latter
is really a different verb (a. Gk. (Sc^d^o)), which has in meaning become
identical with /SaXXoo, /3yd\X(o (and from the same verb due^d^o) " set
up," Sia/SdCo) "read," [eJ/tTrd^w "bring in").

-\v(o

TrapayyeXvco " order," ariXvo) (also aTepvco accord-

ing to 31) "send,"

^freXv(o (

= yjrdXXco).

134 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


2.

The ancient forms

in -AXco are

to

still

dialects that can enunciate double consonants

Chios, Rhodes, and the surrounding islands,

-pw
X^^p(*>

v.

be found in those
e.g.^ in Cyprus,

thus,

36.

Trpo^epco " pronounce " (from the literary language),

and

'^aLpo/Mat "rejoice."

3. Cf. also ievpioj iipo> "I know," and Italian loan- words like
dppLJSdpu) (pL^dpu)) " arrive," Kovpiravidpin " accompany," Kovvrpacrrdpin

"go to meet," ^e/xTrap/capco "disembark," o-cp/Sipm "serve," etc. But


these verbs in the rest of their formation do not belong under this
category.
-pvco

yepvw

"

BepvoD " whip," yBepvco

search

over,"

all

up," (Tirepvco " sow,"


(h)

aorist

iraipvco

Bova

" take, fetch," aepvco (in

(ftepvco

dialect

also

iralpco}

sSrro) " draw," dvaaepvco "

draw

(a) with -aiv- vanishing in the

" obtain, get "

Xa^aLvco

(in

yipvco " bow," ava-

" bring."

Present suffix -atvco

stem

" flay,"

which, however,.

(for

more common), KaraXaffalvco " understand," ^avaXaffaivco "acquire again," XaO atvco "am concealed, escape
notice," Xa-^aiva) " obtain by lot," fjuadaLvco " learn, teach,"
nraipvod is

(and

irrjyaLvo)

" go,"

Trayatva))

iraOalvo)

" suffer,

Tvxaivco " hit (get) by accident," airorvxalvay

am

7rt,TvxciiV(D "

Forms

"

have

endure,"
ill-luck,"

lucky."

KaTaXap/Sdvo) and pavOdvia belong to the literary


language; only alarTavopai has survived unaltered (but da^TaLvov/xt
= *al(TTaivopaL in Velv.).
(/S)

like

with

^adovXalvco

am

fiaKpalvo) "
"
"

give

'V- also in the aorist


" hollow,

vent

excavate,"

stem: avaa-aivay "breathe,"


" make
^earaivco
warm,"

prolix," fiapaLPco " wither " (trans.), ^e6v[jbaiv(o

to

subside,"

(anger),

embitter," pLeyaXaivco

"

^epaivco

" dry,"

magnify," irXovTalvco

"

ircKpaivay

become

rich,"

(f>T(oxaiV(o "
6.

become poor."
Vowel + v(o.

iridvo)

" seize,

catch," (^rdvco " arrive, attain," irpofprdvco

" overtake," (f)K6idvco (ftretdvco "

"

commit

make," x^vco

" lose,"

dpLaprdvco

sin," jSv^dvco " suckle," BayKdvco " bite."

" bind,"

arevw {crraiva)) " place,"


d^yaTaivw " multiply,"
Karaax^vo)
appropriate,"
(^ava)^XaaTaiv(o
forth,"
a(v)^aiV(o
"shoot
"increase,"
Kephaiv(o " gain," acoTraLvco " keep silent," 'x^praivco " satisfy."
d^rjvo) " leave, allow," yhvvco " put oli," vtvvw " put on,"
Bevo)

irXepco

"

wash,"

" seize,

hlvw (also

SiSft))

" give,"

kXlvco

" shut,"

Xvvo) " loose,"

ttlvo)

MOKPHOLOGY
" drink,"

"

pvvw

pour

a-prjvco

in,"

135

(spelled also

a^vvco) " ex-

tinguish," ^vvo) " pour."

Verbs in

-a)V(o

"

spread (out),"

"

extend,"

"

improve,"

are quite

numerous

" penetrate,"

p^cwi^o)

^covco " gird," arpcovoy

" swear,"

oficovco

anfKwvcc
"

yXvroouco

" release,

rescue,"

Bcopdoovco

Kpvcovco

" freeze,"

Xvcovco

" dissolve,"

mend,"

fiaXoovay

" wrangle," irKepcavw " pay," arjKcovco " raise," (tkotcovco " slay,"
(f)opTa)va) "

burden, load," ^ovXcovo) " seal, lock up."

Some

verbs fluctuate between the present suffix -dvoi, -aCvia


{-vvoi) ; thus, /Sv^atVco and ^v^dvo) " suckle," a-Trjvoi
and cTTeVo) " put," i/^Tyvoo and i/^ei/o) "roast," ^ww and ^eVw "scrape,"
Occasionally also Swvoi is employed for
ttAwo) and TrAeVoo " wash."
8tV(o (in the region of the Aegean).
2. In the Cyprian dialect and wherever twin consonants are in
vogue ( 36) the suffix -vo> becomes -ww ttlvvm " drink," Triavvw
"seize," x^^^^ "lose," ^exdvvo) "forget," iriqaivvoi (Traaivvta) "go,"
<rr;Kwvva) "lift," cfiavepwvvo) "reveal."
3. The class in vowel + vco has supplanted many of the a. Gk.
verba pura together with verbs in -/jll (-vv/jll) and the old contract
verbs in -oo>.
The verba pura which have not taken this or another
present suffix (like KXetvco, \ovt,(ii or Aoww, TraXcvw = TraAaiw " wrestle,"
1.

(-vw)

and

-rjvt)i

have wholly or partly passed over into the conjugation

<f>TaLyo), etc.)

of the contracted or semi-contracted verbs,

v. II.

Interchange among various present forms for the same


verb takes place not only within the same class but even

between different classes cf. e.g. the collateral forms o-vvd^co


and avvdyco, irptja-Kco and irprj^o), Tivd^oD and Tivdyco, fcepBaiPco,
KepBevco and KepBi^co, cndvco and o-idl^co, {e)pbTT6pBev(ii " en;

tangle " beside Bevco

and
and
in

"

bind," voccovco beside votcoOco, '^opraLvco

\owco and Xov^ro, Trayaivco and Trdvco, (e)foSeuft>


^oBtd^o), fia^evco and fia^covco, picpTco and pL^TO), derco,
Asia Minor Otjko) di^rco and reKvo), ffptaKco ^piarco
-^oprd^o),

Ppi'^v(o evp'^Kco, etc.

Contracted

II.

Greek

ancient

the stem vowel had already in


become blended with the present

verbs

mostly

endings.
(a)

In

"

am

/jLeOo)

-co

<j)i,Xa)

" kiss,"

'TTovco

"

(a

am

garment)
(b)

In

dyaTrS) " love," diroXto " let

drunken,"

fjurjvM

" it

^oXec

is

" announce,"

possible,"

-v(a

Trapyyopco

irapairovovpLaL " lament,"


yeXoi " laugh," irerSi " fly."

grieved,"
"

diroXvoy " let

" turn back," xeppco

"

pour

in,

kvXm

off,"

pov(f)co

"

" roll,"

suck

in,"

" console,"

<fiop(a

"

wear

off," yepvco " grow old," yvpvca


give a drink," Kpefivco " hang,"

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

136

^epvco " vomit,"


" spoil,"

(j)vpvM

KoXvSi "
(c)
**

" forget,"

^e^vcj
(also

" pass

irepvS)

" lessen,"

<j)vp(o)

^aXz/w

by,"

a<j)a\vco " close,

lock,"

call."

weep," KXeico

against,"

<t>Tai(o

" hear,"

Kaio) " burn," fc\al(o


" knock, strike
Kpovco
shut " (beside Kkeivco),
" am to blame," TrXico " sail."

Half-contracted

olkovoh

"

For the peculiarities of the contracted verbs (e.g. the analytical


forms in -aw for -w) in the present system, see below, 237 fF.
Subdivision a contains the a. Gk. contract verbs in -aw, -ew ; & is a newformation (intermixture of verbs in -w and -vw) ; c contains remains
of the verba ptira, for which also other forms (see above) are in
use.
Some of the verba pura have been converted completely into
contracted verbs (of subdivision a) (cf. kvXw = a. Gk. kvXlo), a-n-oXu) =
oLTToXvui, ixrjv(x) = prjvvoi, fxeOC) = jxeOvo)) \ to the semi-contracted belong
also some forms of the verbs Xe(y)w, 7ra(y)w, Tpw(y)w; cf. % 251 f.

The contracted verbs have

also quite frequently secondary

forms like the barytones, just as mce versa the barytones take

The interchange
and -w e.g. jSaard^co

secondary forms similar to the contracted.


is

between

specially frequent

and

" stop,"

^aarco

i^erd^co, elimonizo

-afo) or -/fw

Btylrd^o)

and

= dXyafjiovco)

" hunger,"

St^/rw

" thirst,"

^rjTco

" forget " (Otranto), Tretva^ay

and Kpe/jLVM " hang,"


o-Ka^o) and a km
burst asupder," (Soyyl^o) and ^oyyco " groan,
roar," fecr/ctfco and ^eaKco " cleave," o-vWoyi^o/juai and avWoyovfiai (crvXXoy6L6/iiaL) " consider," ^aLperi^o) and ^at/jero)
" greet," yjrrjcjit^co and yjrrjcpco " value, esteem," dpTrd^o), dpird-^vco
and dpTTco " plunder " ^vvco {^evw), ^v^co (Pontus) and fw
" scrape "
d^yaroj and d^yaralvco " increase," dp^^^o) (also

and

ireivo)

Kpe/jLa^co,

/cpeficj

"

dp)(^evco),

and

dp'^cvo),

^exdvco,

dp'^ivl^co

Oappoy

"

(and

think

"

" begin "


^e^vco
6appev(o " take courage,"

dp-)(^ipi^(o)

and

(^CKw " kiss " and (piXevco " welcome, regale," ^apia-fco), ^apcOy

^apaivQ) " strike," ^oaKco, ^oaKL^co and ^oaKaco

" feed."

1. The verbs <^wm^w {^ifjuaviloi "cry out"), Trctpa^w "tease,"


^wypa^t^w "paint," have generally supplanted the corresponding
Similarly, in Asia Minor (Pontus and
ancient contracted verbs.
Cappadocia) ixcOv^ui = /xc^w, cret^w = o-ctw " shake," ^v^w = ^vvw.
In the Peloponnesus, on the other hand, verbs like <f>vXd{y)u) have
passed over into the conjugation of contracted verbs (v. also 239).

2.

much

The interchange and variety of present systems assume


larger proportions in the different dialects than could be

brought out in the above survey.

:;:

MORPHOLOGY

137

The Aorist Stem.


Aorist Active.

(a)

use

200. The aorist active of a verb


so far as it is in
formed either with or without a.
Aorists are thus

is

divided into sigmatic and non-sigmatic.


The -cr- merges
with the original stem ending into a, f or ^jr, so that all
sigmatic aorist stems must end in one of these three sounds.

The non-sigmatic
eiraO-a, (j)6p-vco
((j)iry(o

differ

from the present stem

the present formative suffix (7ra6-aivco

/jbivo)

by vowel change

or (2)

e(j)6p-a),

e(j>vya,

stems

aorist

(1) in the loss of

^epaivw

in the

stem

i^epava), or (3) by
characteristics (ariXvco
earetXa).

e/jueiva,

the combination of

both

Deponents have an

aorist passive.

For other

common

less

formations, see below.

201. The large majority of modern Greek verbs form

their aorist with a

This holds, with few exceptions, of the

cr.

The
1, 2, 3, 4 (partly), 6, and II.
with the radical consonant produces the
following aorist forms
present systems under

blending of the

(a

and

b)

--^jr-

in place of the final radical of the present

\a(fji)'\fra, aKeL's\ra,

irovpKe'y^a,

(Treyjra,

gives

and
7r6(f>Tco and

203,

eypayjra, eTrayjra, Koy]ra, eKpvyjra, iiri-

i'^6p'\lra

(jyevryay

dvayjra,

ecTKa^^ay etc.

^ev'yay

The verbs

irregularly eTrpeTnae.

irpeiret

e^e-yjra,

^Xiirco,
V.

o-

Barytones.

I.

thus,

I.

belong to a different aorist system

2, 4, 5.

The spelling iSovXeva-a for -if/a does not represent the real pronunciation, but arises from the literary language.

and

of the present final

eirXe^a,

avoL^a, icpvXa^a, e^pe^a, eVpocrefa, erpe^a, eyjra^a

dSpa^a,

2.

(a

eppi^a, eBjLco^a, etc.

eBet^a,
o-^lyyo),
V.

1.

On

-f- in place

h)

e^e^a from

On

(fyeyyo)

epxofJLCii, v.

Notice
for

203, 5

especially eacpL^a

<f>6vy(o, v.

e'^co

has no

203, 2

from

for ^evyco^

aorist, v.

224,

1.

205, I. 2.
3. (a) usually a, though many verbs in -fo) give also f
eOeaa, aXeaa, eyvecra, evoiwaa, eirXaaa, dpeaa (also dpe^a).
viroa^ojJLaL^ v.

Verbs in -fw eirai^a, eaKov^a,


Verbs in -ajo) (a) with aor.
:

ewrj^a,

-aa

but eXovaa.
e^paaa, iScd^aaa

138 HANDBOOK OF THE


Karepaaa,

{ave^aaa,

MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


" prove,"

i^erd^o)

efnracra),

i^eraaa,

KaraSLKd^a) "

condemn," KaraBUao-a, eaKaaa, dyopaaa, htaaKeBaaa, eOdfiaaa, ifioipacra, io-Kerraaa, djKdXtaaa, eKoinacra and
the majority in -tafo).
(/3) with aor. -^a, the most commonly
eKpa^a, era^a {iirpoara^a), ecppa^a, aWa^a,
in use are
apira^a, i^dara^a, ipovXca^a, eKurra^a, ivvara^a, iairovSa^a,
eTrelpa^a, iareva^a, ea^a^a, irpofia^a, i(j)a>va^a.
:

1.

and

Many verbs show


and

-era, e/xotacra

both forms

e^eVa^a and iiiracra, KVTTa$a

as,

c/xota^a {fioid^w "

resemble

").

Verbs in -tfo) (-v^co) usually have -aa exTiaa, ecrKta-a,


eKdOiaa or (usually) eKarcra, dvTiKpvaa, dp^caa, iyi/copLcra,
iyvpcaay eBaKpvaUj optaa (a>pt(7a), iaToXLcra, eTaaKiaa, i'^dpiaa,
:

/3iy\taa.

Here, too, some verbs take -ia beside -era: ySpt^w "insult,"
dyyi^o) " touch," ayyt^a, cr<^aXt^(jo " lock," ecr^aAt^a, cr^ovyyt'^w
" dry off," e(T(f>ovyyL^a, a-(j>vpil(ii " whistle," iacfivpL^a.
Especially in
2.

e/?/)t^a,

dialect -a|a

and

have been carried

-L$a

far

beyond

their original a.

Gk. usage.
In North. Gk. dialects notice the expulsion of the unstressed t
= iyvpicrev, yovvdT(TLV = iyovdrLcrcv. In e/carcra = iKaOccra the
expulsion of the t is quite usual.
4. Verbs in -e^w give -eo-a; as, ^ope^w icfiopeaa; on dpe^w, see
above.
3.

as, yvp<TLv

(b)

3.

either like a {(tkl^vco)

or like the corresponding

verbs of the following system.

Here belong

4.

papLaKw (^apeaKco)

eirprj^a,

irprjcrKa)

i^dpLaa and iffdpeaa e/SoaKcaa (pres. ^oaKco and


and i^daKLcra (from ydaKOi) are irregular.

^oo-kI^co)

Only the loan-words given in

5. (a)

sigmatic

aorists

appLf^dpicra,

199,

iefXTrapKOLptcra,

I.

form

n.

5. a,

and

a-epj^ipLcra,

the

solitary Oiko) " wish, will," rjOekrjcra.


(b) likewise

6.

belongs to a dififerent aorist system

Vowel + a

7naaa,

6(f)Ta(ra,

203).

thus, -aaa, -eaa, -t,aa, -coaa, -ovaa

e^Keiaaa, e'^aaa, i/Sv^aaa, iBdjKaora, and

dfidpTTjaa from djiaprdyw.


eheaa, ecrreaa or ecmja-a, eKepBecra

verbs of this class in -aLvco


d(v)^r)o-a,

(^ava)^dcrTr}aa

and eKepBcaa.

give only -isa

(-evco)

awTralvw and

Other

as, eTrXvcra,

'^(^opraLVco

have also

iacoTraaa and ixopracra (in form aorists from acoTrd^o) and


XOprd^co).
1.

For the fluctuation among

clnOy -ino

e,

a,

and

in the present system, 199,

i, cf.

I. 6,

also that

n. 1.

among

-eno,

"

MORPHOLOGY
2.

The verbs

gives

an

belong in
Occasionally also Trrjyalvui {irayalvw)
(in place of the more common iTnjya,
av^atvoi, /8XacrTatV(0, KepBatvd)

afxaprdvio,

their origin properly to

139

'

5. b.

aorist iirayrja-a

^ 203, 1).

(see also 202), ejBva-a, eKkeicra, eXvcra, eaffrjaa,

d(f)r](Ta

'^vaa, eyJTTjaa

which see

Blvco (Bcovq))

For

also 202).

or (in dialect)

eBcocra

irivco, cf.

199,

7]Bco(j-a

(on

1.

airXcoaa, ijXvrcoaa, etc.

e^cocra, ecrrpcoaa, e^cocra,

forms are sometimes to be found


beside the usual -era; as, i^vt,aia, ijxd^oi^a (fr. fxa^(x)voi), rjfjLeyd\o)$a
in addition to i/xd^(o$a
has
fxa^wrw
{fxcyaXwva)), cc^ra^a (</)Tavw).
also an aorist tp^acra, a present to which (6)/xa^a> occurs in dialect
3.

In the -vw system

also -^a

(Cappadocia).

Contracted verbs.

II.

These have without exception sigmatic aorists


e-,

a+

Usually in

{a)

(-rjaa)

-isa

aTrop^rw " acquire,"

aTrdvrrjara,

" seek," " ask," i^TjTrjaa,

is, i-,

icpiXrjo-a,

originally
-esa

" slide,"

diro^Trjaa, yXio-Tpoj

irepTrarco

"

" live,"

^(o

e^rjaa

go walking,"

^ijto)

iirepTrdrrja-a,

Notice the spelling aTroXvcra, ifiedvaa

etc.

because originally aTroXvco, pueOvoy

ifjL7]vvaa,

eKvXcaa because

pbrjvvQ), fcvXlco.

rare

is

^apM

e^oXeae,

possible "
"

that

ayaTTTjaaj airavTM " meet,"

eyXlaTprjo-a, ipcorco " ask," ipcorrjo-a,

<J)lX(o

cr.

" strike "


"

fiTropco

am

^oXec

i/Sdpea-a,

able "

ifiTropeo-a,

" it

is

iraivM

praise " (i)7raLvit a, irapaKaXo) (irepLKaXu)) " request " irapa-

KoXeaa
TTovco "

irape/cdXecra), iraprjyopS} " console " iraprjyopeaa,


"
grieved " iiroveaa, (popco i<f)6pe(Ta, irXavca " deceive

(also

am

iirXdveaa,

"

aypbirovo^

sympathise

" forgive " av^copea-a, (peXco "

am

av^wpco

av/jbiroveaa,

"

useful " ^eXecra,

%ft)/3w "

hold

(of space) " i'Xj^peaa.

-aaa
iBlyjraaa,

is

likewise

nreivod "

rare

yeXco

am hungry "

ejeXaaa,

eireivaaa,

Scyjrco

TreTw

" thirst

" flee

away

iireTaaa (and eirera^a).


1.

For the Pontic

= d7ravr;o-a,

eTrevrco-a

iTpvTrcra=iTpv7rr](Ta, cf.

6, n. 2.

drops out ; thus, dyaTro-tv = dyaTrrjcre,


give birth "), (Lesbos) rjbopcra =
rj/xTroprjaa (for usual i/xTropecra) etc. (cf. above).
Through the accent
of the sing, being generalised plural forms resulted like ^dXa-ajj.
(Capp.) = il)t,dXi(Taix. for {Ij^aXicrafxe.
2.

In Xorth. Gk. unstressed

yivvTO-iv

(h)

= eyevvrja-c

(yevi^co

" bear,

Commonly -aaa

as

irepvco

iirepaa-a

also

iyepaaay

:
:

HANDBOOK OF THE MODEKN GREEK VERNACULAR

140

eKepaaa, eKpe^iaaa, i^epaaa, e^e-^aaa, ctkoKvco (also <tkoKo))


ecjKoXaaa, i<f)vpaaa, i')(a\acra.
-isa

diToXvaa, iyvpcaa,

-eaa

ia(f>dXL(Ta.

eKoXeaa.

aKovaa, eKkecaa, eKpovaa

(c)

rac^a,

7r\e('y)co eirke^a.

and

<^-

eKayjta (Kacco, usually KajSco, etc.)

and

0Tat(7)ft) e<j>Tai(Ta

eKXayfra (KXaiyco) are quite irregular.

Analogous to the interchange between contracted verbs and other


present systems, especially those in -^w (-a^<o, -i^cu), we find in the
aorist also sometimes -a^a and -r]$a instead of -aaa and -rja-a ; thus, apart
from 7riTa$a e.g. dTravrco a-rravrq^a, dpcoTw " ask," ap(i>Trj^a (Texts
:

I. d. 5),

paa-rOi "carry," eySdcrra^a,

^oyyw "groan,"

e^ovyyrj^a,

pov(f)C)

" suck in," ipovcf)r]$a, cTKovvTit) " push against," iaKovvTa$a, rpafSco
" draw," eTpd^rjia, (fiva-io " blow," icfiva-rj^a, a(f>aX]/(i> " close," i(r(f)dXL$a,
The number of such forms may be easily enlarged from the
etc.
different dialects.

or-

202. Three verbs form aorists in -k- in addition to the

aorist

hlvM

forms

eScoKa (in dialect i]BcoKa) beside

(BlSo), Bcovco),

and

Oero), d(f)r)Ka
dcjirjaa,

from

edeKa beside the more


a<priKa (North.

ehwaa from

common eOeaa from

Gk. dcp'Ka) or

ijcpTjKa,

rarely

dc^yrjvco.

The

In some dialects (Aegina,


three K-Aorists are a. Gk.
in Euboea, Scyros, Maina, Epirus, and elsewhere) the
aorists in -ko.- spread to such an extent as to supplant the -era- form
iyeXaKa, aKOVKa, tTTia/ca, cKct^iKa, cf)KLaKa, (^i)yvpiKa,
exTV7rr]Ka,
{i)t,vjx(iiKa, etc.
On vprJKa, cf. 208.
2. Notice Pontic ivrwKa " I struck " from {i)vTovvvwj (tjirolKa " I
1.

Athens,

Cyme

made, did

"

from

<f>Td<xi.

203. The non-sigmatic aorists fall into three groups


200, together with a few isolated formations.

according to

The non-sigmatic

formation

aorist

with few exceptions,

is,

confined to the present system of barytones under class


Tpi/JLO) (I.

1.

5.

5) has no aorist.

The

aorist

stem

differs

from the present in the

loss of

the present suffix

Loss of
V.

207

-LCTKCt} (I.

4)

evpLo-Koy " find "

r)vpa (beside evpijKa,

f.).

Loss of

-vco (I.

eKa/xa, (fyepvco "

5. a)

bring

Loss oi -aivco (L
irepL-XafBalvo)

XaBaivw

"

5.

Kd/jLvay

ec^epa.

b)

(Ka/jLco,

ttlvco "

Kdvco) " do,

drink

"

7]'7Tia

make

"

(eirca).

Xa/Sauvco "receive," Kara-, ^ava-,

eXa^a, (e)KaTdXal3a, {i)^avdXa^a, (i)7repLXa^a.

" I

am

concealed, escape notice "

eXaOa.

MORPHOLOGY
\a')(aiv(a "

fiadaivco

^evp(o " I

learn "

know

and

6, n. 2,

")

eXa^a.

").

"go":

eiraOa.

iTrrjya (accent!);

"

also e7rdy7](ra, ^ 201,

cf.

207.

iTrdyrjKa,

TvxdLvoo " chance

lucky

141

efiada (which serves also as aorist to

iraOaLVQ) " endure "


nrr)yaLV(o

"

obtain by lot

"

: :

"

am

unlucky,

(diro-,

iiri-rvxaivoa

differs

by radical vowel change

am

erv^a.

2.

The

(I.

2. a) (f)6vy(o " flee "

(I.

0. a) /jbivco

aorist

irepL-, TTpocr-fievo))

stem
(or

6(l)vya.

efxetva.

{a)7ro6aLvo), (d)7r6dalvco " die "


fatVft) "

4) " remain " (aTro-,

I.

fjuvrja-Kco, fjuvea-Kco,

card-wool "

diroOava, direQava, iireOava.

e^ava.

The vowel difference between aorist and present is not


always clearly expressed if the present has two forms
(I. 5. a) yevofiai and usually yLvofiat " become," eytva and
also eyeva

further, 207).

{cf.,

Note the Cappad. ewe (with both consonants pronounced) from


yiV.

Kpivco
(I.

and

Kpepco "judge, speak," eKpiva.

6) 7f\ev(o

irXvvco "

and

commonly

eirXwa, but

growing evening
Besides /xcVw

Here belong

"

wash

in

some

to

(in dialect, in

Cf.

also

e/xctva

there exists also a present

1.

is

/xctvo).

The

in

which have
some converts to

i.

-aCvo)

^aOovXalvoD

"

make

fjLotpacvco "

"

{i)l3a6ovXava.

eyiava.

^earalvco " heat "


fiapalvco "

-av-a

dvaaava.

hollow out

ytaivo) " heal "

i^earava.

to wither "

ifidpava.

appoint one's destiny": ip-ocpava.

^edvp^alvco " give

vent

to

my

rage,

i^edv/xava.
"

it

also all verbs in -alvo) (I. 5. b)

avaaaivco " breathe "

^epatvw

Amorgos)

^paBuvec "

{e)^pdhvv6.

not been given already under


a,

"

eirXvaa.

dry

"

i^epava.

iTiKpaivco " embitter "

iiriKpava.

rpeXXaivco " drive crazy "

eTpeXXava.

compose myself

"

142 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


iava(f>aLV(ii " I appear again " follows the model of these
{but more usually ^ara^atVo/xat iava<j>dvr)Ka),

iavd(l>ava

-atvco (-evco)
"

Xovrpalva)

am

fiaKpaivco "

"

become thick
diffuse "

-rjp-a

i'x^ovrprjva,

ifxaKpr^va.

become rich " iirXovrrjva.


"
rpavalvcD (rpavevco)
become great " irpdvrjva (Pontus).
(})T(D'x^aLvco {(^Tco-^evo)) " become poor "
icj^rcoxv^^3. Where the aorist stem differs both in the dropping of
the present suffix (-pco) and in radical vowel change (all in
"

irXovTaivw {irXovrevca)

I.

5. a)

bow

"

yepvco

"

eyecpa

" search

dvayepvco

over "

all

dvdyecpa.

hepvw " whip, beat "


jBepvco " flay "
"

Traipvco

eBeipa.

eyBeipa and eySapa.

take "

(accent

eirrjpa

!)

and

commonly)

(less

eirr^pa.

TTapayyeXvco " order "


o-epvco "

airepvo)

draw "
" sow "

eavpa.

ecrireipa (pres. also aireipM),

(TTeXvco (o-Tpv(o) "


ylreXvco

TrapdyyeCka.

" sing "

send

"

earetXa.

eyjraXa

(pres.

also

^frdXX(o).

Likewise

though more commonly ffdXXo) (ffydXXco, irpo^dXXw)


e^aXa (e^yaXa, for which also e^yava).
Even in ^dWw l/JaXa, ij/dWai eij/aXa, crcf>dX\<a "am mistaken"
^o-^aAa the aorist and the present stem become absolutely identical.
The two forms are distinguished only in those dialects which

.fieXvw,

pronounce double consonants (36).


4.

"

fall "

5.

The

aorist formation

stands solitary

number

1.

b) of eireaa from

serves also as the aorist to

it

(I.

of aorists

irecfiTco

Keirofjuai.

that belong here take presents

from a quite different root (defective verbs), viz.


^eiT(o " see " eZSa (eSm, TEXTS I. d. 5).
:

epxofJLao "

come

"

rjpda (rjpTa, also in the

Aegean

rjpX^>

in Pontic p6a, in Capp. rjXra).


Xeyci) " say,

But

StaAcyct)

speak

StdXeia,

6<paya.

also in Pontic the aorists iaiyKa " I brought, led in,"

i^iyKa " I took out "

m. Gk.

elira.

" choose "

Tpcoyco " eat "

Note

"

<f>pv(i).

= a.

Gk.

eicr-,

l^-rjViKa (--^veyKa)

from

and

-(fiipa)

MORPHOLOGY
For the formally middle

143
active

aorist

of

-^alvco,

see

below, 207.
204.

The

historic relation of the aorist and the present stem.


exactly to its a. Gk. predecessor.

The m. Gk. aorist active corresponds


M. Gk. on the whole reflects the

a. Gk. phenomena in the subdivision of the diff'erent aorist systems (sigmatic, aorist of liquid
Only in a few cases the sigmatic aorist
verbs, and strong aorist).

has encroached upon the territory of the non-sigmatic ; thus, eKepSeara


crvi/ayw (o-wa^co), lirpocre^a fr. 7rpoo-e;(a),
fr. Kp8aiV(o, iavva^a fr.
afxapTrjara fr. afxapTOLvo) (^/xapro = a. Gk. rjfxapTov has become stereotyped to mean "pardon, beg your pardon "). The two a. Gk. groups
the a. Gk. strong aorist and the aorist of
of the non-sigmatic aorist
liquid verbs
cannot any longer be sharply discriminated from the
m. Gk. standpoint; thus, aTre^ai/a fr. airoOaivio is formally identical
with i^(TTava fr. ^co-TatVco, although the former belongs historically
to the "strong" aorists, the latter to the liquid aorists.
Conversely,
i/^aXa is formally identical with ySaA-Aco e/JaXa, although the
{j/dXXo)
former originally came under the type of eo-TeiAa.
Consequently
further interchange of the two forms is not surprising
beside
TrapayyeA.vw TrapdyyeiXa One may also employ irapdyyeXa on the
analogy of Kafxvoi ^Ka/xa. The origin of the new creation (jiipvcx)
ecficpa (for (fiipo) yjveyKo) is to be attributed to such models.
While in general the ancient aorist has maintained its place, the
present stem has been quite frequently remodelled, and that on
Thus the type /acVco e/xetva, crreXi/o) careiXa
the basis of the aorist.

set the

model

for Kpivo) (Kptvw)

ta-Treipa, crepvoi earvpa, etc.

with a sigmatic

in verbs
TrL(TTil/a

eKoif/a

e/cpti/a, TrXei/to

(ttAwo)) eirXwa, cnvipvia

The most numerous examples are found


aorist
the phonetic identity among erpuj/a

dXenj/a

Kaij/a

eypaif/a

gave

eKXcij/a

rise to

such

TricrTevo)
ko/?co (a. Gk. kotttw)
aXetySw
Gk. Katw) or Kocfyroi ypdcftro) Kd^rta or
ypd<jni)
eKpa^a
dpira^a
dXetcfuo
KXicfmi (a. Gk. /cAeTTTO)).
Ira^a
irdpa^a, etc., produced the series Kpd^w
dpTrd^o)
rd^w
rapd^o)
(for a. Gk. racro-w, rapdcrcro)).
As -isa may be aorist to verbs in -t^oo
or verbs in -w, so (SoyytCoi and /Soyyu) or even ^eo-Koi for ^cctkl^o).
iyeXaa-a from ycXw, etc., set the analogy for ta-Kaa-a: (tko) (beside

analogous series as

(a.

Gk.

dXeLcfxt))

rpt/So}

KafSiD (a.

o-Ktt^co, a.

Gk.).

Sometimes the present system was still further affected by the


form of the aorist stem; thus, TraOaivio for Traa-^w from t-rraBa on
analogy of jxaOaivoi cfxaOa. The a. Gk. i^vpov came to be regarded
as an imperf. and a new present (i)ievp<i) was formed (which then
received e/xa^a as complementary aorist).
In several dialects
(Aegean Sea and Pontus) from eo-retXa, e/>tiva there arose a o-reiXw,
fXLV(i> for areXXoi (orreAvco) fxevca like (TTreipco (^cnrepvu)) from tcnretpa.
The imperfects vTrrjya, eTrrjya (vTrayco) and <f)pa were conceived
as aorists (thus exactly the contrary of what took place with i^evpov)
and took presents ir-qyaivoi and (jiipvo) according to existing models.
:

Certain present suffixes {e.g. -vio, -atVw, -t^w, -[Ja^w) are especially
productive, as may be seen in the crop of new verbs.
The confusion reigning in the present sometimes affected also the

144 HANDBOOK OF THE


aorist

Gk.

ra^o) (a.

caused c^era^w

rdcrcrw)

i^era^a,

carried cyyi^w

7rr}ia, etc.,

MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

era^a, rapd^io {Tapdcrcrii})

crirovSa^w

iaTrovSa^a.

cyyi^a, etc., along.

irdpaia,

etc.,

Ilr^^w (Tn/jyvv/Jii)

And,

finally, -w

and

-a^(o and -dvoi being frequently interchangeable, there arose


types like pov<f)u) ipovcjir/^a, arravriii dTrdvT-q^a, /Sv^dvo) i(3vt,a^a, which
here and there spread apace.
Thus the m. Gk. present and aorist systems are manifestly the
evolution of older forms aided by the action of widely ramified
analogies with the aorist as a fixed centre.
Still greater variety
obtains if all the different dialect forms were taken into account.
It is enough to have discussed the principle in some examples, as
with this principle there is no difficulty in the majority of cases in
explaining the deviations of the modern forms from those of ancient
-t'^w,

Greek.

The Aorist Passive and kindred Formations.

(b)

205. The aorist passive (indicative) is regularly formed


by attaching -drj-Ka (1st pers. sing.) or less commonly -rjKa to
the original verbal stem, that is, that stem which forms the

basis of the cr-aorist.

then

a spirant (c,

If

<^,

;^)

precedes the

converts into -rrjKa (according to 18),


although the spelling with 6 is often retained ( 18, n. 1).
-6rjKa,

-Orjica

The following examples show how from the several present


systems the corresponding aorist passive in -6i]Ka is formed
(for verbs with aorist in -7;:a, v. 207):
1. 1. The final radical
and so -cjyrijKa:
(/>,

ffd(f)T7]Ka,

iKpv(j)Tr]Ka

(i)aTpi(f>T7]Ka,

(less

commonly

7ravTp6VT7}Ka (iravrpevco "


V.

206

rpl/Sco,

on

ypd(j)(o,

Kp\o]vj3r}6r]Ka),

irreg.

marry

")

iaKecprrjKa.

iyevTrjKa,

On

fiXeirco,

6dff(o, dpecfxo, Ka^co, vrpeTro/nac, arpicfiCi),

207.

TravrpevKLv, in Velv., etc., is a


t{7))k

CKO^TTjKa, iiravrrjKay

efcavT7]Ka^

according to

7, n. 1,

phonetic transformation of navrpev-

or 37 n.

2. Final radical %, and so -;\;T?7A:a


eirXe^rrjKa, icr(f)l^T7]Ka, dvol^rrjKa, icjyvkd'y^njKa, i^e')(rrjKa^

i^pe^TTjKa

ehei')(TriKa,

vTToa-'^ofjLaL (v7r6(TKo/jLai)

On

v7roa-')(e6r]Ka "

promise

" is irregular.

207.

iKXcoarrjKa,
(TTTjKa,

eppLxrrjKa {epplc^rrjKa).

on l3pexoy, irviyw,
Final radical <r, and so -crrrjKa

Xe7ft), cf.

3.

206

iBi,(0'^T7]Ka,

iirXdarTjKa,

iXovarTjKa,

i^pdarrjKa,

dyopd-

i^eTdarrjKa, aKeirdarrjfca, ()T0LfJLdaT7jKa, crro'^daTrjKa,

djKdXLdarrjKa,

')(^p6LdaT7]Ka.

Verbs with aorist in -fa form the

aorist passive in -x^r^Ka

MORPHOLOGY
i7ral')(T7)Ka

V.

e(j}pd'^r7jKa,

e'iTeipd')(rr)Ka, irpo/jud'^TTjKa

iaKuiarr^Ka (aKid^oixat " fear

beside

-^TTjKa

145
ird'^TrjKa,

Kpd')(Tr)Ka,

(Trat'fo)),

dpirdyrrjKa, e^acrrd'^^TrjKa,

::

icTKid-

On

").

o-cpd^co,

207.
Karai/i'crcro/iat

/caravi^^^TryKa.

i'^TiarjjKa, i<TKL(TTr)/ca, eyv(i)p[<TT7jKa, iaKopTTLCTTrjKa, iaroXi-

(opKi^o/iiai "
1.

"

i^aXlarrjKa (^aXi^o/nat

<TTr}Ka,

swear

become dizzy

-LxrrjKa is rare

as, iarcftaXixnjKa (cr^aA-t^to

only in aam^iji " putrefy "


more usual ccraTrto-a with the same value).
2.

Without

3.

OeTO) takes aorist passive IriO-qKa (rare)

-or-

jSplaKco

4.

(fipLaTco)

evpeOrjKa

opKiarrjKa

"),

"), icj^rapjjLLCTTrjKa ((jyTapfjii^ofMai,

" sneeze

").

"lock").

iaaTri^OrjKa (beside the

StSw

iSoOrjKa.

form (i)0aped7]Ka

the

belongs formally to /SaplaKco, ^apeaKco, but according to

meaning

middle ^apeie/jLat "

to the

7rpy(TT7jfca, /SoaKCO

When

5.

an aorist in -6r/Ka

its

irpi^aKOfiau

is

found the forms are


" answer
i^dXOrjKa
"),

(^dTTOKpivofxai

(I'^dpdrjKa,

e^f/dXdrjKa

(ef^dpOrjfca),

of "

i/SoaKrjdrjKa.

{d^iTOKpiOr^Ka

(a)

am weary

iai>p6r)Ku,

i'yJrdpTrjKa),

(f)6pdr)Ka.
1.

$ix7rapKapL(TTrjKa

The vowel

from

^jj/jrapKapoi,

of the present {e) is

changed to a in

{i)^dp6r]Ka, (6)ySdp6r]Ka, iirdpdrjKa (serves also to Xaffalvo)), io-irdpdrjKa, e<TTd\6rjKa.


2.

Ka/xva)

"

make

(e^Tciao-rr^Ka).

(h) (a)

On

" appropriates the aorist passive

N^orth.

alardvojuai

from \a^)]67]Ka, or

Gk. 7rdpKa = 7rdp6r}Ka,

cf.

from ^rctai/w
37 n.

alo-rdvdrjKa (used as scarcely different


pLaOevrrjKa

like

from

from a

/juaOaCvco

different present stem).


i^epddrj/ca,

ifxapdOrjKa,

it,6crTddr)Ka,

(/8)

icrc'^dOrjKa,

irpeWdOrjKa.
6.

Partly in -6r]Ka, partly -arrjKa

-Orjica

(with vowel modification in some cases)

i'^dOrjKa^ Bivco

iSe6r]Ka, nfkevay (irXvvco)

^KepBedrjKa, d^aivw
SrjKa,

y^vvcD

ehoOr^Ka,
i\lr)'jOr]Ka,

(vruvo))

Xvvco

arrfvo)

d^i]6r]Ka
:

d<p')]vco

ijBvOrjKa

eXv6r]Ka,
"

place "

-^vvco
:

x^'^^

iiTXvdr}Ka, KepSaivco

e-^vdrjKa,

Blvco

(Scvvco)

yjrfjuco

(yfrivco)

iarridrjKa (iarddrjKa,

longs to the same verb, serves as aorist to areKw

and d(py-

d(f)6r]Ka

(ivrvOrjKa),

which be"

stand

"),

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

146

aTp(t)vco
'^couco

earpcodrjKa,

i^(o6rjKa

finish "

" attain,

acovco

djrXcodrjKa,

also

icrcoOrjKa,

ijrXepcoOTjKa^

fjua^coOrjKa,

(TKOTooOrjKa, icfsopTooOijKa, etc.

-aTTjKa
(l>Tidvco

icXelvw
^coixo

SajKajJO)

eKXelarrjKa,

SayKcio-TT^Ka,

further

i(j)TidarT]Ka,

^vvco

i^va-rrjKa,

Tridvco

g-^tjvw

iwcdo-rrjKa,

'^oprdarrjKa

iaanrdarTjica,

eorlSrja'TrjKa^

i^coa-Tijfca.

-^rrjKa rare

^v^d-)(Tr)Ka

from ^v^dvco.
vowel (there

-67]Ka (-arrj/ca) is attached to the radical

11.

are here no -rjKa forms).


(a)

'rj-Or]K.a

djaTrrjOrjKa,

drjKa (evKov/jLat " bless


-6-6i]Ka

was

{Kara^povco " despise

enfKavWrjKa, TrapaTToveOrj/ca,

Orj/ca,

(" I

born

ef^oprjOrjKa ((polSovjuat " fear

"),

KaracppoveOrjKa

yevvrjOjjKa

"sleep"), ^7]Tr]07]Ka, i(j)L\l]d7]Ka,

KOL/JL7]6r)/Ca (KOi/jLOV/Xat

"),

eVKTj-

").

iraive-

"),

crv/jLTroveOijKa, av^copedrj/ca,

i(f)opeOeKa.

rare

-cTTTjKa is

iyeXdarijKa, dpyrjo-rrj/ca beside dpvi]6r}Ka

(Kav/covfiat " I

(dpvovfiai " I

deny

Karap7]crr7]fca

(Karapeiefiai. " curse "),

and

Kaufc^arrjKa

"),

KaXvo)), irapaKaXearrjKa.
(h)

Mostly

-(TT7]Ka

irerco

eKaXearrj/ca

boast

(fr.

"),

KaXa>

takes Trerd^rrjKa.

iKepdo-rrj/ca, eKpefidan^ica, i^6')(daT7]Kay

i'^aXdcrrrjKa, ea<j)aXLaT7]Ka, {e)KaXeaT7)Ka (irapa-).

So

also Pontic eTreXvcrTa

= aTroXvOvKa.

aKovcTTrjKa, iKX6iaTr]Ka, ifcpovaTTj/ca, eKXavrrjfca.

(c)

The two forms -rjO-qKa and -rja-T-rjKa correspond to the double


forms in -w and -^w. The aorist pass. -xrrjKa from the -^a form is less
common apart from the usual iireTdxTTjKa notice also iixa^wxrrjKa
(beside e/xa^co^r/Ka already cited, or also e/xa^evxT^Ka from /xa^evw) and
TpajSo) " draw," iTpa^rjXj'qKa.
;

206.

separate stem increased by

the basis of the

.aor. pass,

pXeirco " see "

Xiyco " say "


TTLvco "

drink

"

(6)7710)6 r]Ka.

(i)(j)a<yct)67)K.

207. The aorist formed with

1)

<ypd(f)a) "

6dd(o

"

employed as

beside eXe'^TrjKa also elTrcoOTjKa,

in the following verbs


(I.

is

IScoOrjKa (BicodrjKa).

rpcoyco " eat " (aor.) (f>arya

in the following verbs

write "

bury

"
:

-rjKa

(without 0)

is

found

ijpd(p7]Ka, but usually iypd(f>Tr]Ka.

iTd(p7)Ka,

but usually eOdcpTfjKa.

MORPHOLOGY
nourish "

6pe(f>(o "

Kcifiw (KavTCo) "


"
k\(J)T(o " steal

KO^CO

vrpeTTOfiac "
arpecjjco "

irpdcpTjKa, i6pd<f)r]ica.

"

burn

eKdr)Ka (beside iKamr^Ka).

eKKaTrrjKa (and eK\k^T7]Ka).

" cut "

(/CO (^70))

eKOTTTjKa.

am ashamed "

turn "

14T

(i)vTpd7n]Ka.

{Karaarpe^w

iaTpd(f)7]Ka

"

destroy

"

Kara(7Tpd^7]ica).

TpL^o) " rub "

6Tpi^r}Ka (and eTpt<t)T7]Ka).

(II. 2) ^pe)(co " wet " : i^pd'^rjKa (and e/Bpe'^Ttj/ca).


iTrvLyrjKa (and iirviXTrjKa).
TTviyco " drown " (brans.)
:

" slay "

(II.

3)

(11.

5) (palvop^ai

(T(f>d^(o

"appear":

become

"

iacfid'^TrjKa).

icj^dvrjKa.

'^aipofjiaL (^aipco) " rejoice "

^ivop^ai "

(and

e(T(f)d'y7]ica

i')(ap7]Ka.

e^iV7]Ka (North.

Gk. iyivKa) and

iyevrjfca (beside eyiva, see above).

The YQih
its aorist

compounds, see

-^aivco (only in

133) forms

p.

active with violent modification of the stem

like-

wise in -rjKa
dv-, Kare-, Bia-^alvco " I

go up, down, past

Gk.

KUTtfirjKa, hidjBr^Ka (North.

"

Karrj/S/ca,

dve^rjKa,

Bid^Ka,

^^

Texts

III. 12).
^yalvco " go out "

fiTraivoy

"go

in "

(i)^yrJKa,
(i)p,TTrjKa.

(Te^aivco (in dialect) "

On some

go in "

other forms of -^aivco,

{el)(jep7]ica.

cf.

208.

(rvv^7)K " it happened " belongs to a-vixf^aCvu (borrowed from the


Hterary language, instead of which the ordinary people use ytVeTat).
The model of dve/^atVw ave^rjKa, etc., gave rise to a irdyrjKa from
:

xayatVo)

cf.

7rdy\ave,

The word

i.e. i-jrdyrjKav,

Texts

III. 10.

in general use evprjKa or {e)PpriKa beside rjvpa

from evp la K(D formally belongs under

this category {cf.% 208).

The m. Gk. aorist passive (together with


208. Historical note.
dvi0r)Ka, etc.) corresponds to the a. Gk. aorist in -6r]-v or -rj-v, the stem
formation being based entirely on a. Gk. (cf. especially the vowel
system of la-raXOrjKa, iySdp6r}Ka). Innovations on analogy took place
only in a few cases e.g. in the formation of eySaX^r^Kc for a. Gk. i(3krj0r}
after the model of the rest of the stem /3a\-.
Moreover, the relation
between the formation in -6r}v and in -rjv has altered only slightly in
favour of the former, cf. IcrrdkO-qKa, iySdpOr]Ka = a. Gk. ia-rdk-qvy
iSdprjv; to which are to be added some new formations which lack
any corresponding a. Gk. form e.g. iylvrjKa and the aorists in -wOrjKa
:

cited in 206.

The enlargement

of the

-6r]-

by the addition

of -Ka

(which

is

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

148

inflected exactly like a

-o-a-

but not absolutely


found particularly in the 3rd

aorist) is practically

The unenlarged form

universal.

also

is

KarcjSr],
e.g. evpeOr], aTroKpiOr], rj-^ap-q (Tos), rov {KaKo)(fidvr],
beside ijSLarjTo-e (Maina) = Iha^-qKt the unenlarged form is
usual in Pontus and Cappadocia ; cf. in Texts III. 13, 14, l-n-^Xvcna
" I was left behind, remained behind," laKoiOcv "he rose," (fyojSyOaix
" we feared," iaKiaOav " they rose," eKActSw^ai/ " they were locked in,"
l^apav "they rejoiced," e^c^cv "he went out," eSe/^ev "he went
away " (similarly in Syra, Texts I. d. 5, -^/xttc ; Chios, Texts III. 9,
Besides the
rjixTrev = ifnrrJKc), eftyafi^ev), e/3yav " we, they went out."
formation in -Orj-Ka there is another -Orj-va ; thus in Aegina k\vTrrjBr}va,
iSiO-qva, evKyOrjva beside -OYjKa ; cf. also the inflection of the aorist
passive in 221.
Finally, an enlargement in -o-a is found, v.

sing.

cSiar;

Texts

III. 2, n. 22.
evprjKa

The form

comes formally under the type of aorist in


with the a. Gk. perfect active of the same form,
therefore the only certain remnant of the ancient perfect.

-rjKa; it is identical

and

is

The Perfect Participle Passive and kindred Forms,

(c)

209. Immediately connected

v^^ith

the aorist passive

is

the passive participle of the past tense, a form considerably

more

than the aorist passive.


Besides the usual form
form in -to? ( 212).

in use

in -/livo^ there is also a less used

210. The ending

same root

regularly attached to the

is

-fievo<^

The connection

as -SrjKa.

of this

ending with the

verb stem results in the following forms


1.

1.

-(fjb)fiivo<;

^afifjLvo<;,

(Odf^Q)

fxevo<;
/u.ez/09,

(rrpLfi/jLevo^;,

fypaiuLfjLVO<;,

"

bury

"),

Kpv/jLfjL6vo<;

TpL/jLfjLevo<;,

<TTpefjLfjLVO<^

" afflicted "

OXiixfievo^

6afxKOfi-

i/jL7riaTe((j.)/jivo<;

/jLa^6(fM)/jbvo(;,

(6Xi(3co),

(" trusted "), ip(i)r6(fjb)/jL6vo^ " beloved," (f)VTe{p,)fievo<^, avafjufjuevo^i,


K\6/jLfjLevo<i, pa/jLfjLvo<;, etc.

Kapco has besides the normal participle

another
" poor,

unhappy

7re(/)Tft)

2.

(from

/carjfxevo^

"

/3p6(y)/jL6vo<;

On

fca(fjL)/jivo<^

may
211.

take this sense.

-(y)/jiivo<i:

7r\(j)/jLvo<;,

(like

Ou

Ka{p.)fievo<; also

used in the figurative sense

jSXeTTO), v.

but even

Trea-fMevo^.

eKcirjKa),

1)

or

ep')(^ofxai,

dvoL(y)fjb6VO<;,

Becyfiivo^,

even

Xeyco, rpcoyoj,

v.

The phonetic combination


elsewhere y before

p.

plx^^ (pi^rco)

so also

pL')(^fjbvo<;,

airpM^vco

ptfjufieva

a7rp(o'^/jbivo<;.

211.

-y/x-

disappears

Tv\i(y)iJLepo<;,

'7rvL(<y)/ji6vo<^,

Scayy/jLevo^

is

{cf.

retained only in North. Gk.,


24).

MORPHOLOGY

149

Usually -ajievo^

3.

Kkwcr^evo^

OecTfjuevof;, akeafjievof;,

Xov^o)

Trai^co

\ova/jb6vo<;,

dyopaa/uL6VO<i,

ffpaa/jL6V0<;,

dpa'^vca(7fivo<; " filled

or Traia-fievo^.

(e)^raG-fievo<;,

a7rovSa(j/jL6vo<;,

aKeiracriJLevo^,

(ape(Tfievo<;).

7rai<y/jLevo<;

Oafiaafjievo^,

ayKakiacTfievo^^

TpofjLa(Tfivo<;,

with cobwebs," ^ovktaa-pievo^

(in spite

of i^ovXia^a).

Corresponding to the aorist forms in -^a and -xrrjKa some


end in -{y)fjiVO<s: Trr)(y)ixVO^ (from thJ^oj), Ta{y)fxevo<g,
dpTrayfj-ivo?,
cf>pa(y)fx4vo<ij dpayfxivo<5 (dpa^oD " land," from a ship),
participles

Karacnrapayp.ivo'i ("torn, rent," raetaph.), Tretpay/xeVos, prj/jiayfxivoi


" isolated " (beside prjixacrixevo';)^ also rpo/xayfjiivos, (3ovXLay/xvo<s.
aKca-/jLevo<;,

'^TLO-fjbevo^,

/levo^,

"

happy,

8aKpva-

yvpLafjuivo^,

KaOL<r/jLi>o<;,

BvaTv^i(TfjLivo<^

v-,

unhappy,"

^aXia/xivo^;,

6piafivo<;, aKop7no-/jiivo<;, TaaKcafjuivo^;, dKOV/JLTrLafievo^;, etc.

beside

a-(f>aXLyfjLivo's

(i)^pi(TK(o

4.

^6(TKQ)

jjL6vo<i.

5.

(r<fiaX.LcrfXv s.

KpLvco

^edaivco

<TT6\V(0

Texts

(y)BdpfjLvo<;,

^aOaivat

On

XaOaiveo

as also on irrjyaLvco,
fecrratVot)

(j8)

fivo<;, 7nKpa/jLvo<;,

6.

-/jLeuo<;

-p,tvo<;

(and

yfrr] /jLvo(i

yjraX-

and

Xa6aifxevo<;,
irrjyaLva)

(TriKapu-

crep/Stpia'fJiivo'S

").

yepvw

Trapfievo^,

yeip-

avpfj.vo<;,

211.

Xa^alvco

Xa')(at/jL6vo<;

On

irT^yaifievo^.

TraOatvco

211.

v.

similarly

fiapa/juevo^,

^epa-

cn')(^a/jL6vo<;.

-ap,evo<^.

p^a/z-ei/o?

ajxapTrjixevo^;

Kephrifxevo<;,

hojjLevo^,

jjLa^rs)/jLvo(;,

^afievo<;,

yjrdWco

airapfxevo^, aepvco

^aTa/jL6vo<;,

yivofxai, /cd/nvco, v.

fia6r}/jLV0<;,

(rep/Stpw

" embittered

iraipvco

airepvo)

yp/ievo<;),

(a)

^aXfjuevos:,

dve-j Karc-^ao^/xcvo?, (e)/>t7raa"/XV09.

= TriKapia-pivo^

(f)6pfi6vo<;.

(b)

^aivco

yiafxevo^,

^dXKco

$fXTTapKapL(rfXvo<i,

I. d.

(y)^6pvco
fLvo<; (also

fxevo^.

Trprja--

^apidfievo'^.

<TTd\fJLVO<;.

^e/XTTap/capco

(pepvQ)

yLalvco

KpL/JL6vo<;,

(d)'ir66afjLfi6i^o<;,

ave-, KaT-/8a^o), ifnrd^o)

fxevo<^

TrpijcrKco

0pr]/jLevo<;,

^apiaKco

-/JL6vo<;.

(a)

jxivos,

and

^pefxevo^

0o<TKL(T/jbvo<;,

Xvfxevo<;,

crTpQ)fjLevo<;,

Se/iez/09, 7rXv/jbvo<;,

K6pBt(T/jievo<;), d^rj/juevo^i,

arTj/xevo^;
')(wp.evo^,

(and

are/JLevo';),

aTrXcofMevo^iy

7rXepa)/ii6vo<; aKOTO)/jLevo<;, etc.

KepSe-

d(f)r]fjL6Vo<;,

vrv-

^f/xeVo?,

Kpva)fjLvo<;,

MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

150 HANDBOOK OF THE


o-jxevo^

iriaafievo^, (fyraa-^evo^,

commonly

(less

')(^opTaaixevo<^

(and

ajSrjfjiivo^), ^(oo-/jL6vo<;

(also

^v^aa^ievo^

BajKa/ji6vo<;)

^vajxevo^ (and ^v/iievo^), a^Tja/jL6vo<^

KXei,o-/jL6vo<;,

(t)Tst,a<TfjLevo^

^vl^ayixevos:), Ba<yKaafjb6vo<;

Bofjbevo<i

(from

(" satisfied,"

from

also Boafjuevo^ beside

Blvo), Bcovco).

Usually

11. (a)

-7)-/jbevo<;

-fievo^;

VKapi,aTri^evo<^

dyaiTrj/jLevo^i,

evKapto-rco), appa)crTr]fievo<; " sick," etc.


--/JLvo<;

" troubled "

7rovfjL6Po<i

(irapa-),

av^copepbevo^y

<f>OpJiLeUO<i.

-afievo^

KaXeapbevo<;

Bi-^aapievo^^ Treivaa-

yeXao-jj.ei'O';,

fJLVO<;.

puedo!)

irera)

puedvapbevo^;,

" die "

yjrocj^a)

'^o(^i<TpLevo<;,

7r6Ta(y)pLevo<;.

Cf. also aKovp7n(TiJLvo<i fr. aKovpirw and aKovpirL^o) and Koipia-pivo's


"sleeping," from KOLfxovpai, together with other verbs in -a> -a^w,

and

137

-t^(D

(cited p.

(b)

Usually

f.).

-apL6vo<;:
fepacr/xei/o?, ^e^a{(T)pbvo^ (" for-

Kepao-pLivo<i, Kp6pLacrpL6Vo<;,

getful

irepaapievo^,

"),

'^a\aapL6vo<;

yvpL^co), cr^aXLapbevo<; {cf. also a(pa\i^(o)

But
(c)

and

-pL6vo<;

fcXeLO-pbV0<;

KXapLevo^ " bathed in tears "

(c/".

^XeTTco

KXelvco)

(cf,

/caicu, /ca/So)

Kkaiw

Kapbivos:).

rpcojco

TTLvco

TTLwpievo^ "

KapLVQ)

p)(copLei/o<;.

elirwpbevo^

ylvopbai

IBcopuivo^ (B(opLevo<;).

p')(opLai

Xeyco

(and Xe[y\pbevo^).

(paycopuevo^;.

drunken."

ytvcopuevo^;.

Kapucopevo^.

TraOaivw

7ra6(opi6vo<;.

irriyaLvay

iraywpievo^ (usually irriyaipbevo^).

means "act as if, pretend." Similarly,


represents the aor. pass, participle of yivopai.

KaiJLwvopai, Ka/xMOrjKa

yvurjauos
2.

also

211. The following are the participles corresponding to

the aorist formation given in

1.

(cf,

KaXeapuevo'^.

Kpovapievo^,

aKovcrpbivo^,

(from Xvvco),

aiToXvpbevof;

-apbivo^

<yvpLcrpi,evo^

(fr. yvvu))

vTroaxopai

What

v7rocr)(pa'o<s.

has been said about the aorist passive [ 208] applies


practically to the relation between the m. Gk. and the a. Gk. parti3.

"

MORPHOLOGY

151

The passive participle is (with the same limitations


ciple formation.
that apply to the aorist passive) the continuation of the same a.
Gk. form, i.e. the ancient perfect participle passive.

212. The

verbal

in

adjectives

belong by their

-t6<^

formation to the aorist passive and participle (-to? instead of


-O'qKa or

They

respectively).

-fjLevo<;

are found, however, to

only a few verbs, and have become for the most part pure
adjectives.

e.g.

Cf.

avoi'yTo^

" open,"

" possible,"

^oXero^

^rjkevTo^ " enviable," KXecaro^ " shut," TrXou/itcrro? " adorned,"

(T^r^aro^ " extinguished," a-Kvcfyro^


closed,"

a7rdTr)To<i

"untrodden,"

" inestimable,"
"

" fixed,"

crt^t^To?

a'TTp6(7e')(To^

"

a^j^coptcrTo?

brought out for the

" bent,"

first

"

ayeXaarof;

(T<f)a\i,'y(T6^

without

" en-

laughter,"

"inattentive," aTifirjTo^

inseparable

"

irpwropyaXio'^

time, dShutant"

From these forms inherited from the a. Gk. must be distinguished those (few) formations in -aros (Lat. -atus) which are
used as adjectives or sometimes even in the function of a participle
ye/xaros "filled, full," 7rc/x7raros

ning,

"sent"
"flown"

(fr.

ire/jLTro)),

TpxoiTO<s

the

"run-

three
verbs are defective in the participle in -ixivo<s.
{Cf. 227, n. 2).
The suffix -aros is appropriated also for derivatives from substantives
e.g. d<jf)paTo? "fresh" (from d<^pos "foam"), fivpovBaTos "perfumed,
fragrant" (from ixvpovBtd "perfume"), x^o^^ctTos "white as snow"
(from x'-^yf' " snow ").
It has even produced another suffix in -oltlko?,
the usage of which may be seen in examples like 7rp<oTo;^povtdTtKos
" relating to, of the New Year," ;(et/xcoi/tdTtKos " wintry."
(^evyaros

precipitate,"

((fjevyw)

last

CONJUGATIO]^ OF VEEBS.
I.

BARYTONES.

Paradigm

Sivco " I bind."

Simple Tenses.
Active.

213.

Present.

Indicative.
Sevco " I

Subjunctive.
"

may

Bevco " that I

etc.

vd
va
vd

hevojxe, Bevovfjie

va

Sevajfie, Bevovfie

Siuere

vd Bevere
vd Bevovv{e).

SeVet? "

Bevet

bind

thou bindest

Sevovv, hevovve

Sez^i??

etc.

Bevr)

bind

HANDBOOK OF THE MODEEN GREEK VERNACULAR

152

1. Indicative and subjunctive differ merely in historic orthography both forms may be spelled quite alike.
2. In the North. Gk. territory the paradigm runs
Sevov, 8eV's,
SeV or Siv'-, Sevov/xL, Bcvlti, 8cW(e) ; cf. e.g. the Pontic forms arrpwyv
:

(TTp(i)vovv,
3.

0\ve = 6\ovv, etc, or also Velv. rcraKwv = rcra/cwi/ow.


also outside the North. Gk. territory {e.g. in the

Sometimes

Peloponnesus) the 1st sing, ends in -ov instead of -w.


4. The -s has dropped off in pezzi and so forth in Bova = Trat^cts
(v. 29 n.).
5. In Cyprus, Crete, the Maina, Aegean and Lower Italy, the
3rd pi. takes also the forms Bcvowl (Crete), Sivowa (cf. rpe^va,
TTct^va, Texts III.
12 = Tpexowa, rrecfiTovva), or according to the
ancient

way

Sivovari, Sevovcnv^e).

214.

Imperfect.
"
eheva " I bound, w^as binding

eheve^

etc.

eheve
ehevajxe

iBivare or iBevere
eSevav, iB6j/av{6).
Aorisf.

Indicative.

eSeaa

" I

bound

Subjunctive.
"

va Siaco " that


va Sea-?;?

B(T6<s

might bind

60e<T6

va

iSeaa/iie

va Beawfie, Beaov/xe

iBeaere (also iBecrare)

va Beaere

eBeaav, iBiaave

va Baovv(6).

"

oecrrj

Similarly also the non-sigmatic aorist

KaraXa^a

" I

understood

"

va KaraXd^co

KardXa^ef;

va KaTa\d^7)<;

KardXa^e

va KaraXd^rj

KaraXd^afie
KaraXd^ere (also -are)
KardXa^av, KaTaXd^av(e)

va KaraXdffw/jbe

So also eareiXa

"

I sent

"

(-ovfie)

va KaraXd^ere
va KaraXd^ovv^e).

va areLXo),

(j>aja " I ate " va (pdyo),

etc.
1. On the augment, v. 182 f.
The position of the accent is
sometimes the same throughout; that is, cKctyu-a, icj>dya, etc., msty also
be employed (but seldom) after analog}'' of iKd/xa/xc, i<j)dyafx or
(North. Gk.) i^ayafie, etc., after <^aya (cf. 38 n.), which explains
forms like ^aAo-a/A ( 201, IT. a, n. 2).

MORPHOLOGY

153

The imperfect and both aorists have therefore taken identical


The aor. subj. is inflected like the pres. indie.
The North. Gk. forms result from the phenomena given 7, n. 1.

2.

inflection.
3.

'iiripvi^ = e-rraipvi^, SovXl^lv = iSovXevev, yvpcriv


= iirdyaivev, SovXixj/afXL = eSovAti/^a/xc, to ^cjiayafxi =
TO icfidyajxe va (jiKtdcrov = vd (fiKidao), vd Traps = va Trdpy^, vd 8et^=va
Sct^r/s, va TTiOdv'- = va TreOdvrj, vd 7r;(tacroDyu,i = va Trida-oi/xe, vd Kpifidcrv =
vd Kpcfjidaovv. On va o-'^xpvperjs = a-v^iapiarj^ vd TrAepcoTys = TrAcpwcn^s,

from Velvendos

Cf. e.g.

iyvpL(T(v),

iraivLv

with expulsion of the o-, cf. 29 n.


In many dialects {e.g. Pontiis, Macedonia, Naxos, Epirus) the
3rd sing, ends in -cv (thus cScvtv, ISco-ev) or in -eve (e.g. in Naxos,
Cythnos) i^KOveve = aKove, T]7rai^ve = eiraL^e, rj/3ov\oi<Tve = i/SovXwcrc.
This -v has occasionally (particularly in Naxos) been carried over
etc.,

4.

2nd pi.
and 2nd

also to other personal endings, e.g. to the

aKovTc, 0iTV

= 6eTe

The

(to ^cXw).

1st

aKovreve

cf.

pi.

end

also in

the 3rd pi. in -ai/t and -a(jt(v) (cSeVavi, eSeVaon),


the last in the same dialects that give -oven. Note further Ivret^Tava,
Texts III. 12. In Cappodocia (Texts III. 14. b) the 1st pi. ends in
e.g. ^Aeyaya, ^aXo-a/x, TropKa/x (n. 6), ciTra/jtrt, and the 2nd
-afx or -a/xTt

-afxav, -Tav (-arav),

pi.

in

-coTTt

5.

The

dcf>r}K';,

e.g. ^XeyecrTi.

-Ka- aorist is inflected exactly like

etc.

iKaOtTcre, etc.

(Texts III.

14:)

the

-era-

= iKaOiKe

aorist
cf.

dcf)r}Ka

17.

The

subjunctive of a(^r/Ka, cSwKa is usually v' dcfirjcroi, vd 8c6(rco, i.e. after


v' aKova-o),
the manner of the sigmatic aorist; likewise aKovKa
va <j>Kid(roi, etc., though side by
eyeAa/ca
va yeAao-o), ecftKeiaKa
side with these are found also va Swkco (Naxos, Epirus, Aegina,
Cappadocia), v' dcfi-qKov (Velv.), v' df^YiKrj (Naxos), va cfiKetaKoi, etc.
Likewise (in Asia Minor) va ttkw, va ttktJs ( = 7rotKCL> for
(Epirus).
TTotKw) from (e)7rotKa ( 202, n. 2) and va vprJKO) (3rd sing, va evp-JK^

Texts

III. 13. c) from evprJKa (or i7i;pa or evpa).


There are some peculiar imperfect forms in Cappadocia, thus
in Pharasa imperfects in -(t)yKa, or -Ka e.g. <^epty/ca = e^epa, TrvcuyKa
" I slept " from ttvwvw, iropKa " I was able " from ixiropoj, Kar^ecfiKa
" I conversed " from Kar^evw in Sili in -to-Ka, -tvoo-Ka, and -cvovdCicrKa
6.

e.g.

^cnXta-Ka or creWvocrKa

T^OeXa,

TrayaLvvLv6vd<C,tcrKa

= lirdyaiva.

215. In some verbs the subjunctive of the non-sigmatic

aorist differs

from the indicative in the radical vowel

{cf.

203):
eirrfpa " I

took "

va irdpay

went " va irdyco


r)p6a " I came "
va epOco
va yiveo, usually va
(eyLva " I became "
iiTrjya

'*

jlvco).

except in the case of eytva is the re1. The reason for this
tention of the ancient augment {vir-rjyov, iTr-rjpa) in the indicative.

few dissyllabic aorists take

junctive

final

accent in the sub-

MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

154 HANDBOOK OF THE

elira " I said "

or va

Vw,

va

ecTTOvfie

va

elirf)^

va

eiTrrjTe

va

elirfj

va elirovve

(beside va

etc.

eXirai).

" I saw "


va ISS), va 'Sw and va 8l(o (Si^?,
va ^avalhta.
so on), ^avaelBa (^avaecBa) " I saw again "

Likewise elha

and

va eiTTM

rjpOa (vpX^) " I came "


va 'pOo), va 'pro) (va iXdco) beside
va 'p6co, va p6co (va e\6co, va epp^o), va '/3%ft)).
:

found " va ^pco beside va evpco.


drank " va ttico.
I became "
va jevM beside va

7]vpa " I
TjiTia "

eytva "

yevco

(and va

^Ivco).
2.

On

va ipOov, va VoG (Texts III.

3), c/.

213, n.

3.

216. Imperative.

Present
(a?,

hivcD " let


"

va

me

bind

")

hive " bind thou

a? (or va)
a? (va)

Sevr)

Bevco/jLe

etc.

(Bevovfie)

Severe

a? (va) Bevovv(e)

Aorist.
(a?,

va

Beo-co)

Beae

a?

Becrrj

a?

Be(7cojjLe

(Bea-ovjue)

va ^dyco)

(a?, vet juLelvco)

(a?,

fxelve

(j)dye

a?

fieivj)

a^i

(jxiyj)

fjuelvcofie

a?

(pdyco/jue

a?

Beaere

/xelvere

(pdyere

a? Beaovv

a? fxeivouv

a?

(fidyovv.

In polysyllabic words the accent of the 2nd sing, withdraws unto the third last syllable as, irrjyaive " go thou,"
Kddicre (or Kdrae) " sit down."
;

Only the 2nd sing, and pi. correspond to the ancient forms,
with this difference, however, that the terminations of the present
The Pontic forms
(-, -Te) have been carried over also to the aorist.
like ypdij/ov, TToicTov (ttoct/o-ov), and such forms from the Terra
d' Otranto as krdtiso (/cpa-nyo-ov), piste/so {TrLareva-ov), correspond
exactly to an a. Gk. ypd\j/ovy etc.
The other forms of the imperative are constructed with the aid of the particle as (negative as fti})
or vd (va fnij) and the subjimctive, cf. 193f.

f
MORPHOLOGY

155

217. The initial e of the 2nd pi. termination is quite


aKovare " hear," d<f>rj(TT (sometimes
frequently dropped
allow," ypdyjrre, Ko-^re (and xocjiTe),
a(f)7]Te or aa-re) "let,

\v(TT6 " loose," opiare "

ally dropped, particularly

3rd pers.
dcj)(T6

follows

= d(l)rja6,

to (also

do

it,"

I.

thou

a.

ySaX' to,

common

" (as in a. Gk.) is quite


"
S(a(TT, ^69
put, place " pi. OeaTe.
" give

is

occasion-

the

to from a(^? to,

d<f)

TEXTS

or a? to from dae,

to), (pKeida 'tov (Velv.) "

{k6(I>

the 2nd sing,

e of

a conjunctive pronoun of

if

d(j)r}a

(Tvpre " draw," (pepre

(iraLpvco),

Even the termination

" bring."

pi^re, /SaXre " put," " lay,"

command,"

pcorrjCTTe " ask," irdpTe " take "

9),

<j)6p'

(beside

cf.

to

Koyfr

So?

Ta.

Bcoare) pi.

Occasionally 86 fxov for 80s /xov ; 80s and ^es are, of course, the
1
Gk. forms, but, as Swo-e, Swa-re, and Oea-re show, may be treated
exactly like the above cited forms.
2. The employment of aKova-re and so forth for the subjunctive,
i.e. VOL {int. 6a) oLKOva-Te for va {Oa) dKova-ere (cf. Tbxts II. b. 6), etc.,

a.

is rare.

and

218. The following imperative forms of the 2nd


belong with the aorists cited in

pi.

eTTTjpa

sing,

irdpe, irdpTe.

7rr)ya

215

either vd

ird^;,

vd Trare

TjpOa: e\a (in dialect veXa,

(i.e.

subj.) or dfie, dfieTe.

Texts

III. 15, Lada),

eXare

(in dialect also IXdaTe).

eycva
ecTra

elha

vd

yive, usually

ycvrj^,

vd

ytv6T.

elire, 'ire, Tre?, pi. elireTe, ireTe,

the, Be, (l )B<i

ireaTe (and Tr^re).

pi. IBeTe, Sere, (t)8eo-Te.

7)vpa

vp, ^p6, ^p6^, pi. PpeTe, ^prJTe.

ijina

7rfc(?), pi.

q v\ t^
-^

Trtere.

The

imperat. to e/xaOa (fxaOaLvoi) is /xdOe; [xaOi or /xa^es is,


however, used in a parenthetic way, " that is to say," " then " {cf.
1.

259).
2.

On

analogy of cXa eXare a few other imperatives in

-a,

-are

(beside cttckov) from arriKoixai


" stand " (aor. o-racrov o-TaOrJTC, V. below), rpexa rpex^re from rpe^oi
" run " (aor. rpe^e rpe^ere), ^cvya ^evyarc from <j>e6yoi " flee, go

have been formed

away "
(

(aor,

207),

category

<j>vy

</)vycTe)

which belong
:

a-TCKare

the forms of the compounds of ySacVw

to another class of aorist, also

come under

commonly

c^ya

dve/?a dve/Sdre

Btd/Sa 8ta/3aT,
etc.).

crrcKa

(less

ifxirdTe (beside plurals dve^rjre, ^yrJTC, 8i.a/3rJT,


particle vd " there is (are), behold " takes, according

to such models, a plural vdre.

i.e.

forms

<^6vya(rT,

this

e/Jyare,

e/xTra

Even the

sing, in the

dve^dcrTe),

A -s

e/x7ras, <f)vya<s,

Texts

has attached to the

Texts

I. d.

III. 11 (Velvendos).

5 (Syra),

final of

the

pi. tjajSyda-'-Ti-y

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAE

156
3.

The imperative

a(yw)/x.

a/xerc is

oific

So likewise

Trd/xe

"let

properly a stereotyped form of


us go, now then" takes a pi.

7ra/xcTC.

Passive.^

219. Present.
Subjunctive.

Indicative.

am bound

Bevofiat {Beuovjjbac) " I

"

va

BeveaaL

Bevcofiai,

etc.

Several

like the indie.

Bev6/jLacrT6 {Bevovfiaarej -fiecrTe)

SeveaTe
hevovvrai.

The North. Gk. forms


Southern Gk.

SeVov/xt, SeVto-i, etc., arise

hivovjxai is less in use

yivrai, etc., occurs for ytVerat,

than

Texts

SeVo/xat.

from 7, n. 1. In
In Saranda Klisies

III. 12.

220. Imperfect.
eBiuoviJbov(v), eB6v6/Jiovv(e)

eBevov(rov(v), eBev6aovv(e)

eBevovvTa{v), eBev6T0vv{e), iBevorav^e)

iBepovfiaare {-fxeare, -fieara), iBevojiaaTe

eBevovaaare, iBevoaacrre, eBevovare


eBevovvTa(v), iBevovvTav(e), eBevovrovaav.
1.

In addition to these forms there are also numerous further

variations, e.g.

1st sing. iBivoixr] (Karpathos), iBevofxovVf iBvovfJLOVv{), iBevovfxovve,


Bv6fxav().

2nd

sing. cSeVccrovv (Cyprus), c8vovcrow(), iBevovaovve.

3rd sing. BveTo(v)

(e.g.

in Calymnos), iBiverovv, BlvovTa(v), iBivov-

Tov, iSevovrave, iBvovvTav{e) (also ihevovvTave,

Instead of the final

sometimes also a

Naxos).

is

found

{iSevoixovva

and

so on).
1st pi. iSevovfxacTTev, iS^vovjxeo-Tave, eSevov/xaCTrav, ()SeVov/xacrTovr.

2nd pi.

cSeVco-re (e.g. in

Calymnos), eSivova-rav, iSevovaacrTcv, iSivov-

eSiuovaaaTovv.
(Spellings with aO for err, as in eBevovaOavy
are due to the literary language.)
Notice
3rd pi. eSivovvTo (e.g. Calymnos) eBevovrav, eBevovvTaanv.
also VTav=iyLvovvTav (Texts III. 13. c) and Oafid^dava (from -^ovvcraa-rav,

rava\ Texts III. 12.


2. The various forms have arisen from the a. Gk. (the forms of
which are stiil well maintained in dialect, v. n. 1) through the
mutual action of the different persons on one another and by the
action of the active upon the passive.
^

So

also the deponents like ^pxoimi, etc., 177, !#

MORPHOLOGY

157

221. AorisL
Subjunctive.

Indicative.
iBedr^Ka " I

was bound

"

va Bedo)

eBe6r]Ke^

va

iBi6r)K

va Sedfj

iBedrjKajJLe

iBedij/cere

va Bedovfie
va Bedrjre

eBedrjKav, iBeBriKav{e)

va Bedovv, Bedovve.

Similarly

e<f>dv'qKa

KaT^(x), i/iTrrjKa

va

va

(less

KaTe-^rjKa

ave-

(j)avco,

'imttm

Be6rj<i

commonly va

i/'

e/jLirco,

ave^oy va

vd

'

fiiro)),

The subjunctive endings take the place

i^yrjKa vd ^^yco.
of -7]Ka,
1.

Gk.

North.

(oL)Kov(rKa

c8c^Ka, iXevrepwOKa, iravrpevKa

oiKovaTrjKa),

<fiKy<rKa (

= VKrj[(r]Tr]Ka)j

= 7ravTpVT7]Ka),

etc.:

in the plural

the accent remains on the same syllable as in the singular

thus,

e.r/.

^dOKafiL = )(aOr]Kafi for ^aOrJKafii, ^ulOkltl = )(d67)KT for ^aOi^KeTe.


2. The 3rd sing, also in -v: e.g. a-Kto-rrjKcv, iravrpiVKLv (Yelw).

according to 17.
The 2nd plural occasionally runs also iSeOyKaTe instead of -T (cf. the active), the 3rd
pi. also -aa-L (iBidrJKaa-i) instead of -ai/, likewise as the active; rf.
214, n. 4.
On
3. The subjunctive corresponds exactly to the a. Gk. form.
the addition of -/ca in the indie, v. 208 it appears in dialect also
in the subj. in va hrfKin (Texts III. 12) = i/a yuTrw (fr. ifnrrJKaj 207)
The form iSiOrjva (Aegina) inflects like
ef. on this point 214, n. 5.
iSidrjKa.
On unenlarged formations, cf. 208.
iheOrjTo-e for iBWrjKCy etc.,

^'^'^

Imjpcrati've.

Present
Bevou " be thou bound

a? Beverac

etc.

a? Bevdifjuaare

Beveare

a? Bevovvrat

Aorist.
vrpd-sfrov "

Beaov

a? vTpaTTovfie

BeOovfie

vTpairfjTe

Bedijre
tt9

"

a? VTpaTTrj

a? Bedfi
d<i

be ashamed

Be6ovv{e)

a<?

vTpaTTOvve.

Before -aov of the 2nd sing, aorist imperat. the same stem

form

is

used as
II

before -a- of

the aorist act. (yeyjrov from

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

158

^evo^at,

2nd

crTO')(aa-ov

sing,

with

from

-ov

(TTO')(a^o[xaL).

instead

e^dvrjKa "appear," (l)avov (beside


"rejoice," %apoi)

(beside

^kvov and ^ivov (and even

Final accent in the

-aov occurs

of

^ivoyuai

')(apov).

in

(fiaivofiai

'^^aipo^iai,

(f)dvov),

"

e')((iprjKa

become

"

takes

7/1/6).

Tlie
1. As in the imperat. active, va may he used instead of a?.
imperat. passive is not common, apart from that of middle verbs Hke
ycrojuai, (TvWoyL^ofxaLj ;j(atpo/>iat.
The most commonly used imperative is a-raoroi' (North. Gk. o-rao-'), pi. o-ra^^re " stop " (fr. creKO/xat
lo-TaBrjKa).

On

the 2nd sing, and pi. aor. imperat. of ave/SaLvw, etc., v.


The other persons (as ave/drj, etc.), and avejSrjre, etc.,
beside avefiare, formally come under this head.
crrjKwaov crrjKwO^Te fr.
3. cn7K(jD or cry]Kov "rise (up)" beside
<Tr]K<I)V(ii is used almost like a particle.
4. In Cyprus (and kindred dialects) the 2nd sing, imperat.
(while maintahiing the tense characteristics) ends in -6ov (-rov) ; as,
2.

^ 218, n.

XvirrjOov

2.

= Xv-n-qcov

for xacrov

"regret," a-Ta6ov

(TTa.(TOV,

Pontic x^t (Texts III. 14.

Of., further,
(fr.

In Saranda Klisi^s

ixdOrjKa).

imperat. ends in -rare;

a), i.e.

as,

(rTo\d(TTOV

= aTO)(dcrov.

x^^tov (subj. va xaro))


{v.

Texts

III. 12) the

XovOrae, KOifx-^dTae (from ^XovOrja-e,

etc.,

in

active sense).

Compound Tenses.
223. The auxiliary verbs e^co "I have,"

eljuaL

"I am,"

66\(o " I will,"

and the particle 6d (devd, Oavd, OeXd) are


employed to form the compound verbal forms (futures,
perfect, pluperfect, future perfect, and conditional).
224. Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verbs.
xo) is found only in the present, imperfect (eZ;j^a),
The
future (Od \q) = 6a e^co), and first conditional {6a elxa).

1.

conjugation

with vd
aorist is
2.

is

quite

regular.

Usually the

circumlocution

employed for the 2nd person imperative. The


sometimes supplied by that of Xa^alvco (eXa^a).
is

elfiav " I

am."
Fresent
Subjunctive.

Indicative.
elfxai

elaac

va
vd

elfiai,

(vd 'fiai)

elcrac

(vd 'aat)

elvaL (elve)

va elvai (vd 'vac)

eLfiaaTe, etfieaTa

vd

elare

vd elare (vd Vre)

lv(ai>)

vd elvac (vd

etfiaare, eifieara (vd ^fiacTTe),

'vac).

MORPHOLOGY
1.

The subjunctive
The older forms

is also

written va

159
(3rd sing, va

yfjcau, etc.

rjvai).

some dialects
The intermediate step between eve and
(e.g. Maina, Pontus, Cyprus).
Moreover, eh and
ctvat, namely evai, is met with Texts III. 14. a.
even el (Chios) are found.
2.

of the 3rd pers. still survive in

Imperfect.
TjiMovvia)

7]aovv{a)

7]T0v(), riTav{e)

rjaaare,

3.

The following

^ixav().

rja-re

7]Tav(), Tjaave.

,,

2nd

additional forms occur

(Lesbos, Saranda Klisies) r^dav.

2nd

pi. yjcrrav, y]cra(Trav, rjcracrTov.

like 1st sing, ^/x or


dialects.

-^/xva,

The forms

2nd

rjfj^rjv,

1st pi.

3rd

sing.

^a-o

1st sing, rifxovvi, rjfxowi,

3rd sing,

sing, ^arovve, rjcrovvi, rja-avi.

^fieOa,

tjto, r]Tovv, tjtovl^

rjixaa-rav,

rjfxacTTov.

pi. y]VTOvcrav, rfVTOV(rav.

t]<s

Forms

or ^(rva, arise in J^orth.

Gk.

belong to the literary language.

Imperative.

va

etcrai (or

vd

'(rai),

also ecaov

a? eluac
a? eljxaaTe
{ya) elcrre

a?
4.

co-Two-av

elvai.

(Texts

I. a.

21) "let

them be"

is

a word from the

ecclesiastical language.

The future present and conditional are regularly 6a elfjuat^


Od 'fiac {davd fMat) and 6a Y]fjbovv(e), r)6e\' elfiai respectively
The defective forms may
on their formation, v. 225 f., 230.
be supplied by the corresponding forms of areKoa " stand ",
:

'

(aor. iarddrjKa, etc.).


3.

6\(o " I win."


Present.

6ek(o
6e\eL';,

6h

6e\et, 6e

6e\o{v)^,

6eiJLe

6e\Te, 6eT
6eXovv{e), 6ev.
1.

The abbreviated forms

Notice, further, ^r=^eAei(s)

are less in use than the full forms.

Texts IIL

9 (Chios).

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

IGO

Imfperfect

rjdeXafie

rjOeXere (r/OeXaTe)
ijdeXav, (rj)66Xav,

Aorist,
rjOeXrjaa, etc.

Imperative.

The 2nd
6eXr),

a?

pers.

OeXrja-rj).

is

little

in use, otherwise regularly (a?

Also the other parts of this verb are

regularly formed so far as they are at all in use.


2. Tlie particle 66. and the forms closely akin with it ( 225)
were phonetically evolved only partly out of Oikm and va "that":
6i{\u) vd to Oeva (^eXa), Oavd, Od.
On the forms 8dj ^dj a, ivvd, V.

20, n. 2.
3. Sometimes other verbal forms (partly stereotyped and of the
nature of particles) are employed to express a definite modality ; thus,
e.fj. s6:d (soni) pi. sozune in Otranto to denote " can " (sozifondsi " he
could cry," s6?mne yeldsi " they could laugh ") or ttol (a stereotyped
TTttct) vd " am about to, going to " (m tto, va crov rrj <fipo) " I am going
to f otrh her to thee "), or Xa^ in Pontus to denote a wish (Xax ^x^ =
a.

Gk.

e)(OLfjLi),

Active.

225. The Future

is

a combination of 6d (or in dialect

Bd, ^d, a), or dialectically or archaically 6evd (less

6avd, deXd, Cyprian ivvd), with


II.

aorist subjunctive.

the second

(II.)

forms,

191.

V, ^

The

I.

first

the present future,

(I.) is

the aoristic future.

On

the usage of both

II.

T.

Oa Bei^(o
da Bei'rj<i
Oa Bevrj
6a Bevoifie
6a B6V6T6
6a B6P0vu{6)
^

If the verb begins


^

commonly

the present subjunctive or

with a vowel the

0a Biaco
6a Beay^i
6a Beer)
^

6a Beacofie
6a Beaere
6a Biaovve.
final -a of the particle

Or one of the equivalent forms 6em,

etc.

blends

MORPHOLOGY

161

with the following initial, *?. 11. Analogous to vdv and vd


sometimes also 6dv is used beside 6d.

34,

n. 2),

226. In addition

the forms given

to

the

following

circumlocutions for the future also are found


(1) deXcj ypd<p(o (ypdyfrco), ^e\et? ypd(f)r)<i {ypd->^V^)^ ^tc.
(2) 6e\co^'ypd(pL (ypdyjrec), deXet^ ypd(f)t (ypdyfrei), etc.

/,

(3) 6eXec ypd^cj (ypdylro)), diXei


before a vowel 6e\! e;^ft), and so on.

6a)

rypd(j)7j(;

{ypdy^ys;),

deXco,

va

These forms, however, are not ertensively in

use.

(4)

va

(also

(ypdylrrjf;) OeXeL<i

T^otice

Texts

or

ypdcjxo

III. 1

(jpdyjro))

ypd(j)r)<;

etc.

Oe<;,

etc.,

(Bova) the future formed with

exo)

eh'i/i

na

" he will come."

erti

227. The Perfect and Phiyerfect are formed with the


e;)^ft)
and the passive participle, or with e')(a) and an

help of

(invariable)

root

form

similar

to

3rd

the

sing,

aorist

subjunctive
Perfect.
')((o

Be/jLevo " I

have bound

"

evet? heiievo

Or

^X^f^^ Bejiivo
^Vere Beiievo

e^ft) BeGrei (Bearj)

^ei9 Beaei
if
^ f
ej^ei o(Tt

e-^ofxe

Beaec

e^ere Bea-ec

e^ovv Biaei.
Pluperfect,

elxa
l)(^e<;

Befievo " I

had bound

"

Befxevo

et^e Befievo
el^ajjie Be/juevo

et'^ere BefjLeuo
t')(av{e) Befievo.

Or:

eZ;^^ Bearei

el^e? Beaet, etc.

The second method is limited in popular usage to localities,


The differthough a favourite with the authors and poets.

162 HANDBOOK OF THE


ence which exists in
" ich

and

MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

German between,

ich

Jm gegangen "

habe gebimden," or in French, "je suis arrive" and

" ]'ai trouve,"

modern Greek only

applies in

to the second

method;

"midnight

to the first but not


''

thus, elfiai (jyTaa/nepo^;

arrived" (usually aorist ecpraaa),


irdyet " I

e.g., "

but
is past," etc.
have (had) gone,"
;

/jLeadvv^^^ra

for other
e;^ft)

forms only

(prdaec

am

(have)

elvav Trepaafieva

" I

e^j^oj

(et^a)

have arrived,"

etc.i

also used in place of the

Be/jiiva is

form

If the

Be/Jbevo.

accusative of a conjunctive pronoun precedes, the participle


agrees with
" I

it

and number

in gender

have seen her,"

tov<;

)((*>

Sometimes, however, the participle remains invariable


X0) IBwfjueva,

TEXTS

thus, ryv ex^o IBcofievrj


IBcofievov^ " I have seen them."
;

cf.

tjju

III. 4.

on the surface the 3rd sing. subj. This


form conceals the remnant or the transformation of the ancient
1.

SeVet resembles only

infinitive in -civ (Sia-eiv for ScVat after the present).

The

preterite

c^w with the infin. is of quite recent date, and was evolved
out of the scheme eT;(a + intin. after the latter had taken on pluperfect
meaning.
2. Occasionally (particularly in Zaconian) instead of the participle
e^o aKova-Ta " I
in -jxevo the verbal adjective in -ros is employed
have heard," c^et o-^aXtp^r^ t^ yvi/atKav tov " he has closed in his
Sometimes
wife " (" keeps his wife closed in ") (Texts I. d. 5).
even a real adjective serves in this function ex<^ Trc/xTraro " I have
senf^e of

"he

sent," ctmt <j>xr/dTos

is

fled"

{cf.

212).

228. The Future Perfect

of e;^a)

is a combination of the future


which
serves also in the perfect
and the same form

and pluperfect
da e;^&) Be/jiivo or 6a e^fo Biaet
6a 6^0) is conjugated quite regularly.
In place

of

Oa

e;(w

the

other

" I shall

future

have bound

"

combinations are also

possible.

229. The

tense

forms

given

in

227

f.

are

not

frequently used, since the aorist can represent also perfect

and pluperfect (and even future perfect),


189, 192.
The simple vernacular has little need for these forms, which
define more accurately the temporal course of an action.
The use of the perfect e;^a) Becrec is least common, the aor.
'y.

is universally employed to form the perfect


but the auxiliary he may be employed with some intransitive
verbs (of motion), " I a7n come " or " I have come."]
^

and

[In English the auxiliary have

]iluperf.,

MORPHOLOGY

lb5

quite frequently having the force of our perfect


189, 2) c/ e.g. Bh exovfie iroXvavvnOiaei (Texts II. 7) " we
The pluperfect elx^
have (not yet) accustomed ourselves."
BeaL is employed to throw into relief the completion of one

indie,
(

action

contrast

in

another

to

expression of the past idea

connection

the

effyatve

rj

rov

^epec

et^az^e

^acnXoirovXa

past

when

or

event,

the

required to understand clearly

is

4)

(II. b.

"

fiepa,

/jllol

rrjv

copa

irov

they had brought him one

day at the hour when the princess used to go out," dvfirjOrjKe


Kelvo irov el^e Tci^et (I. d. 1) "he remembered what he had
promised," ol fxolpe^
(I I. b. 4)

"the

The pluperfect

fairies
is,

the previous past


for

which the

jSdcrapa ttov

ttjv eX')(ave TrpoLKLcreL

oXe? t/?

6iiop(f)ie<^

had endowed her with every beauty."


when an action of

further, the correct usage


is

to be depicted in its course (a function

aorist is manifestly unsuitable)

eZ;^e

Tpa^ri^et

(w?

e.g.

oXa ra

Tore, rjTave TLTrorivia fi7rpo<i

4) "

all the trials which he had until then endured


."
were as nothing compared with
The form e;)^G) (eZ;\;a) Befiivo denotes only by way of
.

(II. b.

exception a simple action of the past, but emphasises rather


the

circumstantial result

ypdylret ro ypafifia is

ypafifiivo TO ypcififia is

written

here

it

is."

an

of

akin to

action.

ypa'\]ra,

something like
Of.,

further,

Thus, while exco

the sense of to

to

" I

e;^ft>

have the letter

'p^a

/jLepeo/nevo

(to

15) "I have (the bird) tamed," ^.e. "I have


in it a tamed creature," rov ttXl a ^fj, to \ov Kpv/jifiepov
(III. 11) "thy bird lives, I have it concealed (in a hidingplace)," arbv SijjLO et^e Kpe/jLaa/xevo eva aaKfcovXt (II. b. 3)
" on his shoulder he had a bag hung."
In most cases the
TTovXaKi) (III.

participle

is

(complement)

little

more than an

adjectival

determination

of the object.

The same applies to the perfect passive eJ/jLat Be/juevo^


and the pluperfect tjpLovv 8e/ieVo9 ( 232): e.g. rjrav jpafifieva GTo cnraBl "it was (could be read) written on the
sword."

230. The various forms of the Conditional are formed


6d and the imperfect (or pluperfect), or (2)

either (1) with

with the imperfect of OeXw and an (invariable) basal form in


-ei, like the 3rd sing. pres. or aor. subjunctive (the time in
question deciding whether present or aorist stem).

/
/

164 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


Present Conditional.
eSeva " I

6a
6a eheve^i
6a eBeve

should bind

"

Oa ehevajxe
6a eheveie
6a eSevav.

rjdeXa heaei (al. Uvei) " I should bind."

Or

r)9eKe<;

heaei (Bevet)

TjOeKe hiaei (Bevei)


(rj)6eXa/JL Beaei (Beveo)

(^)^6\eTe

Secret (Bevei)

{rj)6e\ave Beaet (Bevei),


1.

The following combinations

are also possible

^OcXa 8cV(o (Secrw), -^^eXcs 8ivr)<; (Secrr^s), and SO on,


(2) ^OeXe SeVo) (Bea-ui), yjOeXe Bevrjs (8ci/r;s), and so on.
(3) Oa rjOeXa {va) SeVo) (ScVco), 6a ^^eXc9 (va) SeVr;?
(1)

and so

(ScVr/s),

on.

^a TjOiXa Bivi (Seo-et), ^a -^^cXes SeVct (Secret), and so on.


6a rjOeXi (ya) ScVw (8e(r<o), 6a ^OeXe (va) 3ev>79 (Beayi), and so on.
The schemes (3), (4), and (5) emphasise the idea of contingency.
(6) -^^eXa ISci'a, ly^cXcs c8ei/S or ^cXa (c)8i/a, ^eXa (l)8i/es,
(4)

(5)

and so on.
(7) rj6X* cSci/a, ^^eX' eBiva,
2.

On

the sense of ^a

and SO

cSeora,

^a

on.

cSeo-cs, cf.

195.

Past ConditionaL

6a eBeva^

Or

3.

etc.

6a ^ el'^a Be/juivo or Beaei " I should have bound


6a el^^e? Befievo or Beaev
6a el^e Befiivo or Bea-ec
6a et-^^afjue Be/xevo or Biaei,
6a el')(eTe Be/xivo or Beaei
6a cL'^aue Befievo or Beaei.

Instead of ^a cTxa the various combinations of the present


may be used, Bifxivo or Secret remaining ^^eXa e^et Bcfxivo

conditional
(Secret),

-^^eXa e^o) Bejxevo (Secret), etc.

On

the usage of the Conditional,

cf,

277,

4.

Passive.

"

231. Future.
I.

6a ^ Bevwfiai,
6a Beveaai
*

Or one

II.

6a B6m
6a Be6fj%

of the equivalent forms ^evd, etc., 225.

MORPHOLOGY
6a he6fi
6a hedovfjLe
6a Bedfjre
6a he6ovve.

6a heverai
6a Bevcofjiaa-Te
6a Bev6(TT
6a BevovvTai
Corresponding to the future

226

1G5

schemes given in

active

the following are possible for the passive:

(1) 6ek(o BivcofjLat, (Bedco), 6e\ec^ Beveaai {Be6fj^)y etc.


(2) 6ek(o Be6l, 6e\i<; Se^e?.

(3) 6Xi Beveofiat (oe^w), 66\et, Biveaat


(4) va Bevodjxav

(Be6fjf;)

{Be6()i) 6e\(o.

232. The Perfect Phcperfect^ and Future Perfect are


formed (1) with el^at and the passive participle (declined
like an adjective), or (2) with ej^w and a form like the 3rd
^

sing. aor. passive subjunctive.

Perfect
elfxai B6jjL6vo<; (Be^evrj, Befxevo) "

am

(have been) bound

eicrai Befievo^

elvav Befjiivo^
etjiaa-re Befxevoi (Bejjbive^, Befieva)
eZ(7T6 Be/iievoc

elvai Bsfievot.

Or

ex^y ^e^et {B66rj)

e^et? Be6el
ej(ei Be66l

exofie Be6el

eX^TC B66l
Xpyv{e) Be6et.
Pluperfect.
7jfiovv(a) Bfivo<; " I
7](70uv(a) Se/iei/o?

ijrave Befievof;
ijfiaaTe Be/ievov
-^

Tjaaare Befievoc
rJTave Bejievoi.

Or

elxa Be6el
elxe'i Be6Ly etc.

was (had been) bound

"

"

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

166

Future Perfect

da (or Oeva,

etc.)

el/jLac

Be/mevo^

" I

shall

have

been

bound."

Oa elaaL

Or

Oa

scheme

is,

Oa

Oa
Oa
Oa
Oa
Oa
Oa

This

Conditional Present.

iBevovfjLovv

" I

should be bound

"

iSevovaovv
iBevovvrav
iBevovfiaare

eBevovaaare
iBevovvrav.

rjOeXa BeOel

e%?7? BeOel, etc.

the transformation of the ancient infinitive BiOrjvai.


like that of the active, limited to certain localities.

233.

Or

BeOet,

e'X^co

SeOc'i is

BfjLevo<;, etc.

7]6\<;

BeOec

ijOeXe BeOet
(r))06\a/jL6 BeOel
'

(r})Oe\eT BeOel

iri)Oe\ave BeOel.

As

1.

pos.sible

in the active, the following additional combinations are

(1) rj6(Xa SeVw/xat (Sc^w), -^^cXes Biv^crai (BeOrj^), etc.


(2) rjOeXe SeVoj/xat (Sc^cu), ^/^cXcs Sevca-at (SeOrj^), etc.
(3) ^(x y]OiX(x (va) 8cV(0jU,at (Se^oi), ^a -^OeXe's (va) SeVco-at (Sc^w), etc.

^a rtOeXa B^Ou, 6a ^^cAc? Se^c?, etc.


6a rjOeXi (va) Bivio/xai (8e^a>), ^a ^OeXe (va) ScVccrat (SeOfjs), etc.
(6) ^OeX^ iSivov/xovv, ly^eA,' iBivovcrovv, etc., or deXa ScVov/xow, deXa
(4)

(5)

Bevova-ovv, etc.
2.

On

the meaning of ^a iBi6r)Ka,

cf.

195.

Conditional Past.

Or

Or

Oa iBivovfiovv
Oa rjfiovv{a) B6/jl6vo<;
Oa i]aovv(a) Se/xeVo?
Oa i]TaV B6/JL6V0<;
Oa r)fjLa(TT6 Be/neioc
Oa Tjaaare Be/xiuoL
Oa i]Tav6 BefjLevot.
Oa elxO' BeOel
Oa el'^e'i BeOet, etc.
^

" I

should be (have been) bound

Or one of the equivalent forms $eva, and so


Or one of the other imperfect forms, 220.

on, 225.

"

MORPHOLOGY

167

Once more the various other combinations may be inserted


and 6a clj^a.

3.

Oa

'

for

rj/jiovva

The

234. Modern

Participles.

Greek

has

following

the

participle

system
(1) Active present participle in -ovra^: hevovTa^ "binding" (indeclinable).
(2) Past participle passive in

on the formation of which v.


the same sense a participle in

-fievo<i

209

ff.

-to?, v.

8e/xeVo? " bound,"

Sometimes also in
212.

This participle in the case of intransitive verbs has an active


value; as, c^rac/AeVo? "arrived," avOta-fjievos "flowering," and even
<^ay(o/xeVo9 " having eaten, satisfied " (ct/xao-Te (^ayw/xei/ot " we have
eaten, are satisfied

(3)

").

number

middle (or passive) present participles


which those more commonly used

of

in -ovfievo^ or -dfievo^, of

are

A.

Ka6ovfjb6vo<; " sitting " {Kadofiai)

KeLTovfievo<s " lying,

bed-ridden " {Keiro^aC)

TO fieXkovfjuevo " the future " (/xeXXet)


"
flying " (Trerw), neut. " bird
"
TO irpeTTov/jbevo " what is proper (Trpeiret)

7r6TovfjLvo<; "

"

Tp6^o.vfjL6vo<;
fjLeva

running, current " (rpexfo)

"what has taken

place,

event"

ra Tpe^ovGk. ra

(a.

yeyovoTa)
joyful "

'^apovfjLevof; "

'X^peia^ov/jLevo^ "

(')(aLp(i))

necessary," " needful " (^(peLd^ofjLaL).

B. <yevdfievo^ " becoming " (yevofiac)


ipxd^ievo^ "

coming "

(ep'^ofiai)

KeLTcifievo^ beside /cetTou/i-ei/o?


\ydjjL6vo<;

"

what

is

"
(being) referred to," " aforesaid

(keyco)
irerdfievo';

beside

7r7}yaivdfjL6V0(; "
crTeKdfjLvo<i "
fjL6va "

ireroufjuevof; "

going

flying

"

" (irTjyaivay)

standing, stagnant " (of water)

ra ajeKa-

chattels " {aTeKco)

Tp/jidfA,evo^ "

trembling "

TpxdfMvo<;
" running

"running,

water

Xatpdfj.evo^; "

enjoying (a husband),"

(rpi/jLO))

flowing,"

particularly

" beside rpexov/J^evo^


i.e.

not a widow.

n.

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

168

The

1.

participles in -ov/icvo?

those in -dfxvo^ from

Some

a.

meaning

Gk. participles in

like

(t)(rTaju,vo9,

have completely

-ov/xevos

as, 6 r)yovixvo<s

were taken from the contracted verbs,

ancient models

Sc^ti/x-ero?.

lost their original

" the abbot," ra Xakovfxeva " the musical

instruments."

There are only solitary occurrences of other participial formathus the Greek of Lower Italy still retains a participle from
the aor. active, the pres. Xvwovra (-as) giving an aor. kva-ovra,
2.

tions

Others again are retained only as adjectives


yepvovra giving yetpovra.
" {sc. flavayta
or as substantives
6.^7.17 cXeovcra " the compassionate
" mother of God
" present " (indeclinable) is taken
") ; 6 Trapoiiv)
from the literary language.
:

235. The

constructions

participle

compared with ancient Greek.


participle in

-fievo<;

(2), v^hich

and sometimes even takes the place


clause; cf. e.g. IIL 8. 1.
1.

An

absolute

are

very

limited

The most common is the


is employed as an adjective,
of a (relative)

dependent

construction occurs in Texts L a. 8


rov
" I beseech, him with folded hands
:

TrepiKokui TO. x^pta arravpiofiiva

(the hands folded)."

The

participle in -ovfievo^ or -dfievo<i (3) stands either


as to, irerd/jbeva ttovXco, " the flying birds," o

attributive,
Xeydfjuevo^

Wv^aptafMO'; " the so-called P.," or converts to a

substantive (see above), or

ara /caka

Ka6ov/jLeva " at

is

confined to fixed expressions, like

random."

In the employment of the vernacular for literary purposes an


made to extend this principle or to introduce the literary
form (in -6/xevo<s) into the vernacular usage (e.g. rd ypac^o/xem tov
"his writings," Texts II. b. 7, or Aeyo/xevos = Xeya/Aeros).
2.

effort is

236. The participle in -ovTa<^ ( 234, 1) is never employed attributively, but serves (like the French en with pres.
participle) as an absolute form, and mostly to complement,
illustrate, or

PXeirovv
etTre

explain the verbal action

" seeing

(with

\eyovTa<; " he spoke

"

their eyes) they


to

them

e.g.

^Xeirovra^i hev

do not

see,"

saying," K\aiovTa<;

tou?
Xeeu

weeping he says," o Xdpo<i irereieTai to Bpeirdvc Kparcjvra^


(TTo ykpi " Death hastes, holding the sickle in his hand "
notice 6eXovTa<; fiy OeXovra^ " whether (he) will or not."
Further, it may express the contemporaneous occurrence of
two actions as, avrh dfcovovra^ eyive a(j)avTo<^ " hearing (as he
heard) this he became invisible."
Constructions like dvra<;
;

MORPHOLOGY
^epddrjKav

pi^a

^iX(o<;

169

"being

(Pallis)

without

they

root

withered," are rare.

The

1.

participle does not of necessity relate to the subject

c/.

ayKaOaKi "stripping (as he


stripped) (the bushes) a thorn pricked him," Kapnpovv rrjv dvoi^i .
V aKovaovv to. BXa;^d7rovA.a AaAtovras T9 <f>koyps (Texts I. a. 5)
"they waited for the spring in order to hear the shepherd children
playing (when they played) the flute."
absolute construction is rare.
2. A nominative
The writer
throughout his historic prose {'la-Topia Trj<s
'E<f)TaXio)Trjs, who
FuxfjLLoavvrjS) 1901) manifests a certain propensity for participial constructions, and introduces into the vernacular after the model of the
pres. participle in -ovras aorist forms like 6ap\l/avTa<Sf paOovras (cf.
234, n. 2), cfiol3r]0VTa<Sf writes also, e.g., ytVerat pcydXo crvvi^pio crro
KXaSvovra<s

t6i/

Kevrpwa-e

eu

Trapovras

TraAdrt,

assembly

is

ki

6 TraTptdpxrjS kl oXot

ol xpov;^ovTS

"a

held in the palace, at which the patriarch and

great

all

the

dignitaries Avere present."

II.

that

CONTRACTED VERBS.

237. To the contracted verbs belong all verbs in -w,


all those which bear the accent on the final in the

is,

Also
1st. sing. pres.
under present system

some forms.

the
II.

"semi-contracted"

verbs given

c follow the contracted verbs in

The contracted verbs are divided into two


which is found in the 2nd sing,
-w, -a?, and (2) in -w, -et?.

classes, the characteristic of

pres. (1) in

Both

classes correspond to the a.

are new-comers

such as

cTKtu,

e.g.

Gk

verbs in -aw and

-etu.

evKovfxat for evxopai (evKtjOrjKa), together

dpTTw for o-Ka^oo, dpTrd^w, etc.,

v.

p.

136f.

Some
with

The two

Gk. verbs in -aw and -eo) merge in many points in their


conjugation, the verbs in -aw having appropriated forms of the -w
The
conjugation {cf. pioTovpi, pwrowe, ^pimovfTa^ ipwrovva, etc.).
ancient -ow verbs have converted into barytones in -wvw, v. 199, I.
classes of a.

6, n. 3.

The

first

class in

than the second,

v.

Contracted verbs

-w, -a? is considerably

more common

250.
differ

from the conjugation of barytones

only in the present (including imperative and pres. participle)

and the imperfect,

all

the other forms being identical with

those of the barytones (taking into account the stem formation of the aorists act.

given under 201,

11.

and pass, and the passive participle


and 210, II.).

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GEEEK VERNACULAR

170

FIRST CLASS.
Paradigm

pcoTc!)

" I ask.

Active.

238.

Present.

Subjunctive.

Indicative.

va p(OT(o
va pcoTa^
va pcoTa
^
va pcoTovfie ^urJ^^^^
va payrdre
va pct3Tovv(e), _JJ^\/h

pft)Tft>

p(t)Ta^

poyra
pQ)T0VfjL6

pcorare
p(OTovv{e)
pwTovcTL like Sevova-i, 213, n. 5.

Imperfect,
(eJpcoTova-a
{e)p(OT0vore^
"

{e)p(t)Tovae
(i)pCi)T0V(TafJL6

{i)p(OTouaeTe {iponTovaaie)
{e)p(OTOv<jav{e).
(i)p<aTov(Ta(TL like cScyatri,

239.

On

the Greek mainland

Greece), in the Greek of

Islands and in

conjugation

is

214, n. 4.
(e.g.

in Epirus, Central

Lower Italy and that

the Peloponnesus,

of the Ionic

the following scheme of

found
Present

pcoraco

pcorafie

p(OTdei<;

pwTdre

pCi)T<^L

pCOTdp{) pCOTd(TC,

Imperfect.
p(t)Tn(y)a

ep(ord(y)ajjb6 (ipcordfie)

ip(jt)Ta{<y)e<i

ep(0Td{y)aT6 (ipcordre)

pcoTa(j)6

pcoTa(y)av (epcordve).

The so-called " analysed " (called also incorrectly " imcontracted ")
forms are most in vogue in the Peloponnesus. They are new
formations on the basis of the a. Gk. contracted forms which
survive in the regular inflection of the present (apart from the

MORPHOLOGY

171

by the -ew-conjngation). The analytic forms arose through


the addition of - and -e to the 3rd sing. pres. cpwra, and imperf.
cpwTtt on analogy of the barytones (pwra-et, ipiora-e), and these forms
consequently reacted by analogy on the 1st and 2nd sing.
The
characteristic vowel -a- was finally carried over also to the 1st and
3rd pi. The -y- in epwraya is secondary (to avoid hiatus). Such -yforms were then placed on a par with <f>vXayw e^vAayo, etc. The
regular imperf. (pwrova-a is also a new formation, suggested by the
more faithful continuation of the a. Gk.
3rd pi. of the cw verbs.
imperfect is found, e.g.y in the Aegean, in the inflection of the sing.
infection

ip(x)Tovv(a)

{IptsiTovcrafxt

epwTttS

cpcoTovcreTe

pa)Ta(v)

pci)Toi;<rav).

240.

Imperative.
pcoTa

a?

(/9ft)Ta[7])

pcoToi (a? pcDTciet)

pcoTare

^9 pcoTOVve

(a<?

pcoTav).

Passive.

241.

Present
Subjunctive.

Indicative.

va

pwTovfiav (also pcarafiai)

pooTOVfiatf etc.

pcordaaL
pcoTarat,
pa)TovfjL(TTa (pcoTdfjLe<TTa)

pwrdare
pcoTovvrai (pcoravTaL).
Imperfect,
(^e)pG)TOVfiovv(a)

(i)pcoTOvaovv(a)

{e)pwrovvTav{)
(i)pcoTovfia(rT6, (i)pci)Tovfi6(7Ta(v)

(i)p(OTOVa-a(TT, (e)pCt)T0U(7T
(e)p(ji)TovvTav{e).

Besides forms like the following

ipwTiofjiave

ipoiTMfiacrre, epa)T(o/Aacrrav()

epwTOtxrave

eptoracrTe, ep(OT(i)(Ta(rTj

ip(ji)T(XTOv{e), pa)ra)Tav(c), ipwTiiiVTav.

ipwTixJVTOvcrayy ipuiTfXiVTrjaav.

epwrovcrrav

"

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

172

242. Beside the conjugation given above,

many

verbs

take also the following


Present.

ayaTreiovfiac (rarely dyaTreiifiai)


'

dyaTretiaat,

'

"

dya7rt.TaL
dya7rioufjL6(TTa

dyaire tea T
dyairetovvrat.
Imperfect.

dyaTTeiovfiovvia) (dyaTr6i()iJLOvv\(i^

dyaireLOvaovvia)
dyaTTetirov, dyaireiOvvTave (JiyaTremlylTavle^)

dyaireiov^eaTa, dyairetov^aa-Te (dyaireico/jLacTTe)


dyairetiaTe, dyaTretova-aaTe, dyaireiovaTe. {dyairemaTe)

dyairetovvTavie) (dyairetoovTova-av).

These forms are found (commonly along with the first


of conjugation) mostly in those verbs which have
both active and passive forms
as, dyairS) " love," ^ovtm

scheme

"dive," ySaoTTw "hold," ye\(o


" honour,"

rpa^M

" draw,"

"laugh,"

;)^aXft) "

verbs show a preference for the


thus,

"

Ovfiov/jLat

" regret,"

remember,"

tpo^ov/jLat

" fear "

collapses," KarapeceTai,

"

he

irovXco "sell,"

destroy," etc.

first

form

TifiM

The deponent

(in -ovfjLoc or -dfiat)

KOLjuov^at

" sleep,"

XvTrovfjLai

also yKpefieierai " he


" I boast
KavKeiovfiat
curses,"

though

beside navKov^at.

Both the first and also particularly the second scheme of conjugation liave arisen from an intermixture of the ancient verbs in -aw
with those in

-cw,

on which see below.

243.

Imperative.

pwTov {dyaTreiov)

payraaTe (dyaireieaTe)

a9 poDTarai,

a? pcoTovvrat.

The passive or middle imperative forms are rare (e.(/.


"), being replaced by vd with the 2nd pers. of

Koifiov " sleep

subjunctive.

244. The other forms of contracted verbs not belonging

to the present

system have no peculiarities

MORPHOLOGY

173

A ovist.
Act. ipcoTTja-a, subj. va pcoTTjaco, imperat.

pcorrjcre.

Pass. ipcoTTjdrjfca, va pcoTrjdcj, pcoTrjaov.

Compound Tenses.
Active.

Future

(I)

da pcorw,

(II)

6a

pcoTija-a)

(or one of

the

other variations).
Perfect

e^j^w pwrrijievOy

Pluperfect

')(^co

pcoTtjaei.

eZ;^a pcor7]fjL6vo or el'^a pcorrjau.

Future perfect 6a ep^w pcorrj/jiivo or 6a '^(o p(0T7](T6i.


6a ^pwTovcra, r}6e\a pwra or rjdeXa pwrrjaet
Conditional
:

(or

one

the

of

other

variations)

6a

etxci

pcoTrjfjiivo

or

pcorrjaei.

Passive.

Future
Perfect

6a

(I)

peorov/jiat, (II)

el/nat pwTr]jxevo<;,

Pluperfect

e^w

6a

pcoTr)6a}.

p(DT7}6el.

rjjjLovva pcoTTjfxevo^, el')(a p(0Tr)6et.

Future perfect 6a elfjuac pcoT7]fjLevo<; or 6a ')((d p(0T7jael.


6a 'pcorovfiovv, ri6e\a p(DTr}6el (or one of
Conditional
6a rip,ovv{a) /awTJ^/zei^o?, 6a elxO'
the other variations)
:

p(OTrj6el.

Participles.
p(OT(x)vTa<;, pcoTTj/xivo^;

cf.

also

234,

SECO^^D CLASS.

3.

174 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


Imperfect,

enrarovaa
I

7raTov(Te<;

eirarova-e
iTTarova-afie
'7rarov(r6T6

eiraTovaavie) {eTrarovaaai).

Besides

this

the

scheme

following

the

of

imperf.

is

found (particularly on the islands of the Aegean, Crete, and


**
Cyprus)
iirdreLa (iirdTeiovv)

1.

iTrarouaere

iirdrece

iiraTovcrav {eirdreiav).

Notice also (after p)

(c^wptyes iOfopLye) heside


2.

iiraTova-afieiy)

iTrdreie^

On

forms like

rjfXTropiya

Wwpua,

or {rDtxTTopeya, c^optya, c^wptya

l<ji6pcLa, y/uLTropeLa, etc.

eiraO^ia cTra^etes, cf. 16, n. 3.

These forms originated in a manner similar to the "analysed"


the ending -e attached to the 3rd sing. cTrarct following the
in -aw
model of the other verhs, and then created analogous forms for the
1st and 2nd persons.
trovXuova-a (Texts III. 12) is a cross between
the type cTraroOcra and eTrarcta.
The present reflects correctly the
a. Gk. scheme.
The corresponding a. Gk. inflection of the imperfect
still survives in diff'erent places {e.g. in Cyprus and the Aegean),
3.

7raT0Vv(a)

eTrarets

class (cf.

eTrctTCt

The form

iTrarovcrav.

239

(eTrarcv

iTrdrovva

or

CTrarci/c)

was transferred

iTraTOVfxe

also

to

iirareLTe

the

first

n.).

246.

Imperative,
Trarei

and

TrarCj^e

a? irar^
irarelre

a? iraTovv^e),
Passive.

247.

Present.

Indicative.
irarovfiai

TrareLov/iiai (TraTetifiai,)

irareLaaL

TrareieaaL

iraTelrai

7rareL6Tat

iraTovfxecrra

'7TaTLovfjLe<na

nrareLeare

irarovvraL

TrareiovvTav,

Subjunctive.

va

TrarovfJiaL
etc.

and

so on like indie.

MORPHOLOGY

175

Imperfect,
i'TraTOV^ovv{a)

i'7raT6i;OVfiovv(a)

eirarovGOVvia)

eTTareLOvaovv^d)

'TraTovvTav{e)

iTrareiirov, eiraTeLOVVTav^e)

iiraTOVfJuadTe

iiraTeiov/jieaTa

iirarovcraa-re

iirareL^are

iirarovvravie)

iTrareiovvTavi^e).

Also other variant endings as in the paradigm, 220.

1.

The second scheme


the

first,

although the

Deponents have
inflection vrith

more in use than


more nearly akin to a. Gk.

of conjugation is
first

is

become mostly exactly

that

XvTrovfjLat, (poffov/jiac

of

the

first

class (

belong under the

identical in their

241);

dvfiovfiai,

according to

first class

On the
their origin, but follow the second in their inflection.
other hand always ^aOeiov^ai or ^apetefiat " I am weary."
2. Cf. also a-vWoyeiJ/xaij o-vXXoycteVat (Texts I. a. 14,
<rvXAorcrt) beside the 1st person crvXXo{y)ov/jiaL " I think."

248.

Yelv.

Imperative,
iraretov (va irareLeaaC)

a? iraTrjjai, a? TraTeceraL
7raTt,(TTe

(ya irareLeore)

a? iraTOVvraL, a? irdTeiovvrai.

same

249. All the other parts are formed according to the


Notice particularly the
I. ( 244).

rules as in Class

participle irarcavTafi like pcoTcovTa<;.

250. The

list of

verbs which follow Class

gives double forms for the


class of contracted

verbs

same
is

or 11. respec-

In general the second


prominent than the

part.

much

I.

same verb frequently

tively cannot be definitely fixed, as the

less

only apyoj " am late," ifiiropc!) " am able," dappo)


"believe" (but Oappevco "1 am brave"), ^co (also JVw) "live,"
first

(j)i\(b

" kiss "

(but

(J)l\vq}

" greet

kindly,

regale

"),

are

universally (or practically universally) conjugated like'Trarai.

From

note the spellings ^fjs, ^r}, t,rJT (further, regularly


This verb has become identical with tto.tu) in
the pronunciation of its endings, only orthography still maintaining
the a. Gk. peculiarity of the verb.
1.

l<o

^ovfXj ^ovv[e], i^ovcra).

All the rest of the contracted verbs


after Class

I.

This

is

may

be conjugated

quite usual in the Peloponnesus and

"

176 HANDBOOK OF THE

MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

Northern Gk. {cf. 7, n. 1), while in the Aegean region


the Northern part) Class II. is more plentifully
represented, though still less prominent than Class I.
Thus
in m. Gk., e.g., the following a. Gk. verbs in -eo) are regularly

in

(except

conjugated like Class


" request,"
fjuerpo) "

{-w,

I.

" help,"

Bojjdco

measure, number,"
" greet

TTpoaKvvSy

-as:)

aKKovOco " follow,"

" prick,"

Kevrco
iroXe/jLO)

respectfully,"

*'

"

KvvrjyS)

make an

effort, struggle,'*

" greet,"

')(^aLpTa)

^rjra)

hunt,"

'^^tvttco

" strike."

The following verbs usually


the Aegean) inflect after Class
Ocopco

consider," Kaprepco " await,"

" see,
"

KpaTco

"

XaXo)

hold,"

speak,"

" speak," TTaprjyopco " console,"

nrepirarSi "
(\)opoi

"

(especially in the region of

II. (-&>, -et?)

"

" forget,"

\7]crfiova)

" it

owe

"

but also ^ilXm

KpaTa<;, ^pcocrra) p^/saxrTa?,

Notice

dXTjafiovdco,

KaTa(f)povd(o,

Texts

(Calymnos), for the regular fSaara,

2.

III. 6

Also mostly

all

ficXa)

pains," crv-^wpSi " pardon,"

(a garment), p^pwcrTw "

Kaprepoi KapTepa<;^ Kparco

/jLLXa<^,

" warble,"

irapaKaXo) (TrepiKaXio) " request,"

go walking," irovel

wear

" strike,"

^apco

KeXaiBco

avx^copdo),

etc.

the verbs in original

-ew,

^aarel,

which are borrowed

KaroLKu) " dwell


(vernacular //-eVw, KaOofxaL), irpo^evui "cause," Trpocr/caXoi "invite,"
v7rr)pTo} " serve " (SovXevio), and others.
3. The secondary contracted verbs ^Cj " I scrape " (beside the
usual ^vvio), (f>Tio (usually (jStww) "expectorate," o-yScu (cr/3r^rco)
"extinguish," and similar verbs, p. 136, inflect like Class 11. but

from the

literary language, follow Class II.

as,

also ttTToAw

(a.

Gk.

Xvio)

aTroAact, piOu)

peOels

and

/xc^a?,

pr]i/u)

IXTjvas.

Semi-contracted Vcrhs.

251.

blend this
(1),

few verbs with a vocalic final in the stem


some cases with the ending

final in

aKovo) " I hear " aKovfie (uKovfie)

UKOv^ (a/coO?)

uKOVTe

(a/coi'et)

aKovve.

Imperative ukov aKovre.


(Imperfect

a/coi;[7]a, etc.)

Similarly Kpovco " beat."


(2)

KXai(o " I

weep

"

KXaiei (less

KXaifjue {KXaifie)

KKaire

KXais; (KXal^)

commonly

KXai) KXaiv{e) {KXaiai),

(Imperfect eKXai [7]^,


Similarly ^Taiay " I

am

guilty."

etc.)

"

"

MORPHOLOGY

177

These forms appear also uncontracted with a y inserted

(c/.

23),

aKovyo), Kpovyo), KXaiyo), ^ratyo).

252. Through the dropping of a 7 ( 22) in some verbs,


vowel sounds come together and are contracted

(1) Trao) usually instead of irdyco

to which it serves as
204) with the following forms:

(alongside

186,

irdyei^;,

7rr)yaiP(o,

etc.,

aorist

" I go

stem

cf.

Ta(7)ft)

ird (jto)

iraej,

irdfie (TroLfie)

Trdre
irdvie).

Subj. va Trdco va
etc.

On

a>e,

-y.

Likewise va {6a)
rpcoyo) " I eat ")

and so

ird<;,

218,

aor.

6a Traw Oa

beside

<f>doi)

(l)dya),

etc.

(aor.

va

(j)d(;

va

(j)d7]

va

(t)d/ii

of

indie,

(^d/ie)

(jidre
(f)dv(^6).

runs regularly ^a(y)a e(^a(7)e9

Also the Pontic verb ^raco " I make,"

</)Tas, etc.

Tpo!){y)co " I eat


Tpco6i<; Tp(i)<^ (t^oS?)

rpcoei (less

commonly

rpca)

rpco^y^ofjue rpcofjue (rpco/Lte)

Tpco{y)Te rpcore
TpQ)(y)ovv{e) rpoive

(Imperfect eTpw\y]a

(3)

subj.

(^a?)

<pd('y)afJL e(f>dy6T6 e(^a{y)av.

(2)

7ra9,

va
va

The

forth, future

n. 3.

T/3a)[7]e9,

and so

"
X6(7)a) " I say

\eet9 X69

\eei (less

commonly Xe)

\6(y)ofjL Xifie

forth).

e(f)a(y)6

178

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GEEEK VERNACULAR


\6(y)ovv \v(e) (Xiovai Xeai)

(Imperfect eX6\r/\a or rfke\y\a, eXe[7]69,


1. Also OiXoi 6U follows this model, 224,
Likewise pew "flow " sometimes gives a 3rd pi.

(in

3,

etc.).

and even ^epw

l^es.

peVe.

2. Cy., further, from Chios (Texts III. 9) the 3rd


unaccented position) and 3rd pi. Vwi,

sing.

U and

II

PART THIRD.
SYNTAX.
PEINCIPAL SENTENCES.
{a)

Form and Content.

mrhal predicate are not unmaxim with epigrammatic


brevity or serve to portray an event or circumstance vividly
and picturesquely.
Cf. fiLci^i a-Tiyfir]^ virofiovr} heKa j(^povS)v
pe'xaTi " one moment's patience (means) ten years' rest," avrrj
KaTaov(fia (TEXTS III. 12) " she (continued) peevish," a^ro? ov
Xoyov^ airo %etV aX %6tV koI ^d fiaa-'Xta rov ^(pri, (III. 11)
" this word (passed) from lip to lip and (reached) the king's

253. Sentences

common

ear,"

without

they either express a

iravrov

rpofidpa

koI

acpayij,

iBco

<l>ir/rj,

eKel

irXrjyrj

"

everywhere (raged) consternation and carnage, here flight


and there wounds "; cf. also Texts I. a. 19. With imperative
force Karco <^ecna koL Kaireka "

Even a

single

sentence by

itself:

member

down

(with) fez and hat."

may form

the greatest animation of expression

is

of

sentence

secured by a series of such simple sentences in asyndeton


apyava, rovfiTrava, %ape? /jLydX<; " organs (played), timbals
(sounded), great joy (prevailed) "

TO Kapd^L

p,

Trjv

Trdvra " too

boat ride on one side "


day's food,"
TTpcoTo ^tXi

i.e.

" living

^vaareva^e,

ra woXXa iroXXa

KovpLcivray

many commands (make)

p^epoBovXc

fipocf>dyi

from hand to mouth."


etc., Texts I. a. 14.

" day's

Notice also

Abbreviated

sentences are, of course, specially liked in exclamations

the

work,

v.

256.

254. Sentences without a subject or impersonal sentences


like /Spe-^et " it rains," y^Lovi^et " it snows," Kavei daKrjp^o Kaipo
179

"

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

180
"

il

;;

mauvais temps,"

fait

definite subject " one,"

no special remark.
The inpeople " [Ger. man, French

for

call

" they,"

"

expressed (1) by Kavei^ {icavha^) "one, some one," as


Tov eZSe Kavkva^ " somebody has (they have) seen him " (2) by

on'\ is

the 2nd pers. sing., as Xe?


(3)

by the 1st or 3rd

/jbivov^ "
jjLov

pi.,

"you might

say," etc.

(c/.

195);

as ^Xrf^opa Xrjajiovov^e tov^ ireOafj,-

people soon forget the dead," Xive " they say," on

elirav " it

KXecprrj "

dit,

has been (they have) told me," iaKorcoaav rov


"

(4) by the passive voice (rare),


as ol TreOa/jLfievoL ry\'i]yopa XrjaixoveiovvTat " the dead are soon

they slew the Kleft

forgotten."

A question to which the


255. Interrogative sentences.
answer may be either yes or no (Lat. ne) is marked by the
tone of the voice, and requires no special interrogative word,
not even a special arrangement of the words, though that
member of the sentence to which the question relates (and so
mostly the predicate) may be thrown to either extremity of
the sentence 'qpOe 6 (fjiXo^i aov ; or o <^t\ov aov ripOe ; " has
your friend arrived ? " to /SXeVet? k6lvo to /dovvo ; " do you
see yon mountain ? " elv y Ovyarepa aov reroia 6/jL0p(f)7} ; or
elvai reroia o/xopcprj rj raiovirpa aov ; (TEXTS I. d. 1) "is thy
daughter so fair ? " pieOva ijuevo^ elaai rj (also yia) rpeWo^
" are you drunk or crazy ? " eva (sc. <^tXl) aov 'Bcok6 rj
P'h ^ov
'BcoKe TToWd ; (La. 21) "did he give you one (kiss) or
:

several

On

1.

the

Cappadocia

through

hand,

other

contact

with

Turkish

in

and elsewhere (as in Adrianople), the Turkish


particle mi is employed e.g. xao-ra^ /xi ^arov " were you

(Sili)

interrogative

sick?"

A question expecting an affirmative


is

introduced by hev

not

beautiful

the

as, hev elv

rose

answer

beautiful,

is

(cf.

o/mopcpo rb poBo
is

Lat. nonnc)
" is

not

it

the rose
"

Such

questions have sometimes the force of a mild (polite) request,


particularly in the idiom he p.ov Xe?

not

2.

Ta;(a

"

i.e.

The

" tell

"

you

idea of doubt (and also of refusal)

(ra^arts),

tell

me, do you

me, please."

icrtus

(di/io-tos),

fxriv{a),

(ttpay[9]), p,r]V 770,(5) {i.e. 7rayi[9])

^rjirw's,

Kat', jur/v

may

be expressed by
etc., apa

/jir;yapt(9),

7ra(s) va, fxiravd

as, Ta;(a

"perhaps you don't understand?" firjv craves


TtTTore ; " did you perhaps promise something ? " fxrj Sev to '$p<i
" and did you not know it then ? " fxi^va ra </)ayta /xas 8e eras apeaav
hlv

KaTaXaf3aLVL<s

"

"

"

SYNTAX

181

be that our fare has not pleased you?" /xrirrw? or fxy]yapi{<;)


"have I perhaps told you?" i.e. "I have not, of course,
told you," dpa 8ei/ Tovv dX.'^Traa-L ; (III. 11) "can it be that thou

"can

it

o-ovetTra;

him not?"

deplorest

you

On

fiirava (fiLXrjcre? rrjv Koprj

the modus potentialis in questions,

Questions why
introduced by

what

"

7d')(a ;

OeXec^

\6jov<i

pronouns

"why?"

191, 1

v.

(supplementary

interrogative

rogative adverbs (ytaTu

rogative

(III.

"then did

5)

kiss the girl

151

and 195.

questions)
or

f.)

are

inter-

126, irov

ttoO, ttotc, etc.,

where then ")


word has the force of " well, exactly " as, aav rl fjue
" well, what do you wish of me ? " aav Trm rov \e rj
;

(Texts

the particle crdv before the inter-

III.

"how

11)

"

then runs the proverb?

256. Exclamatory sentences have a partiality for the

form

sentences of

ahhreviated

of

command,

predication,

or

"

good physician
ri KaXd
good physic " and other ordinary exclamations
"how fine!" ri ^wrj '^apovfievrj "what an enjoyable life!"
The exclamatory nature of the sentence may be emphasised
"
by TTov as, rdopa Ba irov (\)vye " just this moment gone
interrogation

yiaTp6<; Ka\6<;

yiarpLKa koKci

r'jav^a irov elvai

how

are the mountains,

still

ehai

"

ra ^ovvd, rjav^ov irov

what a sorrow

it is

still

ol Kd/jLirot

elv

the plains

"

how

" tl f^daavo irov

Kokr] jnepa " good-day,"


Cf. also salutations and benedictions
kuXt] vv;)(Ta " good-night," KaXr] cnrepa " good evening," wpa Kakr} (aov)
:

" welcome " KaXrj avTapMicn " au revoir," crro koXo " adieu," KaXo
ra^iSi, KaXo KaTcvoSio " bon voyage," ycta aov "(to your) health,"
KaXrj ope^L " good appetite," ircpacrTiKa " speedy recovery," o-Kacre " go
!

to the deuce."

257. Abbreviated exclamations, commands, and vocatives


"
have occasionally converted to interjections cf. irov " how
" stop "
" forward "
" back "
(XTdaov
irlaco
(i)ix7rp6<;
hid^o\e\'^ TL Sid^oXol "the devil!" 0e fiovl "my God!"
Ilavaytd fjLov " holy Mother of God " irpoaoyr) " attention
" truly "
" cheat " dXr^Oeia
KapSid " courage " -^ifiara
!

crcoTra

" quiet

Genuine
"

"

forward

"
!

(old)

interjections

(surprise)

ovl

are

ttco,

ttco

(calling)
I

cj,

co

ou\

vri

(doubt) fiTrd

(lament and pain) dxl w% qX 41^ (ot)i/jLpa " alas for me ")
ov<^ govt
(auger, refusal, horror) ov
<f>rov
fidlj fidl /Sa^
!

Also in several mutilated forms

like, e.g., didvrpe, didrave.

182 HANDBOOK OF THE


(joy) w;^

(laughter) %a,

topoeic forms KpaK

;^a,

7rou(^

MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


;^a

7rd(f>

Notice also the onoma-

fMirovfju

fMirdfi

From

the standpoint of the m. Gk. vernacular also words like


" up " fXTrpd^o (frequently employed as a sign
t,7]Toi
vyi
i/Si/Sa
of consent, generally with a pronoun /jLirpd/So crov, fnrpd/3o o-as) or
" attention " are treated as pure interjections, because such
ySttpSa
words borrowed from the literary language or from the Italian have
for the m. Gk. vernacular lost all sense of connection.
The same may
be said of such interjections as owe their origin to the violent mutila!

tion of

words which had an independent meaning

as, dAAoi'

dXAot-

" alas " ^Trpc " hallo " beside ficope {fj-mpy] sometimes used
to address a woman).
Here also we may reckon the ironical expression o-TToWdrri "much obliged " = t9 iroAAa err].
The serious
expression of good wishes (congratulation on special occasions) is eU

/xovo

trr]

TToWdl "(may you


(b)

word

may

2223

or va

nobody,

(if

fjurj

be connected without any kind


way sometimes a special effect

in this

grandeur)

(vividness,

years."

Connection of Sentences.

258. Sentences

of connective

many

live)

is

obtained;

e.g.

cf.

Texts

Setf irovOevd '^dOKafic (III. 11)

you do) we are

The

lost."

I.

11.

a.

"show

it

to

repetition of a verb in

asyndeton heightens the pictorialness of the course of an action


as, TTLveL, irivei " he drinks (and) drinks" {cf. also 188, 2 n.).
The repetition of another member of the sentence produces
the same effect as, fiavpo^ rjrav, Kardfjuavpo^, fiavpo koX r
dXoyo Tov (I. a. 8), " black was he, all black, black too (was)

his steed."

Occasionally in the progress of a vivid narrative a ques-

an exclamation does duty for a connective

tion or

Trapajio^iy tl elirev

said

TOV

,"

7r\l

"

Kpv^'

e,

tl "

why

cf.

ov

e.g.

"

and

"

he,

he conceals the hen."

often have the force of "

may

jiaTL elfxaL d^a

11) = " the adopted son


kl avTo^ (ib.), or irov avT6<;

(III.

tl cIttiv

(ib.),

jLaTL in this sense

sentence

tov vov t

similarly

Hence yiaTt and


then

fil

for,

precede even an interrogative

'yco ; (III.

4) ''for

am

worthy

"
?

259. If sentences thrown together in asyndeton stand

in close logical dependence on each other, one part of the


entire series may be reduced to an accessory sentence or
even to an adverbial qualification or take the force of a
particle
"

e.g.

e')(pvve

hev eyovve 7rapdSe<;, to ISlo rot'? KaveL

whether they have money or not

is all

the same to them,"

SYNTAX
^e? 3e
shall

am

6a

fxe

rne,"

a?

^6?,

pay

elvai,

"

Tov

there was a king

goes up," Tpkya pcoTa, to

learned
"

(
"

much

without

0-/3.

Likewise

it."

218,

n. 1) "

that

is

be (as far as

named
d.

I.

'fjuade

dyjre

Sleep," Xoiirov, elp^e hev


5) " well, at all events, he

= " by

running and asking he


extinguish "

" light,

o-jSrjcre

trice " (pi ya/juTrpol

ado, in a

" sons-in-law do not

you

will or not

it

rjrave eua^ paaL\ea^"T'Trvo^ r'

it,"

ave^alvei (TEXTS

el^e, vt6<;

whether you

to TrXepcovco " let

concerned), I pay for

ovo/jbd

"

TrXepcoarj^;

183

Be yivovpTai, a.

come without much ado

(to say),

fia6e(^)

"),

" (/xa^e[9], Be jxe iriaTevei^

then

is to say, you don't believe me," Bev rjTav k\ fiiKpo^; fiadi


^e\et9 (^eXr?
^eXr?,
he was, then, not young "), ^eXet?
or."
Velv.) " whether

that

"

the expression apow apow = " with all haste," cf. Texts III.
The following examples show how completely an
11 footnote.
independent sentence may be obscured (e.g. made into a substantive)
TO TTpafxa Scv tvat Trat^e yekaae "the matter is not for amusement
and laughter," to ^Xa/Se fxk to ypdif/e ypanj/ " he obtained it after much
writing," imperat. to /x,7ra = "the entrance."

On

260. Co-ordination

of

sentences

is

vowels

"and,

by the

effected

following conjunctions
(a) Copulative: /cat (before

Kac "both

and," "as well as";

/ct)

cf.

also," /ca/

261.

with which single words are


Sometimes it simply throws into prominence a single
connected.
member of the sentence; cf. ^epw k' cyw; "am / to know if?" tl
jJAiyti/ KL auTo?; (Texts III. 11) "and what did he say?" -rrav kl /cat
irJKa (III. 12) "there above (and) I entered," o-e tl dpdSa itfxea-T
ifjius, Koi vd fid's S(i)(T 6 /Sao-iAtas r^ 6vyaTpa tov; (I. d. 2) "in what
position are we that the king should give us his daughter 1 "
Cf.
also the expressions To>pa koI p-Larj wpa " half an hour ago " and koL
KttXa "right now, exactly," "just" (also ironically); as, OiXet koi
KaXd Kol o-(jovet = "he will, come what may (just now), finish it" (lit.
" and finishes "), 8a tov ^/3povv kI Kakd Skv to *<^aydfxi k\ KoXd Ifiel^
Ixpk; (III. 11) "they will find it indeed! did we not eat it only
just yesterday?"
Kttt is

also the ordinary conjunction

ovTe

(fjLyTe,

ovBe,

Kciv " neither, nor,

not even speak,"

firjBe,

not even

fMTjBe

TiTTOTe " nor anything,


firJTe,

285;

ovBi

as, ovTe

(and so forth)

ovTe

fjLovBe),^

(kw)

ifjuiXTjcre

ovBe,

"

he did

tov elBa " neither did I see him,"

nothing at

all "

ovTe

ovTe

7roT6"now then" "at onetime

TTore
^

or
"

/x7;Se)^)

firjBe

" neither

"Without any difference even in affirmative sentences.

fxrjBe

(fii^Te

nor,"
.

cf.

anon."


MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

184 HANDBOOK OF THE


Disjunctive

(b)

"either

The

or"; ^eXet? ^eXet?,

also yui " or,"

(yrj),

r;

dropped with numerals

particle is

(jcd

yLo)

259.

i?.

ij

?;

ttcW

as,

"

e^t

five (or)

six."

Adversative

(c)

Chios

Lesbos

fi/jLe,

member

neg.

" (not)

158

n.)

in a sentence

arms

eS'

"
"

but

or

dfifjid, d^jbrj,

but yet,"

but "

d/Lii,

/xove {fiov,

"

'jrapd

" nevertheless,

"

(c/.,

further,

however," not

apfiara \akovv

and

but " after a

nrapa 6 Tuivvr}<i, a? epOrj

e.g.

him come himself

o/jlo)<;

or ki o/xox; "

talk,"

d/jud

" but, yet,

however," after neg. sentence (or

roao

co?

e.g.

but let

J.,

o/jlox;,

dWd

a sentence)

of

negative, also " not

avTo^

or

" only,

dialect also fio)

in

fid (in dialect

a/^),

" here,

roao

yet," kl o)?

"

first

however,

and

yet,

still."

(d)
V.

Causal

yiavTo, yia tovto " therefore "

on ycari

(tI)^

258.
Inferential

(e)

" but, so,

Xolttov

indeed," stands

do you want

(to Xolttov)

beginning of

the

either at

first

"

now, well, then,"

or later in the sentence


;

as, afxe

ri Oekei^

afie

" what, then,

"
?

Of course, in addition to the above, adverbs are employed as


connectives between sentences ; as, rwpa " now," tot(9) " then,"
In Pontic (Texts
7rtTa, vcTTcpa " thereupon," era-i " so," " thus."
III. 13. c) note the enclitic particle ttcl which stands second, a^r?
7ra TTotKa " SO then I did it."

261. The modern Greek vernacular shows a decided

preference

paratactic

for

construction,

so

that

principal

sentences with a? ( 278, 3) and erai ( 273) serve practiKat, by far the
cally the function of dependent sentences.

most

common

conjunction, serves

to connect

any kind

of

sentences into a series (even in combinations like Kal t6t,

Koi TrdXi, etc.)


of

and

it

may, according

the thought, carry the meaning

"

to the logical
"

of

sequence

but," " for," " or,"

and so "
cf.
6)(j dBep^ol Be OeXovve kl 6 Kcoaravrlvo'^
OeXeL " eight brothers do not wish it, hut K. wishes it," (j)ol3ov~

fiat

a\ dBepcpdKL

pLOv,

Kal Xi^avce^ pvpl^ei^ " I fear thee,

my

brother, for (because) thou smellest of incense," avot^e, k eyco

V'

K(t)(TTavTr]<i "

open, for I

am

K."

The additional thought given by Kal


ing

to

to the preceding.

is

frequently, accord-

an accessory sentence
Very frequently an object clause with vd

the sense, subordinated

like

"

SYNTAX
or TToO,

185

after verbs of perceiving, hearing, seeing, etc.,

e.g.^

displaced by this favourite parataxis


"

y 6177 6 Kal to

thee," fie

take the lice off


ep-x^erai. "

" I

saw him

how thy

man

face

said to

coming," top elBa k

became

ing herself," vd top Kal KaTe/Batve

(Texts

yiaTpol

ol

I. d.

like

till

is

fire "

cf.,

"

to

behold

till)

how he

tt)

further,

was combdescended,"

iBaaiXoirovXo yiaTpeveTac

know by what means

cured," tov<; ^dvec KdOe vvyra Kal opycovouv

Tov (Texts

(and they

XajMvLKd

dire

1) "the physicians do not

the royal child


TO, ')(o)pd(^ia

kc

to

eirriryaLve

aov k eytve cav

l3plaKt T7)v K i^revL^ovvTav " he finds her as she

^epovv

me

I did so]," /^XeVet to (^tw^^o k

going," dcopco to irpoo-oiiro

see

"he

haeipio-a (III. 12)

him [and

he sees the poor

(f)(OTui " I

Be

is

irovKia Ka\

as, clkovv

they hear birds saying (and they say)," rj/covaa Kal


fidXtove rj K6pd aov " I heard how thy niother scolded

\ev6
ere

I.

c.

6) " he

his acres," tou?

makes them every night

d(j)7]vei

Kal

Trcdvovv

Toij<i

tcl

(ih.) "

he allows the hounds to catch them," ycavTo


e(pKiacr6 Toaa KdaTpa " therefore he was able
i/jLTTopeae k
to build (and he built) so many castles."

The following show other kinds

of subordination Ix^ ywolKa


xVP^ ^^^ ''"^^ Trpiirii " I have a very young wife (and)
widowhood becomes her not," cli/at toVo kovtos /cat Sev to Ka-caXa^aivu
*'
he is so stupid that (and) he does not grasp it," yvTaixoyve to ^lXov
rov KOL 8cv TOV 'Acye napa fxvta " KoXy] jutepa " (Texts I. d. 5)
" (when) he met his friend he said nothing but a good-day.'
2. The preference for parataxis has occasionally caused an originally subordinate conjunction to be treated as paratactic and consequently to be pressed into co-ordinating service e.g. iTretSy almost
= "for," J)9 (Texts I. a. 21) ''and thus," on (I. d. 6) "just now."
3. M. Gk. has lost the classical Gk. wealth of connective and
other particles which lend nicety and precision of thought.
Only
Kai (ovre, ov8e), ^, and the less commonly used conjunctions aXXd,
irXrjv, o/xoos have been retained.
The loss of ydp, dpa has been
compensated by new formations; but the a. Gk. re, 8e, /xev 8c',
fxevroLj fx-qv, ovv (yovv), cVi, Sij, ye, Trep have left no successors.
1.

TrapavLo. kol

'

SUBOEDINATE SENTENCES.
Preliminary Bemarks.
262. The propensity for parataxis has considerably reduced the
Gk. wealth of dependent constructions. Long and complicated
periods are, of course, still possible from the resources of the language,

a.

but

are, as

vernacular.

we should

expect, of rare occurrence in the texts of the

Examples of rather long periods are found in Texts

I.

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

186

{kl avTY)

d. 1

ra

kol

Trrjpe

indirect discourse of

irrjye

kol K\L(rTr)K, etc., including also an

some length),

11. b. 1 (''Av rj^cpav

.,

etc.,

in

paragraph before the last), II. b. 2 ('O SdcrKaXos a(ji7JK


etc., in
fourth paragraph from the end).
The a. Gk. conjunctions cVci,
oTTOTc (oTTorai/), a;(/3ts and fX)(pL?,
t,
w have entirely disicf>
appeared 0)9 survives still only in adv ( 263, n. 1. 272, 281) and in
On ottws, cf. 281 ; on on, 267, n. 2. 270, 273 ;
Ka(9ws ( 273, 281).
.

on

SioTi,

276, n.

jj^oXovotl,

from a. Gk.
alone has extended far beyond
different purpose

be attributed chiefly to the

266

278, 2

its

an entirely
Gk. tva (m. Gk. vd)

wcrrc serves

The

275).

a.

original proper territory, a fact to

loss of the infinitive (cf. 263, n.

3.

277, 4, n. 1. 278, 1 n., 279 n.-282, 1).


Moreover, the
following have been maintained (partly with phonetic transformaore and orav ( 272), dfjia, ivw evoVw ( 273), dcfiov (i^ 273, 276),
tion)
irpiy ( 274), (09 in (t)9 ttov ( 275), iTruBj ( 276), idu ( 277-278, 1),
etre
etre (277, 4, n. 2).
The old distinction between ore, orav, etc.,
is abolished, or only transferred to the verb, or effected by vd.
Excluding dialect forms the new formations are the employment of the
relative particle (6)7rov ( 267 f., 271, 278, 2. 279, 281, 1. 282, 2),
and the conjunctions oa-o (with ttov or vd, 275, 281, 1, n. 2), etc.,
/x oAo TTOV ( 278, 2), Trpixov, irporov ( 273), dyKaXd Kai ( 278, 1),
yta vd ( 280).
Finally, paratactic constructions are pressed into
service to form dependent clauses; cf. 261, 273, 2. 277, 4, n. 3.
278, 3.
f.,

Attributive and Substantival Clauses.


263. Attributive relative sentences are regularly introduced by the indeclinable relative particle ttov (ottov, ottov)
(v.

The

149).

relative sentence

TTOV appooa-rrjae

rt(t)pyi<;

was

sick

."

may

Karjfievof;

of the

..." poor

The syntactic order


an object clause

words like o
George who

antecedent plus relative

represents

sentence

be closely dovetailed

by an arrangement

into the antecedent

(or,

a.

Gk.

ace.

with

participle) in instances like el^e rrjv oXcottov ottov ep)(0WTav


fjLa^l

fjL

TO hpaKo (TEXTS

3) " he saw the fox (which was)

I. d.

coming along with the monster" {cf. also 261 and 266, 3).
The tense of the relative sentence is conditioned only by
the nature of the action or occurrence in question
KciTi

irat^La,

ttov o-Koroovav

eva (tkvXi

some children who were about

to

d.

(I.

kill

as, vjvpe

2) " he found

Eelative

dog."

sentences of a consecutive or final character are formed with


TTOV

vd

as,

avdpoiiroL ttov

vet

Trpoae'^MVTaL (II.

such as are to be watched," y\a)aaa ttov va


dp'xaia

(II.

b.

1)

**

a language

to

b.

6) "

pboui^rj

fie

men
rrjv

resemble the ancient/'

Kaveva davarcKO Bev rfkOe arov Koajio, ttov va firjv d(j)rJK Kal
va 8c7)yrj6ovv (II. b. 2) " no such disaster ever came

fjLepcKov^

"

SYNTAX

187

world which did not leave some (survivors) to relate


what happened" (on the aor. indie, cf. 195). For the
to the

use of the

subjunctive

cases like

in

Bca^fj iridveTac to Kar)^evo

(I. a.

irovkaKi

irpSiTo

24. 2),

v.

irov

264.

A relative

sentence of causal nature appears in the construction TO. ippiie oka, (TOLV dStop^cora ottov T^rav, kolto} (II. b. 2) " he
hurled all down, incorrect it was."
2. The relative sentence ttov Oa V5 = "that is (to say)," is used
as apposition to a whole sentence.
3. An attributive complement may also be expressed by vd ; as,
e.g., aXXov TpoTTov va ^T^ar] 8h *;( " he had no other means of living,"
y}p6V rj wpa va TreOdvy "the hour came to die," w rov Od/xaTos va
yivovv 6\a " oh, the miracle, that all happened
1.

264. Eelative

either (1) simply

or (2)

by

6V09,

sentences are introduced


or avTb<; (eVeti/o?) ttov " he who "

substantival

by

(o)7ro{),

ottolo<;,

otl

as, tto-^ovv iraihid,

a?

tcl Kpv-\jrovv6

(Texts I. a. 8) "they who have children, let them conceal


them," OTTOV 'vat KaXopi^uKo^ ^yevva koL 6 koto^ tov " whoever is lucky, even his hen lays him eggs," tov eiire Sara tct
eiTre 6 fiaai,\id<; "she told him all that the king had told
her " (notice tense !), OTroioq irvi'yeTat Kal to, fiaWidv tov
irtdvei " he who is drowning clutches even his own hair."
6Vo9 and ottolo^ may also be assimilated to the case of the
principal sentence {Relative attraction)
<^opel ivBvfiaTa

dXi/jL/juiva

(TEXTS

who wears the garments of sorrow,"


" he who has, to him shall be given,"
Ikl,

ttw? d'yaiTO) ottolov

"how

15)

ottolov

cr*

I love

e'x^ei

Oa

him
hoOfj

oaovv Koafiovv rjTav

cltt

KapByd
(III. 11) "of all
77
."
no one's heart allowed him.
What has been said in 263 on te7ise holds good. Thus,
the present or imperf. is employed for a cursive or
Kavevav hev tovv a^vLv

the people

e.g.,

e.g.

11. a.

who were

there,

On the other hand the aor. subj. is employed (1) in a clause of an iterative nature in itself timeless (a general statement) when the action of the secondary

iterative action.

sentence
or (2)

is

completed compared with the principal sentence

when the

action refers to a single definite event of the

future: exx. for (1) are ottolo<^ Kafj crra Xd-^ava, (j^vcrdet Kal
TO yiaovprt " he who is once burned on vegetables, blows

even on whey cheese," ottolov <t dydiTTj /iTTep^evTrj, KdWto tov


va TTeOdvrj " he who is overtaken in love, it is better for him
to

die "

find

is

for (2)

otl

your own,"

^py^, elvaL Blko

ottolov pLapTvprjarj

<tov "

what you

will

tov Kke<pTr], 6a Trdpr)

"

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

188

who

fieydXo Bcopo " he

points out the thief will receive a great

The same holds good for oiroLo<^ ki av " who(so)ever," oao'^ kl av " however great," oti kl av " whatever,"
oirov Kl av " wherever "
for which there are also alternareward."

tive forms oTToio^ /cat

Even

TTotos

Tou TToios va
"
tangled

m,

etc.

occasionally takes the force of "

(Texts

vTGrr]

I.

he who

24. 43) "alas for

a.

"

as, dXA.oi'

him who

is

en-

265. Complicated relative constructions are avoided by disinto co-ordinated parts; as, Trupw/xeVo yvaki, ttov t
ttyyt^et? /cat (TKavei " a heated glass which goes to pieces when
touclied."
Of rare occurrence are constructions like eva XovXovSo,
OTTOv oVoios TO /SpLCTKc
iixiTopov(T VOL TO KULfxr] fxaXufjia (Texts I.
d. 7) "Hos quern qui invenisset
., aurum facere posset," or to. B 6
(TOV fXCLTLa, TTOV TTOLOV KVTT(X^OVl' TTjV KapBia TOV KaVOVV SvO KOfJLfXaLTia (I.
a. 24. 28) "thy two eyes, which rend the heart of him on whom

memberment

they gaze."

2GG.

substantival sentence with vd and the pres. or

aor. subj. is the principal


of the a.

Gk.

As

(1)

Karavra

representative of the various usages

and

infinitive or ace.

subject:

e.g.

infin. constructions, viz.

after yiverai, "it happens,

" it

possible,"

is

.,"
happens that
irpeirei " it is becoming,
necessary " (irpsTrec va SovXevrj^ " you must work "), and in
similar usages
cf. e.g. rl Ka/cb va ^fj KaveU fie avOpcoTrov^
ayevel^ (11. a. 8) " how evil for one to live with ignoble men."
.

The clause with va may be formally converted into a substantive


by placing the article before it as, to va dyaTras eti/at -n-pay/jLa (jivarLKo
(Texts I. a. 21) "that you love (to love) is a natural thing." Such
a vd clause may be dependent even on a preposition (fxe to vd
" because of, owing to ").
" in order thereby, because," dTro to vd
;

(2) Complement of an adjective


TO ^aaiXea ctto airlri /jlov ; (III. 4)

the king into

As

(3)

my

alloiving,

letting,

membering, forgetting, and so on


to

write," ttlOvixco va

irapaKaXw va to

d^a va 86)(^(OfjLat
worthy to receive

e.g.

demanding, inviting, being

agreeing,

ypd-yjryi;

verbs of
able,

'willing,

attemioting,

promising, sivearing, re-

thus, OeXoi va ypdy^oi " I wish


" I

Kavrj^ " I request

desire

you

to

you

do

to write,"

it," etc.

o-e

further,

and so
KaveU Bev tov<; elBe irore va kuvovv to aTavpo
no one saw them ever making the cross," Troio? elSe Koprjv

after verbs of seeing, hearing, finding, maJdng, causing,

forth
"

as, el/nab

"am

object after all kinds of verbs

desiring, ashing,
striving,

house

thus,

SYNTAX

189

va aepv 6 TreOafifievo^i (I. a. 11) "who ever saw a


maid conducted by a dead person ? " ^ aKovtra va \eve " 1
heard them say," aKovrae va Xej) rj Koprj " she heard the
maiden say," or rjKovaav r arjhovi, va \a\fj " they heard the

ofiop^T)
fair

nightingale sing," rJKova-a

dWr)

uyaira^; (I.

18) "I heard

a.

that you love another," rd ^^pav Kvvrjot va irlvovv (III. 18)


"

huntsmen found them drinking,"


aa^

KOdfiov va

"you

TnaTe-r^rj

ttotc?

will

6a KajieTe rbv

Se

never make the world

o-e /ca/xw va Tnaarrj^ " I cause you to be arFor other possible constructions, cf. 263, 267.

believe you,"
rested."

me kdnni pelpdni
"you make me die."

Notice
(III. 1),

267.

beside

na pe\>dni me

Tcdnni, in

Bova

commonly employed after verbs of saying, if


demand or the expression of
fia<nXt,a<; ra eiTre va Toi/jLaa-rfj yia to ydfio

is

the dependent clause conveys a


a wish
"

thus, o

the king told her to prepare for the wedding," va tov V.^?

va fxov

BaxTT} ttj

dvyarepa tov yvvaiKa

" tell

him

to give

me

his daughter as wife," tov eiirav ol Bpaxoi va TTTjyacvovv

fie

him that they should go

in

Trjv

dpdha

"

the monsters said to

va tov Bcoaovv va
Taydpi (pIXovpia Kal va Trrjyalvy gto cttItl tov " another day
they said to him that they wished to give him a bag of florins,
and that he must go home."
succession," Tr)v aXXrj fiepa

Only

elirav,

after expressions like Xe?, eXeye^;,

a predicate
"

tov

introduced by vd

is

you might say that


Otherwise

nothing."

it

e.g.

Xe? va

was nothing,"

i.e.

v6fjLi,^<;
fir)

" it

195)

elvai tCttotc

appears to be

after verbs of saying, thinking,

and

so

forth predicate clauses are generally formed with ttw? or ttov


Xiyet, (elire), ttw? (ttov)

e.g.

(wished)," or Xeyei

(etTre),

deXcL " he says (said) that he wishes


ttw? (ttov) 6

(J)lXo<;

tov Sev rjp6e " he

says (said) that his friend did not come," o Ad^apo<; tou?
elire,

ttw?

e;)^et

them

that

it

evKapLaTTjav, Kal va irdprj

(I. d.

3) " L. told

pleased him, and that he would take.

may

."

form the complement to


1.
irm
other verbs than those of saying either as subject or object, or even
represent an attribute: e.g. ri fie fiiXa irov Ov/x(i)VT ; "what do I
care that you are angry ? " ^a/xa^w ttws Slv to ^pL<s " I am astonished
that you don't know," ^ -^aipofiai iroi^ (ttov) ^p^es " I am glad that
clause with

(or ttov)

also

Note at the same time how passive constructions are avoided.


Or anticipating the subject da/xdi^ofjiai rbv ovpavb irQs ffriKei
a. 24. 18) "I wonder that heaven stands without a pillar."
^

(I.

'3

x^P'^^ (TtvXo

190

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

you came,"

Wv/xtavc ttws Slv ypOe "

he was angry because he had not


^a yvptcrovfxe 8vo rpcts ;^iA.taS9 )(p6via Tviaoi, ipi^ol36Xr}cre ^aB^ta. (Texts II. b. 2) " the idea that we are to return two
or three thousand years backwards has become deeply rooted."
2. The employment of on instead of ttws is due to the literary
come,"

r)

iBea, Trtos

language.
268. The subjunctive is, of course, the rule with vd,
though an historic tense of the indicative is also employed
when the relative time of the past is otherwise unexpressed
e.g. irpeireL va irrjpafie arpa/So SpojuLo " we must have taken
a wrong way," fiwopel va fi d<ydirr]aef; " it is possible that you
loved me," (pacverai, va /jltjv uKovae "it seems he did not

hear," 8e

6v/j,ovjjLat

have met)."
the rule) in an

had
1.

do not remember meeting

Further, the imperfect

(to

"

v diravrr^aa " I

"

unreal " clause

e.g.

is

a?

permitted (but not


eZ^^^a

(yta)

vd 'Biva

I only to give."

Rather unusual

is

iiropca-cv

vayXvrwvev (Texts

III. 13. c)

" he could not escape."

In clauses with ttw? (ttov, otl) that tense of the indie, is


employed which is required independently by the predicate
\eyei (elTre) ttw? elSe " he says (said) that he saw " [direct " I
saw "], ecTre ttw? Bev e^ei (el^i^e) Kaipo " he said that he has
(had) no time " [direct " I have (had) "], nrdvTexav irm rov
ia-KOToya-av " they believed that they had killed him," fj.ta
:

irepZiKa KavKijcrrrjKe ttco? Bev evpidrj Kvvrjyof; va rrjve Kvvrjyijcrr}


(I. a. 16) "a partridge boasted that no hunter was found to
hunt it," rjrave 7ri,Kapu/jL6vo(;^ ttw? Bev rov yLttXet? (I. d. 5) " he
was enraged that you do not speak to him," rrjv eZ^e ^Bet arbv
vTTvo Tov 7ra>9 6a rrjv irdprj fyvvalica " he had seen (her) in the
dream, that he should receive her as wife," efjuadav ttw? 6a
ep6ri " they discovered that he would come."
On indirect discourse, v. 270.
2. Only in exceptional cases the tense is selected from the standpoint of the narrator e.g. L)( 13pel Trws a avro to jxepo^ i<f>-6Tp(DV to
(fyvTo cKctvo (I. d. 7) " he had found that that plant greio (grows) in
this region," or (III. 3) rrjg eXcav otl 6 (Saa-iXias CTn^atvc aTO aTTCTL
Tr)<s " they told her that the king was going to her house " beside Tr,<;
cTttc otl 6 ^ao-tXcas Tn/yatVet " that
is going."
3. After verbs of fearing both irws and fiij(7ra)s) or va /xr} are
used; as, (jiof^ov/xaL ttios to 7rapaKdvL (TrapaKave) "I fear that he
exaggerates (exaggerated)," (fio^ov/xaL ttws Bk Od 'p6r) or fjirj (Slv) epOg
"I fear he will come (will not come)."
:

SYNTAX

191

269. Indirect questions are introduced by an

inter-

rogative pronoun or adverb, or by the interrogative particle

av " whether,

Mood and

if."

the direct question

he asked him

"

<r/jL6vo<;

tense remain the same as in

tov pcorycre ycarL elvat erac avWoyc-

why he was

(is)

so

pensive," rbv

him if he did it," Be 6vfj,ov/jLac,


a(v) (TOV elira " I don't remember whether I told you," ^ hev
Tj^epe tL va Kavy " he did not know what to do," y BcoSeKciBa
ipconjae av to ^Kafie " he asked

7rrjye v

aKovarj ri 6a

elirfj

rj

Koprj " the attendants

hear what the maiden should say."


of the narrator

may

went

to

Here, too, the standpoint

be selected (as in 268, n. 2): e.g. rov


he asked him what he had, what

epcoTTjae, ri el'^ev, ri 7]de\ "

he wanted."
Indirect questions may, of course, represent subject or attribute
equally well as object e.g. rC KaraXd^afxc fxk rrjv aWayr] tovtt], tii^at
yia fiiva fjiva-T-^pLo (Texts II. b. 2) " what we have gained by all this
:

is a mystery to me," to ^yTrjfxa, Trotd yXu)crcra 6a. viKrjcrr), rj


KaSapevovcra 17 r] SrjfjiOTLKi^, oev cTvat aSia<^opo yto. t'^ voeX.X7}vLK7j
(fnXoXoyta " the question which language will gain the upper hand,

change

the learned or the vernacular,

modern Greek

is

not a matter of indifference for the

literature."

Occasionally an indirect interrogative clause (similarly to the va


by prefixing the

clause, 266, 1 n.) is converted into a substantive


article: e.g. ipojraya to ttov va lv* tj fjidwa aov (I.

a.

19)

"I asked

where thy mother might be."

Even an exclamation

in the

unaltered in a dependent clause


xei> "

form

of a question remains

f epet?, tl Ka\i) /capBca ttov

as,

you know what a good heart he

has."

from the preceding paragraphs that the


distinguished from the direct only in the
necessary change of person and in the insertion of ttcSs " that " or dv
" if, whether " ; that the imperatives are replaced by the construction
with vd (or also ttcus va) that is, so far as this construction is not
already present in the direct discourse
also that all kinds of
;
dependent clauses in indirect discourse undergo no alteration either
in tense or mood.
But, on the whole, lengthy indirect discourses are
avoided by the vernacular; an example of greater length in
addition to those already given in 262
is found in Texts I. d. 1
KOv^ScvTiaorav, ttws va tot' Kavovv KaKO, k* tlirav dvdfxicro tovs, ttw?
/ct TTOV ^a irdyovv va Xovarovv, va irdp
rj
fxeydXij eva aaKKOvki
jxapyapirdpL, etc., " they discussed how they might do her harm, and
270.

indirect

It is apparent

discourse

is

Notice also

dvfioO/xai aKd/Jia, <rav 'fjkde 6

X^pf-(> Atas (II. b. 2)

to our village."

"I

still

remember how the

irpuros drjfioTiKbs dtddaKaXos arrh


first

popular school-teacher came

192 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


they said among themselves that, as they would go to bathe, the
."
elder (sister) should bring a bag of pearls.
Pallis (Texts II. 6) employs ttws like a. Gk. 6tl to introduce also
a direct discourse.
In a similar manner ot&l a. Gk. on is in use
.

in the dialect of Sili (in Cappadocia).

Adverbial Clauses.

271. Adverbial clauses of place are formed with the


irrjye xel irov TJrav apayfiiva ra

relative adverbs of place

Kapd^ia " he went (there) where the ships had landed," to


KapdpL d(j)r}cr6 va Trrjyaivrj ottov to pi^rj r) tv-^tj " he let the
Clauses like
boat go wherever chance would drive it."
e'/cet TTov irdyaivav " there where they went " i.e. " while they
went," etc., approach the nature of temporal clauses.

is

272. Temporal clauses.

simple designation of time

usually expressed by the conjunction crdv

or 6vTa<; (also 6Tav[e], ovra, ovre,

(fr. a.

Gk.

co?

dv)

6vTe<;).

adv or ovra^ with the aor. indie,


as, 6 ^aatXca^ crav uKova avTOy
'^dpr]K6 " the king rejoiced when he heard it," <rav rd *7n)pu
6 ^Tw^o"?, r}<7vXKoouvTav tVTa va Kdfxrj rocra ypoaa (I. d. 4)
" when the poor man received them, he began to ponder what
he should do with so many coins," ovTa<i KLvrjae, tov irepcKd\eaav ol Ovyarepe^ tov " when he departed his daughters
(1) Past

time (a)

specifies a point of

time

requested him."

i.e.

(h) With the imperf. to specify a period or length of time,


when the time in question implies a durative (not com-

pleted) occurrence, or again to designate repeated action


(of the former)

ovTa^ yvpc^e^

rjvpe

returning he found some children," aav


yiXota, rjirapa^evevyovvTave "

exx.

KdTi iraihui " while he was


rjicoveve

when he heard

KdOe ^pdBv ra

the laughter every

evening, he wondered" (or repeated action)

(of the latter)

oi/ra? ep.iraive, eXeye " as often as she entered she

would

say."

(2) Present or future, {a) adv or oVra?, and so forth,^ with


the aor. subj. to specify a point of time as, aav rj dvoc^i yvpia-y,
;

TT] <j)(t)\id

will
"

TOV 7T0V

OcL (TTijaTj ;

he build his nest

when you

TtVoTe, vd

"

"

whcu

ovTa^

the spring returns, where

ISfjTe

to EpdKo, va cpMvd^eTe

see the monster, keep shouting," 6vTa<; -xpeiaaTjjf;

^i(f>ri^

TTj

fiovKa (TEXTS

I.

d.

2) " as soon as

need anything, turn (every time) the signet-ring."


^

In this case S^ras,

etc.,

seems to be preferred to

<t6.v.

you

"

SYNTAX
When
ovTtts is

(&)

the idea of the future

With

or repetition
"

when

also

Texts

cf.

as,

I. a.

future

xaptcrT;9

orav ae avWoyL^cofiat,

is

24. 4, 28,

I. c.

24. 26)

rpe/jLOi)

{cf. 1,

b)

kl avacnevd^o)

tremble and sigh "

cf.

8.

also possible, as in

(I. a.

I. a. 5. 7.

the present to specify duration of time

(as often as) I think of thee I

Texts

The
/u,ov

to be prominently brought out,

is

used with the future tense

193

"when we

cf.

ovre ^a ^e^wpt^^/xe, Ivra Oa

shall bid farewell,

what

will

you give us ?
273.

(los

Like

1.

0)5 Ktt^ojs)

and, in dialect,
o-tra

and even

phases of time

the following are employed Ka^ws


(with aor. indie), "while" (with imperf.),

a-av or ovras

"when"

The following

afxov vto and


express particular

"after" with

aor. indie, {cf. also

e.g., crCvra, <f>6vT<; (fr.

ra, in
:

Capp.

a-dfjio.

a<f>ov (also oL<jiov KaC)

d</)'

Pontus

ore), in

" as soon as " with aor. indie, or


(futuristic) aor. subj. ; d7r' ora " since " with aor. indie. ; cvw or
cVoVo) " while " with pres. or impf. indie. ; crt/ta vd " about to, going
." or " as
.," e.g. o-Lfxa VOL (3yovv " in the act of departing
to
276), a/xa or oTt (also

on

irov)

they were about to depart ..." Though not formally temporal


clauses, yet as such may be reckoned also (relative) clauses with
Kct^c ^opd TToi) (with imperf.) "everytime that," "as often as," cKct
TTov (with imperf.) "there where," i.e. "while, during."
2. Occasionally paratactic clauses carry temporal force ; cf. e.g.
(rvcjiopd " as soon as a misfortune occurs," ^d Ov/xuyarr),
/idXi9 rvxrj
" he will be angry as soon as he remarks it," iKCLprj
fiLOL Ka\ voiwo-r]
a-KidxTrjKe, ercn tov cISe oi^a(f>va " she was terrified when she suddenly
saw him."
.

by

274. The adverb of time " before

TTplv or

by

irpl

vd (Trptm, irpoTov,

" ("

until ")

Trpt^j^oO

is

rendered

with or without

vd) and the aor. or pres. subj.


(1) Past time
" she did
crrr)

Bev rov

a(l)r]cre,

irporov

va

Trj<;

opKcarr)

not let him off before he swore to her," irplv

Xa\Krj, rod earekve Traprjyopcd (TEXTS

II. b.

/uTrfj

4) " before

she came to Ch. she used to send him consolation."


(2) Present (or future)

aro

(pevya,

irpna aov avpouv

Ovfii-

they scatter incense on thee,"


iraipvei \ovrp6, irplv Kadi^rj aro <f)ayl tov " he always takes
(I.

a.

10) "flee before

a bath before he sits

down

to eat."

275. The pronominal

form

temporal clauses with the meaning

oao
" as

serves

to introduce

long as

"

or " until."

In the former case (strengthened to oao irov) the pres. or


imperf. indie, is used
as, Be 6a BaKpva-co, oao iav Kovrd fiov
fievt<; " I shall not weep so long as thou art with me " (but
cf. also Texts II. a. 3. 28), oao {irov) ^ovae, ihovkeve "as long
;

194 HANDBOOK OF THE

MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

For the latter meaning " until," oao


used with the aor. indie, when the
related as an actual occurrence deter-

as he lived, he worked."
TTov (or also laa

ttov) is

fjue

event in question

is

mining the course of the action as, irepaae X0770U9 koI /ccz/jl7rou9, oao ttov e^praae ara pc^ia rod fiovvov " he wandered
over forest and field until he came to the foot of the
;

On

mountain."
expected, or

the other hand,

it

if

only an event to be

is

the dependent clause has merely the function

if

vd (or

of a definition of time, ocro

used with the aor. subj.

oao va

e.g.

fjLovo

&>?

irov vd, toaie vd) is

e(f)Ta

^Ohvaaev^

va

fiepcov ^(ay diXco

" I

wish you to grant


me only seven days life until 0. arrive," oao va irdr) rj fidvva
arr^v apK\a, rrjv rjvpe ytofidrrj '\}ro)/jLL " until (such time as)
the mother came (could come) to the chest she found it full
of bread," ware va ^yy arrjv iropra tt;?, i^yrj/cev rj 'yjrv')(^ tt;?
fjLov ')(apLaT6,

*'

before she

came

cfyrda' 6

to the door her soul departed."

Note also ocro yXvrwae, 6a tov crpwyav (TextS


had freed himself they would have eaten him."

276.

causal clause

introduced

is

I. d.

3) " until

by

either

d<fiov,

or without Kal " since, as, because," or


"
"
yuari
because (in Pontus Taiyki, laovyKi), accompanied

with

i7reihrj{<;)

he

by
by

that tense of the indicative required by the occurrence.

"because" from the

literary language.

1.

8tort

2.

yiart occasionally competes

after verbs of

emotion

(c/.

with

267, n.

1)

va, ttoO,
:

or

e.g. ^ovkexj/e

ttoj?

for a place

ytart

17

rrpoyovrf

va Trap' tI pamXe to yto (Texts III. 12) "she was envious that
(because) her step-daughter should win the king's son."

d-q^

277. Conditional clauses are regularly introduced by


dv (av Kai) " if," sometimes by dviao)^ (/cal), av Tvyov, av tv^O

Kal,

av elvai Kai
(1)

When

" if perhaps, in case that."

the condition pertains to the Past, and

consequence to the past or present, then


in the protasis

apodosis

as,

and the

av to

^Kave<i^

aor.

the

aor. (imperf.) indie,

(imperf.) or pres. indie, in the

Ka\d \ave^

" if

you did

so

you did

right," av diroi^daLae^, 5e fiiropeh v aX\d^7}<; rrj yvcofirj aov


" if you have made up your mind you cannot change your

opinion."

(2)

When

both condition and consequence pertain to the

Present
(a)

When

the

condition

holds

good

generally

(may

SYNTAX
happen any number
(cursive action)

of

times) or

195
a

is

durative occurrence

present in both protasis and apodosis

as,

a diXy^; " you are able if you wish," a Bev ircaTeinj^;,


eXa Kovrd fiou va ihfj<i " if you don't believe, come to me
and see."
//.TTopet?

When

(b)

the condition

is

a punctiliar occurrence or an

occurrence completed as regards the consequence


in protasis, pres. indie, in apodosis
B(t>Krj<;

ra Varo ypoaa

(I. d.

as,

5) " I go not

Be

aor. subj.

a Be fiov
you give me

(ffevyco,

away

if

not the hundred piastres," a Be ^peOjj, Bep ireLpd^ei "

not found
(3)

it

if

it

is

does not matter."

When

both

condition and

consequence

pertain to

the Future

The condition is a repeated or durative action then


protasis and future (or imperative expression) in
apodosis, av Tretra?, Be 6a cr d^riG(a vrjariKr] (11. a. 20) "if
thou art (becomest) hungry I will not leave thee in want."
(h) The condition is a punctiliar occurrence, or one com(a)

pres. in

pleted as regards the consequence

aor. subj. in

the protasis,

an imperative expression) in the apodosis av


Tv^ov
Biy^da-rj^, 6a aov <\iep(o
vepo (II. a. 20) "if
thou chance to thirst I will fetch thee water," av irapafio) top
opKov, V daTpdyfr* 6 ovpavo<; Kal va fie KaTaKd-^rj (II. a. 1)
" if I shall break my oath, let heaven strike me with lightning, and burn me up," 6a to Kdvo) avpio, av /jLiropeao) " I
shall do it to-morrow if I am able " (more correctly, " if I am
placed in a position to do it ").
(4) Where the terms of the condition are impossible
future

(or
.

(unreal)

in the protasis the imperfect, in the apodosis the

conditional (
present or past

230, 233), regardless whether it pertains to


as, av to rj^evpa, Be 6a pwTovaa " if I knew

(had known) I should not ask (have asked)," a Bev irrf^aiva


eyre'^ gto 6eaTpo, 6a el'^a ttj BovXetd /jlov TeXeicofj.ev7) " if I

had not gone yesterday


work finished."

to the theatre, I should

have had

my

Conditional clauses may be formed also with va: e.g. fxiXia va


ra fxaXwveve (Texts I. d. 4) "if his children
talked he always scolded them," or va rove Ka/jLy va ycXda-rj, rrjv
ijxdXioeve (ib.) " if she made him laugh he would scold her," va tov
18179, ^a Tov Xv7rr]0rj<; " if you see him you will pity him," fxrjXov va
*ptxvt5, Karats Biv Ittikj^tiv (III. 11, without 6d) "if you had thrown
an apple it would not have fallen to the ground." The origin of
1.

KOLvave TO, TraiSta tov,

"

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

196

this usage of vd is apparent


2.

or "

not

/ will go."
Even a

a conditional clause
b.

heart

is

"do you want a

1)

direct question sometimes approaches the nature of


e.g. Oekere ievrj yXwatra ; Trdpre ttjv KaOapevovo-a

3.

(II.

from cases

like r/ KapBid fiov ttoi/ci, va o-as


grieved that (if) I listen to you."
Notice also iibv dv "unless," tT(s)
ctT(s) "whether
as, ctrcs ^pOrji ctrcs Slv ^pOrj, cyw ^a Traw " whether he comes or

"my

oiKovu) (II. b. 1)

foreign tongue? then take the pure


drro Kovrd tov "did 3'^ou provoke

language" I tov ^v/xwo-cs; <f>vya


him, then get out of his way."

278. Concessive clauses are formed:

By

(1)

Kc aV, av /cau or

though, even

if "

means,

still

TovpKeyfraVj

(i.e.

is

av koXo) Kai "al-

similar to that of the

ovXa ra fieaa,
"although he bad sought it by all
he could not find it," kl av ra vrep^evia
^T6pyio<; elvai ^(ovravo^ "even if the passes

conditional sentences
Sev i/jLTTopeae

ajKaXa

the construction

va

as,

av koI to

>yupe'\jr jne

evprj

have become Turkish, Stergios is still alive," tl a oDcfteXel, kl


av ^rj(7r)^, Kal elarai arr) aKXa^id ; (TEXTS III. a. 1) "what
advantage is it to thee, though thou livest, if thou art in
slavery

vd may also take the place of dv (rf. 277, 4, n. 1) ; as, koI


vd yrav, 0* appwa-Tovcrev " although he (were) had been strong
he would still have become sick," va o-Kdary, Od to Kdfxo) " although
he (it) burst, I will do it." lo-rwi/ras (/cat vd) "notwithstanding" is
not common.
{kol)

ypo<s

By

(2)
indie.

as,

fi
fi

0X0

Kapd/Sc " though

By

(3)

TTov

oXov

(fi

0X0 irov r}Tav


it

was

fine

fioXovoTc) with the

ottov,

KaXo<; Katp6<;, Bev CKivovae to

weather the ship did nob move."

the co-ordination of a clause with (kc) a?, after

which a preterite indie, is also possible (c/. 195); as, ra


daTpa
Xd/jLTTOvv oXo/xova'^a, kl a? fxrjv ra fiXeirrj Kaveva<;
(Texts II. b. 1) " the stars shine all alone though no one look
upon them," [to TratSi] fioa-'^offoXovae dp^ovTLd, kl a? rJTOV
.

yvfiv(OfjL6vo

(II. a.

even though
1.

Tjdav

as

15) "(the child) betrayed noble ancestry

was naked."

Somewhat

dfji/jLa

fxrjv

it

different

constructions are

^dav kol

as

TvcjiXo,

12) "even if it was blind, it was beautiful,"


to Vavc, p.d as cXeyc ttws Se <jiTaUi " though he
had committed it, yet he should have said that

6ixop<j>o (III.

IA.y ttoios

refused to say who


he was not guilty."
2. Notice further oa-o kl dv or oo-o koX vd w^ith subj. " however
much," and Kai or tra-i with an adjective and irov e.g. <f>o(Sovvrav,
T(n (koi) fxeydXos ttov ijrave "he was afraid, great though he was."
:

SYNTAX

279. Consecutive clauses are formed with irov (ottov,


and the indie, when the meaning is that the consequence

oTTov)

actually occurred
Sev

197

r)^6X(*>pi'^e

"

rjrave

e.g.

iroWa

ttov 6 va<; rov

<f>[XoL,

dWo

they were so great friends that the one did

not separate from the other," appcoa-rta

eppL^e rov davdrov,

fi

ra ^avda ^aXkid " sickness brought me so far


down to death so that my fair hair fell out," //-a? eVot/Ato-e
Toao ^adetd, ttov Tinrore irKia he fiiropel va fid<; ^virvijar]
" he put us into such a deep sleep that nothing more can
wake us." ttov vd is employed if the consequence is only
imaginary or expected as, hev elvai koI toqo irpufia ttov va
V^? " it is not such an important matter that you need speak
ep^eraL va (fxovd^co Bvvard, irov oXo^ 6 Koa-fio^ va fx
of it,"
aKovarj " it occurs to me to call so loud that the whole world
Notice further roao fxiKpo^ ehac, ttov Xe?
could hear me."
TTw? elvac iraLhi "he is so small that one might say (c/ 195)
he is a child," rj EvpcoTrrj uTrb tot<; co? earnxepa aXKa^e a eva
Teroio j3a6/Jb6, ttov Kal 6 Bupo)va<; clko/jltj va ^ovae, 6a iia<^
TTOV ^ireorav

iJL

BtarpL^h yea re? decople^ rov Aap/Slvov (II. b. 2)


Europe has altered from that time to the present to such a
degree that even Byron, if he were alive, would write brochures
on the theories of Darwin."
ypa(j>e
"

Even vd alone may carry consecutive


TO fjLvaXo Tov " that
tive Kttt, V. 261.
KavL<s

an action after verbs

forth

a figurative

to

me

sense

means

The intention

." ^

iTid "

cTi/at

va x'^^V

On

consecu-

to confess,"

" I

va

about

am

to,

or the actuating motive


c.g.

ej)vye yea

and so
B(oarj<;

vd

irr^yaivM

to eat."

am

/jlov

vet ixrjv

is

going

brought

^avayvpiarj

he went away (with the intention) never to return again,"

ri \6yia va ^pca yea va


find in order that
fjuy

came

something

out more distinctly by yta vd:

va

e.g.

like go, come, send, give, begin,

rjpra va ^eyopevTO) " I

KdriTL va <pd(o " give


in

280. Final clauses with vd denote the goal or purpose

of

force

for one to lose his reason."

is

or simply

ol yecTovoL "

[xe

TnaTeyjrere

you may believe me

/it;

as,

/u-e

"

;
?

what words can

"

Negatively {yia)

irovT^pia irepirdTei

/jlt)

volqxtovv

are

go carefully in order that the neighbours

may

not

notice you."
^

Hence the stereotyped form of the 3rd

sing,

-n-d

or

2nd

sing, vds is

practically identical with the simple vd, etc., in formulae like ira vd, vd ird vd,
etc. (c/. n. 2,

and

193, 2 n., 224, 3, n. 3.

255

n.).

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

198

The distinction between

1.
Kcitj/et?

vd and yta vd is faint ; cf. va KaX6 Bkv


(TKaXa crrbv koltu) koct/xo, vd Kare/^aivovv ol dScp^c?, etc.
8) " thou doest not one good deed, ... a bridge to the

(Texts I. a.
." and vd jxov 8u)Krj<; k
underworld, that brethren may descend
Iva Kapd/Si KttAo, yta va Trdvw crra i^va "give me a good ship in order
that I may go abroad," and further, clvai TrapairoXv kovtos yta va to
KaraXd(Srj "he is SO stupid that he cannot grasp it."
2. " That perhaps, forsooth " is rendered raxart? (yta) vd, " lest
perhaps," by fxi^Trw^s or fxrjv 7ra(s) Ka, (yta) va /xrjv rvxQ {^dxr}) Kai
.

or

.,

more concisely

The va

/x-^

tv^??

i^^XV)

'^^^

...

or /x^ tvxo(v).

loosely connected with

clause is sometimes so

the
approaches the nature of a principal
sentence itself; cf. oXrj vvxra Blv rfjSovXwa-eve /xdn a-rr] crvXXorj' rrjv
dXXr} ixipa firjSk ere fxepoKdixaro va Trdy, etc. (Texts I. d. 4) " the whole
night long he did not close an eye, occupied in thought to go next
day neither to his day's work . . .," i.e. " and on the next day he
3.

principal

sentence that

went neither

it

."

281. Adverbial clauses of manner are formed

With Kad ax;,

(1)

ottw?, also crav ttov,

according to "

" as, just as,

e.g. eicaiie

Kara

ttw?,

Karairov

(Kavei) Ka6co<; (ottw?,

aav

ttov) elire (OiXei) "

he did (does) as he said (wishes)," /ca^w?


pXeirere, e%a) hUaio " I am right, as you see," Kara ttov
{Kadoi)^) Xiec 6 \0709 " as the saying runs," eXa /cara ttw?
elaai "

come

just as

you

are."

vro OeXve^ c^rctayvc (Texts III. 13. a)


" do exactly as you like."
2. Notice further expressions like oco fiTropeis yXryyopwrcpa " as
quickly as possible, with all speed," and oa-o vd ttiJ?, to emphasise an
adjective: e.g. /xta (SocrKOTrovXa 6ixop<f>7) ocro va Trfjs "a shepherdess
as fair as you could tell,^' i.e. " incomparably fair."
1.

Pontic dfiov vTo

(2)
fir)v

as, a/xov

though"; 6 ypo<; crav pa


turns round as if he did
rov (f)dvr}K6 crav va KaTpaKvXodae to air It l " it
him as if the house would collapse."

With

(Ta(v)

vd "as

if,

T aKova-6, yvpva " the old

not hear,"

appeared to

"Do

as

man

rendered by Ka/tva>7rw5, Kajjuovofiat


" she acted as if she had
slidden," cKa/xc ttojs Kvvqydii to TratSt " he made as though he were
chasing the child," KafiwvecrTe ttojs /xrySe ^ipere "' you act as if you did
1.

TTois

with

(act) as

indie.

if,

pretend,"

is

e.g. cKa/xe ttws yXia-Tprjcrc

all know."
In an independent clause crav va has the meaning " to a certain
extent, so to speak " ; as, crav va yMCTavottovw ttov to etTra (Texts II. b. 2)
" I regret to a certain extent that which I said."
3. On comparative clauses with Trapa, v. 120, n. 1.

not at
2.

282. Finally,

in

addition

to

the

clauses given, the following are to be noted

various

kinds

of

;
"

SYNTAX
1

199

%w/)t9 vd or Sr)^&)9 vd " without "

iiripaa-e

x^pU

va

rove ^aLpTL(rr} " he passed by without greeting him."

vd " except, unless " aWov rpoirov va ^rjarj Bev


elxe %tw/ota. ^v\a va Kocprr) (TEXTS 11. a. 2) " he had no other
means of livelihood except felling wood."
;^ft)/3ia

provided that, up
fiaKpeia va
until

vd or ^rdvec

vd, fiovo

fjiaKpeca

fir)

the point

to

"

except when,

dyaOo'^

ijrav

"

vd

/lovo

you enraged him."


TToO " while, since, in that," to

2.

circumstances

the

cisely

different actions

as,

Ka\d

'Kap,e<;

determine more pre-

concurrence

the

or

irov ^pde^ "

(identity)

of

you did well

in

"

he

coming (since you came)," ^pOe irov Bev tov elira va


came without my having told him to come (though
tell

adpcoiro^y

rove Ovixwarj^i " he was a good natured fellow

^pdfj

I did not

him)."
"

irov (ttw?)

fjbovo

apart

only, excepting

from,

that "

elvac e^VTTvo TratBl, fiovo irov Be Bovkeuei, Ka6(b<i Trpiiret "

a clever lad, only he does not

work

he

is

as he ought."

AFFIEMATION AND NEGATION.

283.

vaiaKe "yes,"

val, stronger

/LtaXto-ra (also

together

valy fidXiara) " yes, indeed."


tcrft)9,

dX7]6eLa

(^e^aia)
a noun

" truly,"

crwcrTa

perhaps."

" right,

quite

6(tk6 "

"

so,"

trlyovpa

" certainly, of course."

stronger o^l Bd,

o;^t,

"

Tdya, ra^^are?, TdyaTi<i

as,

fiTTLpa

" will

beer."

For

^eXet?

o-x^LcxKe,

Kpaal

tj

fiiripa

you take wine or beer

no

o-^l

also to negative

Kpaai,

Not wine,

m-pori/jLO)

I prefer

"no,"'y. 284.

firj

i^rtTT, in Pontus and elsewhere [Turk.]


by no means," used in a reply another strong negation
" by no means, not at all " (lit. " lies
also yfrifjuara
").
The exclamations /jLLkid \e^t or Ta-ifiovBid signify a

Ka66\ov, BtoXov (also

AtT?) "
is

prohibition " not a word,"

i.e.

" quiet

Negation is often emphasised, or even expressed, by gesture, not,


however, by shaking the head, but by throwing it slightly backwards
(accompanied sometimes with a sound like a gentle click of the
tongue).

284. The particles Be(v) and prohibitive

serve to negative a clause (verb)

fJ'r](v)

"not"

they immediately precede

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

200

the verb, from which they

may

be divorced only by a con-

junctive pronoun or by the particle 6d (Bev to 6eX(a, Be 6a


^p6(Oy Be

GOV TO

etTra, Be

da aov to

elTrSci).

Instead of Biv the negative in Pontus appears as kC (Old Ionic


and in Cappadocia (Pharasa) rlo.

ovKi)

The negative

firj

is

employed

e.g. /irj, Kvp Ad^ape


(1) Independently as a prohibition
(Texts I. d. 3) "(do it) not, Sir L."
(2) In principal sentences in the cases given in 193
and 194.
:

(3) In secondary clauses always after m, even when vd is


accompanied by the indie. e.g. diro to va fxrjv el^'^ 'TrapdBe<;
" because he had no money."
For fii] with verbs of fearing,
and in final clauses, 280.
268, n. 2
:

iJ.

With

the present participle (cf.


^epovra^i " not knowing," deXovra^; Kal fit] "
(4)

236); as, /Jirjv


whether willing

or not."

285. Negation may be emphasised by KaOoXov, BcoXov:


KaOoXov " by no means did I say it," " absolutely
did not say."
The negative particles ome, ovBe, fitjre, fxrjBe

e.g.

"

Bev elira

not even,"

when

or,

repeated,

'*

neither

nor," are used

verb comes at the beginning only


the simple form of negation can precede it as, Bev e)(w ovre
(fitjre) fjLta rrevrdpa " I have not even a sou," va fjur) Trdpg^
indiscriminately.

If the

fjLrjTe

^p6(TLa

but

pLrjTe (fyXovpid "

take neither pennies nor

florins,"

ovre fita Trevrdpa e^co or fiyBe XvpdKC iria rjKoveve

eXoca (Texts

I. d.

4)

"

/jLijBe

neither lyre nor laughter heard he

any more."
1.

Notice, further, the use of KioAas

not eaten at

Bkv ecfiaya KtoAas

"I have

all."

The

negative may be inserted pleonastically (but is not necespresent) in vd clauses after verbs of 1hindering
e.g. B\ a
/A7ro8i^a> va jxr] fxiXa^ " I do not hinder you from speaking."
2.

sarily

OEDER OF WORDS.
m. Gk. vernacular has, on the whole,
286. The
maintained the a. Gk. freedom in the order of words, i.e. all
kinds of combinations are possible in the sequence of the
composite parts of the clauses.
It is only in dependent

SYNTAX
clauses that the place of the verb

generally speaking, there

is

is

201
restricted

(-y.

But,

289).

a recognised normal sequence of

words, so that any deviation from the same lends a special

emphasis to the irregular member.

The normal

order of words in m. Gk. appears in its main features


is, it goes back at least to the period of the

to be ancient, that

ancient Kolv-^.
287. In a statement consisting of two members the
Of
normal sequence of words is Subject and Predicate.
themselves introductory particles (rcopa, Tore?, etc.) cause no
alteration.
Inversion of predicate and subject is, however,
e.g. oma^ iTrXrjfacilitated by a preceding dependent clause
aiaa 6 BpaKo^, icjxava^av ra TraiSid " when the monster
:

approached, exclaimed the children."

But

in other

frequently the

cases

ductory particle,

if

also

by inversion the verb takes

position or immediately follows an intro-

first

(1) either the verb

to be indicated as

is

the result of a preceding action (and so particularly after


fiovXa, k rip6* 6 'Apdirrj^; "

e.g. e^tyfre rrj

came the Arab,"

ring and there

/car),

he rubbed the signet-

or (2)

if

the idea of the

subject constitutes the essential element of the narrative


YjTav fita

(l)TO})(r)

yvvacKa k

l')(e

eva TratSt

"

e.g.

there was a poor

woman who

(and she) had a (one) child," eVet cKaOovrav ol


hpaKOL " there dwelt the monsters," rore? ra elir 6 ^aa-i\cd<i

"

then said to her the kitig" rjpOe k

came

" there

Further, an adverb which

beginning

him

as,

(TEXTS

Trpcora

emphatic

Kal irdXi top ifidXcaa


I.

d.

2) "

and

entices

consequently

verb

its

p,dvva rov

rj

to

Ka6cti<;

the
koI

and once again his mother scolded

pronominal subject betrays an inclination to follow the verb

"we

" there

came

one,"

go (go we)," Skv to

kcivo? "

i<f)vy

'a-cfta^a yw', fxov^

r)

he

fled," TrrjyaCvovfie

ahtp^ri fiov

288. In a sentence of several members

objects
is

is

position

as at first."

e.g. rjpOiv cj/as


'/xcts

extreme

an

occupying

dpdBa rod Ad^apov

rj

also the turn of Lazarus."

and adverbial qualifications

(I. d. 1).

enlarged by

the predominant order

the middle position for the verb, while the object or (and)

adverbial qualification follow

dvyarepa

rov

position

uncommon, and

is

or

to

Trat^l
is

e.g.

irijye

kl 6 ^aai\ta<; i^oova^e
<7t^

fidvva

due to special reasons

rrj

Final

rov.
;

cf. e.g.

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

202

TO

VTv<;

tc

moved

off"

Kapd^L eKLvrjare " and immediately the boat


(where the emphatic adverb has taken the

place without attracting the verb after

initial

it,

because the

verb too has to be given emphasis), to irokv KvpceXerjao kl 6


fiapeteTat to " even the priest

iraTTci^

becomes weary

much

of

Kurieleison " (where the two main contrasted ideas are placed
in proximity to the front), or

(where

a^L^ei

(pXovpLo.

X009

the

copa rov 'x^lXia

rrjv

et?

renders

position

the

object

prominent).

the verb (with inversion of subject

Initial position for

and predicate)

287:

his

e.g.

mother

is

under the same conditions as in


fidvva tov <tto ^aaCKid " again w^ent

found

nrrjye ttoXl

t)

to the king," ep^et 6

Moreover, inversion

has ears."

rol-^o^

avrtd

"

even the wall

common when an

is

adverbial

an object introduces the sentence and when


emphasis is put on the verb
thus the normal

qualification or

no special
middle position for the verb is secured e.g. /juta (popa ijrave
eW? ^aaiKid^ " once upon a time there was a king " (c/ also
" early as the boy rose,"
287), TO nrpco't o-KcoOrjKe to Traihi
T6')(yr) Bekei to irpiovL (I. b. 17) "art requires the saw."
;

289. In dependent clauses without exception the verb

upon the introductory particle {vd, crdv,


it only by the negative or the
etc.),
conjunctive pronoun, and practically without exception the
verb follows upon an interrogative word and a relative GTSKa
va 'Sw K iyot) '^Ix^ '^V l^ovXa " stay that I also may examine
follows immediately
or

is

separated from

the signet-ring a
'Apdirrj "

when

Moor," TOV

how much
"

crav

little,"

ipcoTTjae ttogo

all

^aa iXoiroiika

oca

elire

/xe

tov

had escaped with the

KoaTL^ei to J^l^Xlo

the book cost," tov

she told him

rj

(f>vy

the king's daughter

t(t

"he asked him


6 ^aacXuU

elnr

that the king had said to her."

Exceptions occur only after irov (to throw emphasis upon the
verb), as, 5px^ Kaipos, ttov 6 evas rjTravrpevTrjKe (Texts I. d. 5) " there
came a time when one of them married" and in predicate clauses

with

TTws,

which prefer the order

yTav
husband was at work."
TTws Ketv7}s o

(TTr]

tti/T/otts

of the principal sentence, as,

SovXeta

(I. d.

290. The direct and indirect

immediately upon the


indirect, provided there
(eSoJKe Kal

T^}9

fJUKpr)^

verb
is

to

the

5)

"he knew

-rj^epe

that her

object regularly follow


direct

preceding

the

not more emphasis on the latter


ypdfJLfjLa,

TEXTS

I.

d.

1).

If

the

SYNTAX

203

and the predicate are inverted (v. 288) the object


end e.g. Koi irrjpe 6 SpdKo<; to
Ehetorical reasons may
Bivrpo, \eL to aKvXi tt}? yaTa^.
cause the object to be pushed forward cf. fiov Trrjpe rrj fiovXa
6 ^Apdirrj^i Koi rrj yvvaiKa (I. d. 2) " the Arab took from me
The most effective
the signet-ring as well as the woman."
means, however, of securing prominence for the object is a
an arrangement
position immediately in front of the verb
which readily admits the former to the beginning of the
subject

in that case regularly takes the

clause
TO,

e.g.

6 X6o<;

rr)v

et?

ypoaia aov Bev ra diXo)

'*

thy money I seek not."

and adverbial qualifications regularly


upon the predicate the adverb immediately, the

291. Adverbs

follow

copa rov '^iXLa (pXovpLa d^i^ev or

adverbial qualification after the object or after the adverb


t6t6<; ecrreiXe nrdXi rrj fjudvva

again his mother


aTrj<;

rov

(tto

the king,"

to

^aaCXid

Tpe')(eL

"

then sent he

Xolitov evrv^ Kdro)

rov "he runs now immediately down to his


The inversion of subject and predicate attracts the

ixdvva<i

mother."

adverb likewise toward the beginning, but not the adverbial


qualification

e.g.

irrjye

irdXt,

r)

fidvva crro ^aaCXid " again

went the mother to the king," but


"the monsters went for wood."
qualification

may

irryyav ol

An

BpdKoi yta ^vXa

adverb or adverbial

be given a mild emphasis by placing the

former at the end of the sentence (after the other enlarge-

ments of the verb) or also before the verb, and the latter
immediately before the verb as, e^rjaav oXt) rrj ^coi] tov<; KoXd
" they lived their whole life well," o rccopyt^; ttoXv eKave to
Xddo^ " again G. made the mistake," 6 BpdKo<; fie fieydXr]
Tpo/juapa d(j)K6 Ta <f>Xovpid " with great consternation the
monster abandoned the money," avTrj eKave k^ aXX?; <[)opa to
thio " once more she did the same thing."
;

Of course even the adverbial


object

when

the latter

is

8ta;SoA.os aTToXdei airb rrjv

qualification

comes before the

enlarged by a relative clause


Kairora tov to Aayo, 6 oTrotos
.

as, t6t<; 6
.

(I. d. 6).

The strongest emphasis is secured by an initial position,


which occurs particularly when an adverb or an adverbial
definition forms the transition from one clause to the other,
or introduces a situation (and so especially in definitions of

time and place)


iraiBia tov Kvp

e.g.

yXrjyopa va

Ad^apov

<t>vyr)(;

iaKid'^TTjfces ;

"

quickly

(TEXTS

flee," dir

I. d.

3) "

to,

was

204 HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


it

the children of Sir L. that you were afraid of

cure

it,"

"

o;^Ta)

"

within the space of eight days I


TraXt avr^j ejSdXe to Ba^TvXiBi crro rdai fieaa " again

fxepe^ hiopla to

yiarpevot)

she laid the ring in the cup,"

Tr]v

dWr}

/juipa 6 X/Jio-To?

toO

Xeet tou BiajSoXov " another

day said Christ to the devil," fiia


<f)opa 7]Tav6 8vo iraXkr^Kcipia " once upon a time there were
two youths."
Gf, also the beginning of I. d. 7 and I. b. 5.
292. In

secondary

clauses

the

object

and adverb

(adverbial qualifications) are frequently separated from the

which,

verb,

beginning

as,

according

va

fia<i

to

289, gravitates toward


rrj dvyarepa rov

Booa 6 ^aatXta<;

the
" let

Ka6m Trrjpe to aKvXl W;


fiouXa " as soon as the dog got the signet-ring," va 'Bco k ijco
the king give us his daughter,"

'^^TiX'^

may

0<^^^^ " that I

'^h

also look at the signet-ring a

moment," oao va Trdrj rj fidwa rov arrju apKka


mother went to the chest."
Only clauses with

" until his

irov {oirov),

(as in principal sentences, u 290 f.) admit of


and adverbial determination being placed in front of
the verb and thereby emphasised as, ttoO o em? rov aWo Bev
rj^6X(*>pt'^e " so that the one did not part from the other," ttw?
(T avTo TO iJLepo<i i(pvTp0i)v6 TO <j)VTo eKelvo " that that plant
grew in this place."
In clauses with vd and other conjunctions that member of the clause which is to be strongly
emphasised must be placed hefore the introductory conjunction
fjuova^a va ^tacperc va /jlov Kd/jLr}<;
e.fj. dXKo he ^aXeuw
" I request nothing else, only that you prepare me a banquet,"
Be fjLTropo), KdOe fxepa va epx^oo/JLat, " I cannot every day come."
This precedence of object or adverbial determination is, however, less common than is the case in principal sentences.
(oTi)

TToi'i

object

.,

293. Adjectives and participles as a rule precede the

word which they


(1)

When

They follow

qualify.

there

is

an emphasis on the adjective

e.g.

yiaTpoi; /caXo? " a good doctor," fiia (popeaia awaTTj " a proper

garment."
Notice also the expressions of goodwill wpa KaXi; and
{rf. 256, 257 n.).

cts

rrj

TToWd

(2) If the attribute

is

the essential element, the essential

expansion of the content of the context


Xa/jLTTpo "

as,

eKafiav eva ydfio

they celebrated a wedding splendidly,"

fiia <f>opeata

SYNTAX
^pdyKLKTj "a garment
ra TTokui "in the days

205

European

of

style,"

fietr'

ra

XP^^''^

of old, antiquity."

(3) When the attribute itself is expanded as, eva aapdyo


fieyaXvrepo dir rod fiacrCkid " a castle more beautiful than
;

that of the king," eva ^Lac^en iroXv fjLeydXo " a banquet very
magnificent."

When

(4)

the adjective stands in the relation of a predi-

cate to the substantive


to

TTrjye

vlgki

dSeio aro

as, o

Ad^apo<;
" L.

TrrjydSi,

brought the bag empty to the well

" ("

fie

jneydXTj

BvaKoXla

much

difficulty

with

the empty sack " must

be rendered to uo-kI to dSeco, according to 57).

294. The attribute genitive

noun

is

placed, as a rule, after its

noun and
any preposition
yum?
(TTiyfjLrjf; v'TTo/jLovT) BeKa xpovcop pep^ttTi " a moment's patience
means ten years' quiet," ti}<? jiLKporepr]^ to %/3y<7o ^epyC " the
golden rod of the younger (daughter)," cr' avTrj^; t^? ^tw^tJ?
even

but, to secure a slight emphasis, before the

hefore

the

article,

KopTj^ TO GTTiTL " luto this

but

after

poor maidcu's house."

1. Note the free position of the gen. in Texts I. d. 5, to o-kcSio


6a Trapw rov a-mTiov, where the emphatic object is pushed to the
beginning Avhile the attributive gen. which belongs to it is left.
2. In Pontus and Cappadocia the gen. regularly is accorded the

first place.

295. Dependent clauses

with vd (yia

vd),

indirect

interrogative clauses, predicate clauses with ttw? {ttov), consequential,

and comparative

sum up

briefly "

upon the
KovToXoovpue " to

clauses, as a rule, follow

principal sentence, only clauses like va

constituting

fixed

tcl

exceptions.

Temporal

clauses as regularly precede, in which case a single (emphatic)

member

of the principal sentence, or a

may

member common

to

aav
dpyrjae 6 Ad^apo<;, <j)o^t]6'Kav " as L. delayed the Drahi
feared (the monsters, as L. delayed, feared)," o paaiXia^ aav
uKova avTo, xP'pr^Ke " when the king heard it he rejoiced."
both,

be placed at the beginning

as,

position after the principal sentence is less

oi hpdicot,

common

(apart

from clauses with " until, as long as, before ") as, avTb<; (po^/)6rjK6 aav Tov elirav ttw? etvat to ^aa{^b)X6TrovXo (TEXTS I. d. 1
" he was afraid when they told him that he was the king's
;

son."

Causal sentences
14

may

either precede or follow (those

MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

206 HANDBOOK OF THE

with ^iarl follow) the principal sentence, so likewise conEelative sentences connect closely with

ditional sentences.

and thus sometimes secure a place within

their antecedent,

the principal sentence

TO

^<p/c6ia(T6 (I. d.

you ordered

"

but by means of the

the relative

of

to iraihl to aapdyi,, irov to irapd'yyeke^,

elx^

Kpv/jL/uLepTj

"

rules

the

for

sentence the language can escape

the necessity for such insertions


TTjv

which

castle

construction in place

fcat

261) and by the

clause (

of the principal

position,

made the

2) " the child has

koI

e.g.

and the ring

TrecpTei

^ovXa

77

irov

which he had kept

fell,

concealed."

But even a

may

be separated from its ante^'''^


X^P'- ^^^ (Texts I.
d. 2) "only the signet-ring I wish which you hold in your hand."
2. Eelatival subject (also object) clauses with oVoio?, on, (6)7rov,
oaoi incline to come before the principal sentence, exx. v. 264.
1.

cedent

relative clause

e.g. fxavax"^

^V ySovXa OeXo)

ott*

^x^'^

296. Modern Greek, having only in a limited number

of instances strictly prescribed the position of words, admits


of all kinds of variations

Poetry

for artistic purposes.

is

in

more absolute for the sake of the rhythm poetic


deviations from tjie normal order of words occur rather
frequently where they are not essentially required by the
this respect

In the following examples note the dislocation of


air' tt) {jlvtt) tov

thought.

elements that properly belong together:

evyeveia ttw?

tSere,

rj

nose,

see

how

XvTpMag %e/3t;

them?"
*'

T?59

r/oep^et

(TEXTS

II.

nobility trickles," 'n-oca<;


(II.

a.

23) "which

a.

witch's

hand

iraTplho^ em? va yevg dp'^rjyof;

let there be one leader of his country," fteV

dpfievi^ec ttjv rjcrvxv ep^Atta (II. a.

heaven's

of
(II.

a.

9)

"from
6a

8)

/jL(iyi,o-aa<;

tranquil
" I

solitude,"

behold

with

/jue

his
to,

will free
(11.

a.

1)

ovpavov

t'

13) "floats in the vault


^XeTrco

fxdTt,

eye

flaming

"

in

cj^Xoyepo

which

the

essential elements of the sentence surround the less important.

favourite artistic device

avva^e,

fjudcre

assemble

my

yovaTi^ovv
the young,"
"

me

chiasm
(I.

a.

e.g.

2)

"

to crTpdTe^d

my army

warriors," irapaKoXovv ol 'yepovT6<;, t

(I. a.

7) "

me kdnni
fidTt,

/jlov

collect,

dycopta

the old beseech him, at his knees fall


pe]^dni,

thou permittest to

Sev ffXiireL

is

iraXXrjKdpia

to,

na

die, to

^ivo, Bev

pelpdni

me Mnni

esu (III. 1)

die thou permittest me," irov

aKovei

^euo avTL

(II.

a.

20)

SYNTAX
"

where gazes no eye

of

stranger,

207
and no ear

of

stranger

hears."

The treatment

of these things, however, does not properly

belong to the sphere of

grammar, but

to

that

of

style:

grammar is concerned only with establishing the given


and means of expression in the natural language.

facts

TEXTS,

FOLK LITERATURE.

I.

a.

Folk Songs.

aXiucri Tfl? KuuvcnavTivouTroXi^.

1. *'H

a.

KaXoYpia eiuaYepeue
Kai

|nid

cpujvri,

i|iapdKia ctto TtiYoivi,

ipr|\ri

dTTdvuu0ev

qpiuvr)

Ypid, to |uaTepi6 k'

,,TTdipej

XeTer

Tf\(;

TToXi 0d TOUpKeqjr]."

f]

^^Oiav Td ipdpia TteTaxToOv Kai pToOv Kai ^uuvraveipouv,

Toieg Ki 6 ToOpKO^ Gevd jUTrf) k' f) TToXi 6d TOupKei|;r;i."


Td ipdpia 7T6TaxTr|Kave, id ipdpia ^uuvraveipav,

Ki 6 djuipdq eiaeprjKev dioq tou KapaXXdpi^.


b.

TTfipav Triv ttoXi, Trfjpav

Trflpav

xriv,

ir)

ZaXoviKT],

TTfjpav Kai xriv 'Axid Zoqpid, to jueya |uovao"Tr|pi,

TToO

'x6

Kd6

KajLiTTdva Kai

nandq^ Kd0e TraTid^ Kai bioKog.

Zi|Lid

vd PyoOv Td

ctYia

TpiaKOOia o"r||uavTpa

k' 4Hr|VTa

5u6

Ka|U7Tdve<;*

6 paaiXid? toG kocjuou,

ki

Oujvri T0U(; TipT' eH oupavoO, dTTcXiuv drr' to cTTOiua*


*A(pf|T' auTri

Tr|v

ipaXiuiubid,

Kai ajeikie Xoto

o"Tri

vd x|Lin^^c^o^v

Nd

TTdpouv TO xP^cro 0"Taup6 Kai

Kai

Tr|v

Zdv

T*

dyia TpdireZia, vd

ctKOuaev

Zu)Trao"e,

TTdXe

]Lie

Kupd

f)

)Lie

TrjV

)Liri

becTTroiva,

660"TToiva,

xpovou^,

t'

ir\

Trido"ouv,

djuoXuvouv."

baKpuZiouv oi eiKovei;-

|uriv

KXaiYri(;,

|ur|

baKpvlriq'
cra<;

eivai."

'0 AidK0(;.

Tpia TTouXdKia KdGouvTav cttoO AidKou to


'va TTipdei

dTia*

dxio to paYT^Xio

Kaipoug, TidXe 6iKd

2.

To

t'

OpaTKid, vd 'pTouve vd Td

Aipabid Kai

t'

Ta|U7T0upi.

dXXo to ZriTOuvi,

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GEEEK VERNACULAR

12
To

TpiTO TO KaXuiepo luoipioXoTa Kai Xifev

TToWr) |uaupi\a

irXotKiucre,

Mriv 6 KaXupa<s ^px^iai,

adv KaXiaKOuba*

juaOpri

6 A6pevT0Tidvvr|(;

}ir]v

Oub' 6 KaXupag ^pxeiai, cub' 6 AepevioYidwrig*


Bpuujvri^ TrXdKUJCTe

'0)Liep

'0 AidKo<; cydv


YrjXri

T6

qpujvriv

ecrriKUJcre,

(TTpdiejad

A6(j Touq

beKoxiib xi^id^ei;.

|Lie

ttoXu toO KaKoqpdvr)*

t' dTpoiKricre,

tov TrpujTo tou cpujvdZ;r

cruvaSe, judae

)uiou

ILiTrapouTri

id iraXXriKdpia,

Kai poXia

Trepicrcyri

rXnTopa* Kai vd mdauuiLie Kdiuu

cTiiiv

xeq

|ue

(poiJXTe(;.

'AXajudva,

TToO 'vai Ta|Li7T0upia buvaid ki ojuopqpa jueiepiZia."

TTaipvouve id Xaqppd arraGid Kai id ^apeid ToucpeKia,

mdvouv xd

Zrrjv 'AXaiudva qpidvouve Kai

Kapbid, Traibid

|uou,"

cpuivaHe, TTai5id,

Taiuiroupia'
cpopriGfiTe.

)uri

XraGfiT' dvTpeid crdv "EXXrive<; Kai crd fpaiKoi cTTaGfiTe"


'EKeTvoi qpopr|9r|Kave k' eaKopmcrav crTOU(; XoTfovq.
"E|Lieiv'

Tpeig

6 AidK0<; cnri qpuuiid

ujpe(j

XKicrxriKe

erroXejuae

)Lie

to ToucpeKi tou

Zepvei Kai to Xaqppo

k' dyivriKe

K'

CTTTaGi

lirecr'

tou

cpouxTa,

Tf\

K' eKeivo^ t' dTreKpiGriKe Kai


k' ecrei^

k'

f]

Trjv TricTTi

luou,

TZ^ajui,

Trjv

crou v' dXXdHr]^,


;"

eKKXricrid v'
6u)li6

|ue

cra^,

ttictti

x^P^ot-

ttictuj.

bpojuo tov eptuTa*

ctto

|uu(TTiKd

irpocTKuva^ i^ to

Kai buo x^Xidbe*;

'|U'^Po<;

reveaai ToupKO<s, AidKo

TTdTe

|LiTrouXouK)LiTraa"i6e(;.

d-rrdv' drro

6 AidKo? Z;ujVTav6^ ei^ tujv exTpujv Td

Ki'Ojuep Bpuu)vr|(;

Nd

k' eqpxd

cTKicTTriKev

TOV irfipav dTio

XiXioi

KO|Li)LidTia,

Kai cty] cpiuTid xoujudei,

cTTraGi

"EKOipe ToupKOug direipou^


Kai TO

beKoxTuu XepevTe(;,

jue

beKoxiib x^^i^^^?-

dq)ricrri(;

tou Xeyer

juoupTdTeg,

vd

xtt^HT^^*

'Etiu fpaiKog YvvriGr|Ka, fpaiKO^ Gavd TueGdvuj.

'Av GeXeTe xiXm qpXujpid Kai x^^io^<s |uaxiuouTiebe<;,

Movov ^qpTd iLiepujv lojx] GeXuu vd juoO xapi<5"T,


"Oao vd qpTda' 6 'Obucraeug ki 6 BdTia<; 6 GavdcTK;."
Zdv t' dKoucT' 6 XaXiX |HTrer|(;, dcppi^ei Kai qpujvdZ^er
XiXia TTOUfTid Gd<; biviu

Tov AidKO vd
PiaTi

Gd

xci^dcreTe,

crpncxri

Tiqv

'tiu

ToupKid

Tov AidKO TOTe Tiaipvouve


'OXopTO TOV

Tou?

l(TTr|crav ki

ippiZ^e Triv

man

ki

dKOjua TrevTaKocria,

tov qpopepo tov KXeqpTiT


ki

oXo

ixaq to

VTepXen."

Kai crxo croupXi tov pdZiouv,

auTO^ x^^oTeXoucre.

tou?, tou? eXexe juoupTdTe?*

TEXTS
ZKuXid, Ki av

*A?

(ToupXicreTe,

|u^

213
fpaiKO^

eva<;

^X^iGri'

6 'ObucTcreijg Ka\d ki 6 KaTreidv NiKr|Ta<;*

iv'

AuToi 6d cpdve

Tr)v

ToupKidv, Gd Kdi|;ouv to VTepXeii."

3.

'0 ZrepTios.
(Thessaly)

Ki av Td VTCppdvia ToiJpK6i|;av, id Trfjpav 'Appavixe^,


'0 ZTepTiO(; eivai Cuuvravo^, naadbeq b^v i|;r|cpdei.

*0(To xioviZiouve pouvd xai XouXoubiZiouv

TTdjue

vd

ottoO qpiuXid^ouv Xukoi,

Xijuepidcruj)Liv

Tk Kopqpopouvia,

Kd)Li7T0i

Kpud vepd, ToOpKOu^ 6ev TrpoaKuvoOjue.

K' ?xo^v 01 pdx6<;

ae pdxeg Kai paxouXeg.


ZKXdpoi OTeq x^P^? KaioiKoOv Kai ToupKOug TrpocKuvoOve,
K' ^jueig Tid

TTapd

x^9^^

ToOpKoug,

|Lie

The same rims


nunciation,

ere

^xcjue pni^ieq ki otYpia XayKabia.


jue

6epid KaXuxepa vd

Z:oO|ue.

in phonetic transcription (to illustrate the pro-

thus

2)

c/.

(TTiriXie^,

^ an da derve^a

turlcepsan, ta

ptran Arvam'tes,

Steryos ine zondands, pasddes dembzifd}.

xonizune vund He luludtzun kdmbi,


exun i rd\'es hrd nerd, Turkus dembrosMnume.

oso
It

pdme na Umerdsomen

opii fol'dzun UJci,

se korfovuna, se spil'h, se rdx'es

ra%ules.

Jie

Turkus proskinune,
ftemis ja \6ran ^xprne rimnes Jc d^ra laidgddja.
pard me Turkus, me perd kalitera na zume.
sJcldvi stes

4. '0

Mdvva,

Aev

Gd

d7T0xaip6Ti(T|Li6(;

KaxoiKriauu

0d

xou(;

f\

Kapbid

Trduj

vd

t^viju

cxd pouvd Kai

gt^c,

^ir\Kl(;

Xottou? auvxpoqpid,

\\x)

xd xiovia Tid
jue

cTKeTrri,

|ue

cpuTiu, judvva, Kai

luavvouXa

paxouXeg,

Tohc, ppdxou(S Tid Kpeppdxi,

KXai<;,

|uriv

|uou.

KXeqpxrig,

xd Gepid Koupevxa,

xd KXeqpxoTTOuXa KaGrijuepvo

|ue,

KXecpxri.

vd

'xuj

euxn^ou

toO

xoug ToijpKOu<; vd bouXeOuj,

be buvaiuai, eiudXXiaa'

r|)Li7Topiu,

'xu)

Ice

croO Xeuj, bev rmTTOpiu

irdpuj x6 xouqpeKi luou,

Nd
Nd
Nd
Nd
K'

xdres katikun

|liou,

|u6v'

Xi|uepi.

bo

ToupKOug

|uou xrjv euxn

ttoXXoO*;

vd

o"ou,

acpdHuj.

Kai cpuxeipe xpavxaqpuXXid Kai |uaOpo KapuoqpuXXi

Kai

TTOxiZie

Ki 6o"o

7t'

xa 2^dxapi Kai

iroxiZ^e

dv9iZ;ouv, judvva

)liou,

'0 Yio^ aou bev ajreGave Kai

xa

iu6o"ko*

Kai p^dvouve XouXoubia,

TroXejudei

xouq ToupKOU^*

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GEEEK VERNACULAR

214

Ki av epGr] luepa GXipepri, luepa qpapiiaKUjjuevri,

Kai jLiapaGoOv xd bub

Tote

k'

\xali

koli

Tiecrouv

Gd Xa^uuGu), id |uaOpa vd

IfOj

id XouXoubia,

AiubeKa xpovoi irepacrav xai beKairevTe


TT' dvGiZiav

Kai

rd xpavidcpuXXa

auTH

|uidv

'voiHaiiKri,

ki

)uid

TToO KeXaibou(Tav id irouXid

Me

Me

Mall

)ui'

auid

toO Maiou,

6 oupavog yeXoOae,

ki

Km

Tiveiai (TKOidbr

crievaHe, ipavtaqpuXXid baKpuZIei,

HepdGrjKav rd 6u6

|Liid^

lufive^,

avQilav id iHTTOUjUTrouKia.

TipujTri

daipdcpTei Kai ppovrqi

liidq

To KapuoqpuXXi

qpopear]*;."

k' e-rrecrav

(jcupidcrTriKe k'

5.

x]

id XouXoubia*

boXia tou laavvouXa.

Oi KXicpreq Kai n dvoiHi.


(Epirus)

"Hauxa

ttoO eivai rd pouvd, ficruxoi iroO eiv' oi KdjUTTOi!

Aev KaprepoOve
Mov' KapxepoOv

Nd iboOv

Toxjq

Gdvaio, Tepdjuaia bev ^xo^v,


irjv

dvoiHi, to

BXdxouq

Mdi, to KaXoKaipi,

o"Td pouvd,

vd iboOv Te^ BXaxoTTOuXef^,

N' dKouaouv Td BXaxoirouXa XaXujvTa^ jeq q)XoTepe(S,

B6(7KOVTag Td KOTidbia

toij(^

"OvTag Gd aTricouv Td

0d pTOuv

)Lie

Td xovTpd Koubouvia.

juavTpid, ty\v

dpTumd vd

qpTeidcrouv,

Kai Td KXeqpTOTTOuXa vd iraiZiouv, vd xopevovv.

Xuxvd auxvd Gd po^oXdv CTOug KdjUTroug tujv OepadXiuv,


Nd TTidvouv ToupKouq Z^iuvTavou^, vd Ybuvouv o"KOTiJU|Lievouis,

Nd

cpepvouv

Tpoma

Kai cpXiupid k' dKei

Kai vd xcipi^iouv xdva buo 0"Te^

KXe9T0VTa5 Kai Kdva

qpiXi

6.

vd Td

dcTTrpe*;

Kai YXuKorraiYVibaKi.

XeXib6vi(T|Lia.

XeXibovi epxeTai,
GdXaffcrav
If]

d-rrepao'e,

cpiuXid Ge)aeXiiuo"6,

KdGicre k' ^XdXr|0"e*

MdpTi, MdpTi xiovep^


Kai OXepdpi ppoxepe.
*0 ATTpiXig 6 fXuKix;
^EqpTaae, bky

Td
Td

eiv'

luoipd^^ouv,

BXaxoTTOuXeg,

juaKpu^*

TTouXdKia KeXaiboOv,

bevTpdKia qpuXXavGoOv,

TEXTS
Td

215

opviGia vd tgvvoOv

'ApxivoOv Kai vd KXuucrcroOv.

Td

Korrdbia apxivoOv

N' dvapaivouv ard pouvid,

Td

vd

KaicriKia

irriboOv

Kai vd TpduTouv id KXabid*


Zuja, dv0pujTroi, rrouXid

Xaipovrai dub Kap5id<;*


"ETTaipav id TiaTUJTid

Kai Td xiovia ki 6 popid^.

Mdpii, judpTi x^ovepe


Kai OXepdpi XacTTrepe.
'Hpi' 'ATTpiXig 6 KaXog,

MdpTi

7.

fiai' eivai fxaOpa

Mrjv' dveiLio^

xd

*0

TrpiT<;,

OXepdpi npiiq.

Xdpo^

Kai oi Vux<;.

id pouvd Kai crieKouv poupKuujueva;


TToXeina;

|Lir|va

ppoxn xd bepvei;

Ki oij6' dve|uo^ id TroXe)na ki oube ppoxn xd bepvei*

Move

bia^aiv' 6

Xdpovxag

jovq d7Te9ajU|uevoug

|ne

lepvei xoug vioug diro lUTrpoaxd, lovq xepovxe*; KaxoTii,

Td

xpuqpepd TraiboirouXa

TTapaKaXoOv

Xdpe

Nd

|Liou,

T^povxe^,

oi

Koveiij' d<;

creXX' dpabiacTjueva.

CTxr)

x'

dTubpia TovaxiZ^ouv

X'Jupio,

Koveip'

ei<;

TTioOv ol Tepovxe<; vepo k' oi vioi

vd

Kpua

ppucri,

XiGapicrouv,

Kai xd uiKpd iraiboTTOuXa vd judaouv XouXoubdKia."

Ki cub' eiq xiwpio Koveuuj 'tw ki oube eiq Kpua ppucri,

"Epxovx'

01

ndvve? fid vepo, yviupiZ^ouv xd

fviupiZiovxai x'

dvTp6Tuva Kai
8.

x^Jupicrjuo

Xdp

Traibid

xiuv

bev ^xo^v."

^.

(Cephalonia)

'AKOudxe

XI

TT6xouv

iraibid,

biaXaXriae xoO TTpiKoO


a(;

Xdpou

f]

judvva*

ki dbepqpia, d^ xd (p'jXdHouv,
vd Kpuvpouve xou(; dvxpeq!
Tid vd ^^jr) vd Kpouaeipr]."

xd Kpuipouve,

ruvaTKe<s xujv KaXujv dvxpujv

Ki 6

Md

Xdpo^

0"UYupiZ;exai

vd xov Kai Kaxe^aive xO"ou

MaOpog

fjxav,

Kd|UTTOug Ka^eXXdpK;.

Kaxdjuaupo^, juaOpo Kai

x'

dXoTO xou,

Zepvei (TxeXexxa biKoira, CTraOid HeTU|Livajjueva

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

216

ZieXeTTa rd

^\a xapbie^, cTTraGid yid id KCcpdXia.

'xi

Zt6kuj Kai Tov TrepiKaXuj, xd x^P^^i cnaupiuiaeva,,Xdpo, Yid be irXripuuvecrai, fiaii bev Tiaipvei^ dcrTrpa;

TTdpe ToOv ttXouctiujv rd qpXiupid Kai toO


Kai

TTCipe

K' eKeivo^

toOv

Kai

qpTuuxiJuv

dTroKpi0riKe crd (TKuXo(g |uavia)uevo^

)u'

Nd xctpoOv oi TrXoucrioi xd
Nd xipo^vxai k' oi Treviixeg

xd Tpocria,

xou^!"

irevriTUJV x' djUTreXoxObpaqpa

qpXuupid Kai oi cpxiuxoi

xd Tpocria,

djuTreXoxwpaqpd xou(;!

x'

K' eyuj TraipviJuj5|uopcpa KOpjuid, x' dTTXoKa)U(JU)Liva,

Nd

vd

xcrriYapi^uJ xcr' dbepqpeg,

judwe^

XaxxapiZ;uj

Kai vd x^pi^iJUJ^tvxpoTuva, xd TToXuaTaTTr||ueva."


'Q 6e jLieTaXobuvajue, iroXXd KaXd iroO Kdvei(;,

TToXXd KaXd
Piocpupi

Nd

iKa^ieq^

\xd(;

eva KaXo bev KdveKj*

)Lid

axo TieXaYo, cTKdXa crxov Kdxiu

luecj'

Kaxepaivouv

koctjuo,

vd Kaxepaivouv

oi dbepqpeg,

oi

jLidvve(;,

N' dvepOKaxepaivouve KaXiuv dvxpujv T^vaiKeg.

'0

9.

Xdpog

Kai 6 xcro7Tdvri<;.

(Arachova)

To

pouvo iroO

pXeTieig Keivo x6

TTox' dvxapouXa

(Txr)v

^vaq

'ATTEKeiva Kaxepaive

Kai jueya,

'vai \\)r]\b

Kai Kaxaxvid

Kopcpr)

vxeXr)

crxr)

X6pevxr]<^,

0epvei x6 qpem xou crxpapd Kai xov faixnd


Ki 6 Xdpo<; xov epiTXicrev dTio

&

ByfiKe Kai xov diravxricre

KaXri

)Liepa

crou,

Xdpo

pi^a;

^}r\\Y]

o"xpi|U]Lievo.

paxouXa,

eva crxevo croKdKi.

|liou."

KaXa)g xov xov Xepevxri.

Aepevxri, iroOGev epxeaai, Xepevxr), ttoO TiaTaiveK;;"

riu;

'tto

xd TTpoPax'

TTdTiu vd Trdpuj x6

^pxo|Liai,

Kai

i|;uj|ui

Aepevxri, jnocrxeiXe 6 0i6^

Aixuj5 dppujcrxia
fid" e^fa

vd

Ki

viKricrrn;,

ctv

)Lie

Ki dv ae

ki

TraXeipuuiLie

viKricrcu,

vd

dqpopiuri

Xdpo
Xdpo

ere

(Txo

ctttixi

ttictuj

Trdpiu

vd

iraTaiviu,

|liou

Tupicriu."

xnv

ij;uxn

cTou."

vpuxn bev Trapabibiu.

]uap|uapevi' dXiJuvi,

|uou,

juou,

vd
vd

Trdpriq xrjv

ipuxn Hou,

Trdpiu xriv ipuxn cTou."

buo vuxxeg Kai xpeT^ l^iepeg,


auxoO
xrjv
xpixri
xriv
auTn Kovxd cTxo TiOMOt tioM^
Ki
)Liid
poXd,
xou Xdpou KaKocpdvr),
0epv' 6 Xepevxri(;

TTiacrxr|Kav Kai TraXeqjave

'All'

xd

iLiaXXid

Akouv x6 viov
,,^Aae |Li6, Xdpo

xov dbpaHe,

crxr)

^r\v

xov dppovxdei,

Kai pOTfiZle Kai papuavacrxevdZier


)li',

acre |ue xpeT?

Mep? Kai

xpeTi;

vuxxe?;

217

TEXTS
Te^ 5u6 vd

Nd

Km vd

qpdYiu

vd

irduj,

Toug

bioj

xr)

ttiuj,

cpiXou(;

vd

|uid

crepTictvicriu,

bm

vd

|uou,

Kai TOug biKOii?

TToxuj YuvaiKtt rrapavid, kqi XHpct bev Tfj^ TrpeTrei,

TToxuj Kai buo juiKpouicriKa, ki opqpdvia bev roug


TToxuj id Trpopai' ctKOupa

Km

TrpeTtei,

to Tupi ctto Kdbi."

Ki auToO Kovid axb beiXivo tov Kaiapdv' 6 Xdpo^.

MoipoXoYU

10.

(Cephalonia)

EuToO TToO eKivr|cr<; vd Trd(; at' dT^piKo TaHibi,


Ztov 06v ct' 6pKiZ;(ju vd fnoO '7rf)<;, Troie vd Gl TrpocTjueviw,
Nd piuj poba crxriv au\r|, TpaviaqpuXXa cririv TTOpxa,
Nd qpTidcruj yio^oc vd Te^Tf]? Kai beiTrvo vd beiirvrjcrr]?,

Nd
,3

Kai trjv KXivri

(JTpuucruj

vd

crou,

vd

niar[(;

bemvo,

(pjeiaoriq Tiojua, T^vpou to, Kai

TrXa*fidcrri<;."

beiirvricre

to,

Ki d (TTpujcrrig Kai xriv KXivr) juou, ireae, Koi|Liriaou dTrdvuj!


K' efui TidYUJ

K' exuu

Tr)

juaOpri fH^j

cTTri

"fn<S

Tid

dpaxviao"|uevo

ctt'

to

TrdTrXuJiua,

x^^l^oi

Kai Y^^ojuai tov KOupviaxTO, benrvdoi diro to


Kai

TTivuu

t'

dipiocTTdXaxTO

'Av dTTe(pdcri(Je<;

vd

aou

"AvoiHe Td juaTttKia
Ki dcpo"e uf^id aTo

Kai

irdpe

(TriKUJ

rrd^,

)nicrei|;e,

)LiaTaYupicrri<S,

jur)

k' ibec;

ctttiti

x(b\JiOL

TiXdKag to qpapjudKi."

Tcrfj

vd

X"J|^ot,

yid (TevTOVi,

juid

inTrdvTa ki

dXXr|

(Tou k' uyeid axoix; ebiKoug crou

Tidpe qpeuYa,

(TriKdjcrou

TTpiTd (ToO (Tupouv eujuiaxo, ok ijjdXXouv oi iraTrdbe*;,


TTpiTd

TiepiXdpouve

ere

yr\q oi KXepovojuoi."

Tcrfi

11. '0

Mdvva,
Tr)

Kopri

touc^ evvid crou fioix; Kai

)ue
Tr)

luovdKpiPri

Triv eixe^ bOubeKa

ZTd
Zt'

BoupK6XaKa(;.

Tr)

xpovwv

k' fjXioq
ctt'

Tiiv

Kai cttov aufepivo

Tcr'

TTavTpeipriq juaKpeid, ttoXu

'Oxt' dbep9oi be 0eXouve ki 6

A6(;

Trjve,

|udvva,

'x^

k' eyiAJ

rrapriYopid,

(Tou KOpri,

be crou Trjv eibe,

e9Keiave^ Td cryoupd
ty\

BapuXujvri,

juaKpeid crxd Heva*

KuucrTavTivo? 0eXei*

hoc, Trive Tr]V 'ApeTr)

2!Td Heva 'Kei ttoO rreppaTUJ,

Nd

)uid

dcpeYTCX Triv errXeKeq,

'Ottou (ToO qpepvav TipoHevidv diTO

Nd

Tr)

TToXuaTaTrrmevri,

(TKOTeivd Tjqv eXouZ:e(^,


dcTTpri

jue

aTd Heva

vd

'xuu

axa Heva,

ttoO iraYaivu),

k' cyuj

KOvdKi."

Tri^*

|liou,

HANDBOOK OF THE MODEEN GREEK VERNACULAR

218

j,0p6vi)uo(;

dv

|u6p0r],

Ki

dv

Tuxi;i

To 010

fii

d(Txri)u' dTTr]\oTri6r)g*

9dvaT0(S, ki dv

)liou,

Tn X^pd, ttoio^ 0d

TTiKpa

l^aV

Tfi<^

'Av Tuxri

Kujoravifi, ki

eicrai,

Ki

|u',

dppuj(TTia,

Tr|ve cpepr];"

eTT^ir] Kai tou<; dTiou(; )uapTUpou(;,

Gdvaiog, dv Tuxri

k' ep0r]

yie

|Li6p9ri,
|lioO

Ki dv TUxri TTiKpa Tn Xpd, vd

k'

Ttdr)

ep9' dppibcrTia,

vd

qpepr].

xrive

Kai crdv Trjv erravTpeijjave Tr)V 'Apexii cTid Heva,

xpovog

K' ejuTTfiKe

K' eirecre to

BpeGriK'

k' oi

evvid 'bepqpoi ireGdvav,

\iavva inovaxri crdv KaXajaid crxov Kd|UTT0*

f]

Zt' oxtuj

Kai lufjva^ opTicTjuevo^

bicre(pTO<;

OavaiiKO

bepverai,

|Livri|uaTa

oxtuj luoipioXoTdei,

ctt'

ZtoO KtucTTavTivou to GaqpTO Te^ TrXdKe? dvacTKiuvei*'


Xr|KOu, KuucTTavTivdKi juou, Tf|v 'ApeTri

To 010

|liou

GeXuj*

'pdXeq eTT^JTr) Kai tou^ aYioug jLiapTupou^,

|uoO

TVv Tuxr] TTiKpa th X^pct, vd naq vd |lioO Tr)


T' dvd0e)Lia tov e^TaXe juecr' diro to Ki^oupr
Kdvei TO cruTvecp' dXoTO Kai

t'

dcXTpo craXipdpi

Kai TO qpefydpi cruvTpoqpid Kai rrdei vd Trive


TTaipvei Td opr)

TTeppdTr|(T',

Tr)

oHou

AviaoK^

cpeTTctpdKr

ctto

xciipeTd ki diro juaKpeid

ApeTouXa

AXXoi|uov' dbepcpdKi

cpepx}.

tou Kai Td pouvd )HTTpo(TTd tou,

tticjuj

BpicTKei TTiv k' XTeviZ:ouvTav

Atto juaKpeid

(pepri(;."

)liou,

|liou,

Kupdva

|ua^

if\(;

ere

Kai t' eivai tout'

XeTei*

GeXei."

ujpa;

f)

fid x^tpd, vd pdXiu Td xp^crd


TiiKpa, nee; |uou Ta, vd 'pTiu KaTd

juou,

k' eivai

Ki dv eivai

neppdTricr\ ApeTOuXa

juou,

^Xa KaTd

k'

ttiIjc;

rrOug

eljLiai."

elaai."

cTTpdTa ttoO biapaivave, gty] cTTpdTa ttoO TtaTaivav,

XTr)

Akouv

TTOuXid

KiXaboOv, dKOuv TtouXid Kai Xeve*

Ktti

TToi6c eibe Kopriv


,,'AKouO'e<;,

6)Liopcpr|

KuucTTavTdKi

vd
ti

|liou,

crepv' 6

TT60aja)uevo^

Xeve Td TrouXdKia;

TJoxbq eibe KOpnv Ojuopcpn vd (Tepv' 6

Tre0a)Li)Litvo(;

AtJuXd TTOuXid Ki a<; KiXaboOv, XcuXd irouXid ki

Kai TTapaKeT ttoO irdYaivav,

ki

;"

d(S

;"

Xeve."

dXXa irouXid Toug Xeve*

Ti pXeTTOiue Td 0Xipepd, Td TiapaTTOveiueva,

Nd

TTeppaxoOv

'AK0U(je(;,
Tlujc,

^uuvTavoi

oi

oi

TTouXdKia 'vai ki

,,'ExT^g

Toug

dTre0a|Li|Lievou^

!"

KuucTTavTdKi juou, ti Xeve Td irouXdKia;

ireppaToOv

0opoujuai

\xe

(T',

ppabug

Z;LuvTavoi
a<;

|ue

toxx; dTre0a|UfiVOu<s."

KiXaboOv, irouXdKia 'vai ki aq Xeve."

dbepqpdKi juou, Kai Xi^avieg

}ivpilei<;.^^

eirriTaMe ^repa cttov "Ai-Pidwr],

219

TEXTS
K' eGuiuiacye ^ac; 6 Tiaixdq

rrepiacro Xi^dvi."

\xe

dWa

Kai TrapejUTTpot; ttoO irriTave, ki


,J'Q

06

Teioiav Travdupia XuTepr) vd


T' d'KOucre irdX'

'Aperr)

f]

KuucTiavidKi

''AKOucre(;,

TTeg |uou, TToO

MeTdXr| dppubcTTia
TToO

'irecrav

'H boXia

iLioucridKi

to iriTiupo juoucTTdKi."

CTTTiTi

KXeibujTo KXei5o)uavTaXiJU)uevo,

Vav

dpaxviacriueva.

dvoiHe Kai vd

'ApeTouXa juou
ju',

;"

^ppiHe toO Gavdiou,

|u'

ludvva

,,''AvoiHe,

to mTuupo

juaXXid,

Xdpo^, bidpaive,

f)

(Tou,

eupriKC,

iLidvva \x\

eicrai

rri^.

|li'

Kai Td (TTriTOTrapdGupa ttoO

,,'Av

xapbid

f]

Xeve xd TiouXdKia;

ti

|liou,

id Hav6d

BpicTKouv TO

,,'AvoiHe,

Tre0a,u|uevo(;."

crepvr)

k' epdTicr'

id juaXXdKia

'v'

iiouXid toxx; Xeve*

lueTdXo 9d|ua Kdvei*;,

|LieTa\ob\Jva^,

Trjv

dXXa

ki

'ApeTn dou."

1%^*

iraibid b^v

juaKpeid crxd Heva."

Xeiirei

V' ^

dvoiHe, k' dTuj

crou*

Kiu(yTavTfi(^

'EYYUTrj (JopaXa to 0i6 Kai tou(S dTiou<; |uapTupou(;,

"Av Tuxr] TTiKpa fH X^ipd, vd ird vd crou tt) qptpiw."


Ki ujcjTe vd 'pTfj aTr\v TropTa Tr]g, epYH^ev f] vpuxn

To

12.

Tri^.

Tioqpijpi Tfjg''ApTa^.
(Corfu)

ZapdvTtt TrevTe judcTTopoi

k' ^HrjvTa

TpeT^ XPO'voug dbouXeuave


*OXr||uepi(;

ix^ilave ki diTO ppabu TKpejueieTai.

MoipioXoToOv

judaTOpeg Kai KXaiv oi Lia0r|Tdbe^'

oi

'AXXoi|uovo (TTOug KOTTouq


'OXriiuepig

vd

XTiZiuujue,

Kai

cTTOixeiOucreT'

dir' Trj

opqpavo,

TTapd ToO 7TpiuTO|udaTopa


TT6px6T'

bo\}\e\\fi(;

|Lia^,

beHid Kajudpa*

OToixeiLuaeT' dvGpiJUTTo, TeTxog be GejueXiiJuver

bk.
PLY]

KpiVa mec;

|Liaq,

to ppdbu vd YKpejueieTai."

Kai TO aToixeio iroKpOriKev


,,'Av

|ua0r|Td5e<;

'ApTaq to Yiocp^pi'

Tf\(;

dpTd

t'

|Lir|

Trjv

Hevo,

ujpia

dTiOTaxeid, ttopxt'

bia^dTri,

|ur)

Tr|

fuvaiKa,

dpyd

ctto

Tiojua."

T' dKoucr' 6 TrpuuTOjudcTTOpa^ Kai toO GavdTou

Kdvei Tpacpn Kai (jTeXvei

Trjv

,,'ApTd vTuGf], dpY' aXXaxTf],

'ApYd vd

Trdri

Kai

vd

|ue

to TrouXi

dpyd vd

Trdr)

biapf) Tfj^ 'ApTa(;

Kai TO TTouXi irapdKoucre

ki

dXXia)(;

t'

TrecpTei,

dribovr

ctto

yioMct)

to Tiocpupi."

eTifiTe

k' eiire-

ropTd VTucrou, yopT' dXXaHe, yopTd vd naq to fiojua,


fopyd vd irdg Kai vd biaprig Tfj^ "ApTag to Yioqpupi."

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

220
Nd

Havdcpavev dTTO

Trive xai

xapbid tou.

f]

luaKpeid tou<; x<^ipTa ki diro )uaKpeid

'Atto

reid aa^, xpa cra^, ludcrxope^, Kai

Md

cripdia*

dcTTrpri

iriv

Tf)v eib' 6 TrpujTO)udcrTopaq, paTiZiei'

oi |ua0nTd5e(;,

cyeig

ex^i 6 iTpujTO|ud(jTOpa^ k' eiv' licri xo^iao'Mtvog

Ti

T6 5axTuXi5i
Kai TTOio^ vd

xoTrecre airiv TrpuuTri

vd

vd

k' Iyuj

iLiTTUJ

vd

Kai 7toi6<;

jUTrf)

,,MdcyTopa, unv TriKpaivecrai


'Etuj

tou^ Xeyei'

vd

Mribe xaXd KaTe^riKe,

\xr]be

dXuao, Tpdpa

Ti oXov Tov

Triv

KocTju'

ird a' to

vd

oty]

;**

cpepiu*

|uecr' e-rrfiYe*

dXucriba,

Triv

avdyeipa Kai tittotg^ bev rjupa."

"Eva^ TTHXati ^ to juuaTpi

'ppr)

to 6axTuXi5i vd 'ppuu."

pyuJ,

Tpdpa, KaXe

|u',

Ka|udpa,

ty\

pT^, to 5axTuXi5i

k' eyuj

;"

dWoq

ki

tov

|Lie

dcrpedTri,

Tfaipvei Ki 6 7TpujTO|LidcyTopa(; Kai pixvei ixtfa Xi9o*

AXXoi|aovo
Tpexc;

'H

aTX]

juid 'xTicre

axo

\ioipa \xaq^ Kpijua

abepcpabeq rnuacTTav

k' oi TpT<;

to Aouvapi

k'

d\\Y\

f]

piZliKO

\xaq^

KaKOTpa|a)ueve<j,

tov AuXujva,

'ApTac; to fio^^Pi-

K' 6YUJ

f]

Ka0uj^

Tpe]u'

Ki

TreqpTOuv Td juaXXdKia juou,

vd irecpTouv

TOV XoYov ctXXaHe

KaTdpa bOuae,

uj<;

K6pr|,

ttXio
f]

(TTepvoTepri

KapbouXa

Tf[<;

jnou,

ki

TToxei(; lUovdKpip' dbepcpo,

vd

Tpejur]

dXXri

fur)

to yiocpupi,
oi biapaxei;/*

Xdxri Kai Trepdari."

Ki ami] tov Xotov dXXaHe ki dXXr) KaTdpa biver

Zib6pov

f)

Xibepo Td

KapbouXa
jiiaXXdKia

aibepo to Tioqpupi,

)uou,

juou,

aibepo

Ti Ix^ 'bepqpo aTrjv HeviTeid,

}xy]

biapdTeq.

k' oi

Xdxr] Kai Trepdar)."

13. NavvdpicTjua.

(Cyprus)

Navd vavd to

YioObi |uou

Kai TO TTaXXr|Kapoubi
KoijLiricrou

K' exuj

^lovbx

vd aoO

|a'

|uou,

aKpi^o,

xapioix)'

Tr|V 'AXeHdvTpeia Zidxapi

Kai TO Micripi pu^i

Kai

Trjv

KuucTTavTivouTToXi

Tpeig xpovouq vd
Ki dKOiuTi

6pilr]<;'

dXXa Tpid X^Pij

Tpia juovacTTripdKia

TEXTS
ZTe<;

Nd

Tide;

Km

x^pia

crid

(yepTiavicri;]<;,

Trd(;

Zid Tpia

Nd

crou

x^P^?
vd

221

aou

luovacTTripia

vd

TrpocrKuvricrr](S.

14. 'H HeviTCid.


5I' dcprjviu fem^ |Liavvou\a |aou,

"Exeie

0d
0d

'bepcpdKia

Teid,

qpuTuj,

ed

qpuYU),

)udvva, Kai

0d

Me

bpocrid

Til

Kai

(TTeXviu

(ToO

(TTeXvuj TrpdiaaTa

judXaiua,

|navvouXa^ o"ou

ae

)Liri

0u|uri(Tou

MiT

areXvuj

toO xti^ujva

|Lie,

tt'

KaXo
f)

ovbe id cruXXoTeiecrau"

Kovid

crou,

vd Vai yid cpuXaxxo

crou,

ki

euxr)

6X' oi dTioi

pdcTKajua Kai to koko to

TTidvri

iraibaKi

irXavecr'

ere

rroXuXuTreieaai.

p65a toO Mdiou.


Gavd aou (jieXv' dcrniui,

(ToO

Tfj<;

|uriv

jurivOjuaTa croO

dvoiHi^, TrjV Trdxvn

TTaibi |uou, Tidaive crxo

Kai

Kai

dcriepia t' oupavoO, id

t'

|ue

0avd
0avd

ir\(;

juaKpeid crid Heva*

Trdiu

'pruj

id Heva ttoO ppeGuj,

'Atto

Nd

Gd

HeviieuTUj,

dqprjviu fexd, Trardpa,

cr'

xai creig Habepq)OTrouX6<;.

jnou,

r\

k' e|ue

|liou,

HeviTeid Kai

Td

Kai

\xd(;

judTi.

iraibid juou,

dXr|(T]uovr|0"ri^."

KdXXio, iLiavvouXa |uou yXuKeid, KdXXio vd cTKdauj TrptuTO,

TTapd vd

jur)

adq

aTd

GujuriGuj

^priiua

Td Heva."

AuubeKa xpov' direpaaav Kai beKairevTe Mfjvec;,


Kapdpia bev tov eibave, vavjTeq bev t6v Hepouv.
TTpujTO

TpiTO

cpiXi

cpiXi

'vacTevaHe,

9apjuaKep6

beuTepo

tv]

tov

rrXavdei,

ludvv' dXricTjuovdei.

15. '0 )iTTi(TTiK65

9iXog.

(Crete)

OuXov TOV

k6(T|uo Y^ptvpa, TtovevTC Kai XepdvTe,

Nd ppuj 'va cpiXo juiriaTiKO o"dv Kai tov dTraTO ]uou.


Aev nupa cpiXo |littiotik6 nn^' dbepqpo KaXXidv tou
Zdv TO airaGaKi )n' dbepcpo, adv to ttoutti Mou qpiXo.
Ki OTTOU Kauydg Kai TToXeiuo^, iroXeiaa ah crraGi )uou,
Ki OTToO 'vai TMO? ^^^ X^9^) HobiaZ^e au ttouyti y^ov.
16. 'H TTepbiKa.

Mid

TrepbiKa KauKrjcyTriKe a' dvaToXr) ae bOcri,

TTuj^ bev eupeGri KuvrjTO?

*0 KUVHTO?
15

vd

Trjve K\j\r]fr\ar},

(Tdv t' dKOuae, ttoXu

toO KaK09dvri,

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

222

xd Hopepra

Pixvei xd ppoxia crio TiaXo,

Td

bixTua id iLietaHuuTd

TTdY^i ^ TrepbiKa vd
'Axa|uivo7Tid(T'

Km

f^e

eupr),

cr'

KdjUTiou^,

xiovdiri'

KuvriTe* xdup'

lae,

(Jiri

xai TTidvei'

Trif)

dir' xr)

ipuxn

f)

9xepd

xdvei

x' dxa|LivoTridcr)Liaxa

"Qpa vd

ppucri

cnri

otoxjc,

|liou

PTaivei."

Kai qpeuYer

dxa|uvoKuvr|Tapi

KuvriTe,

luOxri.

vd aoO

*Acpf]Keg xexoia TiepbiKa,

irdpouv d'XXoi."

xriv

17. 'H xope^Tpict-

(Dancing Song, Epirus)


Xr||Liepa

|uepa TTacrxaXid,

ZriiLiepa iravriTvjpi,

Ki oXeq oi KOpe^ crid^ovxai

fid qpepxe xd crxoXibia juou,

fid q)epx x6 Y^ctXi

Nd
Nd
Nd

)liou,

T^aXicrxuj,

PTii*

crdv TtepbiKouXa,

Trdo)

vd

x6 xop^

crxpiJucruj

juecroxubpi,

aKiuvuj xd juaxdnia |uou,

'

pixv' dcTxpoTTeXeKia,

ToupKou(; vd aqpaToOv,

Kdjuuj

v' dXXoTTiaxricrouv,

Puj|Liiou(;

Nd
Nd
Nd
Nd

vd

crxoXicTxiu,

Kdxuj crxo

Nd
Nd
Nd

Kd|uuj

x6 MexjuexaTCt

xacrr]

xd beqpxepia,

Kd|UUJ

XOV TTpUJXOTTaTTa

xd TtadxaXia.

xacrr)

'EpiuxiKov TrapdTTOVo.

18.

(Thera)

'Exx^^ Ppabu dTiepacra dTTO

Km

ere

Vo^Xiuve

f]

xr;

fid

vd

|LioO '7Tr](^

oi)

"HKOucra dXXr)

xrjv

TY]V

v'

Teixovid (Tou,

cTKuXa

Kai TtdXi HavaTrepacTa, 0eXiu vd

Kpiv6 |uou

Ei^ x6 xopo vd PToOve.

"HKOucra

TTiKpa

cr'

Kepd

r]

crou.

dpuuxnauu,

dou vd

0"e

TrapiiTopricruj.

TTiKpa )uou, xriv TTapaTTovecTi juou,

dTaiTag

Y6)Liaxa, KpucTxaXXevia

xm

luo'J,

x^vuj

xr)

i|i6)Liaxa,

V6|Liaxa )uoO xd 'pTotXave, Xitvo

|liou

lujx]

)uou."

xXid )uou ppucTi,


KUTiapicrai."

'

TEXTS
dXXri vid bev

,'Acp'

dTairag, juov' dTaTra(; ejueva,

'Exieg ppabu dTiepacreg,


,/H judvva aou ki

"Hiave

ei<;

vd

'E(Tu

be

TioiTi

Nd

GeXiu 5u6 bouXeieg,

ejueva."

xotipeTci^

irijug

KXeij;ri5

juid

0d

juid

rf]

Nd irdpuj Kai Tcroi qpiXoi |liou fid vd


Ae a' ex^ '^^^o MHt' d'v0piJUTro piryre
jue

dbep96g

crou."

kqi |Lid0ia irpo*; ejueva,

KeqpaXr)

KaxaXdpaiva

'A be

crou ki

0ei6c;

dnXdi to 6ik6

crou, t'

K' ijdj TO
Kdjuuj

'xaipexa^;"

|Lie

crou,

d(pevTr]<;

t' dirXdi

KXivri<;

223

Ppabeid vuxta

HeTeXeipiu,

vd

'p0iu

(Te

to 9eYTdpi".

)Lie

19. 'H x|Livr| euKaipia.


(Epirus)

AiKO

Nd

iiTav to cpTaiHi|uo,

|u'

xdcruj tocto TpeHijuo.

'Hp0a

Kai

Kai be

cr'

r|upa luovaxn

cr'

exopTacra

qpiXi*

X' eKUTTaZia 'vaxopTaya


K' eKd0O|Liouv k' epuuTaTa,

To

vd

TToO

eiv'

aou

judvva

x]

Ki 6 dTpio^ 6 TTttTepag crou*

*H ludvva

GOV

aTr\v ^KKXricTid,

Ki d(pevTri(; crou crtd fidweva,

KOVTd

K' ecru

crTov juirouTaXd,

Me

Td juaTdKia xa^n^a-

20.

To

crxttjuvi TcraKicrjuevo.

(Aegean)

OuXe^
Kai

01

)Liid

pepTe^

eiv' ebub,

pepTOuXa

tt'

dTaTTUU,

TTdTei GTY] ppucri Tid vepo,


TTdTU) k' tfd) xdTUj vd

Nd Tn^
Nd Tfjg
Nd Trdr]

cTTr)

Mujpri TToO

Mdvva

ttiuj,

0oXiu(juj TO vepo,
TcraKicruj

|Liou,

to

judwa
'v'

eivai

crTajuvi,
Tcr'

to

dbeiavrj'
(TTajuvi;'*

(TTpapoTrdxricra

K' ^irecra Kai to TcrdKiaa."

'

A^v
Mov'

eiv' cTTpapOTraTriiuiaTa,

eiv

dvTpog

KXei|JUJ."

Kai iraXXriKdpi,

9iXr|jLiaTa."

crou

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

224

21. *0 Tra7Td<; dToiTrriTiKo^.


(Constantinople)

Mid

eiLiopcpri

KOTreXa eig to

evog

(Jttit'

fid vd Tr]v HojuoXoTncrr], eixe TidTei

Zdv
Kai

Tiiv
Tfi(;

TraTrd,

q)opd*

juid

eibe toct' dipaia, KaiavuxTr) 6 TraTrd^

Xeer KaXuuq opiaie,

,,A6(TTroTd luou,

vd

t' eiv'

auio ttoO

fid vd ]uoO Td auTX'JUpricrr]?

tct'

Mn

bev dcnrXaYXvoq

cpopdcrai, KopacTid

)uou,

'Qq Kai |ueva (JuTX^updei ttoO


AecrTTOTd

)liou,

vd

cr'

Gd

djuaptie^ ttoO

ttIO

'|ucti

eiv'

(ToO

'ttuj.'*

6 6e6^,

djuapTuuXo^/'

dXrjGeia

opicrai ti^v

HnTa<;;"

|u^

vd SeTopeuTUj*

a' opi'auu, rjpxa

tx]

cruucTTri,

ATaTToOcra eva veov kqi tov dTaTruj ttoXu."

T6 vd

Me

dTaTTotg, iraibi

Aeo'TroTd

|uou,

eivai TrpdT|ua cpucriKo,

|liou,

euXd^eiav luovdxa Kai

to auTX^puj

cr'

TTepacre ki auTog 6 veog Kai

"Eva (ToO

'buuKe,

Kupd

jliou,

|lioO
f\

k' eTtu."

Ka66|uav )uovaxri,

riM^P5 iroO

juidv

}xy\

eva

bib'

qpiXi."

croO 'buuKe iroXXd;

'Av diro TO 'va Kai Trdvuu, ^cTTUjcrav cruTX^piT'^ct"

"Eva

eva, beo-rroxd

TTXnv Gujpu) TO

eva eva inovaxd'

)lA0u,

crou k' l^ive crdv

TTpocruuTTo

"E, Tiaibi |uou, eivai irpdYlna ttoO to

'xuj

*Q$

pik

k' eTLu

0d

ere

ki

9iXricruj,

6 Geog

Tri

auTx^pei."

22. 'EHojuoXoTl^i(Chios)

ZapdvTa

Nd

TTdYUJ

|ueXeTa

)uepa<;

TidYuJ

CTTOV TTveujuaTiKO

KupiaKr) rrpuji

iiiid

Kai TOV eupiaKuj aTo KeXXi.


TTaTTd

Td

)Liou,

Td

HeMoXoya
juou

KpijuctTd

vd

\xr\v

,,'Av

dpvricTTf]*;

Tnv

Kopi-jv

Tr|v

jae,

jne."

KpijuaTd crou 'vai ttoXXo,

*ATdTTr|

T6t

pujTa

md."

TraTid,

Kai Tr)V TraTrabid,

k' i^ixj

Kopn

Kd^r)^
ecru,

qpuuTid."

diTO iraibi,

Gev' dpvricTTUJ

a' ottoO dYaTTUJ."

TEXTS

225

23. 'H dcrxniLin vvcpr],


(Epirus)
Oi'Xoi,

TicxTi

bb; Tpdixe Kai bev Trivere;

Mr)va Kai to
ZxeXvouiLie

ipiuiui

be cdq dpeae;

|ua<;

oroug t^itovou^

Miiva Kai to Kpacri

Km

BaTevia ^xo^M^ ki dWa Kai


Mr|va Kai Td qpayid )Lia<; be
MaTeipicrcre^ eiv' ki

Mrjva

Kaij^ovuqpri

IT)

t'

dWdZioujue'

be adq dpecre;

|uag

dWe^

t'

d\\dZ;ou|ne'

crd<;

dpeaav;

Kai t(t' d\Xd^ou)Lie'

adq dpecTev;

be

'H vuqpn 6ttuj5 ki dv eivai bev dWdZieTau

24. Distiches.
1.

GeXei (pp6vr|ai, 0eXei TaTteivocTuvri,

*ATdTrr)

GeXei XayoO

TrepiraTricTid,

diioO yXTiTopocruvri.
2.

'Avdjuecra 0"t6

(Jty\Qi

crou bixTu xP^fyoTrXejuevo

TTpujTO TTOuXdKi TToO biapf], TTidveTai to Karijuevo.


TTpujTO TTOuXi TTobidpriKe, eyOu Vo^va, Kupd luou*

TTapaKaXuj a\ dqpevTpa

bog

)liou,

|uou

Tr)

XeuTepid

juou.

3.
TrjV TTOpTtt GOV TTepvuj, t' dxvdpi GOV TvcupiCcu,
ZkuPuj Kai TO TXvJK09iXa) Kai bdKpua to ^epiilvj,

'Atto

4.

AuTd Td juaOpa
Ki OTav Td

)LidTia

OTav

xajLin^iJuvri*;,

t'

dvoiTOKXeig

aayiTeg

jue

papeig.

5.

AuTriv
Tojp'

Tr)

cpXoYa ttoO GuupeTg,

eiv' qpiuTid

irpOuT' i^Tave

TCTi.uTTiba,

Kai Kaiojuai, bev exuj ttXiov

iXmba.

6.

Bdaava,

TTiKp(;

TiaTi

(pXofa be paaTiD, ttoO Kaiei Td aiuGiKd

Tr)

Kai Karijuoi, dqprjO'Te Triv Kapbid juou,

7.

fid jLiaOpa ludTia xvo)uai, fid TotXavd TreOaiviu,


Fid 'Keid

Td KaTafdXava arbv

'Abrj

KaTepaivuj.

jiou.

226

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


8.

Aev nHeupa

6 ae^vxaq xop^^^p' ^^^^ ^^^ qpuipubvei,

ttox;

K' eqpuTpujcTe \xov o"Tr)v xapbid Kai rrXid bev SepiZ^iuveu


9.

Aev

eivai

TTeie

)liou

bev eivai buo, xpeT^

]uid,

ttoO

Troid v' dTrapvnOiJu,

eiv',

'v'

dvd96)nd

SXeg

Te<;*

juaupojudreij.

10.

A^

id pouvd

vocrTi|aiZ:ouv

bix^Ju?

)xe

Trpamvdba,

Ki dTdTTri bixox; KdKiuj|ua bev exei vocTTijudba.


11.

Auo

dcrtepia

XajuiTipd eivai

cr'

TToO TTOiov KUTxdHouv,

Trjv

id buo crou

jadxia,

Kapbid toO Kdvouv buo

KO|U|udTia.

12.

'ETpoiKOUva xd xdWri dou

vd xd

k' fl\0a

Kai be )aoO bib' 6 voOq juou

vd

ttXio

Havoi'Huu,

qpeuTUJ

vd

x' dcpriaiw.

13.

"Epuuxa TTOvripo

Nd

ttouXi,

vd

yiaji

KapbouXa

TTdpri^ xriv

jue

Ye^ctO"^??

vd

juou ecru

xTiKidcrrj^;

xrjv

14.

"Epiuxa TToO

eXd^uuceq, boq )uou Kai x6 poxdvi,

)a'

fiaxi be ppiaKUJ fiotxpiKo 0"x6v K6a\io

vd

|ue

Tiavr].

15.
*Ecru

Aoq

Kopr)

'crai,

)n',

6 Tiaxp6<;

xo, Kopri, x6

iLiou

k' eTU)

vd

qpiXi,

V' o

XapujjLivo<;,

Tiaxpeuxfj 6 Kar||nevo^.

16.

'H

Kai

dTttTT',
(Txri

dvdeeiud

ixiar]

xr|v,

TTi7TepiZ;ei

dpxn eivai T^uxeid,


Kai axo xeXo? eiv' TipiKeid.
dxriv

17.

'H

MoTpa

M'

IjLioipave yid

TToO

)li'

^laoipave, rjxave lueGucrjuivrj,

vd

TrepvOu

lvjr\

bucrxuxi(i|Lievri.

18.
0a)ndro)Liai

xov oupavo

ttuj(;

(TxeKCi

QapLaloptai, TiouXaKi juou, iriuq bk

x^9^^

(TxijXo,

}ii Kaveic; (piXo.

TEXTS

227

19.
0ajud2:o|Liai

Kai

Tnjjc;

dvGouv

crdv TrepTTaieT^, ndjq 6ev

5e ftvecr' deibq

pouTe<;

of

leg XP^<^^g 9Tepo\JYe<;.

jne

20.
Kopri,

TrapaGupi (Tou YapouqpaXid hkv

(TTo

Ti eau

eicrai

to YdpouqpaXo, ki oiroxei

irpeTrei,

d^

indiia,

pXeirr].

21.

M'

eqpiXricreg

Kai TrdXi

ki

qpiXei

|ue

^m

Trecruu

ki

direGdvuj.

dppiucrTri(Ta,

jueTacpiXei

|ar|v

|Lie,

vd

Yidvu),

22.
Mr] ^

judwa

jLiaXuuvr]^,

TToaeg poXeg

^cpiXricre

jii'

vd

k' i^(b

|UOu,

croO to

'ttuj,

ott' ccfan\x).

vi6(;

23.

Mid

(TTTiGa

"Etcti k'

IjLidg

r)

dYdirri

aTdxT' eivai

orr)

XaiLiTripoTaTri

|Lia(;

Kpuqpr)

Kpu|U|Lievr|

k' einTriOTejuevr).

24.

Nd
Nd

vd

'tov to aTflGo^ laou TyaXi,


5if]^

TTUjg TcripoqpXicTTriKav

Td

MiKpr) cptuTid, Tpav6<; (pay/bq KaiyeTai


K' tfi\a (JTO KecpdXi

)liou

Kai

Triv

pX6Trri(;

)U(Ta

Kapbid

cTTriv

CTTd (TiuTiKd

juecr'

Kapbid

|uou,

jliou.

25.
NocTTijua TToO

Td

'v'

MeXi Tpexouv Td

xeiKr]

crou,

fidGia (you,

crdv t' dvoiTocr(paXiHri(;,

ovTa? Gd jnoO

jiiiXricyri*;.

26.
*'OvTe

Gd

"Eva

Hexu)piZ;iu|U6,
qpiXi

(Tto

TvTa Gd juoO x^9^<^^^i

judTouXo vd

jnf)

dXriO"|uovri(Tri(;.

)li'

27.

'0 Hevog

Nd

ig Tr|v HeviTeid TTpeTtei

KOujLiTTavidp'

^ qpopecrid

jue

vd

Tf\<;

|uaOpa,

pdqpri

Kagbidq

tt]

XaOpa.

28.
*'Ottoio<;

Tov

a' dTaTrri jUTrepbeuTfj, KdXXio tou

U1TV0 TOU (JTepeueTai Kai

tt]

Ziiuri

|liou,

criuTiKd ]uou.

tou

vd

TreGdvr),

xocvei.

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

228

29.
"Ottoioij

crou ypoiKa xai ra' opKOU(s (Tou TtiaxeuYei,

xd XoTia

QaXaaaa mdvei XaTou^

Zxri

Kai crxd

pouvd ipapeuTei.

30.
"Oct' dcTxpa ^x^i 6

Tocreg PoXe^ a'

oupav6<; xr)V vuxxa dTiXiuiaeva,


ttouXi |uou, xriv fijuepa.

dveZirixiu,

31.
*'Oxav T^Xa^, xeXoOv pouvd xai Kdjunroi XouXoubiZ^ouv,

Td

Ge KaXoxuxi^o^v.

HujxiKd juaZiibvovxai Kai

32.

OuXo? 6 Kocriuog eiv' bevxpi k' ejuei^ x6 rruupiKO xou,


'0 Xdpo? iv' 6 xpuTHxri?* crepvei x6 juepxiKO xou.
33.

TTepbiKOuXa

ttoO crxd 5dcrr| TrepTraxeT(;,

7TXou|ui(T)Lievr|

Bpoxia Kai pepyid Gd

(Txr|cruj,

vd

ere

Kdjuu)

vd

Ki dv 61^ xd pepTid juou Tieariq, TiepbiKOuXa


Kd)Liapa 06vd cToO

oX' diro xp^cro

Kd)Liuj

Triacrxfiq.

7TXou)Lii(yxri,

q)Xi]upi.

34.

TToO

Td

Tidpri xiXia TrripTTupa Kai

xiXia Tidv ax' dvdGejua k'

KaKoubid yuvaiKa,

KaKOubid

y]

'irojiievei.

35.

ZaYix'

drr'

*'0X' 01

dpxovxocTTTixo

Yiaxpoi

ju'

|u'

Ixei (TaYixeinevo,

CKuxxaHav Kai

|lioO

emav

Tra)(;

TteOaivu).

36.

Tapdvxa PpOaeg

Ae

)aoO

xr)

}xe

(Jprjvouv

vepo

k'

eHnvxa 5u6 irriTdbia

qpiuxid ttoxuj

xr)

axd cpuXXoKapbia.

37.

XxeXXuu (Tou xctipeTicrMctTa xiXidbet; xf|v

M^

xd

irexdjLieva xrouXid,

ttoO crxeKouv

f|)Liepa

axov dyepa.

38.

Zxou? Kpivou?,

Md

(Txd xpiavxdcpuXXa Irxidj xrjv ^|uopcpid ffou,

xdvovxai Kovxd a'

Icre,

axd

KdXXri

xd bmd aou.

229

TEXTS
39.

Td

jLidiia

id [ndXaKTa vd

|uou

ak ^avaiboOve,

|Liri

Ki aiiTCiva rd juapioXiKa orav

iboOv feXoOve.

ak.

40.

Td

ludiia

piHave

crou juoO

Kai arriv Kapbid

)n'

adheq
k'

jLi7Tr|Kave

dcxriiuevie^,

epTH^av

juaTiujLidve^.

41.
T\\q Q6.\a(J(yaq id Kujuaia Tpexoj Kai bev Tpojud^uj,
Ki orav <Je cruWoTi^uujuctt, Tpejuiu ki dvaaievdZiiu.

42.

Kopacriba^ td juuaXd f^pi^ouv crdv to juuXo*

Tfj<;

*'Evav TToO biuuxvei

aupio tov Tiidvei 91X0.

crrijiepa,

43.

ToG

epuuia to biXTU eivai lueTaHuuTO,

Tou TTOio^ vd

'AXXoi

be inaTaPYctivei

VTecrr]-

ttXio.

44.

To KdcTTavo

GeXei KpacTi Kai to Kapubi

Kai TO KopiTCTi

(piXr|)ua

iroupvo Kai

|ueXi,

]uecrri|aepi.

45.
Tp|uei TO M^dpi,
TpeiLiei

k' eju'

f)

OTov i|;apd cTiVTa dPfdv' f] TpdTa,


KapbouXa |uou, (TivTa ak. biuj aif] ctooltcl
46.

Tpia KaXd (Ttov dvGpiuTTo,

f)

K' dKiv' oTToxei CTTHV Kapbid

oiuopqpid,

vd

jur)

f)

to

fvujcri,

cpavepiuorr].

47.

OiuTid TpOuei TO (Tibepo Kai (TdpaKa(; to HuXo,

Kai ab |uoO Tpiug Td vidTa juou crdv dppuucTTog to

junXo.

48.

XapflTe TO\JTr|V

Ki

6TroiO(;

vd

Tr|
^ixuf}

Z^iuri,

ajf]

fiaT' 6 Kaip6<; biapaivei,


|Liaupr|

yh^S?

o.mb<; be juaTaPTCiivei.

49.

XeXibovdKi Gd t^vu), (TTd

Nd

ere

cpiXricToj

)uid

crou

x^iXr)

vd KaTcriu,
vd ireTdHuj.

Kai buo, Kai irdXe

50.

"Qpa

KaXri

XTf) CTTpdTa

crou,

vd

|ndTia
fxe

)liou,

GujiiriGfj^

Kai
Kai

vd

KaXo(TTpaTicrr]5,

Tricriu

vd

Yupicrr]<;.

230

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR


b.

Proverbs,
1.

'Axpipog GappeT Kepbilei,

(pupa Kai 6ev to voiubGei.

jiid

2.

'AXr|9eia x^P'i< vjiejuaTa

oXan.

cpaYi X^Pi<s

3.

"Exei 6 ToTxo(; auiid ki 6 Xoyto? M^Tia.


4.

Aeye

vd

tfiv

'xri?

dXriGeia,

TO Geo porjGeia.
5.

Me

TO 6ik6 ctou qpdTe Kai

Kai irpaYiuaTid

irie

|Liri

Kdjuvrig.

6.

Midg

u7TO|Liovr)

(TTiYjLifi^

5eKa xpovuuv pexdTi.


7.

Nd

|nfi

xpo^cyra^

(J^

ttXouctio,

qpTiuxov

vd

juri

5avei2:r](;.

8.

'0 X6o(; dc; ty\v ujpa tou xiha 9Xoupid d^ilei.


9.

Oi ttoXaoi xapaPoKupibe^ ttviyouv to Kapdpi.


10.
"Ottoio(; Kaf)

(TTd

Xdxava, 9ucrdei Kai to TiaoupTi.


11.

"Ottoio*; TTViTeTai Kai

Td juaXXidv tou

Tridvei.

12.

"Ottou dKOug TToXXd Kepdma,


Bdo"Ta Kai juiKpd KaXdGia.
13.

'OttoO 'vai KaXopiZliKog, f^vva Kai 6 koto? tou.


14.
*'Oti

Gd

Kd^xric;

ki

oti

Gd

'Tifiq,

Ti Gd cruvepri irpiUTa vd aToxocaTr]<;.


15.
TTaTTOUTZii d-rro

tov totto aou

ki

d<;

eivai

)Li7TaXiJU)Lievo.

231

TEXTS
16.

Td

TToXXd TToXXd Koujadvra, to Kapdpi

)Lie

xr)

jUTrdvia.

17.
Texvr) OeXei to irpiovi

Ki OTTOiog TO KpaxeT vd 'bpiuvr].


18.

To

TToXu Ki>pieXer|(TO ki 6 iraTTd^ papeieTai to.

19.

ToO

YiuupYoO

f]

bouXeid

ctt'

dXiuvi cpaiveTai.

20.

To"T6pvoi

cruXXoTicriLioi

*'EHe Ttdve crxo o"oXbi.

c.

Riddles.
1.

Atubexa KaXoTCpdKia
KuvriTeioOvTai KuvriTeioOvTai

Kai TTOTe bev mdvouvTai.

('Av|u6)uiuXo^)

YaXibi xP'JcroipdXibo
Kopei

Ktti

KaXd

K6pi Kai KttKd.

(rXujacra)
3.

"Extu 'tw,
"AXXoq eva
Ki aXKo<;

exei(S

ki

jurjbe

Kai

Vu,

dXXo<; 5u6,
TiTroxe.

(fovioi)

4.

Meaa

a' ^va TeTpdTtuvov cpavTdcriaaTa Ka0i2!ouv.

(KaepecpTng)
5.

Mecr'

crxri

Kpe|LieT'

r|

toO x^pioO MO^


MapYapiToO jua<;

luean

Kai TivdZiei Td cpTepd th?

Kai avvalei Td iraibid

tti<;.

(KajUTrdva)

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GHEEK VERNACULAR

232

6.

5ev

BotcriXea^

Kopdbva

eifiiai,

(popuj,

PoXoi bev ex^5


(K6KOpO(;)

Te?

ujpe*;

ineipuj.

Mid

KaXr)

voiKOKupiicra

7.

Xa)p(i)? dXeupi cpKeidvei TrriTTiTaa.


(MeXicrcra)
8.

"Oiav ^x^ vepo,

Kpam*

ttivuj

ki

oiav 6ev Ix^ vepo, mvu)


(MuXujvd(;)

vepo.
9.

"Eva

irpaTlnaTdKi

TTpdTluct

(Pe^a)

TTdei Ki OTTicruj bev Kuirdei.

10.
XiXiOTpuTTTiTo 'vai TO XttTUVl

{ZcpoufTapO

Kai (TTaXajuaxid 6ev x^vei.

d.

Popular Tales and Legends.


1.

To xP^^o pepyi.
(Epirus)

"Hiav eva^
k'

TTpa|uaTeuTr|<; ,

Ki ovia^ Kivricre

eixe TQei<; euTarepe^.

'lvbie<s,

Tov irepiKdXecTav

cpopeiua ivbiKO,
pepTi.

dXXr)

x]

oi

Ki

eva qpaKioXi ivbiKO

6vTa(S

r|GeXe Kai irfipe Kai tujv

juouve

Tf\<;

)uid

9uTaTep<g tou,

Kai tov ^KaTapeiduvTav, dv 5ev Td

Kapdpi tou.

Tricrav

ottoO TrpajuaTeiiovTav otic; Mv6ie^,

TifiTe

(TTig

Nvbieg,

f)

k'

f)

qpopd vd
\x\a

vd

cnig

Tidri

eva

Tcr' cpepr]

juiKpoiepr)

to xp^^^o

qpepr],

vd

Trfipe

Trpa)udT6ie<;

)uri

Kivrjar]

to

bae^

5u6 GuTaTCpiuv tou dKeiva rrou tou eZ^rjto xp^cro pepyi Xricrjuovnae vd to

laiKpoTepng

Ttdpr].

Ki ovTa^ Kivricre

KaXo^

Kaip6(^,

vd

qpuTr]

oXo ttoO
ToTe^ Kd9ovTav Kai

dir' ti<5 'Iv5ie(;,

bev eKivouae to Kapdpi.

)li'

riTav
(TuX-

XoTeidiviav, k' evag x^PiT^? rrepaae dTio KovTd tou Kai tov pujTrjcre, TiaTi eivai ^tcti (TuXXoTiO"^evo(;. '0 irpaiuaTeuTric; bev ri9eXri(T

vd TO

jLiapTupncrri.

T6Te(; tov irepiKaXede 6 xu^piotTr)^,

vd toO to

|iapTUpr|(Tri. '0 x^upiaTri? Xomov tou eme* ,,(TToxd(Tou, |uriv ^Ta^eq TiTTOTe;" '0 7Tpa|naTeuTrig aToxdairiKe Kai eujur|0riKe Keivo, ttoO

TEXTS
eix xdHei

Qv^aiipaq tou, xai

Tf\<;

233
to x^upidiri, ttoO ppi-

'puuTi-jcre

auTO to xP^^^o pepTi- Ki 6 x^pidTr|<; toO e5eiEe eva 6p6,uo


toO eiTie, vd TreppaTrjCTr] TpeT^ oipeg k' CKeT eivai to xqvoo

(TKeiai

Km

6 TTpa,uaTeuTr)<; exajue ddv ttoO toO

Ki

pepTi.

Tpeiq oipeg xai TifiTe

k' eTTeppdiricre

auToO

v:(b<;

adv toO

TTOuXo.

AuTog

TTOuXo.

YcTTepig eGdppeipe

dbeia

tou

GeXei,

ti

Kai KeTvoq toO Vo^oTn^^^

GeXeiq;'*

)Lie

)Liecra

TOV

ti^v

ebiuKe.

Tr]v

-nujq

6eXei

TrfjYe cttov

ovTd,

eiire,

eiv'

]ipiuTr|(Te*

7toO

eivai

ejuiracre

Tf]v

eixe '5ei cttov uttvo tou,

cr'

puuTder eivai TeToia

eva

TdcTi

ToTeg Td

(TTTiTi

f)

k'

TrfJYe

|Lidg

eTaHeg;'^

KdGe imavf)^ to

Td

ecpepa,"

Tdcri Kai

to baxTuXibi, Td OTioia tou

Ki

Td

auTii

Kai

Kai irfiYG

Ttfipe

Ti<;

Kai

Kai
iLiidv

xp^^o

vd vipeTai
TpuTTa

KaGuj^

Tf]q

aTo vepo,
KoXujiTTricre

YovTac;

vd

xpiot^i"ai

TO baxTuXibi

eXa, eXa,

luecra

irdXi

to Ypd^ua, to

lueaa

to pacr'XoirouXo.

luecra

k' eibe,

aTOV

ttoO

ctto TdcTi vepo,

Kai

vd

Xer]

TpeT(;

ovTct Tiiq,

Tfig

Kai

eYpaqpe,

vd

pdvri

(pope<;-

eXa,

Trep'cTTepi,

vepo Kai Gd Y^veTai dGpuuTTO^, Kai

v' dcprjcrr]

k'

ki

aTO vepo

k'

|uid

jUTiaivri

npGe to

dGpiuTTO*;*

tct' dcpr|cre

epYciXe k' ebuuKe

KXeicTTriKe

vepo,

ctto

k'

|uiKpfig

eirre

pepYi! Kai TOTe^ auTO^

VTapdvi vd

eYpaqpe,
eYiv'

pdvr]

eqpTaae ctto

Gd ^pxeTai

l^o^

ctto

CTTO

Zdv

iraTepa, ixdq Icpepeq

eixe bujcr'

dvoiHe TO Ypd|Ujua Kai to dvdYvujcre

ovTa^ TOV

,,e,

"EbiuKe Kai Tf\q

TdEifio.

eva YPdmua

GuYaTepa(; tou.

Kapd^i tou. K' euTug

ctto

eqpuYe (TTfiv iraTpiba tou.

tou, tov pujTaYav oi Tcriourrpe*; tou*

KeTva TToO

auToq tou eme*

^biuK'

Tfji;

bObcrri

Kai

TuvaiKa, Kai tov

TCTiourrpa crou;" Ki

6 irpainaTeuT)]? Kai

eKivricre,

ToTeg

juid ZiujYpacpicrjuevri,

tj^v Trdpr]

baxTuXibi vd Td

eva

k'

Trfjp'

TO Kapdpi

Ojuopqpri

ojuopcpri crdv TouTe<s;''

ToTeg to pacy'XoirouXo toO

xbia eivai!"

f]

mix; Gd

x]

^(juYpaqpicrjueveq, Kai

|uepdbia 6|uop(puTepr|."

evav dXXov ovTd, ottou eixe

TOV

auTr)

x^'^ioi

eirr'

Kai tov ^lUTiacre

Trfjpe

GuTaTepa aou TeToia

x]

eiTie

ocra toO

o^oc

pacr'XoTrouXo tov

ToTei; to

evav ovTd, ottou eixe iroXXe^ kok6v6(;

a'

Kai Keivoq tou

Ki

6 pacriXidg

'0 pamXidg tov

to pacr'XoTTouXo.

OuYttTepa tou.

k'

ki

pacr'Xo-

'ZirjTrjcre

KdGovTav to pacr'XoTTouXo, Kai tov pujTdei to pacr'XoTrouXo

TToO
Ti

axb TiaXdTi Kai

juecra,

|UTrr]

toO

iraXdTi kqi

eivai to

iiajq

eirrav,

Txf]^e

6 pacriXidq,

epuuTricr'

|ue

iLiiXriar]

Km

PaaiXid vd

to

diTO

Kai (Tdv Tov

vd

cpoPnGriKe,

x^JupidTii^;,

pepyi ki auTO eivai to pacx'Xo-

eivai to

juecra

k' eKei 'ptuTiiae'

toO ebeiHav eva

7ToO eivai TO xP^^ro pepTi*," Kai


eiirav,

itu'

evav totto

cr'

|uecra.

Tiep'cTTepi,

dcpoO

ToTeq
ki

ki

dqpou

auTf)

eKoupevTiacrav iroXXriv

^Y^ve Trep'cTTepi k' ^(puY.

KdxTa Kai

tct'

eiTte

vd

eKajue

eKoXu|Li7Tricre

ujpa,

Kai qpeu-

ti^v TcraKicrr],

ki oti

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GREEK VERNACULAR

234

oi

Td

ddipia.

t'

dbepcpeg

ecpuy' cxuTog,

ki

vd

6 xpucroPepTn*;, ki 6vTa<; eqpuYe,

tct' dcpricr'

puuToOv,

xrjv

qpopd to

dX\r|

'Aqpou xrjv eibav

pTH'^' ^^^-

xai

vtu6iik' auxr)

Auni eKave

TCTaKicre k'

xriv

ottoO eixe Z;ujYpaqpicrjLievo tov oupavo

cTuucTTri,

6id|uacrav ki dpxivicrav

Tri<;,

eqpTovricrav.

adv

Kai

vruGr).

qpopecrid

iLiecra |uid

riupe
)Lie

va to

|uecra

upri

xai

i6io,

Kai Tr)V
rjp0e

irdXi

eva XeqpTOKapo Kai Ta'

vd to

VTuGrj.

Ki

dqpoO

icpvfc TO Trep'cTTepi, t6t^ TddKicre to XeqpTOKapo k' rjupe

|uid

qpope-

vd TO

eiTTC,

TToO

crid,

ki

TO"aKiO"r],

xpvao

^Xa,

IXa,

eyiv'

d'GpujTro^.

vd to

eiTce

TO 'KOipe

Tdai

(Tto

Koijjr),

Td

XouXoubia.

dKOjua

TrepcroTepo

)Lie

Kdvouv KaKO,

t(T'

ecpuye,

vd XoudToOv, vd

k'

rrdXi

KoXuinTrricre

vd to

lueaa

Km

adv

ti^v

auTri

epaXe

cpop6(;-

eXa,

vepo

ctto

eva auKO Kai

d^rjcr'

ir\<;

KU)uaTa,
Tr|q,

TTdXi
Tpe\(;

k' eiire

K' flpGe,

oti 'Ppf]

ki

vepo

}xe

pepTi!"

k' rjup' dXXr)

Td

|ue

dKOjua TrepcoTepo.

|Lieo"a

|uou

Xdv

Qakaaaa

TTdXi Gidinaaav oi dbepcpec^

(pxovoucrav

Kai ir\v

eibav,

|uecra

tx]

l(X)fQacpiO)ie.vr]

eixe

VTuBrjKe Kai pTH^' e^wj.

TO baxTuXibi

oti 'ppf]

'AcpoO

VTu0rj.

eqpuye,

Mdig

qpopecrid, ttoO riTOtv Z;uJTpaqpicrjuevo<; 6

Tri

VTuGriKe

Kai

pTH'^'

oi

dbepqpe^

Tr|^

Kai

Gid^aaav

ToTec;

^Huj.

k'
tct'

KoupevTiaaav,

vd

ttok;

eiTTav dvdiueao Toug, rriug eKei ttoO 9d TrdTOuv

Trap'

eva craKKOuXi juapTapiTdpi Kai vd

|ueTdXri

x]

0d to x^^^ ^^^ "^^ Kaiar} Tiicruu aTio Tcr' dXXe<;


vd TO lua^OuHri" k' eKei ttoO Gd irdTouv oi dXXeg vd XoucrxoOv,
auTri Tdxa vd luaZ^dbvT] to |uapTapiTdpi, vd Tidfr} Orb Omji Kai vd
Kdjur)

Tdxa

Kd^ir]

Keivo ttoO eKav'

k'

ei6av,

Yid

vd

ttuj^

Trig

^uJO"ri

vd XoucttoOv,

ki

irfipe

f]

f]

vd

Trujg

|LieTdXr|

|Lie

crTO
juecra

Kai TTHpe TO KXeibi

(eTTeibir)(;

dvoiHe Kai to

Trjv

creig

^PaXe Kai to baxTuXibi


)uaxaipi

eXa, xpvjcro

Kai

KaOibq

eKa)ae

|liou

vd

juecra.

eKei

k'

oi

dXXeg, auTf) to ejuaae

tov ovTd

Kai nfife

craKKouXi

crTo

Tfi<;

|LiiKpf|(;

Kai

jUTrfiKe

ttoO to 'paXe to KXeibi)

ki

to Tdcri Kai to Tio^iiae vepo

Mov'

x]

dqpricre

dXXri

f]

Ttdvuj

luiKpoTepr]

crTo

eix'

k'

eva

Tdcrr ki ovTa<;

pepTi," flp^e to paa'XorrouXo Kai KoXu|U7Tr|G"e,


crKUj0r],

eKOTrrjK'

dqpoO eibe to

9tik k' ^qpuye.

Aiixrj

TToXXd*

to Tdai

oicpr\ae

Kai Tifipe

Kai to

Kai Xr|cr|u6vri(ye

eme

drr'

)uiKpri,

irfiTav

Ix^^^ to l^^fpjurrpoaTd, k' e^uj 0d judcruu

jaecra

eixe Trapajuovevjjei,

VTouXdm

f]

ovTa(;

eyXicrTpricre k'

irijug

Td aKOUTTpa Kai to 'paXe

cTTTiTi

dWr]

r]

rrpuji,

to craKKouXi to juapTapiTdpi,

TO iLiapTapiTdpi", Kai Ka0djg He^dKpuvav

oXo

eiv'

Kai to

aiiTfjg TiTroTe(;.

dXXeq* aupTe

k' eiTre ot\<;

^laii ty\v eixav irapaiuoveiijei

Ka|uuj0ri

TToO TtriTaivav (Tto bp6|uo, ^Kajue

TapiTdpi

laiKpoTepr)

eKajue

iiuj(;

jue

drr'

to

aliLia juecTa

|naxaipi
ctto vepo,

to aljua jueaa crTO vTOuXd-m

Kai

aKuj-

exoXiacre
k'

eqpuYt

235

TEXTS
Kai

dvTdjuujcre Kai tct'

Ki

Txx]je

(Tav

TTicTuj,

Kai Ka6uu(;

XoucTTriKa!"

TToXu, ePy^k'

vd

P^pyi,

vd

TrfJYe

ovrd
|u^

ovrag

ki

xrig,

xOupa,

'5fi<;

to

Tidpr]

to Y^t^rei Yio^dxo

xdcri,

Zdv

KOijjrics

qpopecrid

|Liid

eva Kapdpi KaXo, Yid vd Trdvuu crxd Heva."


x(T'

6K0ip xd

vd

irdri

qppdYKiKa,

afiq

Kai xd

Yid vd xov eupri.

'Iv6ie<;,

vd

|uo0

dXXo x6

TTOuXi

K' eKei ttou irriYaive

xpiKO YiotTpeuexai
judg

ppucTi,

TToO

YiotTpoi x6

To dXXo x6

;"

Kai KeTvo xoO

dTreqpdcricrav

of Yiaxpoi,

dire

ki

x6

ttou 'vai

Kai x6

;''

x6 pacr'-

irouXi x6 'pOuxricre* |ue xi Yia-

vd

eiTie*

ixdq CTKOXubcrouv eiudg

irdpouv Kai vd irdpouv ki oXiyo vepo diro Keiviiv xq

dYvdvxia,

eiv'

vd x6 9Keidcrouv

Kai

x6 Xaijuo xou, ttou eivai

dXeii|;ouv

axo

ev' dXXo, Kai KeTvo

Tuidcrri

xoO erne' 5e Hepouv

XoTTouXo YiotTpeuexai."

vd

k' oi

|uoO

Toxe^ 6 -rraxepag j^q


juirfiKe axo Kapd^i,

TTOuXi, TTOU rjxav Kai rrep'axepi, xoO eiTie* 6e xo^idZ;ei<;,

TO paa'XoTiouXo dppuucrxo,

vd

bOuKrig k'

Kai

vxuGriKe

bp6|uo, ei5' eva ttouXi, ttou TrfJYe

vd

Kai

KaXr|,

KaXr)

qppaYKiKr)

eKXavpe

x6 eKajuav of dbepqpeg

ttiIj^

Kai TTHYCtivei crxov iraxepa xrj^ Kai xoO Xiei' dq)evxri,

xri<;,

Kai

ejuiraive,

ttoO TrfiTa Kai

xi I'TiaGa!"

)u',

Mouv' eKdxaXape,

oHuj.

Ki ovxag Y^P-

liq TcrioiJTrpe(;.

cttov

(piuvdZier XeXe

(TKou^ei,

KXaiei,

aijua.

dWeq

|Lieaa

xP^^o ^o^

e\a,

eXeTe*

juiKpr)

TrfiT'

adv

xcTiouTTpa Keivri
Trep'crxepiujv

KO|Ujuevo(;,

auxd,

d'Koucr'

eireibrig

riHepe

x6 xp^cro pepYi, eKaxdXape

dir'

Kai

dXoicpri

fXwaaa

xri

eiirav

xi

v'

'H

Kai YictTpeuexai."

xiJuv

xd TrouXid.

T6xe<; eppiH' evav xoucpeKi Kai xd cTKOxujcre Kai xd buo Kai xd irfipe
Kai rrfipe Kai vepo
Kai

d-rro

Yiaxp6g KaXo^,

Yiocxp6(;

oiKiaq xoxeg Kai

xr|

xpei|jr)g

x6

cpujvar dndvuj Kai

crdv x6 eibe, eiire xoO


Kai

vd x6 pYdXuu

XdpriKe.

jud<;

vd

Kai

eiirav
ixdc;

crxo

K6\\)r}<;

XoTTOuXo Kai x6

'TroKdxuj

Kai

cpwvale'

cr'

pacriXid*;

ottoO xov dKOuaav,

pacriXid*

|U7T0peT(;

dv x6

Yiotxpeipr)

crdv

jue

Yiot-

Kai

xrjv aXoicpn,

dKoucr'

auxo,

ttoO eiire ttox; x6

auxo

x6 KeqpdXi." T6xe<; 6 Yiaxpo?

dXeiipe

vd

oxxib yiepeq biopia x6 YiotTpeuuu,

'0

kuvhyi."

xcr' eiire'

xou eme* vd x6 i5uj!"

Keivrj

pamXid"

crxo

Oi dXXoi YiCTpoi,

Yiaxpeuei,

paO"'X6TTouXou

KaXoq, YicnpiKd KaXd!" Trjv fiKoua' 6 pa-

juou:"

Ttaibi

Ppucri k' eqpKeiacre xriv dXoiqpr]

Keivriv xri

toO

crapdYi

(Txo

TTfiYe

Ka0ib(; Xeei,

irfiYe (Txo pacr'-

Kai YivrjKe KaXuxepa,

k'

ucrxepa drro buo laepe^ apxice vd Kpevr], Kai crdv xoO ^paXe TroXXe^
<pope<s xrjv dXoicpri,

crro

KuvriYi.

Tou Yicixpou'
Ka|Lie(;;"

Xeia

a' oxtuu

21dv tov
xi

ei6'

)Liepe(;

KaXo GeXeig vd

Ki 6 YioiTpog xou

aou, juovaxd eva

x6 Yidxpeipe Kai xov epY^Xe Kai

6 TraTepa(; tou,

eiTre*

Ziacpexi

xPiT< ttoXu

k' eixre

croO Kdjuw Yid x6 KaXo, ttou juou

dXXo be x^t^iJ^

vd

\io\j

Kdjuri<;

Kai

citto

vd

xr)

pacri-

cpuuvdHrig

236

HANDBOOK OF THE MODERN GEEEK VERNACULAR

oXou^

Toxjc;

dpxovxeg

pd

k' eKaju' eToi)Liacrie^

T^ TG' Mvbiag
k' eiriav,

oXoi,

ki

Km

toOto

Km

Tupricrr]

Kai 9(JuvaH' 6\ou(; loug dpxov-

Ziiaqpeii

eva TTapa)uu0i."

eiTTUj

TauuTTacrav

toOto

to

eva liacpin ttoXu jueTdXo,

k' eKajLi'

ttoO

TTpa

TO

k'

I^Tav

Tiaipoc;

toOto*

oXa

eiir'

Km

auToq.

Y^vaiKa toO

'crqpaHa

dqpoO IcpaYav

ki

T6Te(S 6 pacriXid(; ^TTpooTaHe,

apxipnc^ 6

)u6v'

'tuj,

k'

n dbepcpr; |uou."

|uap-

TcrioijTTpa

f)

auxr)

to"iou-

f]

bev

Pacr'XoirouXo

T6Te(S to paa'XoTrouXo crdv

eme*

tct'

to

Kai

xai

Trapajuii6i,

xwpiq vd

ttuj^

eiire,

eme* eYUJ eijum

pacr'XoTTOuXou,

dKoucr' auTd, Trjv dYKdXiacre Kai

to

IXe^e

ocra e-rraGe,

tote^ crdv

auxr] fivriKe TiaTp6<;, cpavepujGrjKe k'


f)

eiTre*

Kai xoieg dpxip^cre

TiTroie a' ejueva."

6 TioiTpo^ xoO paaiXid* TTp6a"TaHe vd TcriuTrdaouv,

eiir'

6d

fiaji

Toieg 6 pacTiXidg xoO

'Iv5ia<;."

t(t'

auT6 TToO xa^eueiq bev eivai

6cru

'crai

f]

vu9ri juou*"

eva Yd|uo Xajuirpo Kai tou^ ecTTeqpdviuaav.

k' e'Kajuav

To

2.

TO 0"KuXi Kai

qpibi,

f)

YdTa.

(Epirus)

"HTav
vd

ijjajjLii

Kai

Kai

TifiYe

Yupi2;e,

Y^vaka

cpTuuxn

ixia

to

ToTe*;

qpdv.

iraibi

Kai

irouXricTe

tct'

eva
Kai

to cTKOTubveTe

jun

Tiaibi,

Kai bev eixav

cpopTiJuvei

qpibi,

Tou^

!"

dcrcpaKeg*

Kai

buo Trapdbeg.

Trfipe

ttoO cTKOTUuvav ^'va

rjupe KaTi iraibid,

vdTe evav irapd Kai

k' eix'

ixaipvei

Ka9iju<;

Kai Toug Xeer

ebiuKe tov irapd,

Kai bev TO aKOTtuo^av Td iraibid, Kai to cpibi tov eKuvrJYilcre.


KaGuji; rrfJYC ctto
11

ctttiti

ludvva TOU TOV


TTapdbe<;

pri<;

eiTie*

,,dq

TTfjpe

TrdXi

TTaibid,

Kai

\xr]

eivai,

TOU

eiTie'

|udvva,

TO

cTKOTuuveTe

!"

Ktti

Ta'

eiir'

Y^pi2!e,
|ur]

eiire

TTfipav Td

ocra iKajue.
TTfipe

crKoxiuveTe,

vd

Tiaibi

Toug

eiire

iraibid

vdT evav Tiapd

tov irapd

T6

Kai irdXi tov

ki

iraibi

d9fiKav

irfiYe

e)LidXiucr'

f]

Tr|

irdXi aaq>dKe<; Kai Tig irouXriae, ki

crag buuKiu

YdTa.

evav rrapd!"

Kai Ka0ujg

eivai,

Toug

Kai Toug

irfiYe ctto ctttiti

vd

Trdprjg irapabeg

vd

cpdjue yjujiui,

eau cpepveig cTKuXid Kai YdTeg Kai cpibia!" ToTeg auTog Ta'

dg

cTTr)

jiidvva

ludvvag tou TtdXi ocTa eKajue, ki auTr) tov ejudXiucre

Kai TOU eiTre* eYiJu ae crTeXvuj


k'

tct'

To

rjupe KaTi iraibid, ttoO cTKOTiuvav )uid Y^Ta, Kai

Triv

Tfjg

rrd-

Kai KaGubg Y^pi^^e, rjupe KaTi

T6Te<; auTO tov eKuvriYH^^'e rrdXi.

tou

vd

auTo."

jidq (pe\eor\ ki

TTOuXricre,