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Dimapilis, Arjay P.

August

11, 2015
BSAE 4-1

Dr. Leyma Cero


AENG 65 HYDROLOGY
Laboratory Exercise No. 4

MEASUREMENT OF INFILTRATION RATE IN THE FIELD

INTRODUCTION

Infiltration is a natural process by


which water moves into and through
Dingman,
2002

soil

and

Movement
dominated

other

porous

through
by

the

materials.
media

gravitational

is
and

capillary forces. Gravitational forces pull


water down vertically through the soil.
Capillary forces pull water horizontally
and laterally within the soil profile.
Infiltration rates, in turn, control runoff rates and soil erosion, which are
important because these processes influence the quality and quantity of our
water resources.
The determination of infiltration the downward entry of water into a
soil (or sediment) is receiving increasing attention in hydrologic studies
because of the need for more quantitative data on all phases of hydrologic
cycle. A measure of infiltration, infiltration rate, usually determined in the
field by flooding basins or furrows, sprinkling, or measuring water entry from

cylinders (infiltrometer rings). In this exercise, we will be using the double


ring infiltrometer method.

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the exercise, the students are expected to:
1.
2.
3.
4.

discuss the process of infiltration.


monitor and regulate continuously the addition of water in the infiltrometer.
measure the infiltration rate of the field to be tested.
calculate the measured data.

MATERIALS and METHODOLOGY


Infiltration Rate usually is determined from field data. Many different
methods and types of equipment have been used for measuring infiltration
rate, but the principal methods are flooding of basins or furrows, sprinkling,
and measuring water entry from cylinders.

Two impermeable cylinders ( the inner ring should be no smaller than 4


inches in diameter and equal 50 to 70% of the outer ring diameter; for

example, use an 8-inch inner ring with a 12-inch outer ring )


Water source
Timer
Measuring device
Plastic
Flat wooden board that covers the diameter of cylinders to push the

cylinders into the ground.


Log sheets and writing utensil ( ballpoint pen/ pencil )

Before we begin our experiment, we have practiced driving the double


ring infiltrometer into the soil without disturbing the soil surface. Using
buckets full of water, we poured water into the infiltrometer and note that
the water ponds within the ring. We marked the side of the infiltrometer to

know the penetration depth and ponding level that we have maintained for
each experiment.
1. Select an undisturbed site for your experiment and drive the
infiltrometer into the soil.
2. Line the ring with plastic wrap so that it covers the inside of ring and
drapes over the side.
3. Pour water into the plastic-lined cylinder to a ponding depth that you
have selected.
4. Gently pull the wrap away. Immediately begin the stop watch. Halt the
stop watch and record both the depth of water infiltrated to the
infiltrometer and the time elapsed since you reached the initial
ponding depth.
5. Refill the water cylinder and continue adding water to the infiltrometer
to maintain a constant ponding depth. Carefully record the total depth
of water added to the infiltrometer.
RESULTS and DISCUSSION
Table 1. Tabulated data
TIME

INFILTRATION

Elaps
ed
TIME

Accumul
ated
TIME

DEP
TH

Elaps
ed
DEPT
H

Accumula
ted
DEPTH

(hh:m
m)

(min)

(min)

(cm)

(cm)

(cm)

ED/ET
(cm/min)

AD/AT
(cm/min)

08:47
08:52
08:57
09:08
09:28
09:48
10:08
10:48
11:28
12:28
01:28

0
5
5
11
20
20
40
40
40
60
60

0
5
10
21
41
61
101
141
181
241
301

0.00
2.00
1.40
2.10
2.10
2.20
0.80
2.50
1.80
2.70
2.40

0.00
2.00
1.40
2.10
2.10
2.20
0.80
2.50
1.80
2.70
2.40

0.00
2.00
3.40
5.50
7.60
9.80
10.60
13.10
14.90
17.60
20.00

0.000
0.400
0.280
0.191
0.105
0.110
0.020
0.063
0.045
0.045
0.040

0.000
0.400
0.340
0.262
0.185
0.161
0.105
0.093
0.082
0.073
0.066

WATC
H

AVERAGE RATE

02:28
03:28
04:28
05:28
06:28

60
60
60
60
60

361
421
481
541
601

2.20
2.10
2.70
2.60
2.60

2.20
2.10
2.70
2.60
2.60

22.20
24.30
27.00
29.60
32.20

0.037
0.035
0.045
0.043
0.043

0.061
0.058
0.056
0.055
0.054

Figure 1.

INFILTRATION RATE

INFILTRATION RATE (cm/min)

0.450
0.400
0.400
0.350
0.280
0.300
0.250
0.191
0.200
0.110
0.150
0.105
0.063
0.100
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.043
0.043
0.040
0.037
0.035
0.020
0.050
0.000

TIME

As the time increases or passed by the infiltration rate decreases.


Figure 2.

INFILTRATION RATE
35.00
30.00
25.00

DEPTH

20.00
15.00
10.00

5.50

7.60

32.20
29.60
27.00
24.30
22.20
20.00
17.60
14.90
13.10
10.60
9.80

5.00
2.00 3.40
0.000
0.000.4000.3400.2620.1850.1610.1050.0930.0820.0730.0660.0610.0580.0560.0550.054
0.00
0
5
10 21 41 61 101 141 181 241 301 361 421 481 541 601

TIME

As time increases the depth also increases.


Studies of infiltration during water infiltration events above show
infiltration rates at the beginning of the event, followed by a rapid decline
that a transitions towards near constant values. Figures 1 and 2 above shows
infiltration rates graphed from the data collected after doing the experiment
outside the College of Engineering and Information Technology.
CONCLUSION
Soil infiltration refers to the soils ability to allow water movement into and
through the soil profile. It allows the soil to temporarily store water.
Infiltration rates are a measure of how fast water enters the soil and is
expressed in centimeters per minute. We see that as the time increases, the
depth increases but infiltration decreases.

REFERENCES
http://www.colorado.edu/geography/class_homepages/geog_3511_s11/notes/
Notes_8.pdf

http://www.vtwaterquality.org/stormwater/docs/sw_gi_2.1_infiltration.pdf
http://depts.washington.edu/trac/bulkdisk/pdf/483.1.pdf
http://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/1544f/report.pdf
http://www.uvm.edu/~watercmp/for_fac/worksheets/exercise-infiltration.pdf
http://extension.oregonstate.edu/stormwater/sites/default/files/infiltration_tes
ting_web.pdf