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Hutchison 3G Engineering Documentation

Radio Design Group


Radio Planning Design Guidelines

Owner/Editor

Jon Clarke

Approved by
Date
Title

R.F. Planning Guidelines

Summary
This document is intended to be the formal guidelines for R.F. Planning for Hutchison 3G UK Ltd.
This is a living document and is therefore subject to change control

Document
no.

RDU-0008-01-V1.11

Planning Design Guidelines

Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

1 INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................................................4
2 REFERENCES................................................................................................................................................................6
3 DESIGN CRITERIA.......................................................................................................................................................7
3.1 Nominal cell planning based on Cloverleaf structure...............................................................................................7
3.2 Planning Levels..........................................................................................................................................................7
3.3 Planning Tool Parameters..........................................................................................................................................8
3.3.1 Settings...............................................................................................................................................................8
3.3.2 Recommended processes.................................................................................................................................17
3.4 Carrier Distribution Strategy...................................................................................................................................19
3.4.1 Background......................................................................................................................................................19
3.4.2 Carriers per clutter category.........................................................................................................................19
4 SITE SELECTION........................................................................................................................................................21
4.1 Cell Types................................................................................................................................................................21
4.2 Cell Overlap.............................................................................................................................................................22
4.3 C.W. Testing............................................................................................................................................................22
5 PHYSICAL DESIGN....................................................................................................................................................24
5.1 Antennas...................................................................................................................................................................24
5.1.1Antenna Selection.............................................................................................................................................24
5.1.2 Tilt....................................................................................................................................................................25
5.1.3 Special Antennas.............................................................................................................................................25
5.1.4 Antenna Orientations.......................................................................................................................................26
5.1.5 Antenna Azimuth Beamwidth & Elevation Pattern........................................................................................27
5.1.6 Monopoles........................................................................................................................................................27
5.1.7 Flagpoles.........................................................................................................................................................27
5.1.8 Four Antennas on a 3 sector site....................................................................................................................27
5.1.9 GRP Shrouding................................................................................................................................................28
5.1.10 Interference Analysis when selecting Antennas & bearings........................................................................28
5.2 Separations...............................................................................................................................................................29
5.3 Health and Safety.....................................................................................................................................................30
5.3.1 Access...............................................................................................................................................................31
5.3.2 Safe by Design ................................................................................................................................................31
5.3.3 Horizontal Bore-Sight Distance .....................................................................................................................32
5.3.4 Radio Communication Agency Emission Certification..................................................................................32
5.4 Feeder types and loss:..............................................................................................................................................33
5.5 Masthead Amplifiers................................................................................................................................................34
5.5.1 Basics...............................................................................................................................................................34
5.5.2 Conclusions......................................................................................................................................................34
5.5.3 MHA Omission.................................................................................................................................................34
5.6 Available Node B Configurations...........................................................................................................................35
5.7 Expandability...........................................................................................................................................................37
5.7.1 Cabins - Dimensions and Position..................................................................................................................37
5.7.2 Internal Equipment Rooms - Dimensions.......................................................................................................37
5.8 Drawings..................................................................................................................................................................38
5.9 ICNIRP certificate...................................................................................................................................................38
6 PERFORMANCE CHECKS.......................................................................................................................................40
6.1 Rigging Checks........................................................................................................................................................40
6.1.1 Physical Site Checks........................................................................................................................................40
6.1.2 Rigging Results................................................................................................................................................41
6.2 Neighbour Planning.................................................................................................................................................44
6.3 Single Site Verification............................................................................................................................................48
Appendix 1.....................................................................................................................................................................51
Regular hexagonal design........................................................................................................................................52
Cloverleaf design......................................................................................................................................................53
Why cloverleaf is chosen..........................................................................................................................................54
Some useful notes on hexagonal geometry...............................................................................................................55
Link Budgets.............................................................................................................................................................56
Appendix 2.....................................................................................................................................................................59
CW measurements.....................................................................................................................................................60

Planning Design Guidelines

Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Appendix 3.....................................................................................................................................................................62
Azimuth Beamwidth..................................................................................................................................................63
Elevation pattern......................................................................................................................................................63
Tilt.............................................................................................................................................................................64
Four Antennas on a 3 sector site..............................................................................................................................65
Health and Safety......................................................................................................................................................67
MHAs.......................................................................................................................................................................71
Example.....................................................................................................................................................................71
Coverage/capacity implications...............................................................................................................................72
Appendix 4.....................................................................................................................................................................78
Setting up Aska.........................................................................................................................................................79
Reference Route post processing .........................................................................................................................81

Planning Design Guidelines

Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

1 Introduction
The aim of this document is to provide background and guidance to enable the RF Planning Department to
deliver the appropriate cellular design as efficiently as possible. The document should provide information in
a manner that approximately follows the rollout process when planning coverage of a new area from
Nominal Plan through to integration and release to the live network. It will be updated on a 3 monthly period
with any changes, unless an exceptional change is required.
The document begins in section3 with a simple description of the methodology to be adopted when planning
a new area. It starts with the rules for creating a basic nominal plan and covers the minimum threshold levels
of coverage that are required for each clutter environment, the basic settings of the planning tool and its use
in creating a coverage plan.
Section 4 addresses the first steps of site selection prior to a Technical Revue taking place, time and effort
spent in this phase of the roll-out will pay dividends in the long run in saving time and money on optimisation
and in-fill solutions whilst maximising quality, capacity and ultimately revenue.
The next section, section 5, is the largest section of the Guidelines, and deals with the physical design of a
site and provides all the required information that a Radio Planner needs prior to the Technical Revue,
throughout the revue, and post-revue to ensure that the decisions and principles adhered to in the Site
Selection are carried forward into the reality of the live network.
The final section starts with the next period in a sites life cycle when the Radio Planner becomes involved,
post-rigging complete, and takes the site to the point where it is de-barred and takes live traffic on the
Network. From this point on, the Optimisation Guidelines take over.
The appendices in this document contain more in depth technical analysis of certain topics and also add
further explanation to the rules. Each section can be accessed directly by clicking on one of the sections
below.
Section 3
Design
Criteria

Section 4
Site
Selection

Section 5
Physical
Design

Section 6
Performance
Checks

Planning Design Guidelines

Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

The document contains a number of rules. Rules that must be complied with are highlighted in Red.
Rules that are for guidance are highlighted in Blue.
In addition reference is made to other documents that contain further explanation and reasoning that if
included here would make this document ungainly. All Radio Planners should read all the referenced
documentation to gain a full understanding of all topics detailed in the Radio Planning Design
Guidelines.

Planning Design Guidelines

Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

2 References

RD&T\UM&S\117 UTRAN Macro Link Budget

RD&T\UM&S\312 Enterprise 3.04.12 Setting Summary for Core and Asset modules

RDT\UMS\014 UMTS Planning Process

The Integrated Solution Training Manual V3.9 (2)

UMS026 Classification of Site and Node B Configuration

RDU-0028-01 V2.0 3G Simulations: Parameter Settings

RD&T_UM&S_349 Enterprise FAQs_D3.doc -FAQ and answers listing problems related to settings -

RDU-0001-00-V1.01UMTS FDD Link Budget

RD&T\UM&S\024 Instructions for Interference Analysis using Enterprise 3.4.12

FEI MTAC RFCG document 28-2000 version 2.0-2002

RF compliance assessment criteria document 49-2001

Radio Emissions Compliance V3.2

RD&T\UD\399 Guidance for Omission of MHA Cabinet

RD&T\UM&S\180 Neighbour Cell and Scramble Code Planning Strategy

RD&T\UO&C\272 Drive Route Generation Methodology (Non-Cluster)

RD&T\UO&C\299 Agilent WCDMA scanners set up & Use (Non-Cluster)

RD&T\UO&C\295 CPICH Coverage Analysis (Non-Cluster)

RD&T\UPO&C\297 Service Coverage Analysis (Non-Cluster)

RD&T\UO&C\296 Scrambling Code verification

RD&T\UO&C\298 Actix Process (Non-Cluster)

Actix course notes Analyser for H3g

Planning Design Guidelines

Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

3 Design Criteria
In this section we discuss the methodology to be adopted when planning a new area. This includes the
nominal plan, minimum contiguous coverage thresholds for each clutter environment and the fundamental
settings of the Asset planning tool that need to be set to generate coverage plots, and correct use of the
prediction models for each environment.

3.1 Nominal cell planning based on Cloverleaf structure


Rule 3.1: 3 will base its nominal cell planning for areas of new coverage on a cloverleaf structure,
EXCEPT rural and motorway sites that should be based on Enterprise coverage predictions.
The reason is that with the narrow beam-width antennas employed for CDMA the cloverleaf structure is a
much better representation of reality than the classical hexagonal plan.
Rule 3.2: The orientation of the cells when creating a new nominal plan should be to use standard
antenna orientations of 0, 120 and 240 degrees and needs to be kept constant except when there is
strong reason to do otherwise.
In the past cell planning has normally been performed using a hexagonal pattern for both omni and trisectored sites. However whilst optimum for true omni sites the classic hexagonal plan does not fit well with
the narrow beam-width antennas used for tri-sectored sites by 3. The majority of omni sites will also be
implemented using three combined antennas (to give room for expansion) and thus will also use the
cloverleaf design. It should be noted that these different cell plans are only an idealised representation of
reality, and do not affect the actual performance achieved for a given set of sites.
Rule 3.3: The default heights for antennas should be 20m for Rural & suburban sites and 30m for
Urban and Dense Urban sites
The in depth discussion of how to create an optimum initial nominal plan is discussed in RDT\UMS\014
UMTS Planning Process. This document lays out a reiterative process to ensure that the coverage,
dominance and interference levels are assessed for the plan. The result is that correct numbers of nominals
are identified to cover an area.
A detailed description of hexagonal and cloverleaf structural plans for cell planning can be found in Appendix
1.

3.2 Planning Levels


The levels used for planning are based on the uplink performance of the system. The reason for this
decision is that at least initially the system will be primarily coverage limited in which case the cell size is
restricted by the uplink. It should be noted that for very high usage the system will become capacity limited
and become dominated by the downlink.
Coverage planning in Asset is based nominally on a downlink therefore an arbitrary transmit power is
assumed and the planning level is the power minus the maximum allowed path loss. The planning levels
actually used were derived assuming a Transmit PA power of +22dBm & antenna gain of 18 dB as shown in
Table 1.
Experience has shown us that the current planning levels for rural sites has been quite prudent and in future
all Rural and Motorway sites will be planned for voice coverage. This will be reflected in a data rate of
12Kb/s, which will result in a lower planning level threshold and an increase in cell radius. The planning
levels table below will be updated shortly to reflect this.
Rule 3.4: All Rural and Motorway sites will be planned for 12Kb/s contiguous voice coverage
Note that when using the cloverleaf structures the typical cell radii shown below are in fact the diameters of
the cloverleaf. It should be noted that these cell ranges are typical values that are observed from Enterprise.
These values could be less in severe terrain conditions.

Planning Design Guidelines

Target uplink service


Assumed loading
Assumed BTS antenna heights (m)
Nominal cell radii (km)

Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Dense Urban

Urban

128 kbps inbuilding

128 kbps
in-building

128 kbps
in-building

64 kbps
in-vehicle

60 %

55 %

50 %

30 %

30

30

20

20

0.35

0.6

1.4

Assumed Tx EiRP (dBm)

Sub-urban

Rural

40

Maximum allowed path loss (dB)


Planning levels (dBm)

124.78

129.29

135.55

142.92

-84.7

-89.2

-95.5

-103.2

Table 1: Current planning levels.

3.3 Planning Tool Parameters


More detailed information on the Planning Tool settings is contained in the following documents:
RD&T\UM&S\312 Enterprise 3.04.12 Setting Summary for Core and Asset modules
Due to the size and content of these documents, with a large number of screen captured shots the
Radio Planner must read these independently.
Note that enterprise application must be launched using the icon on the desktops. Enterprise launch icon is
shown below.

Other documents related to the various setting are as follows:

3G Simulations: Parameter Settings - RDU-0028-01 V2.0

Neighbour Cell and Scramble Code Planning Strategy RD&T\UM&S\180

FAQ and answers listing problems related to settings - RD&T_UM&S_349 Enterprise FAQs_D3.doc.

Further network planning related documents that describes guidelines and recommendations on settings
are:

Planning Summary_Issue1_1.doc

3.3.1 Settings
3.3.1.1 Mapping and User Data
Mapping (Heights, Clutter, Vector) and Text data are always stored on the planners PC on the D drive.
Rule 3.5: Predictions MUST be stored on the D drive under the following directory structure.
D:\Prediction structure. This folder MUST have 26 sub-folders labelled a-z.

Planning Design Guidelines

Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Rule 3.6: Its recommended that the user (line data) polygons and preference are stored on the
server. This will allow planners to use other PCs and still allow them access to their user polygons
etc. The recommended locations are:
\\H3gshfp1\AircomUK\Enterprise 3.3 User Files\User Vectors - for line data.
\\H3gshfp1\AircomUK\Enterprise 3.3 User Files\User Preferences - for preferences.

3.3.1.2 All other enterprise Settings


All the tool settings have been explained in detail in a separate document (RD&T\UM&S\312 Enterprise
3.04.21 Setting Summary for Core and Asset modules). Some of the most important settings are shown
below.

ADVICEABLE TO SET AS SHOWN


MUST BE SET AS SHOWN
ADVICEABLE TO SET AS SHOWN

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Change region load based on the area


you are planning

MUST BE SET
AS SHOWN

Planners do not have import permissions but can do export.

3.3.1.3 Propagation Models


There are three propagation models available in Enterprise. They are called UMTS, UMTS_Rural and
UMTS_FLH and are detailed below.
The user can view the settings in RD&T\UM&S\312, the permissions applied to the general user should
prevent them from editing these parameters. All the details shown are for information only.
The selection of the correct model is key, and can have a huge impact on predicted cell coverage,
interference analysis, site placement, nominal numbers and optimisation effort. Incorrect selection of the
model can have a huge long-term financial impact to the company.
The selection of the correct model is very closely tied to the classification of cells within the planning tool
using the environmental flag but the model must be applied at a cell level. (The environmental flag setting is
discussed in some depth in UMS026 Classification of Site and Node B Configuration.) The Radio Planner
must use panoramic photographs of the area and their local knowledge to classify the cell into one of the
four categories outlined below.

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The Dense Urban environment is defined as the clutter being made up of multi-storey densely packed
buildings, such as city centres for example.
The Urban environment is defined by the buildings that are not as densely packed as in dense urban but in
general consists of buildings that are taller than those in suburban areas.
The Suburban environment when the primary object of the nominal is to provide service into an area, which
is predominantly residential, consisting in the main of two storey buildings.
The Rural environment is defined by the fact that there are few residences or buildings.
UMTS Model
Range of Application
This model has been tuned for suburban, urban and dense-urban areas in the network. It is suited to Node
Bs situated primarily in those clutter categories.
Parameters
The parameters for this model are set globally and can be seen in greater detail in RD&T\UM&S\312.
UMTS Rural Model
Range of Application
This model is to be used for those cells situated in the rural clutter category, or in suburban cells that serve
areas that are also in the rural category.
The model is too optimistic to be used in dense urban, urban and completely suburban environments, if it is
used in these environments it will result in increased inter-site distances. This means that, once integrated,
the sites would under-perform compared to the generated predictions resulting in holes in coverage.
The model may be used on cells that are located on the edge of suburban environments, where they cover
significant amounts of rural areas due to antenna orientation etc.

This model should be used where the cell is situated in and covers a rural environment. The model
can also be used on the edge of suburban areas where they border rural areas.

In general roads should be covered as rural cells. Rural and Suburban environments can be freely
mixed.

Rural cells are capable of covering areas with a small amount of suburban but where one or more
sectors cover clearly suburban environment the UMTS model must be used.
Parameters

The parameters for this model are set globally and can be seen in greater detail in RD&T\UM&S\312.
UMTS flh Model
Range of Application
The new model UMTS_flh should be used on cells in similar situations to the model UMTS_Rural that are
also substantially higher than the surrounding environment. This height difference could be due to the
mounting structure height or variations in the terrain such as being built on a hill.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

An example of a terrain environment, the UMTS-flh model could be used here. The site is close to the edge
of an escarpment from where a valley can be seen. The radio does not propagate over any clutter before
arriving at the end point.

An example of a terrain profile, the new model will not work here as a result of inadequate ground clearance.
Rule 3.7: This model should NOT be used in suburban areas.
Rule 3.8: The UMTS-flh model should be used with the 50m resolution data and the prediction
radius should be set to at least 20Km, all other models should use a prediction radius of at least 10
Km.
This model has the potential to propagate twice as far as the existing models. It is vital that the planners
follow the previously issued guidelines on setting the cell layer thresholds for each cell. As the national
coverage reporting depends on these settings a method should be set up to audit the planning tool database
and correct such mistakes.

Planning Design Guidelines

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Modelling of THSs for maximising coverage


When modelling a THS site for use as a macro-cell the following setting should be used in the planning tool.
Generally use the UMTS_Rural model. If the cell is raised with respect to rest of coverage then use the
UMTS_flh model.
Ensure that +1.5 dB is entered into the antenna correction factor.
In the Nokia Region the node b cell range is limited to 20km, to allow for this the cell edge should be at
10Km. For NEC cells the cells need cell extension to 40Kms.
Parameters
The parameters for this model are set globally and can be seen in greater detail in RD&T\UM&S\312.
3.3.1.4 Antennas
The correct selection of antenna models and types is covered in Section 5 of this document and should be
read very carefully to ensure that the best antenna is selected for the job. This sub-section solely covers
how to select the antenna and the current range available in the planning tool.

Electrical tilt
All shown here are set Globally

The antenna height setting is measured to the base of the physical antenna.
The Electrical tilt (as shown in the above screenshot) is additive with the MECHANICAL tilt that can be
applied on the Cell Parameters GUI.
All the antennas that can be used for planning are listed below.
IIN_BUILDING_ONL
Y
R2212_18.4_XP_04 R2229_16_XP_10
R2204_15.4_XP_02

R2212_18.4_XP_06 R2233_21_XP_02

R2204_15.4_XP_04

R2212_18.4_XP_08 R2233_21_XP_04

R2209_17.7_XP_02

R2229_16_XP_00

R2233_21_XP_06

R2209_17.7_XP_04

R2229_16_XP_02

R2290_18.4_XP_02

R2209_17.7_XP_06

R2229_16_XP_04

R2290_18.4_XP_04

R2209_17.7_XP_10

R2229_16_XP_06

R2290_18.4_XP_06

R2212_18.4_XP_02

R2229_16_XP_08

R2291_17.7_XP_06

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

R2209_17.7_XP_08 - new
R2291_17.7_XP_02 - new

3.3.1.5 Coverage Thresholds & Colours


The UMTS coverage schema should be used as the default to display cell layer coverage. The 4 different
threshold levels can be seen below on the screen shot. Other than this there are pre-defined planning
application thresholds for each major clutter category (dense urban, urban, sub-urban and rural). This will
soon be updated to include 12Kb/s rural coverage as discussed earlier.

All shown here are set Globally

The following coverage schema is for use in the South East region and more specifically for planning the
coverage around the Gatwick and Heathrow express.

All shown here are set Globally

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

The following coverage schema is for use when performing analysis of drive test measurements.

All shown here are set Globally

There will be an additional schema call Marketing Levels that will include two levels. Outdoor Video with a
threshold of 106.1 dBm and Outdoor Voice that will have a threshold of 109.1 dBm. A screen shot of
these scemas is shown below.

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3.3.1.6 Predictions
There is no standard prediction size or resolution. Planner decides as appropriate. It is important to ensure
that a sufficiently large enough prediction size is used in rural areas to capture all the coverage from Rural
sites.

3.3.1.7 Coverage and Interference Arrays


Once a valid prediction has been created for a site its possible to view the extent of coverage provided by
that site. In order to create a valid coverage array the site must have the correct signal threshold set on each
cell layer.
Rule 3.9: The array boundary must be set to 115.1dBm. The Timing advance parameter must be set
to 63.
This can be set-up in the site template so that all sites have a default threshold set when they are added to
the database.
See settings below that must be un-ticked to over-ride the individual settings of the signal levels on the sites.
(ie: if the two options are un-ticked then during the coverage creation all cells will be calculated to a
threshold level of 115dBm. However, if the two options are ticked then the signal threshold applied on each
cell will be the threshold for the calculation.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Must be set
as shown
Un-Tick both to override signal
threshold level set at individual cell
level

See
comment
below.

The Subcells and Carriers option should be ticked if coverage is required to be shown only on those sites
that have carriers assigned to them.
Both options shown below must be ticked in order to generate interference arrays.

All shown here must be set as shown

3.3.2 Recommended processes


3.3.2.1 Properties and Sites creation Process
The Integrated Solution Training Manual V3.9 (2) will explain in detail how to do the following operations in
the planning tool.
Adding and deleting a property
Note that following:
Do not name any of the properties added for test purpose with an 8 digit ID. This is because it
causes conflicts with properties that are loaded into netone, (possible candidate sites) which
automatically get an eight digit number assigned to them.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Do not name the properties in the following format either, as they are the form used to name nominals. (EG:
CV1111)
Explain the differences between nominal and candidates.
Creating and deleting Nominals, assigning candidates, breaking candidate links
Adding sites/BTS
Business rules and how enterprise is linked to Netone.

3.3.2.2 Prediction and Coverage Array Creation Process


Creating Predictions:
To successfully create prediction for a site the following parameters must be assigned to a site on the site
database window.

A Model

An antenna type

Antenna height (above ground level)

PA output 22dBm (For 4 sector sites its 19dBm per cell, that has been split)

Antenna slot must be selected

Note: If any of the above parameter is changed in a site it must be re-predicted.


Once the above settings are assigned to sites predictions can be created. In the Coverage Predictor
window (as shown below) the following must be selected.

Resolution of the predictions (ie: map data resolution used for the predictions. 100m and 50m are
available for the whole country. However, 25m data are only available for major cities). If the resolution
is changed the sites must be re-predicted.

Sites needing predictions can be added to a filter or individual predictions can be done.

Its recommended as much as possible that planners should re-calculate predictions every time using the
Always option. Or this can be tried if the Only if out of date option doesnt appear to provide
acceptable results.

Once all sites are in the Coverage Predictor window click Start to create the predictions. Once
complete the Start window will be active again.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

The default prediction radius in enterprise is 10km. If this needs to be changed then the Override site
defined radius option needs to be ticked and appropriate radius selected. If the prediction radius is
changed the site must be re-predicted. The Radio Planner must be aware of the terrain that a site
occupies and if necessary increase the prediction radius. The prediction radius for rural sites should be
increased to ensure that the full extent of a sites coverage is understood and that the truncation of
predicted coverage plots is avoided.

Creating prediction for a site with UMTS_Rural model will take significantly more time than a site with
UMTS model.

Note that all predictions must be stored under D:\Prediction structure folder which must have subfolders a-z.

3.3.2.3 Neighbour planning Process


Described in section 4 of this document.

3.3.2.4 Traffic and 3G planning Process


This is described in another document (RDU-0028-01 V2.0). This document also describes the settings
required for 3G planning. All the traffic maps are stored in the local servers under the same location where
the aibackdrop (or scanmaps) are stored. The details of this can be found in the RD&T\UM&S\312
Enterprise 30421 Setting Summary document.

3.4 Carrier Distribution Strategy


This section (3.4) should be considered a planning rule (as opposed to a guideline) and must be
adhered to.

3.4.1 Background
This document describes the current requirements for site configurations and number of carriers on sites in
different clutter categories.

3.4.2 Carriers per clutter category


The frequency allocation of the FDD band allocated to Hutchison 3G is:
1920MHz 1934.9MHz base station receive and mobile station transmit
2110.3MHz 2124.9MHz base station transmit and mobile station receive
The carrier spacing can be set to between 4.6MHz 5MHz. There is a 200kHz raster in the WCDMA
system, which means the centre frequency of the carrier can be adjusted in multiples of 200kHz. The TDD
spectrum is not discussed in this document.
The Hutchison 3G spectrum allocation allows up to three FDD carriers to be deployed in the network as
shown in Figure 1. The carriers will be referred to F1, F2 and F3, where F1 is the carrier the first carrier,
closest to the 1920MHz boundary.

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F1
Macrocell

Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

F3
Macrocell
F2
Microcell

1920 MHz

1934.6 MHz
Centre
frequency

Figure 1. FDD Carriers (Base station receive/Mobile Transmit)

The table in Figure 2 shows the site configurations for the launch network and future requirements.

Clutter type

Launch site configuration


and carrier requirements

Future configuration and carrier requirements

Dense urban

2+2+2

Possible upgrade to six sector, but remain at 2


carriers per sector.

Urban

2+2+2

Possible upgrade to six sector, but remain at 2


carriers per sector

Suburban

1+1+1

Individual sites will be upgraded to 2+2+2 on a


case-by-case basis according to capacity
requirements. Some sites could also be upgraded
to six sectors.

Rural

1+1+1 or single carrier psuedo


omni

Unlikely to require any further upgrades

Figure 2. Clutter Classifications


Based on the band allocation to Hutchison 3G and the site configurations the following rules must be
adhered to:
Rule 3.10: All single carriers per sector sites must use carrier F1
Rule 3.11: All two-carrier sites will use carriers F1 and F3
Rule 3.12: Carrier F2 will be reserved for the micro cellular layer and is not to be deployed at the
macro layer
Rule 3.13: All sites carrier configurations should be based on their clutter type
It must be note that these rules ignore the current limitations of the Nokia Node Bs capacity that should be
resolved with the future release of ED2 software. Sites should still be called off according to the above rules
regardless since the Vendor will deploy the correct configurations in the future.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

4 Site Selection
Section 4 discuses some of the considerations that the Radio Planners should take into account when either
looking for sites, or when presented with possible site locations by the Acquisition Department. Potential site
locations must be selected that provide the desired coverage whilst maintaining the desired levels of quality
and capacity.

4.1 Cell Types


Self-interference is potentially a very significant problem in single frequency re-use CDMA if it is not
managed correctly by following good radio planning principles:
Particularly in Urban environments sites should NOT be chosen that have a panoramic view out to distances
way beyond nominal coverage.
Downtilt, both electrical and mechanical, must be used in Dense Urban, Urban and many Suburban
environments in order to limit the interference beyond the cells planned area. See section 5.1.4 for guidance
on tilting for coverage and capacity dependant upon clutter. Equally planners should consider uptilting if a
site is at a lower level than the target coverage area or if the Node B is in a bowl.
Rule 4.1: Urban sites should be selected so that they have antennae positioned above the mean
clutter in the area and clear of any local obstructions. (Note the term mean is approximate and refers to
what the eye sees rather than a true mean, which is overly influenced by a few skyscrapers).
Rule 4.2: Sub Urban sites should again be should be selected so that they have antennae
positioned slightly above the mean clutter and can be significantly above providing this does not
result in a clear view way beyond the cell radius and clear of any local obstructions.
Rule 4.3: Rural sites can be high providing that this increases the actual cell size but does not
cause interference into other areas within the existing or planned network and clear of any local
obstructions. What should be avoided are a few super high sites: ideally all sites in an area should end up
with similar performance. These sites must still clear the immediately surrounding clutter to provide good
performance.
Rule 4.4: Motorway, arterial route and railway coverage sites should be located at least 15m back
from the edge of the road or track and clear of any local obstructions to allow a good intra-cell
handover to take place. If 15m cannot be achieved then the site should be tagged to be part of a
retro-fit programme (the technical details of the retro-fit will follow in later editions). Mobiles passing
at speed between back-to-back cells affording route coverage cannot add the new cells into the active set in
time before BLER levels are too high. This is because the received signal strength varies greatly over a
short distance on the ground. If the site is set some distance back from the route to be covered, this
variation is softened and a successful SHO will be achieved.
Rule 4.5: Motorway sites should be designed with three sectors where possible unless local
topography dictates otherwise.
The above are however only guidelines: for instance in hilly areas general rules regarding effective antenna
height make little sense and it is necessary to look at each site and check that it covers its area effectively
whilst not having excessive signal in other cells.
Where potential sites are surrounded by trees the antenna height should selected so that there are at least 5
years growth room for the trees that surround the site. If the trees are immature and likely to grow above the
height of the antennas then the Acquisition department must ensure that there is a clause in the lease that
allows for trees to be trimmed at regular intervals.
As a guide the spreadsheet over lists the majority of larger trees and shrubs in the UK with their maximum
heights and annual growth rates so that the Radio Planner should be able to make an educated guess as to
how much the trees have to grow and/or when they will begin to interfere with the performance of the site.
Note that this is for guidance only.

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22

Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

"tree growth.xls"

It is essential that sites are selected that add value to the Network. In the past, the roll out of the network
has been acquisition led. This was essential at the time to ensure a fast roll out, whilst achieving population
targets set both internally and externally. This has resulted in some non-ideal site selection and site designs.
Rule 4.6: All Radio Planners must now take time to consider a number questions before deciding to
select a site for progression to a Technical Review.

What is the target coverage area? Where is the population centre? Is this site optimum
location for site placement?

Can the site meet the rules that apply to its clutter environment for antenna placement?

Does the site fully meet the coverage and capacity requirements as dictated by the nominal
plan for its clutter environment, and if not, is the shortfall acceptable?

Can the site do the job that it is designed to do?

Have all other better opportunities in the area been previously exhausted prior to this
option?

Is the site still required, or could the surrounding sites be adapted to meet the required
coverage requirements? (The progress of the surrounding sites must be considered before
this choice is made, if they are not Acquired with Planning it makes the decision harder.)

Does this site observe the correct amount of cell overlap?

Is it too far away from, or too close to adjacent sites such that it will cause future problems
for optimisation?

Is the selection of this site going to cause future optimisation problems?

Is the site going to generate sufficient revenue to justify its selection?

Can the site be connected to the rest of the Network within the budget? (Although a
Transmission Planning Issue it has a direct impact on site placement & therefore coverage.)

Is there an alternate option that exceeds this site in response to the above questions?

Rule 4.7: All sites will be planned with 3 sectors. Any sites that require less than 3 sectors need to
be signed off by the Regional Radio Planning Managers

4.2 Cell Overlap


Please use the above link for a complete explanation RDU-0001-00-V1.01UMTS FDD Link Budget
Rule 4.8: The amount of cell overlap for all environments must be minimised and the only cell
overlap should be the natural cell overlap for coverage reasons.

4.3 C.W. Testing


There are occasions where it is unclear to a cell planner whether installing a site in a particular location will
provide the desired level of area coverage. In this case rather than select a site and hope that it will provide
the required levels of coverage, CW measurements should be made to validate the coverage.
A detailed description of this is contained in Appendix 2.
Recommendation: If a site survey is completed and the planner feels that the radio tool is not
providing predictions with the required level of accuracy due to the terrain and clutter or due to a
traffic hot spot in an area of dubious coverage the planner should recommend a CW measurement

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

be made to the planning manager. In the case this is approved for further investigation by the
planning manager, it will be escalated to the appropriate party for further investigation.
It is expected that less than 2%-3% of the total number of sites will require CW measurements to be
performed before they can be finally selected.
Rule 4.9: In the event a planner feels that CW measurements should be made, they should file a full
written justification and return this to the planning manager. The justification must include:

Site number/identity

Date of site survey

Reason for CW measurements describe the surrounding terrain and clutter and the relevance
of the area of concern (e.g. nature of hotspot or size and type of area of concern), specifying
why CW measurements are required and which aspect of the surrounding area is leading you to
this view.

Panoramic pictures from the site of the surrounding terrain and clutter

The objective of the CW measurements is to assess the average path loss and long-term signal
fluctuations at particular locations. The CW measurements will not be required to measure anything
more.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

5 Physical Design
The roll out process from Technical Revue through to submission for planning is covered in Section 5. The
physical design of the site is most important and has a direct relationship to its own performance and the
performance of the sites around it.
The approach has been to work from the Antennas back through to the Node B itself. This includes Antenna
selection, Tilts, Health and Safety issues and ICNIRP compliance, MHAs and Feeders and cabinet
configurations.
The final part of the section also includes details on drawing checks and production of certification that is
required by both Local Planning Authorities and the Radio Communications Agency.

5.1 Antennas
5.1.1Antenna Selection
The following antennae are currently used in Enterprise. These are the Racal (Thales) Antennae.
Enterprise Name

Hei
ght
m

Gain/dB
i

Horizonta
l BW deg

Vertical
BW deg

Electrical
Tilt
Options /
deg

R2204_15.4_XP_

0.7

15.4

66.5

14

2/4/

R2209_17.7_XP_

1.3

17.7

66

6.5

2/4/6/8/10

Wei
ght

4.2
Kg

Top Fed
Electrica
l Tilt

Comment1

8/10 on hold

2/4/6/8/1
0

Default
Dense Urban

R2211_18_XP_

1.5
6

18

65

5.7

2/4

5.0
Kg

R2212_18.4_XP_

1.7

18.4

66

4.5

2/4/6/8

5.5
Kg

R2233_21_XP_

1.7

21

28.5

4.0

2/4/6

Rural road
coverage only

R2290

1.7

18.5

65

222/444/666

N/A

Any
combination

R2291

1.3

17.5

65

222/666

N/A

Any
combination

R2229_16_XP_

1.3

16

65

Variable 0 to
10 degrees

From the table above please note that the normal default antenna are:
1

See section 3.1 Antennas Radio Design Guidelines

Republic of
Ireland use
only same
application as
R2212
2/4/6/8

RRPM
approval
required

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Rule 5.1: Dense Urban 1.3m with 6 degrees of electrical tilt


Rule 5.2: All Other areas The Radio Planner should select the appropriate antenna for each cell
that achieves the coverage and capacity thresholds for the clutter environment, whilst minimising
the interference, from that cell into the surrounding cells. Exceptions to these, R2233 & R2229, are
outlined below.
Rule 5.3: The R2211 Antenna is only to be used in the Republic of Ireland in the same clutter
environments as the R2212.
Note: It has been observed from Optimisation work that the R2209 6 degree electrical tilt antenna works well
in Dense Urban environments but care needs to be taken in selection of the antennas for the sectors that
may point into these Dense Urban areas from the surrounding Urban & Suburban environments to minimise
interference. There is a definite advantage in selecting antennae that have a greater electrical downtilt than
the previous default recommendation of the R2212 2 degree electrical antennae.

5.1.2 Tilt
Appendix 3 lists technical discussion to answer the following questions:

What is the optimum tilt for coverage of a cell of a given radius for a given antenna height above
ground?

Is this tilt optimum for capacity limited cases?

The appendix lists tables for recommended tilts for coverage and capacity. These are purely
recommendations but may provide sufficient starting points for further analysis and simulation within the
planning tool.
There may be cases where a site is located in the bottom of a valley and the required population coverage is
above the boresite of the sector. In this case the antennas may be up-tilted. Obvious care must be taken to
ensure that not too much uptilt is used which results in interference outside the immediate coverage area of
the cell.
The current mechanical tilt mechanism employed by 3 is very coarse and only increments of 1 degree can
be applied to antenna through a range from 1 degree to 10 degrees.
Rule 5.4: Tilts should be achieved with electrical tilt first and then adjusting by +/- 1 degree of
mechanical tilt, ensuring that all coverage, capacity and interference limitation criteria are met.
Rule 5.5: If the above cannot be achieved, then mechanical tilts greater than 1 degree require the
approval of the Regional Radio Planning Manager.

5.1.3 Special Antennas


R2233 Antenna
Use
Rule 5.6: The R2233 Antenna is a narrow beam, high gain unit and is designed for use primarily in a
rural road environment.
Where it should NOT be used
Rule 5.7: The 2233 antenna should not be used in Towns/ Cities as it has very poor side-lobe
suppression that will cause large amounts of interference and potential handover problems. If it is
used in these environments it is likely to prove problematic during optimisation.

R2229 Antenna
These Antennas are not for general use as they are much more expensive than the fixed tilt antennas and
have poorer performance.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Rule 5.8: Use of the R2229 antennae will be on a case-by-case basis and need the Regional Radio
Planning Manager to sign off the design.
Deployment Rules

These antennas are not for general use.


This antenna is only to be used on sites that are difficult to access or where it is envisaged that there will
be a need for many site visits for tilting e.g. Face mounted antenna positions, pylons etc. The current
cost of this antenna is 320, approximately double the cost of a standard antenna, but this should be
compared to the cost of one or more visits for external rigging contractors and/or site visit supervision
for hard to access sites.
Planning Manager sign off/approval

Control box
The information from Thales is as follows:
The Variable Electrical Tilt Antenna, are controlled by a Remote Electrical Tilt Module. The RET module
makes it possible to use the Ground Interface Unit and a laptop loaded with an application to control the
electrical tilt of the antenna(s).
The RET Module attaches to the antenna and is powered by 12/24v from the Ground Interface Unit.
RET modules can be daisy chained. The RET module dimensions TBC. The daisy chain cable is
8mm and available in lengths of 300mm (three antennas in a tube), 10m, 25m and 50m for roof top
panels.
The Ground Interface unit is powered by 240v AC and converts to 12/24v for RET module, approx
size 100x124x72mm. The cable to the RET module is 8mm diameter and is available in lengths
10,20,30,40 and 50m
The RET control software is a JAVA application for Windows 2000/NT/XP. The computer running this
application should be attached to the Ground Interface Unit via an RS232 sub miniature D-type
male-female 'file transfer' cable (not supplied)
The ground interface units will not be deployed with each site but will be held separately in a central location
since it can be taken to site and plugged in to remotely tilt the antenna. Since the cost of each RET box is
200 per antenna this is most economical use of this system.
This antenna could be used to great effect on sites that use GRP shrouding to disguise the antennas but it
must be remembered that these antennas have a lower gain and higher vertical beamwidth than the
standard range of antennas available.

5.1.4 Antenna Orientations


The majority of sites will comprise of 3 sectors with each sector using a X-polar antenna. Standard
orientations shall be 0, 120 and 240 degrees.
Rule 5.9: Standard orientations of 0, 120 & 240 degrees should be used wherever possible.
Rule 5.10: If standard orientations cannot be maintained then the angles between sectors should
still maintain 120 degrees of separation wherever possible. This allows the coverage from all three
sectors and the SHO gains to be maximised.
Rule 5.11: Any sectors that have less than, or more than 120 degrees of separation require Regional
Radio Planning Manager sign off.
Rule 5.12: The minimum angle between sectors shall be 90 degrees. (This applies to our entire range of
65-degree horizontal b/w antenna and also the 2233)
Rule 5.13: Sector orientations shall be identified in the following way:
Sector A falls between 301 to 060 Degrees
Sector B - falls between 061 to 180 Degrees
Sector C falls between 181 to 300 Degrees
If there is more than one antenna within the same 120-degree arc then please use numbers to follow
the letters, i.e.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Antenna at 310 = A1
Antenna at 050 = A2
Rule 5.14: Once a sector has been named within the above guidelines that sector should not be
renamed post-call off for any reason. For example if a sector is identified as 01234567A because it has
a bearing of 50 degrees but is then re-orientated post-integration to a bearing of 65 degrees, as a result of
optimisation, it remains as 01234567A and not 01234567B1, nor does 01234567B become 01234567B2.
This is because of the way the sector is identified on the network for datafill and neighbour purposes.

Antenna Heights
Antennas should be positioned so that they provide efficient coverage whilst minimizing interference.
Rule 5.15: All antenna heights will refer to the measurement taken from the bottom of the antenna.
This applies to both Asset and on drawings.

5.1.5 Antenna Azimuth Beamwidth & Elevation Pattern


These were chosen for optimum sector coverage without excessive handoff. The detail of which can be
found in Appendix 3.

5.1.6 Monopoles
Rule 5.16: All antennae used on a monopole will have a fixed angle between sectors of 120 degrees.
This can be reduced if mounting brackets allow, but not below 90 degrees as previously stated.
Note: Mechanical down tilt maybe used on a Monopole providing that brackets are adjusted in the vertical
plane to achieve the required tilt. If the required tilt is reached with the nearest electrical tilt 1 degree of
mechanical tilt should be achievable. Note if the monopole is shrouded it will be a lot harder to achieve a
mechanical tilt on all three sectors due to the lack of space under the shroud.
Different antennae types can be used for different sectors.

5.1.7 Flagpoles
Rule 5.17: All antennae used on a flagpole will have a fixed angle between sectors of 120 degrees.
Rule 5.18: No mechanical down tilt maybe used on a Flagpole.
Rule 5.19: Only R2290 and R2291 antennae can be used on flagpoles, and all antennae must be the
same in each Flagpole.
Note: Different electrical down tilts can be used for different sectors, but different antenna types. It is
possible to place a single or two sectors only within a flagpole for site providers that may insist on flagpoles
on a site that would be best designed with multiple sectors, e.g. around a particularly large rooftop, but this is
an expensive option and should be avoided wherever possible.

5.1.8 Four Antennas on a 3 sector site


There may be cases where an antenna supporting structure dictates that one of the sectors may need to
use two antennas to ensure that the coverage and handover requirements are met e.g. A square church
tower.
A more detailed description is contained in Appendix 3 including creation in Asset.
Which sectors should be split? This must be chosen according to the coverage needs since the split sectors
do offer less coverage. However, if possible, it is preferred that the two split sectors are diametrically
opposed so that no interference occurs between them (although at the expense of extra soft handover).

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Optimisation has shown that sometimes the sectors perform better if they are actually adjacent. It is
essential that a site that has 4 antennae across 3 sectors should be driven extensively post-integration to
determine which method is best suited for splitting the sector.
Note: That splitting the sectors has an impact on the neighbour planning for the split sector and care should
be taken in selecting neighbours so as not to exceed the limits for the cell. In addition the slit sector will be
seen in areas where it is not expected and if not neighboured correctly will act as an interferer.
These two sectors are
the split pair by choice

5.1.9 GRP Shrouding


Public Opinion of telecommunication installations has shifted in recent times, and Local Planning Authorities
are more aware of this opinion than they have been in the past. As a result 3 is designing a number sites
using GRP shrouding that is camouflaged to match the surrounding structures of antenna positions.
These solutions are expensive but often allow 3 to acquire and build sites in difficult areas, but they should
only be used when all other alternatives have been exhausted. This is because once built they are difficult to
revisit to audit antenna and rigging installation or optimise with antenna swap outs, tilts or pans.
Rule 5.20: The Radio Planner responsible for the site must ensure that they achieve the optimum
electrical and mechanical tilt and bearing before the GRP shrouding is installed.
In addition the antenna is best placed such that it is close to the GRP material, and as perpendicular to the
face as can be possibly achieved, thus reducing losses through the material. Wherever possible joints and
seems in the material should not be placed in front of the antenna since the bonding and jointing methods
used can effectively double the thickness of the material and increases the attenuating effects that it has on
the RF energy emitted from the antenna. This equally applies to any metal supporting structures that may
cause near field interference.

5.1.10 Interference Analysis when selecting Antennas & bearings


It is essential when selecting the Antennae used on a site, their height and bearing that the Radio Planner
takes into consideration more than just the coverage requirements of a site.
It is quite easy to attain the coverage requirements of a site with our existing range of Antennae, but due to
the nature of WCDMA, and its sensitivity to self-interference, we need to be more aware of the effects that
the RF emitted from a site has on the surrounding sites in the immediate area and also on the cell edge. The
aim is to minimize the C/I throughout the network to maximize capacity and Ue performance.
The Radio Planner must also take into account what the effect of introducing a site may have on the
dominance of sectors that surround that sector and vice versa. There is little point in introducing coverage
into an area if it has a detrimental effect on the dominance of surrounding sites. If a sector does not have
any dominance then it will not take any traffic, and therefore not generate any revenue, the aim is to balance
the dominance between facing and adjacent sectors so that they all carry equal amounts of traffic and share
capacity.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Both of these issues can be simulated in Asset and the methodology for this is outlined in the document
RD&T\UM&S\024 Instructions for Interference Analysis using Enterprise 3.4.12. Whilst it is acknowledged
that these are simulations based on a planning tool they still give a good initial basis for antenna selection
and bearing, to this should be added the Radio Planners local knowledge of the area, panoramic photos and
any existing drive test results from the area that may help.
Rule 5.21 Radio Planners will complete an interference analysis study for each site to select the
optimum antenna selection, tilt and bearing

5.2 Separations
The Inter-Operator Antenna Forum (IOAF) has accepted that isolations should be based on existing
equipment specification. Therefore a total isolation of some 42 dB is required.

Any 2G to 3G antennae, or 3G to 3G antennae:


Scenario

Minimum Distance

Antenna beams facing each other

50m

(Or located where they could be panned so that they do face


each other)

(See note 1 below)

GSM Omni facing 3 Sector antenna

35m
(See note 2 below)

Antenna on same face and on the same horizontal

1.5m

(With beams parallel or diverging)

(See note 3 below)

Antenna one above the other

1.0m

(With beams in any direction)

(See note 4 below)

Note 1
Rule 5.22: An antenna separation distance of 50m should be achieved between Operators if at all
possible where antennae face each other but may be reduced based on the information below.
This lower figure may be available if the planner can orientate the antennas such that a difference of some
45 degrees exists between the facing sectors.
Rule 5.23: The absolute minimum distance between Operators antennas facing each other, but
offset by 45 degrees, is 16m.
Once the distance drops below 50m it is possible that additional filtering will need to be added to the 2G
Site.

Note 2
Rule 5.24: The distance of 35m should be achieved if at all possible between a 2g operators Omni
antennae and a sector antennae belonging to 3, as this distance will guarantee that no additional filters
will be required.
Rule 5.25: The absolute minimum distance between a 2g operators Omni antennae and a sector
antennae belonging to 3 shall be 11m
Note 3
Rule 5.26: 1.5m separation should be achieved if at all possible between Operators antennae on the
same horizontal face.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Rule 5.27: A distance of 1.0m can be used as an agreed compromise between Operators antennae
on the same horizontal face.
Note 4
Rule 5.28: A 1.0m vertical separation should be the target distance between Operators antennae
Rule 5.29: An absolute minimum of 0.5m of vertical separation between Operators antennae can be
used if absolutely necessary
If a sites has to use any distance less than those shown in blue above then please make a not of
this as some remedial action may be required at some future date
For TETRA equipment please use the guidelines above. It is believed there are no specific interference
issues regarding TETRA transmitters. However, until more information is available please use the guidelines
as per any other GSM operator.
Rule 5.30: If there is any Operators within 50m of the 3 Cell then this information must be entered on
the Site Survey Form.
This will be used to track cell performance and ensure there is no interference issue post integration.

5.3 Health and Safety


A more detailed description of the Heath and Safety requirements is contained in Appendix 3 and in the
documents detailed in the table below.
Related documents
Title

File Reference

FEI MTAC RFCG document 28-2000 version


2.0-2002

\\h3gshfp1\h3g\Network_Rollout\Radio
Emissions Compliance\FEI MTAC RFCG doc.
28-2000 v2-2002 Feb 18.pdf

RF compliance assessment criteria document


49-2001

\\h3gshfp1\h3g\Network_Rollout\Radio
Emissions
Compliance\RF
Compliance
assessment criteria 49-2001.doc

Radio Emissions Compliance V3.2

\\h3gshfp1\h3g\Network_Rollout\Radio
Emissions Compliance\ Radio Emissions
Compliance - ver 3.2.pdf

Base Station Equipment Pack 1.5

\\h3gshfp1\h3g\Network_Rollout\Radio
Emissions
Compliance\
Base
Station
Equipment Pack 1.5.pdf

It has been agreed at the Inter-operator forums that all sites designed by an operator will be compliant with
the FEI guidelines FEI/MTAC/RFCG/28/2000 and 49/2001.
There are two main objectives to ensuring that a site is safe by design:

That all members of the public cannot be exposed to power densities in excess of the ICNIRP Public
emission guidelines.

That all workers (operator employees, tower/building maintenance staff and others) cannot be
exposed to power densities in excess of the ICNIRP Occupational emission guidelines.

Radio Emissions Compliance V3.2 defines what is public and occupational area within a site design annals
the three types of access: Controlled, Restricted and General Public Access.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

5.3.1 Access
In summary antennas should not be located in the following positions dependant upon access:
Controlled:
All H3G antennas must be positioned so that the ICNIRP occupation exclusion zone does not block or
extend onto the major access routes of the structure. In the case of lattice masts or towers, the access route
within the mast to tower must meet ICNIRP occupational limitations.

Restricted:
The antennas should be installed whenever practical as per the Safe by Design criteria.
For sites where the Safe by Design criteria is not practical or possible one needs to demarcate the
occupational exclusion zone with painted lines or a physical barrier. Warning signage must be placed at the
boundary edge as well.
General Public:
All transmit antennas must meet the 'Safe by Design criteria with respect to the INCIRP public exposure
limitations or
A physical barrier placed at the edge of the public exposure exclusion zone will need to be erected with the
proper signage in place.
Balconies are considered as public access areas and subject to normal general public guidelines.

5.3.2 Safe by Design


Effectively, the Safe by Design term refers to the placement of the antennas in such a manner that the
occupational or public exclusion zone (whichever is relative) is not breached without the use of climbing aids
by an individual during the normal practice of their work or presence. Hence, the antenna exclusion zones
are designed to be beyond the standing areas of the structure. It is important to also consider building
maintenance personnel as well in site design and exposure, especially in the case of window cleaning
baskets that are often accessed from rooftops.
In some situations where there is limited space available, the site may not meet these criteria. If this is the
case, then the exclusion zones will be either delineated or physically barred from access.
Rooftop Classification
All rooftops are designated as non-public or occupational areas owing to the inherent dangers. The rooftop
will only be designated a public area if all UK building codes relative to public areas elevated beyond a
specified height have been implemented. Access to occupational areas should be controlled or restricted by
the use of locked doorways, hatches or ladders.
Rule 5.31: All sites should be Safe by Design and therefore ICNIRP compliant.
Side Mounted Antennas Near Windows
One needs to take special care when selecting the location of the antennas on the building faade.
Orientation and Tilt Limitations
Rule 5.32: Using the worst-case beam width, the angle from the perpendicular of the building faade
should not exceed 25. The tilt (mechanical + electrical) cannot exceed 16. Keeping within these
two limitations, the antenna can be placed 0.5 metres horizontally and 0.3 metres vertically from a
window.
Opening Window?
Rule 5.33: If the window can opened, and one is able to reach outside then the distance from the
window to the antenna should exceed 1.0 metre (average arm length).

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Streetworks
Rule 5.34: The minimum base height of a Streetworks antenna should be 6.2 metres above ground
level to allow for passing traffic.
The Radio Planner must be aware of differences in ground height between mast position and street level.
Vehicles or pedestrians could breach the Exclusion Zone if the site is close to a bridge or a road that is built
up to a greater height relative to the base of the mast.
Rule 5.35: The antennas of the streetworks site must be a minimum of three metres away from all
other standing structures.
Conditional Compliance
There may be a case where the site does not meet the worst-case public exposure compliance distances
outlined in Document RFCG 49/2001. For these sites additional approval is required from the National
Compliance Manager or if unavailable the Regional Radio Planning Manager.
Rule 5.36: All conditional compliance to ICNIRP public exposure requires the approval of the
National Compliance Manager or, if unavailable, the Regional Radio Planning Manager. The
conditional compliance will be duly noted within NETONE. Eventually, there will be a specific field
within NEP that will capture this event.

5.3.3 Horizontal Bore-Sight Distance


If the location is a share site then an evaluation will need to establish whether or not the antennas are within
the bore-sight distance. The horizontal separation distances are listed in Appendix 3. A better example and
diagram is detailed in Radio Emissions Compliance V3.2.
Rule 5.37: If a separation distance of greater than 5m can be maintained between 3 antennas and
other operators antennas then there is no requirement to extend the horizontal bore-sight limit
distance.
If the General Arrangement Drawing has been approved, by all parties, and the site is deemed as Safe by
Design then the ICNIRP certificate can be issued and signed by the Regional Radio Planning Manager, or
an appointed deputy.
Rule 5.38: All sites must have a signed ICNIRP certificate before they are submitted to the Local
Planning Authority for planning permission.

5.3.4 Radio Communication Agency Emission Certification


All sites must be submitted to the Radio Communication Agency for certification to ensure that the emissions
conform to the limits set out in 3s licence, and also so that they can be entered into the RAs public
database. To comply with this the radio Planner must populate some basic information in the Details Tab
part of the individual site. (See screen shot over.) The information required is:

The ground height above mean sea level

The base height of the tower above ground level

The overall height of the structure above ground level

An explanation of the heights required, are contained in the embedded PDF file below.

Adobe Acrobat
Document

All sites are submitted nationally once they have been Acquired with Planning. The completed certificates
are then returned to the Regional Radio Planning Managers for inclusion in the site packs.

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Rule 5.39: Radio Communications Agency site clearance data must be entered into NETONE. The
relevant fields can be found by clicking on the Details tab for the SiteID.

5.4 Feeder types and loss:


Rule 5.40: As a general rule of thumb, the signal attenuation through the feeder run on a sector
should be limited to approx 2dB.
Although we are to deploy MHAs to assist in the up-link it is believed we will, in the near future, become
downlink limited. Therefore there is still need to keep the feeder loss to a minimum and the following
guidelines must be adhered to.
Rule 5.41: The following feeder types should be used for the following lengths of feeder:
Up to 35m use LDF5-50 feeder.
Over 40m use LDF7-50 feeder (when taking into account tails etc LDF6-50 never gives benefit!)
If the feeder length is between 35m & 40m then the selection of feeder type will be decided by
factors such as bend radius, ease of installation etc.
Rule 5.42: Feeder runs that exceed 70m must be referred to the Regional Radio Planning Manager.
The Radio Planner should seek advice if the 35m thresholds are broken. Should it be shown that this applies
to many sites then this view may be revised?
However there are manufacturer specifics, which need to be taken into account if longer or different feeders
are to be used and also these may impact the number of feeders!
E.g. Nokia has excess RF power capability and thus the uplink feeder loss is not so important.

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E.g. Nokias first Mast Head Amp has very low gain and thus the Rx feeder loss is still of importance.
E.g. Nokia can use 2 x Xpolar antennas thus requiring four feeders however two can be higher loss smaller
cable and can use small cheaper connectors.
All macro sites will incorporate Rx diversity from day one. This is provided by the deployment of DualPolarised antenna. It is not proposed to use space-diversity initially although there is the possibility of using
additional techniques, for example the Nokia Smart Radio Concept.
However whilst Transmit diversity will be added later (indeed on day one we may have tri-sector Rx and
omni Transmit) all sites should be fed to permit full two-way Transmit diversity.
Rule 5.43: All streetworks sites must use LDF5-50 due to the limitations of the internal dimensions
of the pole. As a result Cabinets should be located as close as possible to the pole to reduce the
feeder run.
A distance of 15m between the cabinet location and the streetworks pole is acceptable. Additional
consideration must also be made for the MHAs that are located at the base of the pole in a separate
cabinet.
Tails

Tails are used in some sites between the main feeder cable and the MHAs and cabinet where LDF7-50 is
used or where bend radii restrict the use of LDF5-50, and also between the antennas and the MHAs.
The contractor shall specify the jumper tail length (max 3m of FSJ4-50) after the initial site and tower survey,
unless otherwise specified by Hutchison 3g. Only Hutchison 3g specified jumper tails can be used.

Rule 5.44: If a rigging sub-contractor needs to exceed the standard tail lengths then the company
concerned has to submit a concession form for the agreement and signature of the Radio Planner
for that particular site following approval from the Regional Radio Planning Manager.

5.5 Masthead Amplifiers


5.5.1 Basics
Detailed analysis of MHA performance is contained in Appendix 3 of this document.
Rule 5.45: All 3 Sites will be fitted with a MHA from day one. These are to be placed as close as
possible to the antenna. There may be case for exceptions e.g. Streetworks

5.5.2 Conclusions
In coverage terms MHAs give very significant range advantages reducing the number of sites required by
30-40%. This advantage can be retained if capacity limitations in a mature network are overcome using a
microcell layer in addition to the original macrocell layer. MHA benefit is lost if cell splitting is used to
increase capacity.
Rule 5.46: MHAs should be located as close as possible to the antenna position to gain maximum
benefit.

5.5.3 MHA Omission


MHAs may not be used on certain non-standard installations. These are outlined in RD&T\UD\399 Guidance
for Omission of MHA Cabinet and Appendix 3. These rules apply to Streetworks sites only.
To minimise losses, LDF550 feeders run direct from the antennas to the MHAs and from the MHAs to the
Node B or Node B jumper. For the Nokia streetworks solution, no Node B jumpers are used, as the LDF550
is able to run direct to the Node B antenna ports. NEC 2nd Platform sites use short, factory-made FSJ450
jumpers (0.3 and 0.5m) between the LDF550 and the Node B.
The following losses can be assumed for feeders and connectors used on streetworks sites.

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LDF550

1.86dB/100m*

Field-fitted connection (two parts)

0.15dB to 0.5dB**

Factory-made jumper (0.5m)

0.08dB

The MHA provides maximum benefit when placed close to the antennas. As the distance between the MHAs
and the antennas increases, the benefit provided by the MHA decreases.
Results show that the best improvement offered by the MHA is 0.42dB. The improvement is small for the
following reasons:

Because the MHA is placed so close to the Node B, the feeder loss after the MHA is small and
consequently the benefit provided by the MHAs will be minimal.

If the MHA cabinet is omitted on a streetworks site, the total loss between antenna and Node B will
be small due to:

Short feeder runs between antenna and Node B (i.e. 15 to 18m).

LDF550 runs direct from the antenna to within 0.5m of the Node B antenna port.

Very low-loss factory-made jumpers are used for NEC streetworks, and none are used for Nokia.

This small improvement in system noise figure is offset by the drawbacks of working with the MHA
cabinet.

Conditions for omitting the MHA cabinet


Rule 5.47: The following conditions must be met if the MHA cabinet is to be omitted on streetworks
sites:

Omission of the MHA cabinet will ease planning approval or improve relations with the
planning authority

The Node B is placed within 5m of the foot of the pole

Total feeder length (including tails) does not exceed 20m

LDF550 feeders run direct from the antennas to within 0.5m of the Node B antenna ports

FSJ450 factory-made jumpers of 0.5m or less are used to connect the LDF550 feeder to the
Node B

The MHA cabinet can be omitted from streetworks sites provided the above conditions are met.
Rule 5.48: There is no justification for removing MHA cabinets from sites that have already been
built. If planning has been submitted with an MHA cabinet and an MHA cabinet has been ordered
then the site design should not be changed.

5.6 Available Node B Configurations


There are 8 defined configurations for each manufacturer and each of these can be indoor or outdoor. The
configuration name is A for indoor, B for outdoor.

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The configurations and their usage is defined below:


Type
Indoor or Outdoor
Area
Type of Node-B
Configuration
No. of E1 Link reqd
NEC PA Type
NEC No. of PA per Sector
No. of CE NEC
No. of CE Nokia
Nokia Power per carrier
Nokia Site Support cab

1
2
either
either
DU/Urban Sub-urban
Macro
Macro
2+2+2
1+1+1
3
2
2RF-MCPA
SCPA
2
1
192
120
192
128
10
20
Yes
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

3
either
Rural
Macro
1+1+1
1
SCPA
1
72
64
20

4
either
Roads
Macro
1+1+0
1
SCPA
1
48
64
20

5
either
Other
Macro
1+0+0
1
SCPA
1
48
32
20

6
either
Other
Macro
1+1+0
2
SCPA
1
120
128
20

No

No

No

No

No

7
8
either
either
Other
Other
Macro
Macro
2+0+0
2+2+0
2
2
2RF-MCPA 2RF MCPA
2
2
144
144
128
128
20
10
?

Yes

Standard trisector for all Urban environments


Standard trisector for all sub-Urban environments
Standard trisector for all Rural environments
Bi-sector for rural environments or road coverage
Low capacity single sector (suitable for rural and suburban)
High capacity bisector eg for heavy roads or in suburban environments when a bisector is needed
very High capacity omni or single sector eg for intense hot spots such as star house!
Urban bisector included to permit two carrier bi sector coverage if needed.

NOTE types 5,6,7&8 should all be very rare.


Note the capacity of config 6 is similar to Urban but on one carrier
After early 02 Nokia will supply a different configuration for rural. It will need to be given a new name at least so that the config is known.

[The number of CEs in the table is a measure of the number of channels that can be supported]

Where these configurations apply


As described in the above table the different configurations should be chosen according to the environment
i.e. Urban (including Dense Urban), Suburban, rural. These definitions are outlined in section 4 of this
document.
The first 3 configurations are the normal tri-sector sites for these environments.
Where these configurations apply

A more definitive description of where should be treated as Urban Suburban and Rural will be produced in
the near future. In the interim they should continue to be defined by Richard Stevens Environment Flag
Setting document. However there should be some sanity checking of the resultant types:
Rule 5.49:
1) Where possible urban coverage should be kept contiguous i.e. there shouldnt be isolated
Suburban sites within an urban area.
2) Some towns may be defined as Urban when they clearly are not as Urban as city centres.
This should be avoided.
Rule 5.50: It is the densest sector that defines the configuration i.e. if one sector is clearly urban the
whole site will be urban regardless of other sectors.
Roads:
In general roads should be covered by type 4 configuration except where much heavier traffic is anticipated
(e.g. the road is in an area of high population, suburban or urban) when type 6 is applicable.
Other bisectors/single sectors
Obviously the norm is to use tri-sectors but where necessary types 4-8 can be used as bi sectors or single
sectors, according to the descriptions at the bottom of the table above. Note that if the surrounding sites are

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two carrier so should single and bi sectors. Type 7 can also be used for very intense hot spots where a
single sector is required (e.g. star house.)
Notes
1) All configurations use masthead amplifiers.
2) The Nokia outdoor unit is the 1.2 cubic Metre Optima Compact and types 1,8 also require site support
cabins (0.8 cubic metres). (Type 7 will probably require site support cabins but this is still being ascertained.)
3) The NEC outdoor unit is the same in all environments and is 2.09 m3
4) In future Years Suburban sites will need to expand physically to give higher capacity. (This is not a shortterm requirement). Therefore space for expansion at a much later date is a good feature of a site.

Selection of Configurations in Enterprise


The Node B type needs to be set in Enterprise using the following flags (these are key to ensuring that the
correct node B configuration is called off from the vendor):
On the site installation tab of the site in the site database set
Cabin: to indoor or outdoor
Site equipment: to the relevant type as described above
The vendor is selected under the site status flags vendor and set to NEC or Nokia
Screenshots of these settings are shown in Appendix 3

5.7 Expandability
If the site put forward for acquisition is identified as a likely high capacity site then the process adopted
should be one of expandability.
The concept of future-proofing as much as possible may well remove the need of an additional cell.

5.7.1 Cabins - Dimensions and Position


A small cabin should not be installed if it is probable that a large one will be required in the near future. This
is due in no small part to not only to the expense but also the avoidance of more road closures (rooftop
cabins) than necessary.
In addition the lease should allow the possibility of expansion although of course this is subject to physical
space being available in the first place. (i.e. antenna/dish numbers etc)
Obviously similar issues exist for cabins that are placed on the ground although the process is likely to
somewhat easier.

5.7.2 Internal Equipment Rooms - Dimensions


If at all possible internal equipment rooms in the dense/urban areas should be able to cope with some
expansion.
Of course exact dimensions will depend upon the vendor chosen. This information will be added to the
document as soon as possible. However the information below can be used as a guide until more
information is known.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Nokia

Microsoft Excel
Worksheet

Microsoft Excel
Worksheet

5.8 Drawings
Rule 5.51: The Radio Planner must check all issues of General Arrangement and Detail Design
drawings for the sites that they are responsible for. They should check for the following details:

Antenna position is correct for all sectors

Antenna bearing are correct for all sectors

Antenna height is correct for all sectors (All antenna heights will refer to the measurement
taken from the bottom of the antenna.)

Antenna type is correct for all sectors in the Antenna/Feeder Block

Once confirmed as correct Antenna heights need to be fed back into Asset to ensure correct
coverage prediction

There is no near field interference from any object either existing or as a result of 3
installation work e.g. supporting steelwork or microwave dishes or other operators
installations in the case of site shares or shared rooftops

MHA position is shown on detailed design

Feeder routing is as agreed at the technical review

Feeder routing permits correct bend radii to be maintained

Feeder length is correct, as measured at the technical review

Feeder type is as expected and is correct for the feeder length

Once feeder types and lengths are agreed details should be entered into Asset and NEP for
call offs, this includes tails and MHAs

The compass North Point is pointing in the correct direction, as measured at the technical
review

All sectors are labelled correctly

All antennae are positioned such that no ICNIRP regulations are breached (See section 3.3)

Cabinet position and orientation is as agreed on Technical Review

If the Radio Planner is satisfied with all of the above then they should sign the drawing approval signature
block and issue the ICNIRP documentation for signature by the Regional Radio Planning Manager, or an
appointed stand in.

5.9 ICNIRP certificate


As previously discussed ICNIRP certification must be issued for all sites that are submitted to the Local
Planning Authority, regardless of what type of planning permission is being sought.
The forms embedded below are self-explanatory.

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There are separate certification forms for Scotland and Northern Ireland due to subtle differences in
Planning Application Rules.

"Emissions Estimator
"Emissions Estimator
"Emissions Estimator
& Planning Application v5.0.xls"
& Planning Application v5.1 &
NI.xls"
Planning Application v5.5 Scotland.xls"

In summary the Radio Planner must select the Nominal & Site id, the address, NGRs and Drawing Number
and issue number for the General Arrangement drawing that is compliant; as well as the antenna type,
height, tilt and number of carriers for each sector on the Data Entry sheet. These then populate the other
sheets in the spreadsheet and are also used in calculating the relevant field strengths for each sector.
The Planning Application Coverage Sheet is a screen dump from Enterprise. The methodology for creating
this is outline in section 1.3 (?).
In addition the Planner must populate the 3 Office address and the relevant Local Planning Authority
address in the Certificate sheet. Finally this is presented to the Regional Radio Planning Manager for
checking and signature.
Telstra Plots

In some exceptional cases Local Planning Authorities or Site Providers may request a TELSTRA plot. These
are more in depth emissions plots that are created using additional software that is installed on Senior Radio
Planners workstations, Radio planning Managers computers and Community Affair Managers computers.
Any requests for TELSTRA plots should be made to these individuals who are trained in how to use the
application. The plots, once created, will be sent to the National Compliance Manager for approval and
conversion to pdf format.

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6 Performance Checks
The next stage that the Radio Planner has any major involvement with one of their sites is post-rigging
complete. This is the next stage in the evolution of the site where the designs chosen as a result of the
guidelines in section 5 have been physically implemented.
This is the last opportunity that the Radio Planner has to correct any problems that may have arisen before
the site is allowed to go live. The result of checks carried out in this section and recommendations made
should be that when the site is debarred it has the maximum impact on coverage capacity and quality
combined with the minimum impact on interference.
This section includes rigging checks, neighbour generation and single site verification.

6.1 Rigging Checks


A lot of fundamental problems with sites can be discovered prior to any drive testing or optimisation work by
carrying out some fundamental quality checks of the physical rigging on site and also the rigging results that
are returned by the rigging contractors to 3 in the Provisional Acceptance Packs in most cases, or in the
Final Acceptance Packs for some MSA companies.

6.1.1 Physical Site Checks


Currently the physical checking of rigged sites has not being carried out by any personnel from 3, as part of
a National strategy. This will change in the near future. In the mean time it is proposed that the Radio
Planner should take on responsibility for carrying out these check, providing that they are suitably qualified
and supervised on site as per company H&S climbing policy currently owned by Operations. Some MSA
providers may request additional qualifications and registration before a site can be accessed.
Rule 6.1: Construction controllers will be carrying out rigging checks on a site, the following must
be checked, and it is the Radio Planners responsibility to work closely with Construction to ensure
all the required checks are carried out:

The antenna type is as per the latest issued version of the call off form issued to the vendor
or MSA rigging contractor

The feeder type and length is as per the latest issued version of the call off form

Feeders are labelled correctly

Feeders are not crossed between the Node B cabinets and the MHAs, and are not crossed
between the MHAs and the Antennas

The antenna height, position, mechanical tilt and bearing are all correct

The MHAs have been located as close to the antenna as possible, as per detailed design

All joints in the feeder have been waterproofed in line with 3 rigging design guidelines

The tails used are of the correct length and do not exceed the 2m pre-cut length unless a
certificate of non-conformance has been signed by the Radio Planner

The feeder is not damaged throughout its length, and supported in line with the rigging
design guidelines

The bend radii for the feeder type has not been exceeded

LDF 550 1cm in 25cm

LDF 750 - 2cm in 51cm

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

There is no obstruction in the near or far field of the antenna that may disrupt the antenna
pattern to cause reflection or shadowing

Rule 6.2: All Radio Planners should return to their sites post-rigging complete prior to integration
to familiarise themselves with the actual physical layout and the actual view from behind each
antenna.

6.1.2 Rigging Results


All sites that have been rigged, regardless of rigging contractor, have a series of tests carried out on them
prior to final termination at the Node B cabinet that ensure that they comply to the standards set out in 3s
Rigging design Guidelines as a minimum.
The purpose of the vendor/rigging contactor supplying rigging results, is to enable fault detection by the
Radio Planner. In theory the rigging contractor should not leave site if any of the results are not within
specification. The purpose of the Radio Planner checking the results, is as follows:

As a quality check on the rigging contractor.

As a means of accurately determining feeder lengths.

The acceptance of these results does have contractual implications

The cells performance is not reduced as a result of poor rigging

The Results supplied by the Vendor, are obtained using a Site Master tool, and should contain the following
information:

A hard copy front cover sheet, with a summary of all the results.

Hard copy of all graphs.

Soft copy of the Site Master database.

The radio planner will require the Site Master software to be installed to look at the softcopy results.
Feeder length

This is obtained, by using the Site Masters Distance To Fault (DTF) function. The feeders are disconnected
from the MHA, and a reading obtained. The fault (open circuit at end of feeder, or short circuit load) should
be clearly seen on the results as a spike. The length of the feeder corresponds directly to the distance to
fault.

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D is ta n c e -to - fa u lt
M 0001H A 0PD TF

M 1 : -.5 4 d B @ 2 0 .1 6 M e te r

-1 0

dB

-2 0

-3 0

-4 0

-5 0

M 1

0 .0

2 .5

5 .0

7 .5

R e s o lu tio n : 1 3 0
B ia s T e e : O F F
D a te :
M o d e l: S 2 5 1 A

1 0 .0
1 2 .5
1 5 .0
1 7 .5
D is ta n c e ( 0 .0 - 2 5 .0 M e te r )
C A L : O N (C O A X )
O u tp u t P o w e r : 6 .0 0 d B m
T im e :
S e ria l # : 0 0 9 2 9 0 8 3

2 0 .0

2 2 .5

2 5 .0

C W : O FF
I n s .L o s s :0 .0 0 0 d B /m
P r o p .V e l: 0 .8 9 0

In this example, the feeder length is slightly over 20m. Note: if tails are used, these will be visible as small
spikes about 2m from either end of the main feeder.
Feeder loss

This is calculated in a similar way, shorting the feeder at one end, and measuring the total loss. This value
has to be halved to obtain the true value of loss for the feeder. There is scope for confusion here, as the
Site Master operator should halve the value when entering it into the cover sheet. Any confusion can be
resolved by looking at the graph, which contains the raw data.

R e tu rn L o ss

M 0001H A 0PM FSC

M 1 : -2 .1 1 d B @ 1 9 2 0 .0 0 M H z

M 2 : -2 .1 5 d B @ 1 9 3 5 .0 0 M H z

M 3 : -2 .1 9 d B @ 2 1 1 0 .0 0 M H z

M 4 : -2 .2 1 d B @ 2 1 2 5 .0 0 M H z

-1

L im it : - 2 . 1 3 4

dB

-2

-3

-4
M 1

M 2

M 3

M 4

-5
1925

R e s o lu tio n : 1 3 0
B ia sT e e : O F F
D a te :
M o d e l: S 2 5 1 A

1950

1975

2000
2025
2050
2075
F r e q u e n c y ( 1 9 1 5 .0 - 2 1 3 0 .0 M H z )
C A L : O N (C O A X )
O u tp u t P o w e r: 6 .0 0 d B m
T im e :
S e ria l # : 0 0 9 2 9 0 8 3

In this example the feeder loss is 2.1dB divided by 2 = 1.05dB.

2100

2125

CW : O FF

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The loss should be calculated using a line of best fit through the results, as a ripple occurs due to the
sweep generator in the Site Master tool.
As a rule of thumb, the feeder (and associated connectors) losses should not exceed 2.5dB. However the
Radio Planner need to use some common sense in this area. Clearly a short 10m run of LDF 5-50 feeder
should not have a loss of nearly 3 dB and there is obviously something wrong. Likewise, any exceptionally
long runs of LDF 7-50 with tails, may have slightly higher values, but this would be expected.

Loss values for feeders are:


LDF 4-50 (similar to FSJ4 Tails) 0.1125dB/m
LDF 5-50 0.0646dB/m
LDF 7-50 0.0404dB/m
Connector loss should be no more than dB Max.

Note values for feeders of equal length, following similar routes (e.g. monopoles) should be almost identical.
Any significant differences could indicate that a feeder has been kinked during installation.

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System return loss

This is similar to VSWR, only measured in dB. The antennas are reconnected and a small signal is injected
into the feeder at the node b end, and any reflected power (from poor connectors, poorly match or faulty
antennas, or damaged feeders) is measured. The acceptable level for system return loss is 15.5dB or
greater (more negative). This has to be measured in the uplink (1920-1935MHz), and downlink (22102225MHz) bands, because of the effects of the MHAs. Likewise, the MHAs need to have a remote power
source during this measurement, or a false reading will be obtained.

R e tu rn L o ss
M 0001H A 0PSR L

M 1 : - 2 1 .4 1 d B @ 1 9 2 0 .0 0 M H z

M 2 : -2 4 .2 9 d B @ 1 9 3 5 .0 0 M H z

M 3 : - 3 2 .0 4 d B @ 2 1 1 0 .0 0 M H z

M 4 : -2 2 .9 7 d B @ 2 1 2 5 .0 0 M H z

-1 0
L im it : -1 5 .6

dB

-2 0

-3 0

-4 0

-5 0

M 1

1925

M 2

M 3

1950

1975

R e s o lu tio n : 1 3 0
B ia s T e e : O F F
D a te :
M o d e l: S 2 5 1 A

2000
2025
2050
2075
F re q u e n c y ( 1 9 1 5 .0 - 2 1 3 0 .0 M H z )
C A L : O N (C O A X )
O u t p u t P o w e r : 6 .0 0 d B m
T im e :
S e ria l # : 0 0 9 2 9 0 8 3

2100

M 4

2125

CW : O FF

In this example the system passes in both the uplink, and downlink bands.
Some rigging contractors may send in separate readings for the uplink, and downlink, but they are not
obliged to do so. The separate measurements are better, as the resolution of the readings is far higher.
Rule 6.3: If the Rigging results fail or physical site checks fail for any reason the Radio Planner must
raise a Trouble Ticket against the site and assign it to the relevant Construction Controller for
resolution. In addition they must populate the Radio Design Review in the Site Comments section in
Net1
Rule 6.4: If the rigging results and the physicals site checks are okay then T885 can be populated in
Net1 in addition the Radio Design Review section needs to be populated in the Site Comments
section in Net1
Rule 6.5: Asset and NEP must be updated with the exact feeder lengths recorded in the results.

6.2 Neighbour Planning


Rule 6.6: Intra-cell neighbours should be planned in Enterprise on a site that has been called off,
Task T290 in the Net 1 Task list.

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Rule 6.7: Inter-cell neighbours relationships should only be entered for sites where both sites in the
relationship have had the Node B installed, and datafill has been created on the Network. Task T504
and T760 in Net 1 Task list, respectively.
This document currently covers the planning of Neighbour cells on carrier F1. This means that only the
Launch configuration of Macro cell layers are studied here.
Future editions of the document will look at following scenarios

Expanded Node Bs, with cells using F3

Cell layers using F2

Inter System handover relationships from H3Gs 3g UMTS network to the National Roaming
Partners 2g GSM network.

Number of Neighbour Cells


Whilst it is desirable to have neighbouring cells defined it is also desirable to minimise the number of
relationships. This is in order to reduce the time the Ue spends making measurements on the neighbours.
The recommended number of neighbour cells in the list is 15 neighbour cells. However this is only a guide
and the final number shall depend on the local area and site density.

Vendor Limits
The following maximums apply to each vendor
Vendor

Intra Carrier

Inter Carrier

Intra System

Nokia

32

48

32

NEC

32

32

32

Note: The above table refers to 3G neighbour relations capability of each of the vendors. In the current
version of ENTERPRISE (V3.4 # 12), ASSET, a 2G tool, is being used for planning. Accordingly, ASSET
does not support the concept of Intra carrier, Inter carrier or Inter System.
ASSET only has a single neighbour list and accordingly, the maximum number of neighbours permitted, per
cell, is listed in section below.

Limits on the Planning


It is recommended that the following limitations should be followed:
Rule 6.8: Maximum Neighbours in any case will be 32.
Rule 6.9: In normal planning the maximum number of neighbours should be minimised and is
anticipated to be around 15 cells. This can vary as a result of optimisation either up or down; coverage
limitations such as arterial routes, which may have very few neighbours since the cells relationships are
linear; or due to missing sites, which may mean that sites are neighboured to sites that they would not
normally be neighboured to if the sites in between have not been integrated yet.
It is recommended that the Radio Planner does not exceed 15 neighbours for an initial plan on any cell, then
once the area has been driven properly, either by a full single site verification type drive or as part of the
optimisation schedule, further proposals can be made to exceed 15, it is worse to have missing neighbours
than too many. The Radio Planner's must also be prepared to take neighbours out as well as add them in.

Using Enterprise to Generate Neighbours Lists


This section shows how the current release of Enterprise, v3.4.12, should be used to plan the intra
frequency neighbour definitions.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

It is important to note that the facilities for automatically identifying Neighbours in Asset are minimal as the
tool is designed to allow a planner to decide the best neighbour cells to use.
An important concept is that the neighbour definitions created by the planner and the neighbours already
stored in the database, are two separate lists. That is to say that neighbour relations work on the principle
of Applied changes and Committed changes. Only once the planner is happy with he neighbour relations
are they finally committed to the database, to be viewable by all other planners. This functionality allows
new cells to be added or removed and once the neighbour definitions are correct, for the database to be
updated.
Note: At this point in time, the maturity of the network means that use of the Wizard in Enterprise is of little
value and the results would be more accurate if the Radio Planner enters the neighbours by hand.
The main steps are as follows:
1.

Decide which cells require neighbours

2.

Open a 2D view to show these cells (sites), complete with a border zone around the outside this
ensures that coverage from all sites is analysed, but neighbours only generated for the cells in
question. This may mean bringing in sites from outside the Radio Planners area of responsibility
to ensure that cells do not interfere as a result of not being neighboured

3.

Create a server block array for the 2D view.

4.

Manually create a neighbour list based on the above plus experience gained from local
knowledge, drive surveys and panoramic photos by the following process
a. Select the site, then the cell, then the UMTS layer
b. Select the neighbours tab

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Select the ADD button

d. Add the nominal ID for the target cell in the box

e. Repeat for all other target cells


f.

Commit the changes

g. Repeat this process for all selected target cells to create reciprocal relationship thus
preventing one way relationships
5.

Inform any other Radio Planners responsible for sites that have been neighboured to, that they
need to create a reciprocal neighbour relationship to prevent one way neighbours existing on the
network.

Note: The use of the wizard should be avoided because of the risks of its impact on the existing
neighbour database in Enterprise.
Note: Whilst it is acknowledged that the initial selection of neighbour relationships is based on a planning
tool, which can be pessimistic in its predictions, this is still give a good starting point, to this should be added
the Radio Planners local knowledge of the area, panoramic photos and any existing drive test results from
the area that may help.

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Once the neighbours have been committed in Enterprise they will be loaded that night onto the network by
the automatic processes that have been currently put in place. So Radio Planners must ensure that they are
100% sure of the neighbour relationships they want before committing them to the database. Conversely if
the Radio Planner does not commit the changes they will not appear on the network.

6.3 Single Site Verification


This is a very important aspect of the design validation process and is the single most important factor
influencing the network performance. Single site verification is the process of quality checking the coverage
of a recently integrated site to ensure coverage and quality objectives are met and that every thing works as
intended or expected. Single site verification must be performed before a site can be switched to a live
status and carry subscriber traffic. It is the planners responsibility to ensure that every site designed and
deployed by them meets the coverage and quality requirements set down by the planning departments.
Rule 6.10: All sites must have undergone a single site verification drive with in 10 working days of
integration
After a site has been integrated the Radio Planner must make measurements using both a test mobile
connected to a laptop using the ASKA software package and an Agilent scanner, to ensure the coverage
requirements are met, handovers are successful between sites and no coverage holes exist where they are
not expected. The measurements must be performed and analysed before the site is allowed to be
unblocked and carry live traffic.
Rule 6.11: The following checks must be undertaken prior to carrying out the single site validation:

Each Cell has the correct Scrambling Code (Note if the SC is incorrect a note should be
made of this but a full drive can still take place to assess interference based on scanner data
alone.)

The signal strength from each cell is as expected

An AMR, UDI and PS call can be successfully made on each cell

An AMR call can be held whilst circumnavigating the site, checking that each cell can
perform a Softer Handover, in both directions

The area of measurement should be across the whole of the cell area but particularly around the cell edge.
The cell planner should take the original coverage plot produced for the site selected and overlay this onto a
street map using the process set out in RD&T\UO&C\272 Drive Route Generation Methodology (NonCluster) to define a drive route for the verification drive capturing all the required data. It is not sufficient to
drive to the next cell just to check the Soft Handovers are functioning correctly, since this will not give an
indication of the potential interference that sites may be introducing into the network.
The Radio Planner who is driving the route should constantly take note of the predicted coverage versus the
actual signal strength measured with the Agilent scanner, especially at the predicted cell edge. If the Radio
Planner observes a measured signal that is clearly stronger than that which is predicted they should
continue the drive beyond the original planned route until the cells scrambling code is no longer seen. The
reason for this is that the cell in this scenario is obviously acting as an interferer beyond its predicted
coverage area and the extent of this interference needs to be measured and appropriate action taken.
Rule 6.12: Prior to any drive survey taking place the Radio Planner should check with the ARC that
the cells being driven for single site verification, and any surrounding cells and the serving RNCs
are all functioning correctly so that the maximum benefit is gained, this is best done the day before
and on the day of the drive
The methodology for setting up the drive survey test equipment for Agilent is described in RD&T\UO&C\299
Agilent WCDMA scanners set up & Use (Non-Cluster), and for Aska in Appendix 4 of this document and will
not be described here.
The current information that can be measured from the scanner is as follows:
Measurements

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Primary Sync Code Power Ec

Scrambling Code Aggregate Ec

Primary Sync Code Power Ec/Io

Scrambling Code Aggregate Ec/Io

Scrambling Code Group

Scrambling Code Aggregate Peak

Secondary Sync Code Ec

Scrambling Code Delay Spread

Secondary Sync Code Ec/Io

Scrambling Code Time Offset

Scrambling Code Peak Ec

Channel Power Io

Scrambling Code Peak Ec/Io


The most important data recorded by the scanner is that of the CPICH Ec. This data can be used to derive
path loss, which can then be used to evaluate radio bearer coverage, CPICH coverage and cell isolation. It
can also be used to estimate soft handover regions and tune neighbour lists.
The Ec/Io measurements add little value to the analysis because the network is lightly loaded and the level
of Io is not typical. The Ec/Io results also provide no indication as to the dominant source of the interference.
A more flexible Ec/Io analysis can be completed from the path loss results, which can be used to model a
loaded network and identify the dominant interference sources at each location.
The cell scrambling code identification can be used to verify that each cell has been configured with the
correct scrambling code.
The figure below illustrates the high level process of using the path loss measurements and scrambling code
identification to verify the configuration of the radio network.
Step 1

Path loss
measurements

Step 2

Step 3

Radio Bearer
Link Budgets

Cell Isolation
Thresholds

CPICH Link
Budgets

Soft Handover
Thresholds

Evaluation of
Radio Bearer
Coverage

Evaluation of
Cell Isolation

Evaluation of
CPICH
Coverage

Evaluation of
Soft Handover
Areas

Verify CPICH
powers

Verify SHO
parameters

Verify appropriate antenna


directionss, tilt and heights

Step 4

Step 5

Handover
Thresholds
Path loss
measurements

Evaluation of
Potential
Neigbors

Verify neigbor
lists

Scrambling
Code Plan
Scrambling
Code id
Measurements

Comparison of
Plan with
Measurements

Verify
configuration

The first step is to ensure that the physical characteristics of the antennas have been correctly planned and
configured. This is based upon an analysis of radio bearer coverage and cell isolation. CPICH coverage and
soft handover analysis are not considered at this stage. Both CPICH coverage and soft handover areas will
be coarsely tuned automatically by ensuring that radio bearer coverage and cell isolation are adequate.
CPICH coverage and soft handover can then be fine-tuned based upon their associated radio resource

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

management parameters. The detail of this process is contained in RD&T\UO&C\295 CPICH Coverage
Analysis (Non-Cluster).
The analysis of the service levels actually offered by the site can be compared in association with the
exported service level coverage plots from Enterprise. This is contained in RD&T\UPO&C\297 Service
Coverage Analysis (Non-Cluster)
Neighbour lists are fine-tuned based upon path loss from each potential neighbour to each location across
the cell being considered.
The scrambling code plan is verified by a simple check on a cell-by-cell basis to ensure that the planned
scrambling code is being transmitted. This can also be used to identify if a site has crossed feeders between
any cells. This is covered in greater depth in RD&T\UO&C\296 Scrambling Code verification.
Antenna bearings, scrambling codes, cross feeder and basic soft handover checks are carried out by the
vendors as part of the commissioning and integration checks on every site and included in handover packs,
but the results are not always accurate or received in time.
The methodology for displaying the data from the Agilent scanner software and Aska test mobile software in
the Actix post-processing tool is described in RD&T\UO&C\298 Actix Process (Non-Cluster) and in the Actix
course notes Analyser for H3g, and will not be discussed in this document. A summary of the process is
also outlined in Appendix 4. (This does not include importing of the scrambling code list.)
Further detail of how to carry out post-processing and interpreting data will be outlined in the Optimisation
Guidelines.
As a result of this single site verification drive and post-processing the Radio Planner can make further
recommendations for neighbour additions or deletions; or any antenna changes in bearing or tilt. The single
site verification drive should take place again following the implementation of these changes to ensure that
they have had a positive effect.
Once a site has been driven and any changes implemented the site can then be de-barred and allowed into
the operational network. This is not the end of the Radio Planners responsibility for the site but the start of
the next phase, which will be covered in the Optimisation guidelines.

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Regular hexagonal design


The classical hexagonal design is shown below the cell sites are represented by the small circles and the
cell radius is R. The dotted lines show the assumed antenna orientation. Each site is represented as a
hexagon. However in the tri-sector case the sectors are each represented as a parallelogram. Each site is
surrounded by a regular hexagon of other sites.

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Cloverleaf design
The cloverleaf design is shown below. The cell sites are the dark circles and each sector is a hexagon.
Again it can be seen that each cell site is surrounded by a regular hexagon of other sites (i.e. the plan is
actually very similar to the regular plan). The distance R on the plot below is very similar to the cell radius
(R) of the classic design above although slightly modified to give the correct Grade of Service
As can be seen the hexagons are approximately half the size of those in the classic design (but note the
drawings are not to scale). Since there are three hexagons per cell site in the cloverleaf pattern or a single
double size (four times the area) in the classic pattern it is clear that the cloverleaf cell for the same R
provides of the classic coverage. (However in practice R will be slightly greater for the cloverleaf to give
the same Grad of Service).

Some features worth noting about the cloverleaf structure are: 1) It is somewhat more sensitive to angular change since there is only 3 way rotational symmetry (as
opposed to six way
2) The position of the adjacent cell sites is different with respect to the sector orientation (i.e. there is
another sight on Bore sight)
3) The Hexagons are approximately half the size
4) There is no simple way to allow for true omni and six sector sites in the cloverleaf pattern.

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Why cloverleaf is chosen

The above is a diagram of the coverage actually obtained using a 65-degree tri-sectored overlaid is the
nominal plan based on both cloverleaf and a classic plan. As can be seen the cloverleaf representation is
extremely close to reality whilst the hexagonal pattern simply doesnt fit.
If the classic tri-sectored hexagonal approach is used there are likely to be significant coverage holes as can
be seen from the above.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Some useful notes on hexagonal geometry


There are two types of placements for base-stations in a tessellated hexagonal cell are shown in the figures
below.

Sector 1

Sector 2

Sector 3

Figure 3. Regular cell placement

Sector 2
Sector 1

r'

2 r

0.86603 r

Sector 3

Figure 4. Cloverleaf arrangement

The area of a hexagon is given as follows;

3r 2 3
(using r in the cloverleaf case)
2

The area of the cloverleaf is thus of the area of the classic hexagon when r=r and the missing 25% area
can clearly be seen inside the dotted hexagon in the cloverleaf arrangement.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Link Budgets
The link budget templates are divided into two sections. This section defines the radio bearer specific
parameters assumed to be independent of the clutter type. This section provides values for the Maximum
Allowed Path Loss (MAPL).
12.2 Kb/s Speech:

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

Speech, pedestrian
Parameter
Environment
Mobile velocity
Service
Information bit rate
Chip rate
Processing gain
Average tx power per channel
Cable and connector losses
Combiner loss
Tx antenna gain
Total EIRP tx power per channel
Rx antenna gain
Cable and connector loss
Body loss
Rx diversity gain
Receiver noise figure
Thermal noise density
Total effective noise
Required Eb/No
Receiver thermal sensitivity
Maximum allowed path loss

Units

Downlink

km/h
kbps
Mchip/s
dB
dBm
dB
dB
dBi
dBm
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dBm/Hz
dBm/Hz
dB
dBm
dB

Pedestrian
3 kmph
Speech
12.2
3.84
24.98
40.00
2.5
0
18
55.50
0
0
3
0
7
-174
-167
7.5
-118.47
173.97

Uplink
Pedestrian
3 kmph
Speech
12.2
3.84
24.98
21.00
0
0
0
18.00
18
0
3
0
3.5
-174
-170
5
-124.47
160.47

Speech, vehicular
Downlink
Vehicular
120 kmph
Speech
12.2
3.84
24.98
40.00
2.5
0
18
55.50
0
0
3
0
7
-174
-167
7.5
-118.47
173.97

Uplink
Vehicular
120 kmph
Speech
12.2
3.84
24.98
21.00
0
0
0
18.00
18
0
3
0
3.5
-174
-170
6
-123.47
159.47

64 Kb/s data:

LCD64, pedestrian
Parameter
Environment
Mobile velocity
Service
Information bitrate
Chip rate
Processing gain
Average tx power per channel
Cable and connector loss
Combiner loss
Tx antenna gain
Total EIRP tx power per channel
Rx antenna gain
Cable and connector loss
Body loss
Rx diversity gain
Receiver noise figure
Thermal noise density
Total effective noise
Required Eb/No
Receiver thermal sensitivity
Maximum allowed path loss

128 Kb/s data:

Units
km/h
kbps
Mchip/s
dB
dBm
dB
dB
dBi
dBm
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dBm/Hz
dBm/Hz
dB
dBm
dB

Downlink
Pedestrian
3 kmph
LCD64
64
3.84
17.78
40.00
2.5
0
18
55.50
0
0
0
0
7
-174
-167
6.5
-112.27
167.77

Uplink

LCD64, vehicular
Downlink

Pedestrian
Vehicular
3 kmph
120 kmph
LCD64 LCD65 LCD64
64
64
3.84
3.84
17.78
17.78
21.00
40.00
0
2.5
0
0
0
18
21.00
55.50
18
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3.5
7
-174
-174
-170
-167
3
6
-119.27
-112.77
158.27
168.27

Uplink
Vehicular
120 kmph
LCD64
64
3.84
17.78
21.00
0
0
0
21.00
18
0
0
0
3.5
-174
-170
4.5
-117.77
156.77

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

LCD128, pedestrian
Parameter
Environment
Mobile velocity
Service
Information bitrate
Chip rate
Processing gain
Average tx power per channel
Cable and connector loss
Combiner loss
Tx antenna gain
Total EIRP tx power per channel
Rx antenna gain
Cable and connector loss
Body loss
Rx diversity gain
Receiver noise figure
Thermal noise density
Total effective noise
Required Eb/No
Receiver thermal sensitivity
Maximum allowed path loss

Units

Downlink

km/h
kbps
Mchip/s
dB
dBm
dB
dB
dBi
dBm
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dBm/Hz
dBm/Hz
dB
dBm
dB

Pedestrian
3 kmph
LCD128
128
3.84
14.77
40.00
2.5
0
18
55.50
0
0
0
0
7
-174
-167
6
-109.76
165.26

Uplink
Pedestrian
3 kmph
LCD128
128
3.84
14.77
24
0
0
0
24.00
18
0
0
0
3.5
-174
-170
2.5
-116.76
158.76

LCD128, vehicular
Downlink
Vehicular
120 kmph
LCD128
128
3.84
14.77
40.00
2.5
0
18
55.50
0
0
0
0
7
-174
-167
5.5
-110.26
165.76

Uplink
Vehicular
120 kmph
LCD128
128
3.84
14.77
24
0
0
0
24.00
18
0
0
0
3.5
-174
-170
4
-115.26
157.26

384 Kb/s data:

LCD384, pedestrian
Parameter
Environment
Mobile velocity
Service
Information bitrate
Chip rate
Processing gain
Average tx power per channel
Cable and connector loss
Combiner loss
Tx antenna gain
Total EIRP tx power per channel
Rx antenna gain
Cable and connector loss
Body loss
Rx diversity gain
Receiver noise figure
Thermal noise density
Total effective noise
Required Eb/No
Receiver thermal sensitivity
Maximum allowed path loss

Units
km/h
kbps
Mchip/s
dB
dBm
dB
dB
dBi
dBm
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dBm/Hz
dBm/Hz
dB
dBm
dB

Downlink
Pedestrian
3 kmph
LCD384
384
3.84
10.00
40.00
2.5
0
18
55.50
0
0
0
0
7
-174
-167
5.5
-105.49
160.99

Uplink
Pedestrian
3 kmph
LCD384
384
3.84
10.00
24
0
0
0
24.00
18
0
0
0
3.5
-174
-170
2
-112.49
154.49

LCD384, vehicular
Downlink
Vehicular
120 kmph
LCD384
384
3.84
10.00
40.00
2.5
0
18
55.50
0
0
0
0
7
-174
-167
5
-105.99
161.49

Uplink
Vehicular
120 kmph
LCD384
384
3.84
10.00
24
0
0
0
24.00
18
0
0
0
3.5
-174
-170
3
-111.49
153.49

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Appendix 2

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CW measurements
There are occasions where it is unclear to a cell planner whether installing a site in a particular location will
provide the desired level of area coverage. In this case rather than select a site and hope that it will provide
the required levels of coverage, CW measurements should be made to validate the coverage.
Coverage levels inside dense buildings can be difficult to predict using planning tools. Shopping centres and
malls are examples of difficult areas due to the make up of these types of environments where shops are
typically located inside individual units. In most cases a site survey will provide the planner with an indication
of whether coverage planning is going to be difficult to predict.
The radio coverage analysis is usually performed with a Network Planning tool, in the case of 3, Enterprise.
There are two aspects to the tool that determine the reliability and accuracy of the planning tool; one is the
accuracy and resolution of the actual terrain and clutter data and the second aspect is the coverage
prediction model used. The coverage predictions are only as good as the data and models used in deriving
them. However as with any tool, there is an inherent error in the predictions. Understanding and managing
this error is what differentiates different network planners. Understanding the limitations of the planning tool
is critical in minimising the overall capital expenditure for 3.
There are a number of limitations with the planning data that needs to be highlighted. Planning data can be
inaccurate due to the actual resolution of the data. Furthermore, the clutter data can be highly inaccurate
which will affect coverage prediction accuracy. Typical inaccuracies in the clutter data arise due to
inaccurate positioning of the clutter and/or the actual clutter classification.
The limitations of the radio models arise due to the methods used in predicting the signal strength. The
method for determining signal field strengths and patterns falls into one of three categories: empirical,
intuitive and deterministic. The empirical approach is whereby an empirical formulation of measured data is
made. These models take account of geographical information but only at a clutter level, i.e. urban,
suburban and rural. They accurately describe median signal attenuation, but show severe deficiencies in
predicting fluctuations in field strengths due to building or terrain diffraction.
Intuitive methods try to overcome the deficiencies of empirical methods by applying estimations of the
diffraction losses with respect to free space losses due to multiple knife-edges. Two intuitive methods based
on this approach are the Epstein-Peterson and Deygout methods. These methods are used to adjust
coefficients in the empirical methods by replacing terrain and clutter features with absorbing knife-edges. In
this case of intuitive methods, the methods are a mix of estimation and analysis and therefore do not fully
describe the environment they are trying to model.
The objective of the above points is to highlight some of the deficiencies of using radio-planning tools with
the associated data and models. Particular deficiencies of the radio tool are observed where in-building
penetration is being predicted, and where there are multiple sharp edges in the terrain, for example hills and
sharp slopes.
Areas of concern include:

Indoor traffic hot spots which are in areas of dubious coverage (e.g. cell edge or shaded by hills or
valleys)

Outdoor hot spots where there is potentially severe shadowing. Good examples would be deep cuttings
for important road and rail routes running perpendicular to the cell radii.

In rare cases there may be potential shadowing of a large area e.g. on the down slope of a hill which
despite not being a specific hot spot is considered a substantial risk.

Recommendation: If a site survey is completed and the planner feels that the radio tool is not
providing predictions with the required level of accuracy due to the terrain and clutter or due to a
traffic hot spot in an area of dubious coverage the planner should recommend a CW measurement
be made to the planning manager. In the case this is approved for further investigation by the
planning manager, it will be escalated to the appropriate party for further investigation.
It is expected that less than 2%-3% of the total number of sites will require CW measurements to be
performed before they can be finally selected.
In the event a planner feels that CW measurements should be made, they should file a full written
justification and return this to the planning manager. The justification must include:

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Site number/identity

Date of site survey

Reason for CW measurements describe the surrounding terrain and clutter and the relevance of the
area of concern (e.g. nature of hotspot or size and type of area of concern), specifying why CW
measurements are required and which aspect of the surrounding area is leading you to this view.

Panoramic pictures from the site of the surrounding terrain and clutter

The objective of the CW measurements is to assess the average path loss and long-term signal
fluctuations at particular locations. The CW measurements will not be required to measure anything
more.

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Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

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Azimuth Beamwidth
This is chosen for optimum sector coverage without excessive handoff. The latter drives the beamwidth
lower compared to GSM. A trisectored beamwidth of around 60 o - 65o is a best estimate for which the
relative gain at the sector edges is between 8 and 10dB. A generalisation would therefore be to use an
antenna with a 3dB beamwidth approximately half that of the sector angle. The 3dB beamwidth is generally
about half that of the 10dB beamwidth, and therefore this specification would result in antenna crossovers
(at sector edges) of -10dB. Therefore for a six-sector site with sector angles of 60 o, the antenna beamwidth
should be approximately 30o.
Azimuth pointing accuracy for trisectors should be +/- 1o. The rationale here is that a dual polar antenna
provides a gain at the sector edges within 1dB for the two beams. Alignment error should be small in relation
to this for it not to add a significant contribution to coverage errors from adjacent sectors. That is the sector
boundaries should be as near as possible to where they are required to be. A pointing error of 1 o alters the
gain by dB. Alignment for hexsectors may need to be more accurate than this.

Elevation pattern
Example for Dense urban 0.34km trisectored
The following procedure has been used to evaluate the effect of the antenna elevation pattern on the
coverage of the cell for some of the above cell categories. The antenna is given a height above ground and
tilt angle, and the angle to ground over the radius of the cell is calculated at intervals which become more
closely spaced as R (distance) increases. The latter is to account for the increase in area of the cell
associated with the given radius. It has been assumed that the antenna azimuth pattern conforms to the
shape of the cell as would be expected for a cloverleaf approach. A propagation loss model with a R-2 to R-4
breakpoint is used to find the received power level at each point. The received power level for a given QoS
can be estimated and recorded together with the received level at one, two and three cell radii for an
indication of interference into neighbouring cells. The simulation can be run for a range of different
assumptions regarding tilt angle, antenna pattern, and propagation breakpoint and antenna height above
ground. A summary of the parameters is shown below with a plot of the received signal level with distance
from the antenna.

Height Tilt

Transmit
Antenna Power
Breakpoint Prop Law Gain
(dBm)

Percentile
for
Coverage
threshold

Rec'd level at
Coverage
Level atLevel at
threshold
one cellthree cell
(dBm)
radius radii

30

200

95.0%

-35.1

17.2

43

-35.1

-63.1

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Received signal level vs distance away from the antenna


0.0
-10.0

Signal level (dBm)

-20.0
-30.0
-40.0
-50.0
-60.0
-70.0
-80.0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

Distance (m )

Measured antenna patterns provided by Thales Antennas for their 1.3m and 1.6m antennas have been
used.

Tilt
Tilts given are typical values over flat ground with Ues at ground level but may need some adjustment
where the ground is not flat or Ues are located above ground level. Tolerances assume that the antenna is
supplied with a beam tilt tolerance of +/- 0.5o. In general if the antenna itself is better than this then the
coverage-limited tolerance can be relaxed accordingly but ideally not the capacity limited tolerance. Tilts
stated in the Table are the sum of electrical and mechanical. There are two cases:
Where the antennas have fixed electrical tilts, a tilt value as close as possible to the desired value should be
used with mechanical tilting used to fine tune to the precise values required.
Where the antennas have adjustable electrical tilt this can be used to achieve the fine-tuning.

Cell

Antenna

Tilt for coverage

Tilt for capacity

Tilt

Tolerance

Tilt

Tolerance

340m

1.3m

+/- 0.5

+/- 0.25

560m

1.7m

+/- 0.5

+/- 0.25

1500m

1.7m

+/- 0.5

+/- 0.25

5000m

1.7m

+/- 0.5

+/- 0.25

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Nominal tilt angles for antenna height 30m above ground

Cell

Antenna

Tilt for coverage

Tilt for capacity

Tilt

Tolerance

Tilt

Tolerance

340m

1.7m

+/- 0.5

+/- 0.25

560m

1.7m

+/- 0.5

+/- 0.25

1500m

1.7m

+/- 0.5

+/- 0.25

5000m

1.7m

+/- 0.5

+/- 0.25

Nominal tilt angles for antenna height 20m above ground


It is important to attempt to achieve alignment to within the stated tolerances, particularly for capacity limited
cases for which the interference radiated into adjoining cells is a strong function of tilt.
For antennas 30m above ground, a suitable breakpoint between where to use 1.3m and 1.7m antennas is
450m. 2m antennas should not be used for dense urban cells, or for urban cells for antennas 30m above
ground.

Four Antennas on a 3 sector site


There may be cases where an antenna supporting structure dictates that one of the sectors may need to
use two antennas to ensure that the coverage and handover requirements are met e.g. A square church
tower.
Providing that the number of such four sector sites is small (and at least until a four sector solution can be
functionally tested) it is proposed that 3dB splitters are used to enable a 3 sector Node B to implement 4
sectors. This can be implemented using Antenna Slots in Enterprise.
This will result in a loss of coverage range in the affected sectors of around 3dB (i.e. around range reduced
to around 80% of normal). The capacity per square km will be approximately unchanged.
Which sectors should be split? This must be chosen according to the coverage needs since the split sectors
do offer less coverage. However if possible it is preferred that the two split sectors be diametrically opposed
so that no interference occurs between them (although at the expense of extra soft handover). Note that
splitting the sectors has an impact on the neighbour planning for the split sector and care should
be taken in selecting neighbours so as not to exceed the limits for the cell. In addition the slit sector
will be seen in areas where it is not expected and if not neighboured correctly will act as an
interferer.
These two sectors are
the split pair by choice

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The jumpers after the MHA must be kept as short as possible with the main length of feeder being at
between the Node B and MHAs.

Antenna sect 3,
two polarisations
MHA

3dB

MHA

3dB

Antenna sect
4,
two
polarisations

Node B

Configuring Enterprise
Modeling multiple antennas on one radio unit is best accomplished using the feature Antenna Slots. This
allows the user to add more than one antenna and to set the type, orientation, feeder and height. However,
the user also has to reset the PA Output power on all the antennas configured in this way.
Limitations
The user has to manually set the PA output power for each antenna manually deducting the 3dB Splitter
loss.
The simulator in the current version of Enterprise, v3.4.12, will only use the first slot. The next
release, v4.0, will include antenna slots in the simulator
Procedure (A detailed account of this is held in RD&T\UM&S\125 Four sector sites)
Go to the Sites Database and select the Cell Config tab.
Press the ADD button on the Antenna Configurations pane.
1. Select the new slot, in this case Slot 2 and then configure the antenna type, azimuth, downtilt and
height as normal.
Next go to the Antenna/TRX tab on the Cell Layer. You should see the second slot is now available.
You will now have to lower the transmitter power for the existing slot and also create the appropriate data for
the second slot.
First, lower transmit power on Slot 1 by 3dB (normally, this will be from 22dBm down to 19dBm)
Next tick the box alongside slot 2 (note that the ERP and EiRP are not yet calculated)
Note that the output power set for Slot 1 is copied to Slot 2, and then click apply
The EiRP and ERP should now appear correctly.
There are no other settings that relate to antenna slots.

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Health and Safety


Related documents
Title

File Reference

FEI MTAC RFCG document 28-2000 version


2.0-2002

\\h3gshfp1\h3g\Network_Rollout\Radio
Emissions Compliance\FEI MTAC RFCG doc.
28-2000 v2-2002 Feb 18.pdf

RF compliance assessment criteria document


49-2001

\\h3gshfp1\h3g\Network_Rollout\Radio
Emissions
Compliance\RF
Compliance
assessment criteria 49-2001.doc

Radio Emissions Compliance V3.2

\\h3gshfp1\h3g\Network_Rollout\Radio
Emissions Compliance\ Radio Emissions
Compliance - ver 3.2.pdf

It has been agreed at the Inter-operator forums that all sites designed by an operator will be compliant with
the FEI guidelines FEI/MTAC/RFCG/28/2000 and 49/2001.
There are two main objectives to ensuring that a site is safe by design:

That all members of the public cannot be exposed to power densities in excess of the ICNIRP Public
emission guidelines.

That all workers (operator employees, tower/building maintenance staff and others) cannot be
exposed to power densities in excess of the ICNIRP Occupational emission guidelines.

Radio Emissions Compliance V3.2 defines what is public and occupational area within a site design annals
the three types of access: Controlled, Restricted and General Public Access.

Access
In summary antennas should not be located in the following positions dependant upon access:
Controlled:
All H3G antennas must be positioned so that the ICNIRP occupation exclusion zone does not block or
extend onto the major access routes of the structure. In the case of lattice masts or towers, the access route
within the mast to tower must meet ICNIRP occupational limitations.
Restricted:
The antennas should be installed whenever practical as per the Safe by Design criteria.
For sites where the Safe by Design criteria is not practical or possible one needs to demarcate the
occupational exclusion zone with painted lines or a physical barrier. Warning signage must be placed at the
boundary edge as well.
General Public:
All transmit antennas must meet the 'Safe by Design criteria with respect to the INCIRP public exposure
limitations or
A physical barrier placed at the edge of the public exposure exclusion zone will need to be erected with the
proper signage in place.
Balconies are considered as public access areas and subject to normal general public guidelines.

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Safe by Design
Effectively, the Safe by Design term refers to the placement of the antennas in such a manner that the
occupational or public exclusion zone (whichever is relative) is not breached without the use of climbing aids
by an individual during the normal practice of their work or presence.
Please note that the vertical distance includes a standing level of 1.8 metres. As long as the distance
between the standing level and the base of the antenna is greater than the vertical distances listed below
then the Safe by Design criteria has been satisfied. Having met the height criteria the exclusion zone is
deemed inaccessible and likewise no barriers at standing level, or painted lines are required.
In summary if the radio Planner ensures that no one can accidentally enter a zone that extends 5.1m in the
horizontal from the top of the antenna; 3.3m down from the bore-site of the antenna at a distance of 5.1m
across the 71 degrees of beam-width of the antenna, then the site should be safe by design. These
distances are extended to 6.4m and 3.7m for sites that are shared with operators.
The side-lobe width of the exclusion zone is based upon the beam-width of the antenna. For H3G approved
antennas the beam-width will vary from 33 to 71 in the horizontal plane. The area is extended along the
side-lobe and back-lobe by 300mm and 50mm respectively
These distances should be considered for all sites, but are more important for rooftop sites since these types
of sites are more likely to be accessed by members of the public. It is important to also consider building
maintenance personnel as well in site design and exposure, especially in the case of window cleaning
baskets that are often accessed from rooftops.

Safe by Design
Effectively, the Safe by Design term refers to the placement of the antennas in such a manner that the
occupational or public exclusion zone (whichever is relative) is not breached, without the use of climbing
aids, by an individual during the normal practice of their work or presence.

{1.0} or [5.1]
or (6.4m)

{1.0} or [5.1]
or (6.4m)

16.5

1.8m

{2.1} or
[3.3] or
(3.7m)

16.5

Figure 5 Horizontal Exclusion Zones


ICNIRP Occupational Safety: {1.0 & 2.1 metres} This is the required horizontal & vertical
distance; whether it be a stand-alone or shared site.
ICNIRP Public Safety: [5.1 & 3.3 metres] This is the required horizontal & vertical distance for a
stand-alone Hutchison3G site.

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ICNIRP Public Safety Shared Site: (6.4 & 3.7 metres): This is the required horizontal & vertical
distance for a shared Hutchison3G site with another operator(s) when the Bore Sight Distances
are not breached (as per section 5 & 6)
Please note that the vertical distance includes a standing level, coloured in orange, of 1.8 metres. As
long as the standing level is above the roof or ground level, the site is deemed Safe by Design. If the base
heights of the antennas are greater then the vertical requirements mentioned above, then, no barriers would
be required so long as the antennas are inaccessible without climbing aids.

Side & Back Lobe Exclusion Zone


The side and back lobe exclusion zone displayed in Error: Reference source not found is based upon the
beam-width of the antenna. In the case of H3G approved antennas, the beam-width will vary from 33 to 71
in the horizontal plane. This area is further extended in the side lobe and back lobe by 300mm and 50mm
respectively.

300mm

Beamwidth of antenna

50mm

Antenna

Side Mounted Antennas Near Windows


One needs to take special care when selecting the location of the antennas on the building faade.
Orientation and Tilt Limitations
Using the worst-case beam width, the angle from the perpendicular of the building faade should not exceed
25. The tilt (mechanical + electrical) cannot exceed 16. Keeping within these two limitations, the antenna
can be placed 0.5 metres horizontally and 0.3 metres vertically from a window.
Opening Window?
If the window can opened and one is able to reach outside then the distance from the window to the antenna
should exceed 1.0 metre (average arm length).

Streetworks
Streetworks sites are defined as short masts (usually less than 10 metres) in urban and suburban areas that
are in very close proximity to buildings or homes such as lamppost, telegraph and flagpoles. Because of the

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relatively low height and the close proximity to the public one needs to be keenly aware of the ICNIRP
compliance requirements.
The minimum base height of a Streetworks antenna should be 6.2 metres above ground level to allow for
passing traffic, also be aware of differences in ground height between mast position and street level.
Vehicles or pedestrians could breach the Exclusion Zone if the site is close to a bridge or a road that is built
up to a greater height relative to the base of the mast. The antennas of the streetworks site must be a
minimum of three metres away from all other standing structures.

Horizontal Bore-Sight Distance


If the location is a share site then an evaluation will need to establish whether or not the antennas are within
the bore-sight distance. The horizontal separation distances are as depicted in the table below. A better
example and diagram is detailed in Radio Emissions Compliance V3.2.

Antenna Type & Relationship

Minimum
Separation

OMNI point to OMNI

5m

Sectored 45 pointing to Omni or Sectored

5m

Sectored > 45< 90 pointing to Omni or Sector with


same direction

3m

Sectored > or = 90 pointing to Omni

1.2m

Sectored 45 pointing to Sectored

5m

Sector antennas pointing same direction 30

1.2m

Sectored > 45 < 90 pointing to Sectored

3m

Sectored > or = 90 pointing to Sectored

0m

Vertical Bore-Sight Clearance


If the antennas are not within the same horizontal plane then one will need to assure bore-sight clearance within the
vertical plane as well. The minimum vertical separation required is 0.3 metres.
However, should the antennas be offset and not be within the same vertical plane, then a line of sight
clearance is required at an angle of 45. The angle is calculated from the base of the upper antenna to the
top of the lower antenna.

Bore-Sight Distance Breached


In the case where the bore-sight distance is breached, the engineer will need to consider the two transmit
antennas as one.

Operator

Maximum Boresight Investigation Limit Distance

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2G build only

Enhanced 2G plus 3G build

(m)

(m)

BT Cellnet

10.7

15.2

Vodafone

11.6

13.4

One2one

4.3

10

Orange

4.3

10

Hutchison3G

Not Applicable

5.1

Using the values in Table 1 a worst case ICNIRP Public Exclusion Zone can be calculated by summing the
squares of all the boresite investigate limit distances of all the operators on that location (dependant on
technology) and then square rooting the result of that calculation. This will give the new maximum horizontal
distance of the safe by design zone discussed above.
If the General Arrangement Drawing has been approved, by all parties, and the site is deemed as Safe by
Design then the ICNIRP certificate can be issued and signed by the Regional Radio Planning Manager, or
an appointed deputy. All sites must have an ICNIRP certificate before they are submitted to the Local
Planning Authority for planning permission.

MHAs
Basics
As a general rule all 3 Sites will be fitted with a MHA from day one. These are to be placed as close
as possible to the antenna.
The minimum gain of our MHA is likely to be =>6dB.
This can be used to offset the feeder loss, therefore extending any given range of feeder type. However the
cell planner should always try to minimise the length of feeder.
A masthead amplifier is used to mitigate against the signal to noise degradation incurred due to loss in cable
running from the antenna to the BTS typically 2-3dB. The received signal and noise level is boosted,
typically by 30dB, so that the thermal noise increase due to the cable is rendered insignificant compared to
the thermal noise at the masthead amplifier output.
The effective noise figure of the receiver is then strongly influenced by the noise figure of the LNA which can
be low ~2dB?
Duplexing is required to separate transmit and receive paths. This introduces some loss in the transmit path
<1dB? This loss is probably not significant if the coverage is uplink limited (by the transmit power capability
of the terminal), and if the cell range is capacity limited, (see coverage/capacity section).

Example
A typical MHA specification could be:

Gain is variable from 2-30dB

Noise figure is 2dB

Tx path loss introduced is 0.6dB max.

Rx filter loss on either side of amplifier is 0.9dB antenna side, 0.3dB on base station side.

Assume a cable loss of 2.5dB.

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For 12dB MHA gain, this gives a noise figure at the antenna terminal of 3.35dB. For a gain of 30dB 3.35dB
would be reduced to 2.9dB.
If the MHA is removed and an LNA with the same performance is used at the BTS after the cable loss then
the equivalent noise figure referred to the antenna terminal increases to 5.4dB.
Given the preceding argument regarding Tx path loss, 0.6dB here may not be significant.
So in this case just over 2dB is gained in receive noise figure for 12dB MHA gain and the full 2.5dB in cable
loss assuming a 30dB MHA gain.

Coverage/capacity implications
Take the above values for noise figure improvement. These are 2.05dB and 2.5dB for 12dB and 30dB MHA
gain respectively.
Further assume a 3.5 propagation path loss law, and then 2.05dB gives an increase in coverage range of by
a factor of 1.14, equivalent to an increase in coverage area of 31%. An improvement of 2.5dB gives 1.18
and 39% respectively. So, in terms of coverage area or reduction in the number of sites required, the
argument for the MHA is very strong indeed.
If symmetric traffic is assumed then the link budget is uplink limited due to the restricted power output of the
UE. However, traffic is expected to be highly asymmetric and a 4:1 balance on downlink/uplink may be likely.
Therefore as traffic increases the downlink will become capacity limited, and if cell splitting is employed to
overcome the limitation, the benefit given by the MHA will disappear.
It could be that a microcell layer would be used to take up the additional capacity. In this case the coverage
provided by the macrocell would need to be maintained, and the MHA benefit is retained.

Conclusions
In coverage terms MHAs give very significant range advantages reducing the number of sites required by
30-40%. This advantage can be retained if capacity limitations in a mature network are overcome using a
microcell layer in addition to the original macrocell layer. MHA benefit is lost if cell splitting is used to
increase capacity.
MHAs should be located as close as possible to the antenna position to gain maximum benefit.

MHA Omission
MHAs may not be used on certain non-standard installations. These are outlined in RD&T\UD\399
Guidance for Omission of MHA Cabinet. These rules apply to Streetworks sites.
To minimise losses, LDF550 feeders run direct from the antennas to the MHAs and from the MHAs to the
Node B or Node B jumper. For the Nokia streetworks solution, no Node B jumpers are used, as the LDF550
is able to run direct to the Node B antenna ports. NEC 2nd Platform sites use short, factory-made FSJ450
jumpers (0.3 and 0.5m) between the LDF550 and the Node B.
The following losses can be assumed for feeders and connectors used on streetworks sites.
LDF550

1.86dB/100m*

Field-fitted connection (two parts)

0.15dB to 0.5dB**

Factory-made jumper (0.5m)

0.08dB

The MHA provides maximum benefit when placed close to the antennas. As the distance between the MHAs
and the antennas increases, the benefit provided by the MHA decreases.

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Why the MHA cabinet can be omitted


The figures below show two streetworks scenarios with and without the MHA cabinet. The difference
between the two scenarios is the feeder lengths.
The Friis equation [NF = NF1 + (NF2-1)/G1 + (NF3-1)/G1*G2.] was used to calculate the improvement in
system noise figure provided by the MHA in these examples. The elements in the system are noise rise,
feeder before MHA, MHA, feeder after MHA and Node B. The results for 3 and 6 dB noise rise and 12 and
24dB MHA gain (Nokia and NEC PF2) are presented in Tables 2 and 3. MHA noise figure is taken as 2dB
and Node B noise figure as 2.5dB.
The results shown in the tables show that the best improvement offered by the MHA is 0.42dB. The
improvement is small for the following reasons:

Because the MHA is placed so close to the Node B, the feeder loss after the MHA is small and
consequently the benefit provided by the MHAs will be minimal.

If the MHA cabinet is omitted on a streetworks site, the total loss between antenna and Node B will
be small due to:
o

Short feeder runs between antenna and Node B (i.e. 15 to 18m).

LDF550 runs direct from the antenna to within 0.5m of the Node B antenna port.

Very low-loss factory-made jumpers are used for NEC streetworks, and none are used for
Nokia.

This small improvement in system noise figure is offset by the drawbacks of working with the MHA
cabinet.

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Antenna

jumper

0.08

short feeder

0.15 + 0.06 + 0.15

loss after MHA

0.44 dB

long feeder

0.15 + 0.24 + 0.15

0.54dB

loss before MHA 0.54 dB


0.44dB

10m

Node B
MHA Cabinet

jumper
(NEC only)

MHA
1m

1m

3m of LDF550

13m of LDF550

Antenna

jumper

0.08

long feeder

0.15 + 0.22 + 0.15

total loss

0.6 dB
0.6dB

10m

Node B
jumper
(NEC only)
1m

12m of LDF550

Feeder losses with and without MHA

3dB Noise Rise

6dB Noise Rise

12dB MHA Gain (Nokia)

0.26dB*

0.16dB

24dB MHA Gain (NEC)

0.36dB

0.22dB

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System Noise Figure Improvement Provided by MHA for Example Shown in Previous Figure
Antenna

jumper

0.08

short feeder

0.15 + 0.22 + 0.15

loss after MHA

0.6 dB

long feeder

0.15 + 0.24 + 0.15

0.54dB

loss before MHA 0.54 dB


0.6dB

10m

Node B
MHA Cabinet

jumper
(NEC only)

MHA
1m

10m

12m of LDF550

13m of LDF550

Antenna

jumper

0.08

long feeder

0.15 + 0.30 + 0.15

total loss

0.68 dB
0.68dB

10m

Node B
jumper
(NEC only)
5m

16m of LDF550

Feeder losses with and without MHA (longer feeder runs)

3dB Noise Rise

6dB Noise Rise

12dB MHA Gain (Nokia)

0.31dB

0.18dB

24dB MHA Gain (NEC)

0.42dB

0.25dB

System Noise Figure Improvement Provided by MHA for Example Shown over

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Conditions for omitting the MHA cabinet


The following conditions must be met if the MHA cabinet is to be omitted on streetworks sites:

Omission of the MHA cabinet will ease planning approval or improve relations with the planning
authority

The Node B is placed within 5m of the foot of the pole

Total feeder length (including tails) does not exceed 20m

LDF550 feeders run direct from the antennas to within 0.5m of the Node B antenna ports

FSJ450 factory-made jumpers of 0.5m or less are used to connect the LDF550 feeder to the Node B

The MHA cabinet can be omitted from streetworks sites provided the above conditions are met.
There is no justification for removing MHA cabinets from sites that have already been built. If planning has
been submitted with an MHA cabinet and an MHA cabinet has been ordered then the site design should not
be changed.

Selection of Configurations in Enterprise

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Appendix 4

Hutchison 3G Radio Design Group

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Setting up Aska
1. Log into the laptops using the relevant login and password.

2. Double click on the ASKA icon on the desktop. Be patient this may take a few seconds.

3. The following window will appear:

Login: NECUSER
Pwd: Lasagna

4. The VTX logging tool will now open up (make sure the dongle is connected otherwise the software will fail
to load). If you have a laptop with a single USB port, once all the windows have opened, remove the dongle
and connect the UE. You only need the dongle to start the software.

5. The UE should be connected using the USB cable, which is provided with the handset (dark grey in
colour). This ensures the UE uses its internal antenna. Other cables with an external antenna have been
provided (light grey), please do not use these as this will disable the internal antenna in the UE.

6. Click on Connection at the top of the window, select 'Port' then 'Open'.

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7. Switch UE on and click on the following icon at the top of the ASKA window:

This soft key will change to 'Dis' when the UE is connected. You will start to see L3M messages in the
window.

7. To record the log press the button with the red dot on it.

Beware this is not saving the file, once you have finished logging the data press the stop button and SAVE
(very important) the log file. The file will not be SAVED until the SAVE button is selected.

If the handset will not connect try the following:

Handset set-up
o

Select tools> Select IF

Select WNUSOMT.DLL then add I/F , then click on WNUSOMT and Select I/F

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Once the current I/F is set to WNUSOMT.DLL (NEC) click close on the communication
interface form.

Reference Route post processing


1. Upgrade Actix to SP5.

2. Load the scanner data & logging tool data into Actix together.

3. Once loaded click on Tools > Create Superstream.

4. Click on Analysis > H3G UK Radio Design Analysis(reference route scanner NEC
VTX). The report window will appear. This can also be done by right clicking on the
superstream and selecting H3G UK Radio Design Analysis(reference route scanner
NEC VTX). Double click on the report at the bottom of the window, this will generate the
excel report that will be used for the results.

5. Click on Show excel report. The results from the survey will have been populated
automatically, please check this.

6. The following plots will need to be created and put in the report:
a. Reference Route Drive
b. Agilent SC Plot
c. Agilent RSCP Plot
d. Agilent Ec Io Plot
e. Agilent Uplink Service Plot
f.

Agilent Activeset Plot

g. NEC SC Plot
h. NEC RSCP Plot

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NEC EcIo Plot

j.

NEC Activeset Plot.

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7. The created maps can be copied into the excel report by right clicking on the map window,
copying to clipboard then pasting into the excel report. The same should be done for the
legend in relation to each map.

8. Click on the superstream (name) > Event Data > EventCallDropped > right click & display
on map. The dropped calls will be shown on the map with a red telephone symbol. These
can also be shown on the map by dragging & dropping the data onto the map. The call
dropped data will also need to be reviewed on a table.

9. Click on the select tool at the top of the map window.

10. Tile windows horizontally, this will enable you to see both the map window and the table
with the dropped calls on.

11. Click on one of the red phones on the map, the drop will be highlighted on the table
window (this may take a few seconds, therefore, please be patient).

12. Write down the time of the drop. This will need to be done for every drop, the data will be
required to analyse the drops.

13. Click back on the log file in the Loaded Data Files.

14. Right Click on the NEC 3GPP and select display on message browser.
15. The message browser event panel will appear. The analysis of the drops can now begin.

16. The VTX dropped call analysis will need to be completed manually and the results
populated on the relevant worksheet in the report.. The dropped calls should be numbered
in the direction of the drive.

17. The trending data should also be completed manually. This should consist of the average
EcIo and RSCP. The numbers should be located in

It should be noted that the main focus of this procedure should be for the regions to optimise the
RF performance of the area, this will include the identification of missing neighbours & poor
coverage.