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# Annex C

## Cover Page for Compilation by Topics

Differential
S/No Equations

1

y=
1

AJC

ACJC

1 A e x

CJC

since y > 1 ;

d = k 20 ; 84 C
(
)
dt
1

y = x2 + e x

DH

(ii) x = 3 2 2e3qt
(iii) 3 2

HCI

## (i) t = 4.46 h , (ii) t = 27.7 h

IJC

JJC

MI

MJC

10

NYJC

11

NJC

12

PJC

13

RJC

14

SAJC

15

SRJC

16

TPJC

17

TJC

(a) y =

x 2 cos 6 x
+
+ Cx + D
4
72

2+ 2
(a) 21 e2x 92
(b) y2 = x2(Ax2 1)
dz
d 2 y dy
x3
and y = + c ln x + d , c,d R
(a)
=x 2 +
dx
dx
dx
3
1
y = + Cx 2
x
k . k is therefore the maximum number of
Bye-Bye Panda for which the environment can support
x
y= x
Ae 1
dP
= kP ; Yes, 800<1516
dt
h
x = he (ln 2 )t ; (ii)
2
dy
= k ( y ) ; 4.05 a.m
dt
1
dx
(a) y = x 2 (ln x) 2 + cx 2 ;(b) = kx(1000 x) ; 5
2
dt
1

## (i) p + (200 p) , (iii) 200,000

18

VJC

m = (1 + ln 2)
(ii) 2 ln 4
(iii) x = ( y + 4) ln( y + 4) (1 + ln 2) y 2
1

(a)
19

YJC

y = x +

t
25

c 3

## (b) x = 2.5e + 7.5 ; 27.5 days

Annex D
1

AJC/I/14
By means of the substitution z =

1
, show that the differential equation
y2

2
dy
= 2 xy 2 y 1
dx
can be reduced to the form
2
1 dz
= 4xe x .
1 z dx

ex

where y > 1

[3]

## Hence find the general solution of y in terms of x.

[3]

Prove algebraically (not verify) that the minimum point of every member of the family of solution curv
on the y-axis.
[3]

ACJC/I/7

Newtons Law of Cooling states that the rate of change of the surface temperature of an object is propo
to the difference between the temperature of the object and the temperature of its surrounding at that tim
The room temperature in a caf is kept constant at 20C by means of its central cooling system. It was
that the temperature of a cup of coffee left on a table in the caf will drop from 60C to 45C in 10 m
Express this information as a differential equation connecting in degree Celsius and t in minutes, whe
the temperature of the coffee at time t.
One day, Daniel bought a cup of extra hot coffee and noticed that it took 20 minutes for the tempera
cool to 45C. What is the temperature of his coffee when he first bought it?
[6]

CJC/I/10
The variables x and y are related by the differential equation

dy
y
= 1 + 2x 2 .
dx
x

Show that by means of the substitution y = v + x 2 , the differential equation may be reduced to

dv
v
= 2 .
dx
x

[2]
Find the solution of the differential equation given that when x = 1, y = 2.

[5]

DH/II/3

The height x, of a certain plant, at time t is proportional to the amount of nutrients it absorbs. The plan
nutrients at a rate proportional to the height of the plant and absorbs nutrients at a rate inversely propo

to the surface area of the stem of the plant. Taking the cross-section of the stem to be circular with rad
kx, where k is a constant, and the surface area of the stem to be 2rx,
(i)

## show that x satisfies the differential equation

dx p
=
qx ,
dt x 2
where p and q are positive constants.

[2]

## For the case p = 2q, it is known that x = 0 when t = 0.

(ii)

Solve this differential equation, obtaining an expression for x in terms of t and q. [5]

(iii)

## Deduce the value of x as t becomes very large.

[1]

HCI/I/7
A hospital patient is receiving a certain drug through a drip at a constant rate of

50 mg per hour. T

of loss of the drug from the patients body is proportional to x, where x (in mg) is the amount of drug
patient at time t (in hour). Form a differential equation connecting x and t and show that

x=

1
50 Ae kt ) ,
(
k

[3]

## where A and k are constants.

Given that k =
(i)

1
.
20

Find the time needed for the drug in the patient to reach 200 mg, if initially there is no trace
drug in the patients body.

(ii)

[2]

When there is 80 mg of the drug in the patients body, the drip is disconnected. Assuming that t

of loss remains the same, find the time taken for the amount of drug in the patient to fall from
to 20 mg.

IJC/II/5
(a)

## Find the general solution of the differential equation

[3]

d2 y
= sin 2 3 x .
2
dx
(b)

[4]

In established forest fires, the proportion of the total area of the forest which has been destroyed is
denoted by x, and the rate of change of x with respect to time, t hours, is called the destruction rate
Investigations show that the destruction rate is directly proportional to the product of x and (1 x )
particular fire is initially noticed when one half of the forest is destroyed, and it is found that the
destruction rate at this time is such that, if it remained constant thereafter, the forest would be des
completely in a further 24 hours.

dx
= x (1 x ) .
[3]
dt
Deduce that approximately 73% of the forest is destroyed 12 hours after it is first noticed. [6]
Show that 12

JJC/II/3

Water is leaking from a hole at the bottom of a cylindrical drum with height 1 m. Let h denote the he
the water in the drum in metres at time t, measured in hours.The rate at which h is decreasing is propo
to h . If the drum is full initially and half-empty after 1 hour, find the time that it takes for the drum
On a clearly labelled diagram, sketch the graph of h against t.

[7]

MI/I/9
(a)

The curve y = f(x) has gradient e2x at the point (x,y). Find f(x) given that
y = 0 when x = ln 3.

[3]

dy

(b)

dv

1+ v2
.
v

## Hence obtain the general solution of y in the form y2 = F(x).

MJC/II/5
(a)

d2 y
dy
dz
dy
, express
in terms of x,
and 2 .
dx
dx
dx
dx
Show that the differential equation

Given that z = x

[6]

x
can be reduced to the form

d 2 y dy
+
= 3x 2
dx 2 dx

dz
= f ( x) where f ( x) is a function of x.
dx

## Hence solve this differential equation, expressing y in terms of x .

(b)

[5]

A block initially at 40C is put into an oven. The oven is kept at a con

temperature of 1000C. At any subsequent instant, the rate of increase of the temperature of the b
proportional to the difference in temperature that exists between the block and the oven. If

minute, the temperature of the block has risen to 160C, show that at time t minutes, the blo
temperature given by
7
= 1000 960
8

10 NYJC/II/1
Show that the differential equation x 2
to

dy
2 xy + 3 = 0 may be reduced by means of the substitution y
dx

du
3
= 4 .
dx
x

[3]

## Hence, or otherwise, find the general solution for y in terms of x.

[3]

Sketch, for x > 0 , two members of the family of solution curves corresponding to a positive value
negative value of the arbitrary constant.
[2]

11 NJC/I/7

The number of Bye-Bye Panda due to birth and death in a protected bamboo environment is modelled
dS
differential equation
= kS ( k S ) where S is the number of pandas at time t years and k is a co
dt
kA
Given that k > S , show that the differential equation has general solution S =
, where A
2
A + e k t
arbitrary constant.
[5]

Hence, find the limiting value of the number of Bye-Bye Panda in the bamboo environment and expl
significance of k.
[2]

12 PJC/1/8
The quantities x and y are related by the differential equation x

dy
= y (1 x y ) .
dx

(i) Show that this differential equation may be reduced by means of the substitution zy = x to

dz
dx

Hence, find the general solution of this differential equation, expressing y in terms of x.[5]

(ii) Sketch the solution curve which passes through the point ( 2,1) , stating clearly the equations
asymptotes.
[4]

13 RJC/I/5

In a certain country, the price of a brand new car of a particular make, manufactured on 1 January 1
\$32,000. According to a model of car pricing, the price P of the car (in \$) depreciates at a rate proporti
P when the car is t years old (as from 1 January 1996). Write down a differential equation relating P
[1]
By solving this differential equation, show that
P = 32000e kt
where k is a positive constant.

[4]

A man purchased a used car of this particular make for \$2000, at the price predicted by the mode
January 2006. Subsequently on 1 January 2007, the man sold the used car for \$800. Determine if th
sold his car below the price predicted by the model.
[3]

14 SAJC/II/3

A fish tank with an oval base and vertical height h is initially full of water. Water leaks out of a small
the base of the tank at a rate, which, at any time t, is proportional to the depth of the water x at that insta

(i)

## Show that the differential equation, in terms of x and t, can be written as

positive constant.

(ii)

dx
= kx where
dt
[2]

If the tank is exactly half empty in 2 hours, find the depth of water in an hour, giving
[8]

the exact

15 SRJC/II/1
(i)

Newtons Law of Cooling states that the rate at which an object cools is proportional
difference
in
temperature
between
it
and
its
surroun
If y is the temperature of an object (in degree Celsius) at time t (in hours) and

is the tempera

its surroundings (in degree Celsius) which remains constant, form a differential equation rel
and t.
[2]

(ii)

Professor Mandrake was found murdered in the library. The ambient temperature is a constant
26 Celsius. The temperature of the body was 30 Celsius at 7 am and it was 28 Celsius at 9 am
Assuming his body temperature was known to be 37 Celsius at the time of his death. When wa
murdered?
[7]

16 TPJC/1/11
(a)

## By means of the substitution y = vx2, show that the differential equation

x

dy
dv
= 2 y + x 2ln x can be reduced to x = ln x .
dx
dx

## Hence obtain the general solution of the differential equation x

of x.

(b)

dy
= 2 y + x 2ln x , expressing y in
dx

[5]

In a laboratory, 1000 biscuits were exposed to particular bacteria that will cause the bisc
become mouldy. After t days, there were x mouldy biscuits. It is assumed that the rate of incr
the number of mouldy biscuits is proportional to the product of the number of mouldy biscuits a
number of unaffected biscuits at any time t. Write down a differential equation involving x and
Given that x = 1 when t = 0, show that the solution of the differential equation is
x
1 1000 kt
where k is a constant.
=
e
1000 x 999

[4]

Given also that x = 100 when t = 10. How many more days does it take to have at least 500 m
biscuits?
[3]

17 TJC/II/2
(i)

Express

1
in partial fractions.
p(1 0.005p)

[2]

The population growth of a certain species of animals follow the differential equation
dp
= ap (1 0.005p) , a
dt

where t is the time in years and p represents the population size of the animals (in thousands).
The initial population is 150 thousand; after 5 years, the population has increased to

600e
thousands.
1 + 3e

600e0.2t
.
1 + 3e0.2t

(ii)

## Show that p can be represented by the equation p =

(iii)

After a long period of time, the population size of this species of animal will approach a particular nu
Find k.
[2]

[5]

18 VJC/I/14
A curve C1 has equation y = f ( x ) , x > 4. The tangent to C1 at the point (2, ln16) is parallel to the
Given that for all points on C1,
d2 y
1
,
=
2
x+4
dx

show that the equation of C1 is y = ( x + 4) ln( x + 4) + mx 2 where the exact value of m is to be deter
[6]

(i)

## Sketch C1, making clear its main relevant features.

[2]

(ii)

A particle moves along C1 such that x increases at a constant rate of 2 units s-1. Find the
increase of y when x = 4, giving your answer in an exact form.
[2]

(iii)

[1].

19 YJC/I/12
(a)

## Show that the differential equation 3xy 2

u = xy 3 to

dy
+ y 3 2 x = 0 may be reduced by means of the substi
dx

du
= 2 x . Solve the differential equation, expressing y in terms of x. Sketch the family
dx

[4]

(b)

## A population of insects is allowed to grow in an experimental environment. The rate of birth of th

insects is proportional to the number (in thousands) of insects, x, at time t days after the start of th
experiment. The insects died at a constant rate of 0.3 per day. Given that initially x = 5 and it is
decreasing at a rate of 0.1.
Show that the differential equation relating x and t is

dx
= 0.04 x 0.3 .
dt

## Hence, solve the differential equation, expressing x in terms of t.

[2]
[4]

With the help of a graph, explain why it is possible for the insects to be extinct in the experimenta

environment after some time. Find the duration for this to happen, giving your answer to 1 decima
place.

[2]