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Lesson 4.

3 Logarithmic Functions
A. Facts about the logarithmic function.Video tutorial for introduction
The logarithmic function, f(x) = log a x , is the inverse of the exponential function,
f(x) = ax.
Definition of Logarithmic Function
For x >0, a>0, and a not equal to 1,
Logarithmic Form

y log a x

Exponential Form

if and only if

x ay

The way to read a logarithmic function


f ( x) log a x Read as log base a of x.
The only logarithm you can solve in your calculator is base 10

B. The graph of the logarithmic function

Video tutorial

Graph of f ( x) log a x
Domain

0,

Range

Intercept
Increasing or Decreasing

(1, 0)
Increases on 0,

Vertical Asymptotes

y-axis or x = 0

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Lesson 4.3 Logarithmic Functions


B. Transformations of Graphs of Logarithmic Functions
Shifts Left

f ( x) log a ( x c)

Shifts Right

f ( x) log a ( x c)

Shifts Up

f ( x) c log a x

Shifts Down

f ( x) c log a x

Reflects around the x-axis

f ( x) log a x

Reflects around y-axis

f ( x) log a x

The Graph of
f ( x) ln x
C. The Natural Logarithmic Function Video tutorial
The inverse of the natural exponent function,
f ( x) e x
Is
f ( x) ln x
This is the same thing as f ( x) log e x
We call this number, e. The value of e
2.718281828

Definition of Natural Logarithmic Function


For x >0
Logarithmic Form

y ln x
or, y log e x

Exponential Form

if and only if

x ey

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Lesson 4.3 Logarithmic Functions


D. Properties of Logarithms and Properties of Natural Logarithms
Properties of Logarithms
1. log a 1 0 because a 0 1
2. log a a 1 because a1 a
3. log a a x x because a loga x x
4. If log a x log a y then x y

Properties of Natural Logarithms


1. ln1 0 because e0 1
2. ln e 1 because e1 e
3. ln e x x and eln x x
4. If ln x ln y then x y

E. Express the equation in exponential form.


1. log 8 512 3

2. ln y 3

3. log 2

1
3
8

Video tutorial for E, F

F. Express the equation in logarithmic form.


1. 81

2. 73 343

3. e0.5 x t

G. Find the exact value of each logarithm without using a calculator.


1. log 5 54
2. log 4 64
3. log 3 9
Video tutorial for 1, 2, 3

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Lesson 4.3 Logarithmic Functions


G. Find the exact value of each logarithm without using a calculator.
4. log 6 1
5. log 49 7
6. log 2 2

Video tutorial for 4-6

7. log 9 3

8. 4log 4 8

9. eln 0.53

11. ln 1

12. log 6

Video tutorial for 7-9

10. log 4 8

1
36

Video tutorial for 10-12

H. Use the definition of a logarithmic function to find x.


1. log 5 x 4
2. log 4 2 x

Video tutorial for 1-4

3. log x 6

1
2

4. log x 25 2

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Lesson 4.3 Logarithmic Functions


I. Sketch a graph of the function. State the domain, range, asymptote, and xintercept.
1. Graph the function: f(x) = log 2 x 4
(Show a dotted line for the asymptote)
VA: x = ___; Domain: ______; Range: _____
Intercept: (

Video tutorial

________________________________________________________________________
2. Graph the function: f(x) = log3 ( x 5)
(Show a dotted line for the asymptote)
VA: x = ___; Domain: ______; Range: _____
Intercept: (

Video tutorial

________________________________________________________________________
3. Graph the function: f(x) = 1 log 2 x
(Show a dotted line for the asymptote)
VA: x = ___; Domain: ______; Range: _____
Intercept: (

Video tutorial

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Lesson 4.3 Logarithmic Functions


4. Graph the function: f(x) = ln x 3 1
(Show a dotted line for the asymptote)
VA: x = ___; Domain: ______; Range: _____
Intercept: (

Video tutorial

________________________________________________________________________
5. Graph the function: f(x) = log 3 x 3 2
(Show a dotted line for the asymptote)
VA: x = ___; Domain: ______; Range: _____
Intercept: (

Video tutorial
________________________________________________________________________

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Lesson 4.3 Logarithmic Functions


J. Find the domain of each function.
1. ln 2 x 3
Video tutorial

K. Solve each equation. Video tutorial 1-5


1.

log 3 3x 2 2

2.

ln e 2 x 8

3.

log 6 36 5 x 3

4.

e 2 x 5 8

5.

4e x 1 5

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Lesson 4.3 Logarithmic Functions


L. Solve each problem.
1.

The atmospheric pressure p on an object decreases with increasing height. This pressure,
measured in millimeters of mercury, is related to the height h (in kilometers) above sea level by
.145h

the function p(h) 760e


a. Find the height of an aircraft if the atmospheric pressure is 400 millimeters of mercury.

Video tutorial

2.

A model for the number N of people in a college community who have heard a certain rumor is

N P 1 e 0.15d

where P is the total population of the community and d is the number of days that have elapsed
since the rumor began. In a community of 1000 students, how many days will elapse before 450
students have heard the rumor?

Video tutorial

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