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Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 6 (2013) 234 – 241 International

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 6 (2013) 234 – 241 International

Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 6 (2013) 234 – 241

Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 6 (2013) 234 – 241 International Symposium on Earth Science and

International Symposium on Earth Science and Technology, CINEST 2012

Hydrochemical Study of Groundwater in Sidoarjo Mud Volcano Area, East Java Indonesia

Erika Purwaningsih a , Sudarto Notosiswoyo b a*

a Groundwater Engineering Program, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, Indonesia / Center for Groundwater Resource and Environmental Geology, Geological Agency b Research Group of Earth Resources Exploration , Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, Indonesia

Abstract

Mudflow phenomena that was occured in the Porong, Sidoarjo since May 29, 2006 has resulted in environmental impacts. One of the impact is the decline in groundwater quality and the presence of gas bubbles in the wells of the population Hydrochemichal analysis is used to evaluate the quality of groundwater, to know the genesis systems and groundwater aquifers. Hydrochemichalanalysis by Piper diagram show there are three groups of groundwater facies first is bicarbonate chloride facies, chloride bicarbonate facies and chloride facies. Analysis of isotope deuterium ( 2 H) and oxygen-18 isotope ( 18 O) showed that the water coming from the bubble is related to the hydrological cycle or meteoric water and groundwater around the center of the water spray is included in formation water. Multivariate analysis resulted in two groups: the groundwater in the area of water bursts originate from magmatic hydrothermal process while groundwater in wells comes from surface water. Compilation parameters total dissolved solids and dissolved ion of groundwater contamination is divided into three zones, namely a low polluted zone, middle polluted zone and high polluted zone with groundwater pollution spread pattern trending east/ northeast in the direction of unconfined groundwater flow. The water that comes out with mud from the center bursts are thought to originate from the volcanic sandstone confined aquifer lithology, the Upper Kalibengformation,Pliocene age.

aquifer lithology, the Upper Kalibengformation,Pliocene age. Keywords : hydrochemistry; Piper diagram; isotope analysis;
aquifer lithology, the Upper Kalibengformation,Pliocene age. Keywords : hydrochemistry; Piper diagram; isotope analysis;

Keywords : hydrochemistry; Piper diagram; isotope analysis; groundwater facies; groundwater genesis; mudflow

1. Introduction

Sidoarjo mudflow since May 2006 has caused environmental impacts. Environment that has been established very long time has changed and become a mud puddle. The process of the mud volcano has caused a change in some environmental components, one of which will affect the hydrogeological setting. One of the effects is the declining quality of groundwater in the wells in the vicinity of the burst.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +0-000-000-0000 ; fax: +0-000-000-0000 . E-mail address: d_ica@yahoo.com.

1878-5220 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Selection and/or peer review under responsibilty of Institut Teknologi Bandung and Kyushu University.

doi:10.1016/j.proeps.2013.01.032

Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

Erika Purwaningsih and Sudarto Notosiswoyo / Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 6 (2013) 234 – 241

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This research carried out mudflow and surrounding areas, including in Renokenongo, Jatirejo, Siring, and Ketapang village, Porong district, Sidoarjo, East Java Province. Research areas approximately 100 km 2 around the mud volcano (Figure 1).

100 km 2 around the mud volcano (Figure 1). 2. Geology and Hydrogeology 2.1. Geology Figure

2. Geology and Hydrogeology

2.1. Geology

Figure 1. Location of research

Based on the Malang Geological Map 1:100,000 scale sheet Malang (Santoso and Suwarti, 1992), Sidoarjo and surrounding areas (Figure 2) consists of rocks:

Alluvium (Qa): clay, mud, gravel, and gravel.Sidoarjo and surrounding areas (Figure 2) consists of rocks: Kabuh formation (Qpk): tuffaceous sandstone, tuffaceous

Kabuh formation (Qpk): tuffaceous sandstone, tuffaceous mudstone, clay, calcareous sandstone, clay, and tuff.of rocks: Alluvium (Qa): clay, mud, gravel, and gravel. Pucangan formation (QTp): tuffaceous sandstone,

Pucangan formation (QTp): tuffaceous sandstone, conglomerate, claystone.mudstone, clay, calcareous sandstone, clay, and tuff. Upper Quaternary volcanic rocks (Qv (up)): volcanic

Upper Quaternary volcanic rocks (Qv (up)): volcanic breccias, lavas, tuffs, tuffaceous breccia, agglomerates.(QTp): tuffaceous sandstone, conglomerate, claystone. TufRabano (Qvtr): sandy tuff, tuff batuapung, tuffaceous

TufRabano (Qvtr): sandy tuff, tuff batuapung, tuffaceous breccia and fine ash tuff.breccias, lavas, tuffs, tuffaceous breccia, agglomerates. Middle Quaternary volcanic rocks (Qv (m)): volcanic

Middle Quaternary volcanic rocks (Qv (m)): volcanic breccias, lavas, tuffs, tuffaceous breccia, agglomerates.tuff, tuff batuapung, tuffaceous breccia and fine ash tuff. Lower Quaternary volcanic rocks (QPL): volcanic breccia,

Lower Quaternary volcanic rocks (QPL): volcanic breccia, tuff breccias, lavas, tuffs and agglomerates Mountain water pot.breccias, lavas, tuffs, tuffaceous breccia, agglomerates. Volcanic rocks Arjuna-Welirang (Qvaw): volcanic breccia,

Volcanic rocks Arjuna-Welirang (Qvaw): volcanic breccia, lava, tuffaceous breccia and tuff.breccias, lavas, tuffs and agglomerates Mountain water pot. Lidah formation (Tpl): bluish claystone, there is a

Lidah formation (Tpl): bluish claystone, there is a thin lens sandy loam.(Qvaw): volcanic breccia, lava, tuffaceous breccia and tuff. 2.2. Hydrogeology Aquifer in the Sidoarjo region consist

2.2. Hydrogeology

Aquifer in the Sidoarjo region consist of sand, pebbles, gravel, sandstone, and limestone (Soekardi, 1980). Hydrogeological character of these rocks are divided into loose and solid rock with different porosity and permeability (Figure 3).

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/ Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 6 (2013) 234 – 241 Figure 2.Sidoarjo geological map (SantosodanSuwarti,

Figure 2.Sidoarjo geological map

(SantosodanSuwarti, 1992)

Figure 2.Sidoarjo geological map (SantosodanSuwarti, 1992) Figure 3.Sidoarjohidrogeological map (Soekardi,1980) 3.

Figure 3.Sidoarjohidrogeological map (Soekardi,1980)

3. Method

The method used in this research is the analysis of hydrochemical by Piper diagram to determine groundwater facies. Isotope analysis by deuterium ( 2 H ) and oxygen-18 ( 18 O) used to determine the genesis of groundwater (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). Multivariate analysis methods using Principle Component Analysis with the SPSS 17 software (Nugroho, Y., 2011) is used to classify the content of dissolved ions in groundwater.

Analysis with the SPSS 17 software (Nugroho, Y., 2011) is used to classify the content of
Analysis with the SPSS 17 software (Nugroho, Y., 2011) is used to classify the content of

Erika Purwaningsih and Sudarto Notosiswoyo / Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 6 (2013) 234 – 241

4. Result & Discussion

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Hydrochemical analysis was carried out onthe ionsdissolved in thegroundwaterlaboratory analysis. There are 69groundwatersamples takenin the field (Figure 4).

There are 69groundwatersamples takenin the field (Figure 4). Figure 4. Groundwater sampling location map The analysis

Figure 4. Groundwater sampling location map

The analysis results of the main ion hydrochemical for groundwater samples taken from wells in the study area

showed that major cations abundant are sodium (Na + ) with average value of 282.97 mg / l and calcium (Ca 2+ ),

average of 104.94 mg / l. The main anion is abundant chloride ions (Cl - ) with average of 514.50 mg / l and

bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 - ), average of 490.73 mg / l (Table 1).

Table 1. The amount of dissolved ions in groundwater samples in the study area

- ), average of 490.73 mg / l (Table 1). Table 1. The amount of dissolved

238 Erika Purwaningsih and Sudarto Notosiswoyo / Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 6 (2013) 234 – 241

Groundwaterdrawn fromwell,majorcationsare sodium(Na + ) withaveragecontent of193.33mg/land calcium(Ca 2+ ) withaverage of123.37mg/l. The mainanionischloride ions (Cl - ), average of514.50mg/landbicarbonateions(HCO 3 - ) withaveragecontent of490.73mg/l. The watercomes frombubbles with majorcationsare sodium(Na + ) withaveragecontent of1906.67mg/land calcium(Ca 2+ )withaverage of177.70mg/l. The mainanionischloride ions (Cl - ) with average3702.57mg/landbicarbonateions(HCO 3 - ) with a value of759.13mg/l. The content of sodium ions present in most water from the mud area with average content of 7883.33 mg / l and the smallest content of the borehole water (193.33 mg / l). Bursts area have the closest distance to the center spurt that contains sodium ions are abundant and not mixed with other ions. Water sample from Porong river has a sodium content greater than water sample from well because Porong river is contaminanted by mudflow. The content of calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) are the biggest value from burst area because this location is closest to the center spurt. The content of dissolved chloride (Cl - ) in the bursts area have the greatest value 14476.23 mg / l. Dissolved chloride is probably derived from marine sediments so that the water is salty / brackish water (brine water). The content of lithium (Li + ) in the bursts area with a value of 9.07 mg / l and the smallest on the river Porong. Lithium probably derived from magmatic activity. The largest content of mercury (Hg), the largest found at the Porongriver. Piperdiagramanalysisproducesthreefacies: bicarbonatechloride facies(A, B), chloridebicarbonatefacies(C, D) andfacieschloride(E) (Figure 5).

D) andfacieschloride(E) (Figure 5). Figure 5. Piper diagram Piperdiagram(Figure 5)shows thatthe

Figure 5. Piper diagram

Piperdiagram(Figure 5)shows thatthe pattern ofspread ofbicarbonatechloritefaciesinthe south, west andeast of the centerspurt. Bicarbonatechloritefaciesin theeast of the centerspurtisbrackishwhereaschloritefacieshave the nature ofsalt(Figure 6). Itshowsthat the nature andconcentration ofionsoriginatingfrom the centerspurtis still highin theareaburstsandburstsbecome smallerwith distance. Isotope analysis by deuterium ( 2 H) and oxygen-18 ( 18 O) used to determine thegenesisof the water (Figure 7). The graph(Figure 7) shows thatmost of thewater samplesare on the linemeteoric. Water samplesweretakeninthemudflowon the rightembankmentmeteoricline. According toDomenicoandSchwartz, 1990, a positionthat isto the right ofthe lineindicatethatmeteoricwaterinside thebarrierandclose to the centerspurthas reactedwith the rocksat high temperaturesandhas not beenmixed withsurface water. Water samplestakenin the burstsareaoriginatefromformationwaterburstsout from the center.

not beenmixed withsurface water. Water samplestakenin the burstsareaoriginatefromformationwaterburstsout from the center.
not beenmixed withsurface water. Water samplestakenin the burstsareaoriginatefromformationwaterburstsout from the center.

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Earth and Planetary Science 6 (2013) 234 – 241 239 Figure 6. The pattern of the

Figure 6. The pattern of the spread of groundwater facies

Figure 6. The pattern of the spread of groundwater facies Figure 7. Correlation chart 2 H

Figure 7. Correlation chart

the spread of groundwater facies Figure 7. Correlation chart 2 H dan 1 8 O The

2 H dan

of groundwater facies Figure 7. Correlation chart 2 H dan 1 8 O The impactof Sidoarjomudflowallowingfor

18 O

The impactof Sidoarjomudflowallowingfor contaminationof groundwater.The results ofchemical analysisin the laboratorycan be used tointerpretation anddetermine thepossibility ofcontaminationin the area surroundingthe mudflow.Standardsareusedto estimate the potentialcontaminationisthe Ministerof Health492/MENKES/PER/IV/2010onDrinking WaterQuality Requirements. Based on thevalue ofthe content ofdissolvedionsingroundwaterpollutioncreatedzoningmapstodetermineareas that arecontaminatedand potentiallycontamination.A compilationofthe mapzonesof dissolvedionsexceeds the thresholdandtotaldissolvedsolidwillproduce a map ofgroundwatercontaminationzonesin the areaand surroundingPorongmud volcano(Figure 9).

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Parametercontainsdissolved solids(TDS) is usedtodetermine thecontaminationzonesin the study area. The threshold valuesfor theparameterTDSof 500mg/l. If theTDSvaluesexceed 500mg/l, the water unhealthyfor consumption.Based on thezoningmap ofthe spread ofTDS(Figure 8) showpattern of spreadeastward.TDSvaluesare inthe centerof the largestburstsof23 624mg/l.

inthe centerof the largestburstsof23 624mg/l. Figure 8. Total dissolved solid zone map Figure 9.

Figure 8. Total dissolved solid zone map

the largestburstsof23 624mg/l. Figure 8. Total dissolved solid zone map Figure 9. Groundwater contamination zone map

Figure 9. Groundwater contamination zone map

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5. Conclusions

1. Faciesof groundwaterin the study areabyPiperdiagram: bicarbonatechlorite facies, chloritebicarbonatefaciesandchlorite facies. 2. Analysis ofisotopedeuterium( 2 H) andoxygen-18 isotope( 18 O) showedthat thewatercoming from thebubbleisrelated to thehydrologicalcycleormeteoricwaterand groundwateraround the center ofthe watersprayis included information water.Multivariate analysisresulted in twogroups: thegroundwaterin theareaofwaterburstsoriginatefrommagmatichydrothermalprocesswhilegroundwaterinwellscomes fromsurfacewater 3. Groundwater contaminationcan be divided into threezones, namelya lowpollutedzone, middlepolluted zoneandhighpollutedzonewithgroundwaterpollutionspreadpatterntrendingeast/northeast in the directionof unconfined groundwaterflow. The waterthat comes outwithmudfrom the centerburstsare thought to originatefrom the volcanicsandstone confined aquiferlithology, theUpperKalibengformation Plioceneage.

aquiferlithology, theUpperKalibengformation Plioceneage. Acknowledgements The authors thanks to the head of the

Acknowledgements

The authors thanks to the head of the Center for Water Resources Soil and Environmental Geology of data usage permission. Not forgetting also the author would like to thanks Dr. IrwanIskandar, Dr. D. Erwin Irawan, Dr.Eng. Imam AchmadSadisun for their guidance and discussion.Thanks also goes to the friend's at Center for Groundwater Resource and Environmental Geology and Groundwater Engineering Study Program for the suggestions, feedback, and discussion.

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Regulation of the Minister of Health No.492/MENKES/PER/IV/2010 About Drinking Water Quality Requirements, Ministry of Health, Jakarta.

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