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Circulatory system

Bloodstream redirects here. For the song by Ed 1.1

Sheeran, see Bloodstream (song).
This article is about the animal circulatory system. For
plants, see Vascular tissue.

Cardiovascular system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to
circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids
and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and
blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide
nourishment and help in ghting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. The study of
the blood ow is called hemodynamics. The study of the
properties of the blood ow is called hemorheology.
The circulatory system is often seen to comprise both the
cardiovascular system, which distributes blood, and the
lymphatic system, which circulates lymph.[1] These are Depiction of the heart, major veins and arteries contwo separate systems. The passage of lymph for exam- structed from body scans.
ple takes a lot longer than that of blood.[2] Blood is a
uid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood
cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart through
the vertebrate vascular system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues.
Lymph is essentially recycled excess blood plasma after it
has been ltered from the interstitial uid (between cells)
and returned to the lymphatic system. The cardiovascular (from Latin words meaning 'heart' and 'vessel') system comprises the blood, heart, and blood vessels.[3] The
lymph, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels form the lymphatic system, which returns ltered blood plasma from
the interstitial uid (between cells) as lymph.
While humans, as well as other vertebrates, have a closed
cardiovascular system (meaning that the blood never
leaves the network of arteries, veins and capillaries), some
invertebrate groups have an open cardiovascular system.
The lymphatic system, on the other hand, is an open system providing an accessory route for excess interstitial
uid to be returned to the blood.[4] The more primitive,
diploblastic animal phyla lack circulatory systems.

Cross section of a human artery

The essential components of the human cardiovascular
system are the heart, blood and blood vessels.[5] It includes the pulmonary circulation, a loop through the
lungs where blood is oxygenated; and the systemic circulation, a loop through the rest of the body to provide
oxygenated blood. The systemic circulation can also be
seen to function in two partsa macrocirculation and a
microcirculation. An average adult contains ve to six
quarts (roughly 4.7 to 5.7 liters) of blood, accounting for
approximately 7% of their total body weight.[6] Blood
consists of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and
platelets. Also, the digestive system works with the circulatory system to provide the nutrients the system needs
to keep the heart pumping.[7]


The cardiovascular systems of humans are closed, mean1


ing that the blood never leaves the network of blood ves- 1.1.6 Heart
sels. In contrast, oxygen and nutrients diuse across the
blood vessel layers and enter interstitial uid, which car- Main article: Heart
ries oxygen and nutrients to the target cells, and carbon The heart pumps oxygenated blood to the body and
dioxide and wastes in the opposite direction. The other
component of the circulatory system, the lymphatic sysSuperior
Vena Cava
tem, is open.




See also: Arterial tree

Oxygenated blood enters the systemic circulation when
leaving the left ventricle, through the aortic semilunar
valve. The rst part of the systemic circulation is the
aorta, a massive and thick-walled artery. The aorta arches
and branches into major arteries to the upper body before
passing through the diaphragm, where it branches further
into arteries which supply the lower parts of the body.








Inferior Vena Cava

Arteries branch into small passages called arterioles and View from the front
then into the capillaries.[8] The capillaries merge to bring
blood into the venous system.[9]
deoxygenated blood to the lungs. In the human heart
there is one atrium and one ventricle for each circulation, and with both a systemic and a pulmonary circula1.1.3 Veins
tion there are four chambers in total: left atrium, left venAfter their passage through body tissues, capillaries tricle, right atrium and right ventricle. The right atrium
merge once again into venules, which continue to merge is the upper chamber of the right side of the heart. The
into veins. The venous system nally coalesces into blood that is returned to the right atrium is deoxygenated
two major veins: the superior vena cava (roughly speak- (poor in oxygen) and passed into the right ventricle to
ing draining the areas above the heart) and the inferior be pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs for
vena cava (roughly speaking from areas below the heart). re-oxygenation and removal of carbon dioxide. The left
These two great vessels empty into the right atrium of the atrium receives newly oxygenated blood from the lungs
as well as the pulmonary vein which is passed into the
strong left ventricle to be pumped through the aorta to
the dierent organs of the body.
1.1.4 Coronary vessels
The coronary circulation system provides a blood supply
to the heart muscle itself. The coronary circulation beMain article: Coronary circulation
gins near the origin of the aorta by two arteries: the right
coronary artery and the left coronary artery. After nourThe heart itself is supplied with oxygen and nutrients ishing the heart muscle, blood returns through the corothrough a small loop of the systemic circulation.
nary veins into the coronary sinus and from this one into
the right atrium. Back ow of blood through its opening
during atrial systole is prevented by the Thebesian valve.
1.1.5 Portal veins
The smallest cardiac veins drain directly into the heart
The general rule is that arteries from the heart branch out chambers.
into capillaries, which collect into veins leading back to
the heart. Portal veins are a slight exception to this. In
humans the only signicant example is the hepatic portal vein which combines from capillaries around the gut
where the blood absorbs the various products of digestion; rather than leading directly back to the heart, the
hepatic portal vein branches into a second capillary system in the liver.

1.1.7 Pulmonary circulation

Main article: Pulmonary circulation
The circulatory system of the lungs is the portion of the
cardiovascular system in which oxygen-depleted blood is


Lymphatic system

1.1.10 Kidneys
The renal circulation receives around 20% of the cardiac
output. It branches from the abdominal aorta and returns
blood to the ascending vena cava. It is the blood supply to
the kidneys, and contains many specialized blood vessels.

1.2 Lymphatic system

The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system. It
is a network of lymphatic vessels and lymph capillaries,
lymph nodes and organs, and lymphatic tissues and circulating lymph. One of its major functions is to carry the
lymph, draining and returning interstitial uid back topumped away from the heart, via the pulmonary artery, wards the heart for return to the cardiovascular system, by
to the lungs and returned, oxygenated, to the heart via the emptying into the lymphatic ducts. Its other main funcpulmonary vein.
tion is in the immune system.
The pulmonary circulation as it passes from the heart. Showing
both the pulmonary artery and bronchial arteries.

Oxygen deprived blood from the superior and inferior

vena cava enters the right atrium of the heart and ows
through the tricuspid valve (right atrioventricular valve)
into the right ventricle, from which it is then pumped
through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary artery to the lungs. Gas exchange occurs in the
lungs, whereby CO2 is released from the blood, and oxygen is absorbed. The pulmonary vein returns the now
oxygen-rich blood to the left atrium.[7]


A separate system known as the bronchial circulation supplies blood to the tissue of the larger airways of the lung.


Systemic circulation

The systemic circulation is the circulation of the blood to

all parts of the body except the lungs. Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which
transports oxygenated blood away from the heart through
the aorta from the left ventricle where the blood has been
previously deposited from pulmonary circulation, to the
rest of the body, and returns oxygen-depleted blood back
to the heart.[7]

An animation of a typical human red blood cell cycle in the circulatory system. This animation occurs at real time (20 seconds of
cycle) and shows the red blood cell deform as it enters capillaries,
as well as changing color as it alternates in states of oxygenation
along the circulatory system.

Main article: Blood Oxygen transport

About 98.5% of the oxygen in a sample of arterial blood
in a healthy human, breathing air at sea-level pressure, is
chemically combined with hemoglobin molecules. About
Main article: Cerebral circulation
1.5% is physically dissolved in the other blood liquids and
not connected to hemoglobin. The hemoglobin molecule
The brain has a dual blood supply that comes from ar- is the primary transporter of oxygen in mammals and
teries at its front and back. These are called the ante- many other species.
rior and posterior circulation respectively. The anterior circulation arises from the internal carotid arteries
and supplies the front of the brain. The posterior circulation arises from the vertebral arteries, and supplies the 2 Development
back of the brain and brainstem. The circulation from
the front and the back join together (anastomise) at the Main article: Fetal circulation
Circle of Willis.



The development of the circulatory system starts with

vasculogenesis in the embryo. The human arterial and
venous systems develop from dierent areas in the embryo. The arterial system develops mainly from the aortic
arches, six pairs of arches which develop on the upper
part of the embryo. The venous system arises from three
bilateral veins during weeks 4 8 of embryogenesis. Fetal
circulation begins within the 8th week of development.
Fetal circulation does not include the lungs, which are bypassed via the truncus arteriosus. Before birth the fetus
obtains oxygen (and nutrients) from the mother through
the placenta and the umbilical cord.[10]


Arterial development

Main article: Aortic arches

The human arterial system originates from the aortic
arches and from the dorsal aortae starting from week 4 of
embryonic life. The rst and second aortic arches regress
and forms only the maxillary arteries and stapedial arteries respectively. The arterial system itself arises from aortic arches 3, 4 and 6 (aortic arch 5 completely regresses).

3.1 Cardiovascular disease

Main article: Cardiovascular disease
Diseases aecting the cardiovascular system are called
cardiovascular disease.
Many of these diseases are called "lifestyle diseases" because they develop over time and are related to a persons exercise habits, diet, whether they smoke, and other
lifestyle choices a person makes. Atherosclerosis is the
precursor to many of these diseases. It is where small
atheromatous plaques build up in the walls of medium and
large arteries. This may eventually grow or rupture to occlude the arteries. It is also a risk factor for acute coronary
syndromes, which are diseases which are characterised by
a sudden decit of oxygenated blood to the heart tissue.
Atherosclerosis is also associated with problems such as
aneurysm formation or splitting (dissection) of arteries.

Another major cardiovascular disease involves the creation of a clot, called a thrombus. These can originate in veins or arteries. Deep venous thrombosis, which
mostly occurs in the legs, is one cause of clots in the veins
of the legs, particularly when a person has been stationary
for a long time. These clots may embolise, meaning travel
The dorsal aortae, present on the dorsal side of the em- to another location in the body. The results of this may
bryo, are initially present on both sides of the embryo. include pulmonary embolus, transient ischaemic attacks,
They later fuse to form the basis for the aorta itself. Ap- or stroke.
proximately thirty smaller arteries branch from this at the
back and sides. These branches form the intercostal arter- Cardiovascular diseases may also be congenital in nature,
ies, arteries of the arms and legs, lumbar arteries and the such as heart defects or persistent fetal circulation, where
lateral sacral arteries. Branches to the sides of the aorta the circulatory changes that are supposed to happen after
will form the denitive renal, suprarenal and gonadal ar- birth do not. Not all congenital changes to the circulatory
teries. Finally, branches at the front of the aorta consist of system are associated with diseases, a large number are
the vitelline arteries and umbilical arteries. The vitelline anatomical variations.
arteries form the celiac, superior and inferior mesenteric
arteries of the gastrointestinal tract. After birth, the um3.2 Measurement techniques
bilical arteries will form the internal iliac arteries.


Venous development

The human venous system develops mainly from the

vitelline veins, the umbilical veins and the cardinal veins,
all of which empty into the sinus venosus.

Clinical signicance

Many diseases aect the circulatory system. This includes cardiovascular disease, aecting the cardiovascular system, and lymphatic disease aecting the lymphatic
system. Cardiologists are medical professionals which
specialise in the heart, and cardiothoracic surgeons specialise in operating on the heart and its surrounding areas.
Vascular surgeons focus on other parts of the circulatory
Magnetic resonance angiography of aberrant subclavian artery

The function and health of the circulatory system and 5
its parts are measured in a variety of manual and automated ways. These include simple methods such as those
that are part of the cardiovascular examination, including
the taking of a persons pulse as an indicator of a persons heart rate, the taking of blood pressure through a
sphygmomanometer or the use of a stethoscope to listen
to the heart for murmurs which may indicate problems
with the hearts valves. An electrocardiogram can also be
used to evaluate the way in which electricity is conducted
through the heart.
Other more invasive means can also be used. A cannula
or catheter inserted into an artery may be used to measure
pulse pressure or pulmonary wedge pressures. Angiography, which involves injecting a dye into an artery to visualise an arterial tree, can be used in the heart (coronary
angiography) or brain. At the same time as the arteries are
visualised, blockages or narrowings may be xed through
the insertion of stents, and active bleeds may be managed
by the insertion of coils. An MRI may be used to image
arteries, called an MRI angiogram. For evaluation of the
blood supply to the lungs a CT pulmonary angiogram may
be used.
Ultrasound can also be used, particularly to identify the
health of blood vessels, and a Doppler ultrasound of the
carotid arteries or Doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs
can be used to evaluate for narrowing of the carotid arteries or thrombus formation in the legs, respectively.



Other animals
Other vertebrates

Two-chambered heart of a sh

The circulatory systems of all vertebrates, as well as

of annelids (for example, earthworms) and cephalopods
(squids, octopuses and relatives) are closed, just as in humans. Still, the systems of sh, amphibians, reptiles, and
birds show various stages of the evolution of the circulatory system.
In sh, the system has only one circuit, with the blood
being pumped through the capillaries of the gills and on
to the capillaries of the body tissues. This is known as
single cycle circulation. The heart of sh is, therefore,
only a single pump (consisting of two chambers).
In amphibians and most reptiles, a double circulatory
system is used, but the heart is not always completely
separated into two pumps. Amphibians have a threechambered heart.

There are a number of surgical procedures performed on In reptiles, the ventricular septum of the heart is incomplete and the pulmonary artery is equipped with a
the circulatory system:
sphincter muscle. This allows a second possible route
of blood ow. Instead of blood owing through the pul Coronary artery bypass surgery
monary artery to the lungs, the sphincter may be contracted to divert this blood ow through the incomplete
Coronary stent used in angioplasty
ventricular septum into the left ventricle and out through
the aorta. This means the blood ows from the capillar Vascular surgery
ies to the heart and back to the capillaries instead of to
the lungs. This process is useful to ectothermic (cold Vein stripping
blooded) animals in the regulation of their body temperature.
Cosmetic procedures
Birds and mammals show complete separation of the
heart into two pumps, for a total of four heart chambers; it
Cardiovascular procedures are more likely to performed is thought that the four-chambered heart of birds evolved
in the inpatient setting than in an ambulatory care setting; independently from that of mammals.
in the United States, only 28% of cardiovascular surgeries
were performed in the ambulatory care setting.[11]

5.2 Open circulatory system

Society and culture

See also: Hemolymph

The open circulatory system is a system in which a uid

A number of alternative medical systems such as Chinese in a cavity called the hemocoel bathes the organs dimedicine view the circulatory system in dierent ways.
rectly with oxygen and nutrients and there is no distinc-

tion between blood and interstitial uid; this combined
uid is called hemolymph or haemolymph.[12] Muscular
movements by the animal during locomotion can facilitate hemolymph movement, but diverting ow from one
area to another is limited. When the heart relaxes, blood
is drawn back toward the heart through open-ended pores
Hemolymph lls all of the interior hemocoel of the body
and surrounds all cells. Hemolymph is composed of
water, inorganic salts (mostly Na+ , Cl , K+ , Mg2+ , and
Ca2+ ), and organic compounds (mostly carbohydrates,
proteins, and lipids). The primary oxygen transporter
molecule is hemocyanin.


5.3 Absence of circulatory system

Circulatory systems are absent in some animals, including atworms (phylum Platyhelminthes). Their body cavity has no lining or enclosed uid. Instead a muscular
pharynx leads to an extensively branched digestive system that facilitates direct diusion of nutrients to all cells.
The atworms dorso-ventrally attened body shape also
restricts the distance of any cell from the digestive system
or the exterior of the organism. Oxygen can diuse from
the surrounding water into the cells, and carbon dioxide
can diuse out. Consequently every cell is able to obtain
nutrients, water and oxygen without the need of a transport system.

There are free-oating cells, the hemocytes, within the

hemolymph. They play a role in the arthropod immune Some animals, such as jellysh, have more extensive
branching from their gastrovascular cavity (which funcsystem.
tions as both a place of digestion and a form of circulation), this branching allows for bodily uids to reach the
outer layers, since the digestion begins in the inner layers.

6 History

Flatworms, such as this Pseudoceros bifurcus, lack specialized

circulatory organs

Above is a diagram of an open circulatory system. An open circulatory system is made up of a heart, vessels, and hemolymph.
This diagram shows how the hemolymph, uid present in most invertebrates that is equivalent to blood, is circulated throughout the
body of a grasshopper. The hymolymph is rst pumped through
the heart, into the aorta, dispersed into the head and throughout
the hemocoel, then back through the ostium that are located in
the heart, where the process is repeated.

Human anatomical chart of blood vessels, with heart, lungs, liver

and kidneys included. Other organs are numbered and arranged
around it. Before cutting out the gures on this page, Vesalius
suggests that readers glue the page onto parchment and gives
instructions on how to assemble the pieces and paste the multilayered gure onto a base muscle man illustration. Epitome,
fol.14a. HMD Collection, WZ 240 V575dhZ 1543.

The earliest known writings on the circulatory system
are found in the Ebers Papyrus (16th century BCE), an
ancient Egyptian medical papyrus containing over 700
prescriptions and remedies, both physical and spiritual.
In the papyrus, it acknowledges the connection of the
heart to the arteries. The Egyptians thought air came in
through the mouth and into the lungs and heart. From
the heart, the air travelled to every member through the
arteries. Although this concept of the circulatory system
is only partially correct, it represents one of the earliest
accounts of scientic thought.

circulation in his Treatise on Pulse.[15] While also rening Galens erroneous theory of the pulse, Avicenna
provided the rst correct explanation of pulsation: Every beat of the pulse comprises two movements and two
pauses. Thus, expansion : pause : contraction : pause.
[...] The pulse is a movement in the heart and arteries ... which takes the form of alternate expansion and

In 1242, the Arabian physician, Ibn al-Nas, became

the rst person to accurately describe the process of
pulmonary circulation, for which he is sometimes conIn the 6th century BCE, the knowledge of circulation of sidered the father of circulatory physiology.[17] Ibn alvital uids through the body was known to the Ayurvedic Nas stated in his Commentary on Anatomy in Avicennas
physician Sushruta in ancient India.[13] He also seems Canon:
to have possessed knowledge of the arteries, described
as 'channels by Dwivedi & Dwivedi (2007).[13] The
"...the blood from the right chamber of
valves of the heart were discovered by a physician of the
the heart must arrive at the left chamber but
Hippocratean school around the 4th century BCE. Howthere is no direct pathway between them. The
ever their function was not properly understood then. Bethick septum of the heart is not perforated and
cause blood pools in the veins after death, arteries look
does not have visible pores as some people
empty. Ancient anatomists assumed they were lled with
thought or invisible pores as Galen thought.
air and that they were for transport of air.
The blood from the right chamber must ow
through the vena arteriosa (pulmonary artery)
The Greek physician, Herophilus, distinguished veins
to the lungs, spread through its substances, be
from arteries but thought that the pulse was a property
mingled there with air, pass through the arteof arteries themselves. Greek anatomist Erasistratus obria venosa (pulmonary vein) to reach the left
served that arteries that were cut during life bleed. He aschamber of the heart and there form the vital
cribed the fact to the phenomenon that air escaping from
an artery is replaced with blood that entered by very small
vessels between veins and arteries. Thus he apparently
postulated capillaries but with reversed ow of blood.[14] In addition, Ibn al-Nas had an insight into what would
become a larger theory of the capillary circulation. He
In 2nd century AD Rome, the Greek physician Galen
stated that there must be small communications or pores
knew that blood vessels carried blood and identied ve(manadh in Arabic) between the pulmonary artery and
nous (dark red) and arterial (brighter and thinner) blood,
vein, a prediction that preceded the discovery of the capeach with distinct and separate functions. Growth and
illary system by more than 400 years.[18] Ibn al-Nas theenergy were derived from venous blood created in the
ory, however, was conned to blood transit in the lungs
liver from chyle, while arterial blood gave vitality by conand did not extend to the entire body.
taining pneuma (air) and originated in the heart. Blood
owed from both creating organs to all parts of the body Michael Servetus was the rst European to describe the
where it was consumed and there was no return of blood function of pulmonary circulation, although his achieveto the heart or liver. The heart did not pump blood ment was not widely recognized at the time, for a few
around, the hearts motion sucked blood in during dias- reasons. He rstly described it in the Manuscript of
(near 1546), but this work was never pubtole and the blood moved by the pulsation of the arteries Paris
lished. And later he published this description, but in a
theological treatise, Christianismi Restitutio, not in a book
Galen believed that the arterial blood was created by veon medicine. Only three copies of the book survived, the
nous blood passing from the left ventricle to the right by
rest were burned shortly after its publication in 1553 bepassing through 'pores in the interventricular septum, air
cause of persecution of Servetus by religious authorities.
passed from the lungs via the pulmonary artery to the left
Better known was its discovery by Vesalius's successor at
side of the heart. As the arterial blood was created 'sooty'
Padua, Realdo Colombo, in 1559.
vapors were created and passed to the lungs also via the
Finally, William Harvey, a pupil of Hieronymus Fabricius
pulmonary artery to be exhaled.
(who had earlier described the valves of the veins without
In 1025, The Canon of Medicine by the Persian physirecognizing their function), performed a sequence of excian, Avicenna, erroneously accepted the Greek notion
periments, and published Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu
regarding the existence of a hole in the ventricular sepCordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus in 1628, which demontum by which the blood traveled between the ventricles.
strated that there had to be a direct connection between
Despite this, Avicenna correctly wrote on the cardiac cythe venous and arterial systems throughout the body, and
cles and valvular function, and had a vision of blood
not just the lungs. Most importantly, he argued that the


[6] Pratt, Rebecca. Cardiovascular System: Blood. AnatomyOne. Amirsys, Inc.

[7] Guyton, Arthur and Hall, John (2000). Guyton Textbook
of Medical Physiology (10 ed.). ISBN 072168677X.
[8] National Institutes of Health. What Are the Lungs?".
[9] State University of New York (February 3, 2014). The
Circulatory System.
[10] Whitaker, Kent (2001). Fetal Circulation. Comprehensive Perinatal and Pediatric Respiratory Care. Delmar
Thomson Learning. pp. 1820. ISBN 978-0-7668-13731.
Image of veins from William Harvey's Exercitatio Anatomica de
Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus

[11] Wier LM, Steiner CA, Owens PL (April 17, 2015).

Surgeries in Hospital-Owned Outpatient Facilities,
2012. HCUP Statistical Brief #188. Rockville, MD:
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

beat of the heart produced a continuous circulation of

blood through minute connections at the extremities of [12] Bailey, Regina. Circulatory System.
the body. This is a conceptual leap that was quite different from Ibn al-Nas renement of the anatomy and [13] Dwivedi, Girish & Dwivedi, Shridhar (2007). History
of Medicine: Sushruta the Clinician Teacher par Exbloodow in the heart and lungs.[21] This work, with its
cellence, Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci Vol.49 pp.243-4,
essentially correct exposition, slowly convinced the medNational Informatics Centre (Government of India).
ical world. However, Harvey was not able to identify the
capillary system connecting arteries and veins; these were [14] Anatomy History of anatomy.
Retrieved 2013-09-15.
later discovered by Marcello Malpighi in 1661.
In 1956, Andr Frdric Cournand, Werner Forssmann
and Dickinson W. Richards were awarded the Nobel
Prize in Medicine for their discoveries concerning heart
catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system.[22]

See also
Vital heat
Cardiac muscle
Major systems of the human body
Amato Lusitano


[1] "circulatory system" at Dorlands Medical Dictionary


[15] Shoja, M. M.; Tubbs, R. S.; Loukas, M.; Khalili, M.;

Alakbarli, F.; Cohen-Gadol, A. A. (2009). Vasovagal syncope in the Canon of Avicenna: The rst
mention of carotid artery hypersensitivity.
International Journal of Cardiology 134 (3): 297301.
doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.02.035. PMID 19332359.
[16] Hajar, Rachel (1999). The Greco-Islamic Pulse. Heart
Views 1 (4): 136140 [138].
[17] Reections, Chairmans (2004). Traditional Medicine
Among Gulf Arabs, Part II: Blood-letting. Heart Views
5 (2): 7485 [80].
[18] West, J. B. (2008). Ibn al-Nas, the pulmonary
circulation, and the Islamic Golden Age.
Journal of Applied Physiology 105 (6): 18771880.
doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.91171.2008. PMC 2612469.
PMID 18845773.
[19] Gonzalez Etxeberria, Patxi (2011) Amor a la verdad, el
vida y obra de Miguel servet [The love for truth. Life and
work of Michael Servetus]. Navarro y Navarro, Zaragoza,
collaboration with the Government of Navarra, Department of Institutional Relations and Education of the Government of Navarra. ISBN 8423532666 pp. 215228 &
62nd illustration (XLVII)

[3] "cardiovascular system" at Dorlands Medical Dictionary

[20] Michael Servetus Research Study with graphical proof on

the Manuscript of Paris and many other manuscripts and
new works by Servetus

[4] Sherwood, Lauralee (2011). Human Physiology: From

Cells to Systems. Cengage Learning. pp. 401. ISBN

[21] Pormann, Peter E. and Smith, E. Savage (2007) Medieval Islamic medicine Georgetown University, Washington DC, p. 48, ISBN 1589011619.

[5] Cardiovascular System at the US National Library of

Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

[22] The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.

External links
The Circulatory System
Reiber C. L. & McGaw I. J. (2009). A Review
of the Open and Closed Circulatory Systems:
New Terminology for Complex Invertebrate Circulatory Systems in Light of Current Findings.
International Journal of Zoology 2009: 8 pages.
Patwardhan K. The history of the discovery of
blood circulation: unrecognized contributions of
Ayurveda masters. Adv Physiol Educ. 2012
Michael Servetus Research Study on the Manuscript
of Paris by Servetus (1546 description of the Pulmonary Circulation)





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