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# Code.

No: 35042
R05 SET-1
III.B.TECH - I SEMESTER SUPPLEMENTARY EXAMINATIONS NOVEMBER, 2009
COMPUTER GRAPHICS
(ELECTRONICS & COMPUTER ENGINEERING)
Time: 3hours Max.Marks:80
All questions carry equal marks
---

## 1.a] List and explain the functions of computer graphics.

b] Distinguish between raster – refresh devices and vector – refresh devices.
[8+8]

2.a] Explain the Bresenham algorithm for line generation which is suitable for any
slope.
b] Generate the intermediate points of a line segment using the above algorithm, if
the end-points of the line segment are (10, 5) and (19, 11).
[8+8]

3.a] Prove or disprove that two successive rotations are commutative. i.e.,
R (θ1 ) ⋅ R (θ 2 ) = R (θ 2 ) ⋅ R (θ1 ) = R (θ1 + θ 2 ) .
b] Show the matrix concatenation form for rotation by ‘ θ ’ degrees about an arbitrary
point P (h, k). [8+8]

## 4.a] What is the significance of 4-bit region code in Cohen-Sutherland algorithm.

b] How do we determine whether two line segments are intersecting with each other
or not. [8+8]

## 5.a] Derive the basis matrix ( M B ) for Bazier curve.

b] Distinguish between Baziers curve and B-spline curve. [8+8]

6.a] Classify the projections in 3-D space. Explain the characteristics of each class.
b] Derive the generalized transformation matrix for rotation about an arbitrary axis in
three dimensional domains. [8+8]

## 7.a] Write an algorithm to implement scan-line algorithm for displaying visible

surfaces of a given polyhedral.
b] Distinguish between depth-sort and z-buffer algorithm. [8+8]

## 8.a] Describe the features of animation language.

b] Explain about in betweening of the key- frames. [8+8]

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Code.No: 35042
R05 SET-2
III.B.TECH - I SEMESTER SUPPLEMENTARY EXAMINATIONS NOVEMBER, 2009
COMPUTER GRAPHICS
(ELECTRONICS & COMPUTER ENGINEERING)
Time: 3hours Max.Marks:80
All questions carry equal marks
---

## 1.a] Explain with a neat sketch, the functioning of CRT devices.

b] How long would it take to load a 640 × 480 frame buffer with 8 bits per pixel, if
10,000 bits can be transferred per second? [8+8]

2.a] Determine the intermediate points if the end- points of the line segments are (5,
10) and (15, 22) using DDA algorithm.
b] Explain the steps involved in scan-line flood-fill algorithm. [8+8]

3.a] Describe the transformation that rotates an object point Q(x, y), θ 0 about a fixed
center of rotation P(h, k) where P(h, k) is other than the origin.
b] List the basic 2-D transformation techniques. What is their respective matrix
representation in homogeneous Coordinate system? [8+8]

## 4.a] What is meant by window to view port transformation.

b] What is meant by 4-bit region code in Cohen-Sutherland algorithm? How is it

## 5.a] Explain the steps involved in phong shading algorithm.

b] What are Bernstein Polynomials. What is their significance in Bezier curve.
[8+8]

6.a] Derive the transformation matrix which correspond to aligning the vector
V = I+J+K with vector K along z-axis.
b] Define terms:
i] View plane and
ii] View volume. [10+6]

## 7.a] Explain the steps involved in depth-sort algorithm.

b] Explain about the octree methods for visible surface detection. [8+8]

## 8.a] What are the basic rules of animation.

b] What are various types of interpolation in animation. [8+8]

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Code.No: 35042
R05 SET-3
III.B.TECH - I SEMESTER SUPPLEMENTARY EXAMINATIONS NOVEMBER, 2009
COMPUTER GRAPHICS
(ELECTRONICS & COMPUTER ENGINEERING)
Time: 3hours Max.Marks:80
All questions carry equal marks
---

## 1.a] Classify the CRT display devices. Distinguish their functioning.

b] What is meant by virtual reality. What are the typical components of it? Explain
briefly. [8+8]

2.a] Generate the intermediate points of a line segment with two end-point as(4, 10)
and (16,20) using Bresenham’s algorithm.
b] Explain the procedure involved in determining whether a point is inside or outside
the polygon, if the method followed is
i] Odd-even rule and ii] Non-zero winding number rule. [8+8]

## 3.a] Derive the transformation matrix for rotation about origin.

b] What are the new coordinates of the point P (2, -4) after rotating 450 about the
origin clock wise? [8+8]

4.a] Derive the transformation matrix for window to view port transformation.
b] Distinguish between Cohen-Sutherland and Sutherland Hodgeman algorithms.
[8+8]

## 5.a] Explain the steps involved in curve generation by Bezier’s method.

b] Distinguish between Phong and Gourand shading. [8+8]

6.a] What are the phases defined in typical viewing pipeline. Explain briefly about
each phase.
b] What are the characteristics of perspective projection. [8+8]

7.a] What is the principle of painter’s or priority algorithm. Explain the steps in the
algorithm.
b] Distinguish between object-space and image space methods of visible surface
detection. [8+8]

[i] Constraint based system [ii] Tracking live action [iii] Actor
b] Explain how the kinematic desciptions are simulated in key frame systems. [8+8]
Code.No: 35042
R05 SET-4
III.B.TECH - I SEMESTER SUPPLEMENTARY EXAMINATIONS NOVEMBER, 2009
COMPUTER GRAPHICS
(ELECTRONICS & COMPUTER ENGINEERING)
Time: 3hours Max.Marks:80
All questions carry equal marks
---

## 1. Explain the functioning of following classes of display devices. Distinguish their

merits and demerits.
a] Raster-refresh systems. [b] Vector-refresh system [c] LCD system 

2.a] Explain the simple DDA algorithm for line generation. Analyze for its time
complexity.
b] Illustrate the working of flood fill algorithm with the help of stack. [8+8]

3.a] List the basic 2-D transformation techniques. What are their respective matrix
representations.
b] Magnify the square object A (1, 0), B (3, 0), C (3, 2) and D (1, 2) to twice its size
keeping C (3, 2) as fixed. [8+8]

4. What are the steps involved in Cohen-Sutherland algorithm for line clipping.
Explain the working of this algorithm with various test cases. 

## 5.a] Explain how the Gourand shading is implemented.

b] Describe the Phong illumination model. Explain the parameters used in this
model. [8+8]

6.a] List the matrix representations correspond to rotation about different principle
axis in 3-D space. Give the corresponding homogeneous matrix representing.
b] Out line the steps involved in reflecting a 3-D object about an arbitrary plane.
[8+8]

7.a] Explain the steps involved in Z- buffer algorithm for hidden surface removal.
Analyze its time and space requirements.
b] What is the significance of area coherence in sub-division algorithm? [8+8]

8.a] Explain how the acceleration effects are simulated in key frame systems.
b] What are the various problems in 3D animation? How are they solved?
[8+8]
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