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Centrifuge

A mechanical device that uses centrifugal or rotational forces to separate substances


of different densities, such as solids from liquids or liquids from other liquids.
Centrifugation is an operation which involves the use of the centrifugal force for the
sedimentation of heterogeneous mixtures with a centrifuge, used in industry and in
laboratory settings. This operation is used to separate two immiscible liquids.

Type Of centrifuges
1. Filtering centrifuges

2. Sedimentation centrifuges

Batch Filtering centrifuges

Batch sedimentation Centrifuges

Vertical Basket Centrifuges

Imperforated Basket Centrifuges

Horizontal Peeler

Tubular Centrifuges

Inverting Bag Centrifuge

Continuous Sedimentation
centrifuges

Continuous Filtering Centrifuges

Screen Bowl Centrifuge

Scroll Screen centrifuge

Pusher Centrifuge

Solid Bowl or Decanting Centrifuges


Disc Centrifuges

Vibratory Centrifuge

Decanter centrifuge

Disk Stack centrifuge

Selection Criteria of Centrifuge

Current or past experience

Physical Properties of Materials

Specific Gravities of the Solids and Liquids

Particle Size

Performance Criteria

Solid Recovery

Solid Dryness

Centrate Clarity

Process requirements

Logistics

Pressure and Temperature

Flow Rate (solid loading)

Solid Concentration

Number Of components of Feed


Degree Of Purity required

Properties of the disk stack centrifugation

Ideal for a wide range of separation tasks that involve

lower solids concentrations

smaller particle sizes

How a disk stack centrifuge works

separates solids and liquid phases in a continuous process

uses extremely high centrifugal forces

denser solids are forced outwards against the solid bowl wall

less dense liquid phases form concentric inner layers

inserting special plates provides additional surface settling area

Parts Of Centrifuge:
1. Inlet zone

reduces shear forces and amount


of foaming

increases and avoids disturbances


of the separation processes
occurring in the bowl

2. Liquid discharge section

important that oxygen pick-up is


kept to a minimum

temperature increases in the


liquid must be avoided to prevent
problems later in the process

3. Solids discharge section

remove solids by continuous solids discharge,


intermittent solids discharge or manual
removal

4. Disk stack area

heart of the centrifuge

key to good separation performance lies in


the efficiency of the disk stack

layout and design of the distribution holes


ensure that the process flow is evenly spread
among all the disks

Keys to exceptional performance


1. Efficiency depends on

solids volume fraction

sedimentation area

rotational speed

2. Efficiency can be improved if

particle diameter is increased (coagulation, flocculation)

residence time

distance for sedimentation

3. Desirables

high centrifuge speed

large particle size

large radius

small viscosity

large density difference between solids and liquids

References
Pictures

http://www.flottweg.com/Broschu/%DCbersichtsprospekt_E.pdf
http://www.alfalaval.com/digitalassets/2/file30910_0_DiscStackBrochure.pdf

Websites
http://web.mit.edu/tox/sasisekharan/downloads/BIOT53.pdf
http://www.sls.hw.ac.uk/icbd/Newsletter/Newsletter_Winter_2005.htm

Books
Belter P.A., Cussler E.L., Hu W.S. Bioseparations : downstream processing for
biotechnology. New York : Wiley, 1988.
Lydersen B.K., DElia N.A.., Nelson K.L. Bioprocess engineering : systems, equipment
and facilities. New York : Wiley, 1994.
Perry, R.H.; Green, D.W. (1997). Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook
Edition). McGraw-Hill.

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