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Optimisation

Lecture 3

Objectives: Lecture 3

At the end of this lecture you should:

1.Understand the use of Petzval curvature to balance lens components 2.Know how different aberrations depend on field angle or pupil zone 3.Understand the basics of the Zemax merit function and the Zemax operands 4.Be able to progressively optimise a complex lens system to achieve the final performance requirements

Petzval Surface & Petzval Curvature

Theoretical best image surface which exhibits no astigmatism

Petzval sum

φ

P =

where

n

2

n

1

is the

n n

1

2

φ =

r

optical power of each surface

φ is the

power of each lens (reciprocal of focal

length) and

φ

n

For simple lenses

P =

where

n is the refractive index

Minimizing Petzval curvature produces a flat, anastigmatic image plane

Aberration Dependance on Aperture and Field

 Aperture Exponent Field Exponent Longitudinal colour 1 0 Lateral colour 0 1 Spherical aberration 3 0 Coma 2 1 Astigmatism 1 2 Field curvature 1 2 Distortion 0 3

Stopping down a lens can make a big difference on spherical aberration • Stopping down a lens wont improve the distortion • For wide-angle lenses, astigmatism is harder to control than coma • Symmetrical systems (about stop) minimise lateral colour, coma & distortion

Optimisation Process

Enter a starting lens configuration Allow Zemax to change lens parameters to improve performance Requires a measure of performance – merit function (error function) Optimisation tries to minimise merit function (gradient search or Hammer)

Constituents of Merit Function

Measures of:

1.How well first-order properties are satisfied (e.g. paraxial focus, locations of pupils and images) 2.How well special constraints are satisfied (e.g. element centre or edge thickness, curvatures, glass properties) 3.How well aberrations are controlled (e.g. image sharpness and distortion)

Image Sharpness metrics

1.Spot size measured by ray-intercept errors in image plane 2.Wavefront imperfections measured by optical path difference (OPD) errors in the exit pupil 3.Modulation transfer function (MTF) in the image plane

(Start with [1], moving to [2] or [3] only in final optimisation stages)

Optimization Operands

Individual components of the merit function which are assigned a target value and weights Number of operands often greatly exceeds the number of independent lens variables Apply iterative least squares optimisation to minimise the (weighted) deviations between operands and their target values

Zemax Operands

Zemax Operands

Zemax has over 300 user-selectable operands (see OpticStudio manual, p. 259) Mostly used to supplement a default merit function (now called Sequential Merit Function) Weights = 0 ignored, weights < 0 treated as a Lagrangian multiplier ( weight) OptimizationWizard adds the default merit function Can also have user-defined operands (ZPL)

 Spherical Coma Astigmatism Field Distortion Long. Lateral Curvature Colour Colour SPHA, COMA, ASTI, FCUR DIMX, AXCL LACL REAY TRAY TRAX,TRAY DIST

Optimisation Techniques

Choose starting design carefully (e.g. scale from existing lens catalogue) Develop optimisation approach that is systematic & rationale Sheperd design in direction intended Do continuous sanity checks Discard poor solutions as they arise

Optimisation Wizard

Early Optimisations

Reduce number of independent variables Freeze glass types and use pickup solves to symmetrise configurations Replace large RoC surfaces with planes Include first order (paraxial) properties and boundary conditions (e.g. back focal length) in merit function

Intermediate Optimisations

Start to control on-axis and off-axis aberrations Chromatic aberrations using only two extreme wavelengths Monochromatic aberrations using single central wavelength Typically: longitudinal & lateral colour, spherical & distortion Keep image plane at paraxial focus

Final Optimisations

Shrink polychromatic spots for all field angles Use several wavelengths across the band Re-optimise using wavefront OPDs in exit pupil rather than transverse ray errors (spots) on image surface Allow small amount of paraxial defocussing Include any deliberate mechanical vignetting Take a critical look at the final lens & its performance

Potential Problem Areas

Avoid systems which attempt to balance lenses with large amounts of positive and negative power Avoid highly curved surfaces and grazing rays Look out for designs which have individual elements which stand out as either very strong (split) or very weak (eliminate) Watch for variables that are only weakly effective Avoid aspherics unless really necessary Avoid glasses with undesirable properties (e.g. low transmission, softness)

Example: Cooke Triplet (1983)

One of 1st fast, wide-field photographic lenses. Consists of two positive singlets and one negative singlet (all thin lenses) Negative element located about halfway between positive elements to maintain a large amount of symmetry 8 major variables (6 radii, 2 spacings).

Early Optimisation

Intermediate Optimisation

Final Optimisation

Balancing Aberrations

Analyse –> Aberrations –> Seidel Diagram

Summary: Lecture 3

Minimising the Petzval sum can give a good starting point for lens optimisation Proper use of the Zemax optimisation tools is the key to successful lens design Optmisation using spot size (ray intercept errors) is more stable than OPD errors and should normally be used first Whilst the Zemax default merit function gives a good starting point, in many cases it will need supplementing with individual user-selected operands to achieve the desired constraints

Exercises: Lecture 3

Repeat the analysis of a Cooke triplet to work at F/3.5 which has a 52mm focal length, starting from COOKE-LECT3-EARLY.ZMX on course www page (Lecture 3). Assume wavelengths of 0.45,0.50,0.55,0.60 & 0.65 µ m and field angles of 0 o ,9 o ,16 o & 22 o Place the aperture stop between the 2 nd and 3 rd lenses and use LaFN21 & SF53 for the glass types Optimize the performance on the paraxial focal plane, so that the lens still performs well when stopped down