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"In the name of Allah The All Merciful The most Merciful "

Useful Science for the Sake of God


Course:

Negotiation Skills for Project Managers


‫مهارات التفاوض لمديري المشاريع‬
Instructor:
Dr. Attia Hussien Gomaa
Industrial Engineering Consultant
Engineering Service - American University In Cairo
Email: attiagomaa@yahoo.com – Tel: 0122738497
Who Should Attend:
Managers, engineers, and other practitioners concerned with
planning and control in government, industrial and services
sectors.

Objectives:
• To provide the participants with the nature and objectives of
negotiation process in engineering fields.
• To train the participants on negotiation planning and
negotiation tactics.
• To enhance the participants experience by discussing some
real negotiation problems and how to deal with them.

Course Outline:
1. Negotiation overview 2
2. Negotiation management 21
3. Negotiation for selling & buying 39
4. Negotiation for salary 49
5. Conflict management 64
6. Negotiation for project managers 70
7. Negotiation case studies for project managers 104

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Chapter 1: Negotiation Overview

What is the Negotiation?

Negotiation is
interaction between two or more parties
to achieve certain goals or targets, &
to overcome certain constrains or problems

Negotiation

(1) (3) (5) (7)


Targets Interaction Conference Agreement

(2) (4) (6)


Constraints Communication Conviction

"In business, you don't get what you


deserve, you get what you can
negotiate",
Chester Karrass

"Never cut what you can untie",


Joseph Joubert
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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Negotiation:

 Interaction between two or more parties & Each party


having certain goals to be achieved

 To confer with another or others in order to come to


terms or reach an agreement

 Negotiation is the process of achieving goals through an


agreement.

 Negotiating is the art of reaching an agreement by


resolving differences through creativity

 The process by which at least two people seek to make


something happen. To be successful, both sides must
agree with the resolution. This is just the beginning,
however. Both sides must cooperate in the implementation
of the contract they have accepted

 The definition of negotiation as it relates to employment


is: a series of communications (either oral or writing) that
reach a satisfying conclusion for all concerned parties,
most often between the new employee and the hiring
organization.

 Process of give-and-take exchange among persons


aimed at resolving problems or conflicts

 Chester L. Karrass: ‘In business, you don't get what you


deserve, you get what you negotiate’.

 Joseph Joubert: ‘Never cut what you can untie’.

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
 Robert Estabrook: ‘He who has learned to disagree
without being disagreeable has discovered the most
valuable secret of a diplomat’.

 “Everyone has just his [or her] own negotiating style,


and the worst thing you can do is to adopt a negotiating
technique that does not feel comfortable [because]
credibility, based on an evident sincerity, is the most
important single asset of a good negotiator.” James C.
Freund, Anatomy of A Merger(1975)

PRINCIPLES OF NEGOTIATION:

• The greatest failure in negotiation is failing to negotiate.

• The most important person to know in a negotiation is


yourself.

• Everyone has power in a negotiation.

• Single-issue bargaining leaves both parties unsatisfied.

• Urgency drives decisions.

• Agreement is the end; trading off is the means.

• Even in a collaborative environment, best results are


obtained by keeping the other party on a "need to know"
basis.

• The value of something is always in the eye of the


beholder.
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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
• Success in negotiation is directly related to the amount
and kind of preparation preceding the negotiation.

• The ability to walk away or select another alternative to


a negotiated agreement puts a negotiator in a very strong
position.

• Even when two sides are far apart on major issues, there
are always things they can agree upon.

• Meaningful negotiation involves conflicts. The person


who has a strong need to be liked, or who tends to avoid
conflict, is likely to be at a disadvantage.

A Simple Example:
• Two agents: A and B
• Agent B wants to buy a bicycle from agent A
• Start:
agent A 150
agent B 50
• What next:
agent A ?

What is the basis for your next step?


• Previous bid of yourself and the other agent
(e.g., monotonic concession protocol)
• How bad is it to raise your bid?
(e.g., how much can you afford)
• How bad is it when the transaction does not succeed?
(e.g., are there alternatives)
• Do you have information about a normal price?
(e.g., estimation of the value on the free market)
• How reasonable are you willing to be with respect to the
other agent? (e.g., is it a friend of yours)
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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Strategies for Negotiation:

The Flinch
- Draw back at initial propoal

The Deadline
- Produce results

The Nibble
- Small “something extra” that is sought

The Concession
- Valuable to other, little or no value to you

THE OLD BOOK ON NEGOTIATION:

• “Win -Win” Negotiations: The Good Ones


• “Win-Lose” Negotiations: The Bad Ones
• “Lose-Lose” Negotiations: The Tragedies

THE NEW BOOK ON NEGOTIATION:

• Everyone negotiates for one and only one reason:


to achieve their goals.

• No one ever does anything that is against their interests


(at least as they perceive those interests).

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
?How
Team work: Individuals Team
Lose / Lose
(1) (2)

Individuals Targets

(3) (4)

Team Approach Planning

(5) Win / Win (6)

Target plan Agreement

"In business, you don't get what you deserve....


you get what you negotiate"; Chester Karrass
Dr. Attia H. Gomaa: attiagomaa@yahoo.com 0122738497

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
NEEDS & WANTS:

The wants often distort the


Emotion negotiation process, creating a
Illogical desire for something that is not
Powerful critical to the task. Wants are

WANTS
Responsive frequently an emotional response
Costly and are therefore often beyond
Negotiable reason.

Alpha Point
Logical
NEEDS

Important Needs are those things that are seen as


Non-negotiable critical to the task or outcome. They
Critical represent a basic or foundational
view, the absence of which would
severely restrict the purpose.

Who Negotiates?

Everyone!
 Children when they ‘beg’ for something: sweets or late to bed
 Friend, Wife, etc.
 Owner, Contractor, etc.

• Negotiating is a basic, generic human activity - a process that is


often used in:
• Labor-management relations
• Business deals like mergers and sales
• International affairs
• Everyday activities
• Negotiation is not a process that everyone does, almost daily

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
What is the Aim of Negotiation?

 To arrive at a win-win situation


 Both parties must leave the table feeling satisfied with
results
 Conflict model not helpful in insurance circumstances
although may be applicable to third party (TP) claims
 Power an issue in TP claims

NEGOTIATION CRITERIA:
• Issue must be negotiable
• Negotiators must be interested in both giving and taking
• Parties must trust each other and the negotiation process

When parties disagree they either:


 Accept the status quo
 More powerful side can try to impose solution
 Negotiate

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Negotiating Orientation (structures):

The structure of the negotiation itself plays an important part in


determining how two negotiating parties should interact.

 Win / Win Orientation


 collaborative approach
 assumes that solutions can be reached to satisfy all
parties
 look beyond means and focus on end

5 Steps to Win-Win Negotiating


 identify needs of both parties

 brainstorm list of possible solutions

 evaluate alternative solutions

 implement solution(s)

 follow up

 Win / Lose: Bargaining Orientation


 used by competitive communicators
 victory by one party matched by loss of other
 requires much information gathering
 negotiations are begun by taking positions

 Lose / Lose Orientation


 if one party believes that a negotiating partner is
blocking them, seek revenge
 generally occurs when partners ignore other’s needs

 Compromise Orientation (lose/lose):


 usually done when resources are limited or scarce
 both parties lose some of what they want

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Negotiating Styles:
 Quick

 Deliberate

 Middle is compromise

Quick Style:
 Negotiate in a hurry
 Use when you won’t negotiate with
these people again
 Get the best deal without regard to the
other side’s “win”

Deliberate Style:
 Use when long term relationship
likely
 Involves cooperation and relationship
building to reach agreement
 Needs much prep, hard work
 May move in fits and starts

Outcomes:
 Realistic
 Both sides satisfied, win/win situation
 Usually results from deliberate style
 Acceptable

 Likely to result from quick style


 Something is better than nothing
 Always ask for a better deal
 Worst

 When you’re too stubborn to be flexible


 Usually from quick style
 Predetermine the outcomes before you start
negotiations, you have a better chance of getting a better
result
 “Think carefully, think creatively, and think
ahead”

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Principles:
 There are no rules
 Establish an agenda
 Everything is negotiable
 Ask for a better deal
 Be creative
 Learn to say “NO” yourself

A Good Negotiator Is..


 Creative

 Versatile

 Motivated

 Has the ability to walk away

Are you a Motivated Negotiator?


 Enthusiasm
 Confidence
 Engaged
 Recognition
 Accomplishment
 Pat on the back
 Integrity
 No trickery
 Trustworthiness
 Social Skills
 Enjoy people
 Interest in others
 Teamwork
 Better as a team
 Self-control
 Creativity
 Always looking for ways to complete the deal

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
The Art of Negotiation:
o Identify your power
o Decide what you are willing to concede
o What are the consequences of disagreement
o What can you offer to allay the other party’s fear?
o Is the issue tied to others that you can make offers
based on?
o Can you bring others in on the negotiation?
o Think about tone and body language – remain
courteous!

Do Your Homework:
 Know what you want
 Know the negotiator
 What’s the negotiator’s model?
 What does the negotiator want?

Double Think:
 What do you want? (think)
 What does the negotiator want? (double think)
 What does the negotiator think you want? (triple think)
 Where’s the middle ground?

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Build Trust:
 Tell the truth
 Respect confidences
 Honor your commitments
 Be clear
 Be open
 Be firm

External Listening:
 Body language – yours and theirs
 Non verbal messages:
 Facial expressions
 Voice inflections
 Eye movement

Move Beyond Positions:


 Ask questions that probe specific needs / interests
 Create a supportive climate
 Find mutual ground

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
LEAVE SOMETHING ON THE TABLE:

Peace treaties are made between enemies, not friends: It usually


takes a war to get them to the bargaining table. Deals are made
between parties who seek mutual advantage, not unilateral victory.
Both sides have to win something, or you don't have a deal, you
have a homicide. One way or another, your counterpart will see to
it that crime doesn't pay.

FIRST NOT FINAL:

Don't create a situation in which your opponent can't justify his


value to his principal by accepting your offer. Give the person on
the other side of the table a chance to knock you down a little.
Remember the previous point: He or she needs to win something,
too.

DON’T NEGOTIATE WITH YOURSELF:

Once you've made an offer, if the other party doesn't accept it,
don't make another offer. Wait for a counteroffer. Don't lower
your own demands without getting them to lower theirs

TAKE A RISK:

Sometimes it's risky not to take a risk. The trial lawyer who says
he or she never lost a case settles too easily. Don't let yourself be
bluffed by artificial deadlines or "final offers." And don't run
bluffs, either. If you are called and you don't follow through, your
credibility is shot.

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
USE EXPERTS:

You don't know everything. Trying to pretend to your opponent,


your client or yourself that you are knowledgeable in some area or
have some vital information when you don't harms your position.
It makes you appear weak and foolish.

ACCURATELY ASSESS OTHER SIDES STRENGTH:

Remember, in any negotiation, both sides are under pressure to


perform. They have bosses, deadlines, pressures, fears and
objectives, the same as you do.

TAKE YOUR TIME:

Don't let the other side force a deal. The more time you give
yourself, the more information you can gather about their true
needs.

REVIEW AND LEARN:

Look back on the negotiation that you have conducted and


identify what worked and what did not. Learn from the
experience.

Know Your BATNA:


 BATNA – Best Alternative To A Negotiated Agreement

 Can you afford to walk away?

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
BATNA: Realistic alternatives instead of strict limits.
This method consists of three steps in order to overcome
unrealistic and un-flexible limits:
 Step (1): List everything you could do in case
you do not come to an agreement
 Step (2): Explore your best options and try to improve
them
 Step (3): Choose the best option.

Calculate the value of each concession. Before making the


concessions, ask yourself:
 What is the value of such concession to the other party?
 What will it cost me?
 What do I need in return?

Concessions:
 Leave room for negotiation
 Make the other party struggle for a concession on your
part
 Do not make too many concessions, too fast if possible,
make the first most significant concession come from the
other party.

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Impasses:
 Pause
 Honorable withdrawal
 Change of place, person or proposal
 Mediator
 Respond to aggressions with facts
 Avoid personality conflicts
 Emphasize previous points of agreement
 Move on to non conflicting issues

Negotiating a Raise or Promotion:


 What have you done for them lately?
 How often can you ask for a raise or promotion?
 How much should you ask for?
 How do you ask?
 What if the answer is no?

Setting It Up:
 Agree on a benchmark job
 Agree on proficiency / performance level
 Job value
 Salary range
 Necessary performance
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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
What is a Win?
 Settlement range
 What’s your bottom line?

Enjoy Yourself:
 Negotiation is an art
 Logical steps set the parameters
 The art is in the deal
 Have fun!

The Buyer’s Role in Negotiation:


 Acting Alone:
 Recurring purchases of standard, low price
items
 Meets in office with supplier reps.

 Buyer as Team Leader:


 Expensive, technically advanced items, or
complex contracts
 Setting up long term relationships
 Negotiating details and specs not included in
the RFP

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Personality Types:

1-

2-

3-

4-

5-

6-

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Chapter 2: Negotiation Management

Negotiation Management is a powerful systematic methodology


to achieve certain targets between two or more parties.

Through:
(1) Define the scope of work
(2) Define the targets, bottom lines, and constraints.
(3) Information collection, estimation & analysis.
(4) Brainstorming, planning and target plan.
(5) Consequence estimation and risk analysis.
(6) Face to face discussion
(7) Motivation and direction
(8) Implementation
(9) Control & corrective Actions
(10) Learned lessons
(11) Close out report

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
The Negotiation Process:

Preparation- 1
Establishing- 2
Objectives

Control &- 5
Assessment
FACE-TO-FACE
Face-to-Face- 3
Discussion
DISCUSSIONS

Final- 4
Action

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Negotiation Process: Preparation

 What do you want?


 What does the other side need?
 Decide on style
 What are the consequences of each choice.

Know the item or service:


 What is being purchased?
 Who is it for?
 How will it be used?
 Are there any substitutes?
 What is the procurement history of this item?
 What is its future with this company?
 Is there any trade lingo to be familiar with?

The Sellers Bargaining Strength


 Seller’s Desperation
 Certainty of getting contract
 Time to reach agreement

The Buyers Bargaining Strength


 Extent of competition
 Adequacy of cost/price analysis
 Knowledge of the Seller
 Thoroughness of preparation

Note: 99% or more of the time involved in a successful negotiation is


invested in preparation for the actual face-to-face discussion

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Negotiation Process: Establishing
Objectives

 Objectives must be specific!!


 General objectives are inadequate

and too vague to foster good


negotiation.
 Planning sheet

 Issues involved
 Realistic, possible, worst

Examples:
 “Lower than previous price”
 “Good on-time delivery performance”
 “Satisfactory technical assistance”

The buyer should develop three specific positions for each term and
condition being negotiated:
 An Objective (target) Position

 A Minimum Position

 A Maximum Position

The buyer should also develop estimates of the sellers positions


Potential Negotiation Issues

Objectives should be developed for all of the following issues:


 Costs and prices

 Delivery schedules

 Quality levels

 All technical aspects of the purchase

 Types of materials and substitutes

 Buyer-furnished material and equipment

 Mode of transportation

 Warranty terms and conditions

 Payment terms

 Discount provisions

 Liability for claims and damage

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
 F.O.B. point

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Presentation:
 Creative title

 Reduce to “must know” items

 Keywords

 Mini-speeches around keywords

 Visuals

 Don’t give concessions just to keep things going

 Make note of concerns and keep going

Negotiation Process: Face-to-Face Discussion

Fact Narrowing Hard


Finding Recess Differences Bargaining

Fact Finding:
 Initial Meeting

 Focus on inconsistencies between supplier’s

proposal and buyer’s information


 Should gain a better understanding of the supplier’s

interests and abilities (strengths & weaknesses)


 Focus on interests and information, NOT positions

The Recess:
 Buyers reassess relative strengths and weaknesses

 Review and refine

 Organize an agenda

 Prioritize issues to be discussed in the order of their

probable ease of solution


 Goal is to develop a cooperative atmosphere; yet,

one that is going to allow you to effectively negotiate

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Narrowing the Differences:
 The “back and forth” process

 Define the issue, state the facts, attempt to convince

supplier that your position is reasonable


 If agreement can’t be reached, move on to next issue

 Continue until all things are worked out

 If agreement cannot be reached, there are two

choices
 Adjourning

 Hard bargaining

Hard Bargaining:
 Normally, the last resort
 “Take it or leave it”
 Doesn’t work well if the approach to

purchasing is collaborative
 Be careful with bluffing
 Unless a one-time purchase is at stake, be careful
that the seller doesn’t feel abused or unfair treatment

 When in doubt, ask questions!


 Open questions
 Reflective questions
 Tactics

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Tactics:
 Use

 Walk out

 Don’t use
 Emotional outburst
 Argue special case
 Pretend ignorance
 Play for time
 Nibble and retreat
 “You go first”
 Bad environment
 Defer to higher authority
 Not willing to make any changes
 Silence
 Good guy/bad buy

Negotiation Process: Final Action (Agreement)

 Arrangements should be neutral and comfortable


 Pay attention to what others say
 Screen out all visual distractions
 Ask open ended questions
 Listen to responses
 Proactive vs. reactive behavior

 Win-win
 Individualistic or integrative - (e.g., individual vs.
team vs. group)
 Making a deal or creating a relationship
 Short-term goals or long-term goals
 Creativity - develop different angles (offer
recuperator free for 1st year).

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Principled Negotiation:
 Separate the people from the problem
 Focus on interests, not positions
 Invent options for mutual gain
 Insist on using objective criteria

Separate People from Problem:


 Understand the other side's position
 Acknowledge emotions, let steam out
 Use active listening

Focus on Interests, not Positions:


 Position is something decided, interests are cause of decision
 Identify underlying interests---some interests will be shared by
both sides

Invent Options for Mutual Gain:


 Brainstorm options
 Evaluate alternatives
Reconciling differences: look for items that are of low cost to you

and high benefit to them, and vice versa

Insist on Using Objective Criteria:


 Find objective criteria: both parties should be willing to be bound
by standard
 Use and acknowledge reason
 Do not give in to pressure

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Dealing with problem:
 Avoid a strict mandate
 Moderate the demands of your constituency
 Keep persons whose expectations are too high outside the
negotiation process
 Keep results vague or quite complicated so that criticism has
little basis
 Exaggerate opponent’s concessions

ETHICAL:
 Productive.

 Sets high standards, independent thinking


 Develops proposals in common interest
 Less productive.

 Becomes ‘preachy’. Overly concerned with ideals


and common values
 Tendencies in conflict.

 Sticks to his case because he is ‘right’. Becomes


easily disillusioned
ANALYTICAL:
 Productive.

 Careful analysis. Preference for hard facts and


figures. Predictable, Holds to goals
 Less productive.

 Over pre-occupation with details. No ability to


improvise. Not sensitive to climate of meeting
 Tendencies in a conflict.

 Amasses more and more evidence that argument is


right. Becomes stubborn
FLEXIBLE:
 Productive

 Wants to get things done. Takes advantage of


opportunities. Quick to act. Likes to organise
 Less productive.

 Bossy. Easily becomes impatient and impulsive


 Tendencies in a conflict

 Does not concede. Tries to win. Becomes angry

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
JOVIAL:
 Productive.
 Socially skilled, diplomatic. Tries to influence climate
positively. Flexible.
 Less productive
 Offers little resistance. Reluctant to take a stand,
ambivalent
 Tendencies in conflict
 Over-compromising. Gives in to preserve harmony and
good will
Other Party Doesn't Play:
 Other party is more powerful
 Other party won't use principled negotiation
 Other party uses dirty tricks

Other Party Is More Powerful:


 Don't focus on a "bottom line"
 Know your Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement
(BATNA)
 Know your opponent's BATNA
 Don't agree to anything less than your BATNA

Won't Use Principled Negotiation:


 Continue to use principled negotiation
 Use "Negotiation Jujitsu": deflect attacks onto problem
 Assertion of position --> ask for reasons
 Attack your ideas --> ask for advice
 Personal attacks --> recast as attacks on problem

Other Party Uses Dirty Tricks:


Deception: seek verification for claims
 Personal attacks: recognize them

Refusal to negotiate: ask why

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Cartoon of the Day:

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Customer-Oriented Development:
§ It is important to develop good relationships with customers
(I.e. clients) -- WHY?

 System development is a partnership effort (it is a ‘two-way


street’)

 It is difficult (if not impossible) to achieve high quality


partnership without good IT-business relationships

 High quality IS-client relationships reduce chances of IS


implementation failures. How?

 High quality IS-client relationships reduce chances of IS


implementation failures. How?
• management of client’s expectations as to project
scope, deliverables, development speed, etc.
• improvement in mutual understanding as to quality
and satisfaction
• building systems clients actually use
• improving efficiency of interrelated tasks

 High-quality relationships also


• enhance professional IS credibility
• improve quality of work life for ISPs and clients

Poor IS-business relationships


 contribute to IS project failures
 detract from IS credibility
 hinder success of subsequent organizational change
projects
 plant the seed for the decision to eventually outsource IS
services to a third party contractor

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Reasons for poor relationships:

o Lack of collaboration among key stakeholders


o “culture gap” between technical specialists and their business-
focused clients
o behaviors of IS specialists during projects:
• failure to understand client’s needs and incentives
• overemphasis on technical issues at the expense of social
issues
• overall, a lack of client-oriented behaviors and service
culture

High quality IT-business relationships:

§ Will discuss conditions under which good relationships evolve


at the end of this presentation

Customer-Oriented Practices:
§ Planning:
• Select appropriate lifecycle model that gives customers
progress visibility, such as?
• Identify real customer (the boss?)
• Create a Win-Win project (Theory-W project
management)
• Mitigate the risks

§ Requirements Analysis:
• Gather the real requirements (essential) with customer-
oriented requirements practices
• Clients are more satisfied if they participate in
requirements specifications. Why?
• Use methods such as JAD

§ Design:
• Let customers change their minds occasionally

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Construction:
• Use readable, modifiable coding practices so you can
change the software
• Use project-monitoring (mini-milestones) so customer
knows you are accomplishing tasks
• Lifecycle model that shows progress

Managing Customer Expectations:


• Prevent customer-determined schedule before
requirements & resources are known
• Manage the size & complexity of features
• Emphasize that the prototype isn’t the product
• Don’t create unrealistic expectations about schedule,
functionality, etc.

Use Project Recovery When...


• Don’t know when project will finish
• Laden with defects
• Developers working burnout hours, low morale
• Nobody can control the schedule
• Customer doesn’t believe project will be done
• The team is defensive, relations are strained…
• Project is about to be canceled

Approaches to Recovery:
• Cut project size to fit time & effort planned
• Increase process productivity by focusing on short-term
improvements
• Slip schedule & proceed w/damage control
• Combination of all 3: Drop features, increase productivity &
slip schedule
• Get project under control & FINISH it!
o Problem NOT catching up BUT finishing project

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Recovery Plan: First Steps
• Assess situation: how firm is deadline?
• Apply Theory-W analysis -- make winners out of everyone or
quit
• Mentally prepare yourself to fix the project
• Ask team what needs to be done
• Be realistic about what you can expect
o Don’t promise unrealistic new delivery dates

THEORY- W --??
** WHAT IS IT AND HOW DOES IT WORK?
** WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

Theory W-Stakeholder Conflicting Goals:


• Customers want quick schedule, low budget, lots of features,
user-friendly, robust software
• Bosses want no overruns, no surprises, successful project
• Developers want interesting work, challenge, no grunt work,
home life
• Maintainers want no defects, documentation, modifiability

Theory-W Benefits:
• Project objectives are clearer from beginning because each
stakeholder’s “win” conditions are identified up front.
• Better communication with customers
• Better requirements reduce rework
• Goal-setting produces better schedule expectations
• Minimizes feature creep

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Theory-W: Everybody a Winner
• Separate people from the problem
• Focus on interests rather than positions
• Invent options for mutual gain
• Insist on objective criteria
• Set project up so everyone can win - if you cannot set it up,
then don’t do the project

Win-Win Steps:

1- Establish Win-Win Preconditions:


o Identify & include all the stakeholders
o Establish reasonable expectations
o Assign tasks so people can achieve their own win
conditions
o Provide environment that supports project goals, e.g.,
training, appropriate lifecycle model

2- Structure Win-Win Software Process:


o Establish a realistic plan (see Step 1)
o Use the plan to control the project (follow it!)
o Identify & manage win-lose & lose-lose risks
 For each win condition, identify & monitor risks
o Keep people involved

3- Structure Win-Win Product:


o Internal parts that developers & maintainers see
 Documentation
 Modifiability
o External parts that customers/users see
 Easy to learn and to use
 Robust

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
When is Win-Win Appropriate?

o Project recovery or from beginning (best)

o When there is a champion (upper-level support) to bring


in all stakeholders

o Small or large projects

o Downside? -- Manager’s role more demanding:


• Has to manage stakeholder relationships
• Negotiate with stakeholders
• Set & monitor goals

Leverage the People:

• Restore team morale


o Improve working conditions

• Clean up major personnel problems

• Replace problem leadership,


o Give managers assistance
o Change manager’s supervisor

• Add people carefully, if at all

• Instead focus existing team members’ time on


project

• Allow team members to respond differently:


o Some work harder
o Some work slowly but surely

• See that developers pace themselves


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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Leverage the Process:
• Find & fix the classic mistakes
o Are you still changing the project definition?
o What about the design adequacy?
o Too few management controls to track status?
o Shortchanged quality to meet the deadline?
o Are people getting burned out?

• Find & fix the classic mistakes


o Is the deadline realistic?
o Are people working too hard & quitting?
o Is new technology a problem?
o Problem developers? Low morale? Accountability?
• Fix broken development processes
o Usually software development fundamentals, e.g.,
version control, defect tracking
• Use miniature milestones
o Schedule realistically with miniature milestones
o Track scheduling progress carefully
o Record reasons for missed milestones
o Recalibrate schedules from what you learn after 2-3
weeks have passed
o Don’t commit to schedule until you have one you
can believe
• Manage risks carefully

Leverage the Product:


• Stabilize the requirements
o First determine WHAT the requirements are
• Trim the feature set - prioritize what’s left
• Assess your political position?
• Reduce number of defects & keep them low
• Get to a state you can test & keep it working

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Chapter 3: Negotiation for
Selling & Buying

Objectives of Negotiations:
 To obtain the quality specified
 To obtain a fair and reasonable price
 To get the supplier to perform the contract on time
 To exert some control over manor in which the contract is
carried out
 To achieve maximum cooperation
 To maintain relationships
 To create a long-term relationship

When to Negotiate?
 Sole source situation
 Sellers market

 Specification not complete

 Competitive bidding not appropriate

 New products

 When Competitive Bidding is Impractical or

Inappropriate
 When Risks and Costs cannot be accurately

predetermined
 When the buyer is contracting for a portion of the

seller’s production capacity


 When tooling and set-up costs represent a large

percentage of the supplier’s total costs


 When a long period of time is required to produce

the item
 When products of a specific supplier are desired to

the exclusion of others

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
NEGOTIATIONS WITH VENDORS:

Can you negotiate?


• Yes, negotiation is natural! (Would you be here today if you
could not negotiate?)
• Negotiation is the means by which we gain what we need or
want or desire want or desire when somebody else controls what
we need or want or desire.
• But there are skills to be learned.
• And we should be prepared for negotiation to expose our
weaknesses (e.g. losing our temper) as well as our strengths.
• And if after learning the skills and getting some experience we
do not feel comfortable with negotiation, we should leave it to
others to negotiate on our behalf.

Why negotiate?
• Negotiation is inevitable if librarians wish to provide a good
service to their users.
• Our political masters will not provide us with resources unless
we present a good case : that involves negotiation.
• The content our users need mainly comes from commercial
providers : they wish to make as high a profit as possible and
unless we are willing to pay the highest price we need to
negotiate.
• Even if we leave the face-to-face negotiation to other people,
we need to know enough to assess whether the best deal has been
achieved.

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Before negotiation starts ……
• Know what you want. The lowest price? The most content?
Added benefits like training? How important is the content to your
users? At what point will you walk away from the negotiation?
• Know who you will be negotiating with. Is this a new market
for the company? Do they have any existing sales they may wish
to protect? Is the company looking for good publicity from your
purchase? Are the sales staff familiar with your situation?
• Choose the venue and the participants carefully. Use the “home
advantage” if at all possible. Do not allow a commercial supplier
the advantage of being your host. Always have a colleague with
you. You decide when to take meal-breaks.

When the negotiation starts …


• Stay calm and strong! This helps to keep you in control of the
negotiation. Ask the vendor to justify their position.
• Stay in control of the agenda. Prepare a list of issues to be
covered. Use short, simple words and sentences to describe the
points of greatest importance to you. Know what you expect to be
included as part of the basic price and what you are prepared to
consider as “extras”.
• Know when to compromise. Compromise is almost inevitable
but the art is in knowing what to concede, when and how. Make
notes on concessions won and given.
• Know when to say “no” and walk away. Librarians have not
done this enough because of the need to supply content their users
need. Make clear the issues on which negotiations have broken
down so that they can be resumed if conditions change.

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
After negotiations end …
• Send a letter or e-mail as quickly as possible summarising your
understanding of the agreement reached. It keeps you in control of
the situation if you are the first to write down what was agreed.
Solve any problems of misunderstanding before the lawyers start
drawing up a contract.
• Sign a legal contract as soon as possible. Do not give the
vendor time to back out of any favourable terms you have agreed.
(N.B. If the terms are not favourable, you should not be agreeing
to them!) Read the contract carefully.

Define the issues!

 Interests
 Success
 Performance or function
 Details
 Terms - conditions
 Price
 Liabilities
 Delivery - dates

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Negotiation For Selling & Buying:

Selling:

• Recognise ‘buying roles’ – particularly within organisations /


families
• Need identifier
• Budget holder
• Purchaser
• Gatekeeper
• User

Sell benefits:
• Aim to ‘solve customer’s problems’ (not sell your product)
• Recognise the whole product offering not just the core benefits
(packaging; brand; image; colour; distribution)
• Recognise importance of relationships and relating to people
(one of your skills?)

Relationship Marketing:
• Use database / IT to personalise communication with customer
• Track usage, interest, and complaints
• Capture and build upon communication with prospective
customer
• Tailor offerings to customer profile

Buying:
• Don’t accept the first offer
• Determine a ‘package’ which recosts the product (i.e. support
services included)
• Know your requirements and what will solve your problem –
draw up a specification
• Use knowledge of competition’s offering to secure a lower
price

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Closure:
• Ensure agreement / next meeting is secured
• Secure in writing / shake hands if appropriate
• Build a relationship for future supply / purchase

Spend 15 mins..
 reducing a price by £500, you have effectively earned your

business £2000 an hour

1- Preparation:
• Know the item or service
• Know the seller’s bargaining strength
• Know the buyer’s bargaining strength
• cost or price analysis
• Know the seller

2- Aspects to Negotiate:
• Price
• Quality
• Support
• Supply
• Transportation
• Duration

3- Negotiation:
 Negotiation is a back and forth communication designed to

reach an agreement.
 Soft

 Hard

 Principled

• decide issues on their merits rather than through


haggling
4- Criteria:
 Produce a wise agreement

 Efficient

 Don’t damage the relationship

5- Problems with Positions:


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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
 Ego
 Stalling
 Endanger relationship
 Hard game always dominates a soft one

Three Stages of Negotiation:


 Analysis

 Planning

 Discussion

New Focus:
 People
 Interests
 Options
 Criteria

1- Focus on People:
 Separate the people from the problem

 Don’t degenerate into blaming, anger etc.

 People problems are:

 Perceptions
 Emotion
 Communication

Perception:
o Put yourself in their shoes
o Don’t blame them for your problem
o Face saving
Emotion:
 People often feel threatened
 Allow the other side to let off steam
 Don’t react to emotional outbursts

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Communication:
 Negotiators often not talking to each other
 Listen actively
 Build a working relationship
 You are on the same team
 face the problem - not the people

2- Focus on Interests:
 Not positions
 There are usually several ways to satisfy an interest
 Behind opposing positions lie shared and compatible
interests as well as conflicting ones.

Interest Identification:
 Ask “why”?
 Ask “why not”?
 Multiple interests
 You must communicate your own interests
 Look forward, not back

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Invent Options for Mutual Gain:
 Watch out for:
 premature judgement
 searching for a single answer
 The assumption of a fixed pie
 thinking that solving their problem is their problem

Prescription:
 Brainstorming
 Broaden your options
 Look for mutual gain
 Make their decision easy
 Give them an answer, not a problem

Objective Criteria:
 Horse trading may miss the point entirely
 Market value
 Precedent
 What a court would decide
 Reciprocity

Review Session:
 7:00 Sunday
 Room 118
 Bring your questions
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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Negotiator Behavior:
 Willing to compromise
 View issues independently
 Explore twice as many options per issue
 Make comments about common ground
 Make less irritating comments
 Give fewer reasons for arguments advanced
 Congratulate counterpart on job well done

Tactics:
 Low Ball
 Honesty/Openness
 Price Increase
 High Ball
 Best and Final Offer
 Silence
 Use of Power

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Chapter 4: Negotiation for Salary

The definition of negotiation as it relates to employment is: a


series of communications (either oral or writing) that reach a
satisfying conclusion for all concerned parties, most often
between the new employee and the hiring organization.

It takes the Right Attitude:


• Employers don’t give salary increases, employees earn them.
• You have no right to an increase, you earn it.
• You have the right to a salary adjustment due to inflation or an
increase in the cost of living, but you have no right to an
increase based on merit.

Timing is Everything

How much time should pass before you should think


about your next salary increase?

• When you have been praised for work you have just
completed.
• When major changes occur in your job responsibilities or
tasks.

The Art of Negotiation


Principles of Negotiation

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
1. Postpone the negotiation
• Bounce back the question to the interviewer.
• Stall elegantly.
• Use your sense of humor.
• Disarm your interviewer

2. Avoid mentioning your last salary


Employers use this to:

• Gauge where you fit in the salary range;


• You may be screened out quickly if the number of candidates
is large, as salary is an ideal and obvious way to compare
candidates and screen them out.

3. Make them talk first:


Wait for the interviewer to expose himself. Effectively
postponing the negotiation and making the interviewer
talk first has several advantages. Most importantly you:
• Get a better offer than you originally planned;

• Refrain from “shooting yourself in the foot” by asking for too

high of a figure;

• Take the necessary time to obtain specific information about


the level of the job and its corresponding responsibilities;
• Gauge how the interviewer is evaluating you before you have
to negotiate with him;
• Discover the starting point of the negotiation process.

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Sometimes the interviewer will try to
open negotiation by coming right out and
asking how much money you want to make.
Example:
I: How much do you want to earn?
Y: Oh, thank you for raising this issue. Before
answering you, I’d like to ask a question.
I: Please do.
Y: Do you have salary curves or indexes in your organization?
I: Yes, of course we do.
Y: Could you tell me, then, what sort of salary range you have in
mind for this job? This will make things easier and save us
time.

Stand Your Ground : Agree with Gentle Humor


I: You certainly are tough when it comes to negotiating!
Y: Why, thank you!

Turn Negatives to Positives


I: You seem so sure of yourself! It appears that
nothing will make you budge.
Y: Yes, this is a compliment given to me by many of
my past employers.
Common Sense
I: You appear to be a person who is always watching
out for himself.

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Y: Do you think so?
I: Yes, you seem to be very interested in the money
aspect of this job.
Y: The job to be filled requires excellent negotiation
skills. I am demonstrating that I have those skills.
Later, when I work for you, I will fight and
negotiate just as firmly on your behalf.

Continued Principles:
• Avoid bluffing.
• You will be more efficient if you stick to the truth for several
reasons:
• The very fact that you use only true information makes you
feel more comfortable and secure, which make the interview
easier.
• Bluffing, lies, or exaggeration can hamper the
otherwise good negotiation tactics at your disposal.
• When checking is done after the interview, your integrity and
good faith are proven and you benefit.
Get It In Writing
Accepting a firm job offer together with a salary proposal can be
done either verbally or in writing. However, a confirmation in
writing is a must in the following four cases:
• If you have some sort of negative intuition or feeling about
your interviewer and have doubts about the value of his word;
• If the promises made to you seem too numerous or generous to
be given without something more being demanded of you
some time down the road;

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
• If the salary formula is complex (due to adjustment,
commissions, etc..), or if you think the salary has not been
stated clearly or not negotiated thoroughly;
• If the risk to you is great. Ex. If you must resign from a
present job to take a new job the risk is too large without
having a firm written proposal in your hand, signed by the
person for whom you will be working for.

Money Isn’t Everything


• Communicate salaries after the offer has been made.
• Analyze other options/
child care, elder care, disability/ life insurance, other perks…
• Ensure you like your job.
• Don’t accept a job based on salary.
• Accept a job that you will enjoy.
Negotiation is a Gamble we all Play…

Good Luck!!!!!!!!
Interdependence:
• Both parties need each other. A buyer cannot buy
unless someone else sells and vice versa; each is
dependent upon the other.

• When we are dependent on another, we have to


accept and accommodate the demands of another.

• Interdependent relationships are characterized by


interlocking goals-both parties need each other to
accomplish their goals.
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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Standards for Evaluating Relationship Outcomes:

• Anticipated Outcome (0): What we expect to


receive from this relationship.

• Comparison Level (CL): The standard against


which a person evaluates a relationship---what we could
receive from other relationships.

• Comparison Level for Alternatives (CLalt): The


lowest level of outcome that would be accepted from
this relationship before changing to another relationship.

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Standards for Evaluating Relationship Outcomes (SERO):

• The Thibaut and Kelly mode of analysis permits us to


draw a distinction between attractiveness and satisfaction on
one hand and dependency on the other.

• A person can dislike a relationship and stay, or like a


relationship and leave.

• In negotiation, the other party may dislike dealing with


us, but since we have "the best deal in town;' he or she will
continue to negotiate with us.

• Alternately, the other party may like us, but nonetheless


break off negotiations because of more attractive possibilities
elsewhere.

• Whether you should or should not agree on something in


a negotiation depends entirely upon the attractiveness to you
of the best available alternatives

• This concept is called BATNA (an acronym for Best


Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement) and suggest that
negotiators need to understand both parties' BATNAs when
they negotiate.

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Example : SERO
• Gomaa has been employed by an organization for six
months and is making $31,000 per year.
• The average salary of Gomaa's college classmates
who were accepting new jobs was $30,000.
• Recently, the organization where Gomaa works was
downsized and Gomaa's job was eliminated.
• His boss offered him another job in the organization
at $28,000.
• Gomaa realizes that most other companies are not
currently hiring because it is not the end of the school year,
and he believes that it would be difficult to find a new job
for more than $25,000.
• Anticipated Outcome: The salary for the new job in
the organization is $28,000.
• Comparison Level (CL): The average starting salary
of Gomaa's classmates is $30,000.
• Comparison Level for Alternatives (CLalt): The
perceived salary of a readily available alternative job is
$25,000.
Principles of Negotiation?

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
• The greater the distance between 0 and CL, the greater
the attractiveness or unattractiveness of the relationship.

• When a relationship is unattractive, we may think of


leaving, but whether we do depends upon our options.

• We may not like our current job, but if we are relatively


unskilled, we may find it difficult to get another job.

• If we have many skills, however, we may know of


several jobs to which we can easily move.

• People leave relationships when outcomes fall below


this CLalt.

• It is assumed that the more a person's actual outcome


exceeds the CLalt, the more dependent upon the relationship
he is.

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
The Dilemma of Honest:

• Concerns how much of the truth to tell the other party

• Telling the other party everything about your situation


may give that person the opportunity to take advantage of
you.

• However, not telling the other person anything about


your needs, wants, and desires may lead to a stalemate.

• Just how much of the truth should you tell the other

Example: The Dilemma of Honest

• If X told Y that he would work for as little as $35,000


but would like to start at $40,000,

• It is quite possible that Y would hire him for $35,000


and allocate the extra money, that he might have paid to him
elsewhere in the budget.

• If Y does this, he might hurt their long term relationship.

• Y should insure that both parties’ needs are met.

• If X does not tell Y any information about his salary


aspirations, then Y would have a difficult time knowing how
to satisfying those needs.

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
The Dilemma of Trust:

• Concerns how much to believe what the other party


tells you.
• If you believe everything the other party says, then he
or she could take advantage of you.
• If you believe nothing the other party says, then you
will have a great deal of difficulty in reaching an
agreement.
• Exactly how much to believe of what the other party
tells you depends on many factors:
• The reputation of the other party
• How he treated you in the past
• The present circumstances, and so on.

Example: The Dilemma of Trust

If Y told X that $38,000 was the maximum has was


allowed to pay him for the job, without seeking approval
“from above”, should X believe him or not?

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Search For An Optimal Solution:
• The search for an optimal solution through the processes of
giving information and making concessions is greatly
aided by trust and a belief that you're being treated
honestly and fairly.

• Two efforts in negotiation help to create this trust and


belief:
• Perceptions of outcomes
• Perceptions of the process
• The former attempts to change a party's estimation of the
perceived importance or value of something

Perceptions Of Outcomes:
• Attempts to change a party's estimation of the perceived
importance or value of something

• If Y convinces X that a lower salary for the job is


relatively unimportant given the high promotion potential
associated with the new job, the X can feel more
comfortable making a concession on this point.

Perceptions Of The Process:


• Efforts based on the negotiating process help convey
images of equity, fairness, and reciprocity in proposals and
concessions

• Satisfaction with a negotiation is as much determined by


the process through which an agreement is reached as with
the actual outcome obtained
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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Understand the Nature of the Interdependence:
• Understanding the nature of the interdependence
between parties in a negotiation is a critical negotiation
skill.

• Unfortunately, negotiation situations do not present


themselves with neat labels, typically, describing the
nature of the interdependence between parties.

• Negotiators make judgments about the nature of the


interdependence in their negotiation situations, and
negotiator perceptions about interdependence become as
important as the actual structure of the interdependence

Understanding History:

• The point here is that people bring much baggage with


them to a negotiation, including:
• Past history
• Personality characteristics
• Moods
• Habits
• Beliefs about how to negotiate

• These factors will influence how people perceive an


interdependent situation, and this perception will in turn
have a strong effect on the subsequent negotiation.

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Cooperators and Competitors:

• There are two general types of negotiators:


• Cooperators
• Competitors

• Competitors enter negotiations expecting the other


party to compete, and to compete with everyone.

• Cooperators will cooperate with other cooperators and


compete with competitors

Competitors:
• Competitors believe that all negotiations are
competitive and that the world contains only competitors
because all the people they negotiate with compete (either
they were natural competitiors, or they were cooperators
who have adapted and compete rather than being taken
advantage of).

Cooperators:
• Cooperators understand that negotiations may be
cooperative or competitive and recognize that there are
both cooperators and competitors in the world.

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Mythical Fixed Pie:

• Most negotiators in a situation containing both


cooperative and competitive elements (mixed-motive) will
assume that there is a fixed pie – the more I get the less
you have

• 68% of negotiators assume that negotiations will be


win-lose and only 32% assume a win-win situation

• Those negotiators that adjust to a situation quickly


generally achieve better results

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Chapter 5: Conflict Management
 The objective is not to eliminate conflict but to learn
how to manage it so the destructive elements are controlled
while the more productive aspects are enjoyed.

 Negotiation is a strategy for productively managing


conflict.

Conflict more generally

 When a person or group frustrates the goal attainment


of another.

 Types of conflict
 Relationship
 Task
 Process

Levels of Conflict:
• Intrapersonal or Intrapsychic – conflict occurs within
the individual. Souces of conflict can include ideas,
thoughts, emotions, values, predispositions, or drives that
are in conflict with each other.

• Interpersonal – conflict between individual people

• Intragroup – conflict within a small group – among


team members, committee members, familes, etc…

• Intergroup – conflict between groups, unions and


management, warring nations, feuding families, etc…
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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Elements That Contribute to Conflict’s Destructive Image:
1. Competitive Processes – parties compete against each
other because they think their goals are in competition and
that the two of them cannot both achieve their objectives.

2. Misperception and Bias – as conflict intensifies,


perceptions become distorted. People tend to view things
consistently with their own perspective on the conflict.
Thinking tends to become stereotypical and biased

3. Emotionality – conflcits tend to become emotionally


charged as the parties become anxious, irratated, annoyed,
angry, or frustrated. Emotions tend to dominate thinking
and the parties may become more emotional and irrational
as the conflict escalates.

4. Decreased Communication – Communications


declines. Parties stop communicating with those who
disagree with them and communicate more with those that
agree.

5. Blurred Issues – Central issues in the dispute become


blurred and less defined. New, unrelated issues are drawn
in as the conflict becomes a vortex that attracts both related
and innocent bystanders.

6. Rigid Commitments – parties become locked into


positions. As they are challenged by the other side, parties
become more committed to their points of view and less
willing to back down from them for fear of losing face and
looking foolish. Thinking processes become rigid, and the
parties tend to see issues as very simple and either or rather
than as complex.

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
7. Magnified Differences; Minimized Similarities

8. Escalation of the Conflict

Functions and Benefits of Conflict:

• Discussing conflict makes organizational members


more aware and able to cope with problems. Knowing that
others are frustrated and want change creates incentives to
try to solve the underlying problem.

• Conflict promises organizational change and


adaptation. Procedures, assignments, budget allocations,
and other organizational practices are challenged. Conflict
draws attention to those issues that may interfere with and
frustrate employees.

• Conflict strengthens relationships and heightens


morale. Employees realize that their relationships are
strong enough to withstand the test of conflict; they need
not avoid frustrations and problems. They can release their
tensions through discussion and problem solving.

• Conflict promotes awareness of self and others.


Through conflict, people learn what makes them angry,
frustrated, and frightened and also what is important to
them. Knowing what we are willing to fight for tells us a
lot about ourselves. Knowing what makes our colleagues
unhappy helps us to understand them.

• Conflict enhances personal development. Managers


find out how their style affects their subordinates through
conflict. Workers learn what technical and interpersonal
skills they need to upgrade themselves.
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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
• Conflict encourages psychological development.
Persons become more accurate and realistic in their self-
appraisals. Through conflict, persons take others'
perspectives and become less egocentric. Conflict helps
persons to believe that they are powerful and capable of
controlling their own lives. They do not simply need to
endure hostility and frustration but can act to improve their
lives.

• Conflict can be stimulating and fun. Persons feel


aroused, involved, and alive in conflict, and it can be a
welcome break from an easygoing pace. It invites
employees to take another look and to appreciate the
intricacies of their relationships.

71
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Conflict Management:
n

A
b
o
u
t

O
t
h
e
r

s

O
u
t
c
o
m
e
s
Yielding Problem Solving

Compromising

Inaction Contending

Concern About Own Outcomes


• Contending (competing or dominating) – Parties
who employ this strategy maintain their own aspirations
and try to persuade the other party to yield

• Yielding (accommodating or obliging) – Show little


or no concern in whether they attain their own outcomes,
but are quite interested in the other party attains their
outcome

72
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
• Inaction (avoiding) – show little interest or concern
in whether they attain their own outcomes, nor do they
show much concern about whether the other party obtains
his outcomes. Inaction is often synonymous with
withdrawal or passivity, the party prefers to retreat, be
silent, or do nothing

• Problem Solving (Collaborating and integrating) –


actors pursue a problem solving strategy showing high
concern for attaining their own outcomes and high concern
for whether the other party attains their outcome. Both
parties pursue approaches to maximize their own joint
outcome so both sides win.

Managing conflict: Assertiveness vs. Cooperation

 Avoidance (low, low)


 Accommodation (low, high)
 Competing (high, low)
 Compromise (med, med)
 Collaboration (high, high)

73
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Chapter 6:
Negotiation Skills for Project
Engineers

Golden Rules for project engineers:


• In business, you don't get what you deserve, you get
what you negotiate.
• If you fail to plan, then you plan to fail.
• Negotiation is an art and The art is in the deal
• When you see a problem, you say welcome
• In practice, there is no optimal solution.
• The best solution must be customizing according to the
working conditions.
• There is always room for negotiation.
• Ensure that the negotiation team members have a
consistent message, roles, and approach for the negotiation.
• Determine your “drop dead” conditions and fallback
positions before beginning the negotiation.
• Negotiate to a complete contract, taking into
consideration potential changes to your organization and to
the vendor’s.
• Hope for the best and plan for the worst.
74
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Timeline for Project Engineer Negotiation:

What are the bases of negotiation in the following?

Timeline Owner Contractor


1. Initial
Contact
2. Initial
Interview
3. Tender /Offer
Interview
4. Follow-up
Interview
5. Offer detailed
negotiation
6. Contract
review
negotiation
7. Progress
negotiation
8. Closed-out
negotiation

Contract negotiation:

75
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
The contract negotiation process should be a period to clarify
and resolve issues identified during each phase of the selection
process.

1. Define requirements

2. Evaluate responses

3. Evaluate product demonstration

4. Site visit

5. Contract and cost analysis

6. Contract negotiation

7. Agreement

• In summary, we often need to balance the desire for


technical excellence and cost
• It can be a point where management and engineering
collide.

76
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Evaluating and resolving conflicting objectives:

1. Technical Proposal
– if OK then move onto
2. Budget (or Financial)

Technical Proposal:

– knowledge and experience in relevant fields – 50%


– Managerial and financial capabilities – 20%
– General capabilities – 30%

Knowledge and Experience in Relevant fields:


• The design document should detail how the proposed
design will meet the design requirements
• The document should detail a timeline as to how the
project will be executed
Managerial and Financial Capabilities:
• Does the tenderer have appropriate personnel (CV)?
• Is the tenderer able to substitute a similarly qualified
person should the primary person become unavailable?
• Is the tenderer able to complete the work within the
budget allocated?

77
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
General Capabilities:

• Is the tenderer or good reputation?


• Does the tenderer have a good understanding of your
business and the environment in which it works?
• Does the tenderer have good contacts within the
industry?

Lastly,…

• Once the tenders have satisfactorily satisfied the


technical requirements then tenders should be compared on
the basis of cost

Four foci of evaluation (Cotterall and Hughes1995)

1. Strategic Assessment
2. Technical Assessment
3. Cost-benefit assessment
4. Risk Analysis

• Where do each of these forms of evaluation relate to


when considering the Tender?

78
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Contract evaluation matrix

Technical Proposal
Level Budget
K M G
Strategic x
Assessment
Technical x
Assessment
Cost-benefit x
assessment
Risk Analysis x
K - knowledge and experience in relevant fields – 50%
M - Managerial and financial capabilities – 20%
G - General capabilities – 30%

1- Strategic Assessment
• Objectives: support for corporate vision
• Information System (IS) Plan: legacy systems
• Organisation Structure: enhance of destroy?
• Management Information System (MIS)
• Personnel: manning levels and skill base
• Corporate Image: will it affect customer perceptions

79
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
2- Technical Assessment

• Functionality: will the end product work?


Applications
Security
Metrics –design requirements

• Scalability: is the network able to grow without major


problems
• Adaptability: will the project be able to incorporate new
technologies in the future?
• Manageability: can we monitor network operations and
make necessary changes easily?

3- Cost-benefit Analysis:
• Costs
– Development cost
– Setup cost
– Operational costs
• Benefits
– Direct benefits (reduction in salary bills)
– Indirect benefits (increased accuracy, increased
timeliness, more user friendly)
– Intangible benefits (Better customer and supplier
relationships, better information flows/problem solving)

80
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
• Cost-benefit Analysis
– If benefits > cost, that is good
– If benefits < cost – that is bad
• How do you measure intangible benefits?

4- Risk Analysis
• What is the likelihood that an event will result in the
project not meeting its objectives?
• A cost-benefit style of analysis can also be used to
quantify possible losses. “What if” analysis
• The difficulty is determining the likelihood of an event
occurring or accounting for an unpredictable set of
circumstances

Typical Risks:
• Lack of commitment on pricing.
• Implementation services bid are inadequate to
accomplish the implementation.
• All components (pieces of the system required to make
the software work as discussed) are not included in the bill of
materials.
• Little ability to escalate problems so that they have
appropriate attention.
• Inability to cleanly exit the contract if the solution does
not work appropriately or circumstances change.
• Payments do not incentivize the vendor to complete the
implementation in a thorough and timely manner.
81
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Service level:
• Ask the question whether specific technologies are
suitable for the kind of service you wish to deliver.
• Best effort
• Deterministic service
• Guaranteed Service

Criteria used in your last milestone exercise

Milestone Service
Best Effort Deterministic Guaranteed
Response Time
Accuracy
Availability
Network Utilisation
Throughput
Efficiency
Latency

82
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Negotiation Timeline for real project:

Activity Dur. Month


1 2 3
Type Week
Select Preferred Vendor 4 X
Review Contract 1 X
Select Negotiation Team Members 1 X
Orient Team to Issues 1 X
Hold Negotiation Kickoff Meeting 1 X
Validate/Negotiate Sizing and Pricing 1 X
Draft Milestones 1 X
Agree on Acceptance Criteria 1 X
Draft and Finalize Work Plan 2 X
Complete Terms/Conditions 4 X X
Conduct Legal Review 1 X
Sign Contract 1 X

83
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
The Role of Contract Negotiation:

• System Planning
• System Selection
• Implementation

• Establish the foundation and structure for a solid


working relationship.
• Clarify and/or resolve any issues identified during the
selection process.
• Further understand the vendor’s goals, objectives,
priorities, and culture.
• Provide detailed understanding regarding the mechanics
of the relationship to your executive team and project
sponsors.
• Assess lingering risk and mitigate with specific
strategies.
• Enable your organization to take advantage of best-case
scenarios.
• Protect your organization against potential worst-case
scenarios.

84
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Developing a Negotiation Strategy:
• Identify negotiation team members (3–4).
• Determine the timing for inclusion of legal counsel.
• Review the contract and develop an issues list.
• Determine the priority of issues and areas for leverage.
• Develop a party line.
• Identify team member roles/responsibilities.

Contract Negotiation Strategies:

Vendor contracts are, to varying extents, one-sided and in


favor of the vendor. The trick to negotiation is to identify the
tactics and approaches that are most effective in obtaining
concessions.

• Hardball Tactic – protracted negotiation typically


accomplished via attorneys.

• Pushover (non-tactic) – negotiation on price with


acceptance of terms and conditions.

85
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
• Balanced Approach – open discussion of issues and
implications on both sides with a desire to develop a
workable solution for each party.

86
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Contract Negotiation Process:

Step Main items


1. Determine Goals/ • Uses.
• Growth.
Objectives
• Timing.
2. Obtain the “Complete” • Bill of materials.
• Terms and conditions.
Contract From the Vendor
• Appendices.
3. Review and Identify • Balance of
responsibilities.
Major Issues
• Inclusion/expansion.
• Payment.
4. Identify Negotiation • Executive sponsors.
• System owner(s).
Team
• Legal counsel.
5. Develop Strategy • Goal.
• Leverage.
• Concessions.
• Go/no-go.
6. Negotiate Contract • Location.
• Frequency.

• Format.

87
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Relationship between Owner and Contractor:

• It is important to develop a good relationship between Owner


and Contractor.

• Discuss the major contract terms and conditions that can and
should be negotiated.

• Identify various strategies and approaches for negotiation.

• Provide suggestions to improve leverage.

• Provide a framework for contract negotiation.

Relationship Status
Owner Contractor

Good & Long term Win Win

Lose Win
Bad & Short term Win Lose
Lose Lose

88
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
How to establish Good & Long term Relationship?

1- Information Analysis:

 Scope and requirements analysis


 Budget and payment analysis
 Technical conditions analysis
 Time analysis
 HSE analysis
 Resource analysis
 Risk analysis
 Others conditions
2- Double / Triple Think:

 What do you want? (D)


 What does the negotiator want? (T)
 What does the negotiator think you want? (T)
 Where’s the middle ground? (D)
 What’s your bottom line? (T)
3- Build Trust:

 Tell the truth


 Respect confidences
 Honor your commitments
 Be clear
 Be open
 Be firm

89
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
4- Move Beyond Positions:

 Ask questions that probe specific needs / interests


 Create a supportive climate
 Find mutual ground

5- External Listening

 Body language – yours and theirs


 Nonverbal messages
o Facial expressions
o Voice inflections
o Eye movement

6- Know Your BATNA

 BATNA – Best Alternative To A Negotiated Agreement


 Don't focus on a "bottom line"
 Don't agree to anything less than your BATNA
 Separate the people from the problem
 Focus on interests, not positions
 Invent options for mutual gain
 Insist on using objective criteria
 Can you afford to walk away?

90
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
7- Negotiating a Raise or Promotion

 What have you done for them lately?


 How often can you ask for a raise or promotion?
 How much should you ask for?
 How do you ask?
 What if the answer is no?

8- Setting It Up

 Agree on a benchmark job


 Agree on proficiency / performance level
 Job value
 Price / Salary range
 Necessary performance

91
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Negotiation Issues:
Negotiation may be developed for all of the following issues
1- Budget and payment conditions:

 Costs and prices


 Discount provisions
 Payment terms
2- Technical conditions:

 All technical aspects


 Quality levels
3- Time conditions:
 Schedules
 Crushing
4- Safety conditions:
 HSE levels
 Safety tools
5- Resource conditions:

 Types of materials
 Material levels
 Manpower limits and skills
 Tools types and level
 Equipment types and level
 Subcontractors
6- Others conditions:

 Mode of transportation
92
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
 Warranty terms and conditions
 Cooperation and relationships

Note: 99% or more of the time involved in a successful


negotiation is invested in preparation for the actual face-to-face
discussion

Objectives of Negotiations:

 To obtain the quality specified


 To obtain a fair and reasonable price
 To get the supplier to perform the contract on time
 To exert some control over manor in which the contract is
carried out
 To achieve maximum cooperation
 To maintain relationships
 To create a long-term relationship

93
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
PMIS - Negotiation Issues
# ID Form/report Responsibility
1 PSR Project scope & requirements
Project
2 WBS Work breakdown structure
Manager
3 PBP Project base price

4 SEC Standards & Engineering calculations


5 DDS Detailed drawing and specs
Design
6 BOQ Bill of quantity
Manager
7 WPA Work package activities
8 RAL Resource allocation (Mat., HR, Eq., SubCont.)

9 RPR Resource performance rates


10 BOM Bill of materials and program
11 BOE Bill of equipment and program Resource
12 BOH Bill of human resources and program Manager
13 IER Internal and external resources and program
14 PPR Procurement program reports

15 RCR Resource cost rates


16 TMC Total material cost
17 TEC Total equipment cost
18 TLC Total labor cost
19 TSC Total subcontractor cost Cost
20 TDC Total direct cost Manager
21 TOH Total overhead cost
22 TPC Total project cost
23 NVA Net value added and Margin factor
24 NPR Net profit (or Saving) ±X %

25 MAP Target Master plan for WBS


Planning
26 APS Action plans for each WP
Manager
27 DPS Detailed plans for each work type

28 WOS Work orders for each crew (weekly or monthly) Site


29 WFU Work order follow-up (weekly or monthly) Manager

30 PER Performance evaluation report All

31 KPI Key performance indicators (for Top mang.) Project


32 RAS Risk ass. Report for critical (for Top mang.) Manager

94
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Project Cost Parameters
• Total direct cost
 Total Materials cost
 Total Labor cost
 Total Equipment cost
 Total Sub-contract
• Total indirect cost (overhead)
 Project (job or site) overhead (10 to 20 %)
 Office (management) overhead (5 to 10 %)
 Sales tax (3 to 6 %)
• Risk estimation (for critical activities and resources)
(up to 25%)
• Total cost = Direct cost + Indirect cost + Risk
estimation
• Profit (10 to 20 %) For normal projects
• Price = Total cost + Profit
• Markup = Office overhead + Profit = (15 to 30 %)
• Value Added = Price – External resources
= (I + E + O + P) – E
=I+O+P
• Margin factor = Total project value / Total direct
cost

For construction projects:


Lower Price limit = (1.3 to 1.7) * ERC
Margin Factor = 1.3 to 1.5

Loading Full Normal Unused capacity


capacity Capacity <60%
>85 % 60-85%
Parameter Profit Markup Value added
Target 1) Profit 1) Overhead 1) Internal Resources
2) Profit 2) Profit
Resource External Mixed Internal
View
95
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Project Price Parameters:
Price = Total Cost * Weight Factor

1- Project information:
- Scope and requirements
- Location and Utilities
- HSE requirements
- Quality requirements
- Duration, etc.
2- Contractor information:
- Company strategy or policy
- Resource availability
- Available and unused capacity (work load)
- Overhead ratio
- Value added ratio
- Mob and De-Mob
- Contractor history (CV & Quality manual), etc.
3- Owner information:
- Owner strategy or policy
- Contract type
- Price measurement (LE or $)
- Payment condition (Cash flow)
- Bonus/ penalty
- Future projects
- Owner history, etc.
4- Market information:
- Competition level
- Relationships
- Environment conditions
- Limitations and constraints, etc.

96
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Example: Project Cost & Price Analysis:
- Direct cost:
- Materials 10 E
- Equipment 20 I
- Manpower 10 I
- Subcontractor 5 E
===
- Total direct cost: 45
- Room overhead 20 I
- Office overhead 10 I
===
- Total cost 75 I+E
- Internal resource 60
- External resources 15

Example: Three Projects:


Projects
Cost item A B C
- Direct cost:
 Materials 15 13 9
 Equipment 1 5 12
 Manpower 1 7 11
 Subcontractor 20 10 2
- Total direct cost 37 35 34
- Project overhead 1 2 3
- Sector overhead 2 2 2
- Total cost 40 39 38
- Price 50 48 46
- Profit 10 9 8
- Value added 15 25 35
Full Normal Unused
Remark capacity Capacity capacity
>85 % 60-85% <60%
97
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Technical Condition Parameters











Schedule Parameters











98
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Payment Condition Parameters











Bonus / Penalty Condition Parameters













99
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
KPI Parameters

1- Bill of Quantities:

 BCWS = Budget Cost of Work Schedule

 ACWP = Actual Cost of Work Performed

 BCWP = Budget Cost of Work Performed

 Total Variance = BCWS – ACWP

 Cost Variance = WP (BC – AC) = BCWP – ACWP

 Schedule Variance = BC (WS – WP) = BCWS - BCWP

 Schedule Late / early duration

2- Productivity:
 Total Productivity %

 Equipment Productivity %

 Material Utilization %

 Material Productivity %

 Labor Productivity %

100
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Negotiation Management For Project Engineers

Negotiation Process Cycle:

Preparation- 1
2- Establishing
Objectives

5- Control &
Assessment
FACE-TO-FACE
3- Face-to-Face
Discussion
DISCUSSIONS

4- Final
Action

101
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Negotiation Main Steps:
I- Preparation:
1- Introduction
2- Scope of work
3- Field and Topics of negotiation
4- Formation of negotiation team
II- Establishing Objectives:
5- Normal / Standard conditions
6- Requirements / Needs
7- Constraints / Problems
8- Information collection and analysis
9- Accepted limits
10- Strengths and weaknesses
11- Possible / Best solutions / Best objectives
12- Scenario and approach
III- Face-to-Face Discussion:
13- Principles / Bases of negotiation

IV- Final Action:


14- Recommendation / Agreement

IV- Control & Assessment:


15- Performance Evaluation

102
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
‫‪Conviction Indicators:‬‬
‫عععععع ععععععع‬

‫‪ -1‬تقديم نفسك بالشكل الئق‬


‫‪ -2‬المصداقية والثقة‬
‫‪ -3‬الهداف والولويات‬
‫‪ -4‬الثبات والبراهين‬
‫‪ -5‬قوة النطباع الول والخير‬
‫‪ -6‬البساطة والوضوح‬
‫‪ -7‬تبادل الخذ والعطاء‬
‫‪ -8‬التحفيز والتوجيه والتخويف‬
‫‪ -9‬التعهد واللتزام بالوعد‬
‫السلطة الفعالة‬ ‫‪-10‬‬
‫تبني الغلبية‬ ‫‪-11‬‬
‫المحبة والصداقة‬ ‫‪-12‬‬
‫تحليل وفهم الخرين‬ ‫‪-13‬‬

‫ضبط حركات الجسد ونبرات الصوت‬ ‫‪-14‬‬


‫مخاطبة العقل الباطن‬ ‫‪-15‬‬

‫‪103‬‬
‫‪Negotiation Skills for Project Managers‬‬
‫الخبرة‬ ‫المؤهلت‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫تقديم نفسك‬

‫المظهر الخارجي‬ ‫السمعة‬

‫الدلة والبراهين‬ ‫الشخصية‬


‫)‪(2‬‬
‫المصداقية‬
‫والثقة‬
‫الهيئة أو الجهة‬ ‫الفكار والعبارات‬

‫نقاط القوة‬ ‫دقة البيانات‬


‫)‪(3‬‬
‫الهداف‬
‫والولويات‬ ‫‪104‬‬
‫‪Negotiation Skills for Project Managers‬‬
‫قاعدة الولوية‬ ‫تحليل وتقييم‬
‫التخطيط الجيد‬ ‫دقة ووضوح‬
‫)‪(4‬‬ ‫الحصائيات‬
‫الثبات‬
‫والبراهين‬
‫دقة وقوة‬
‫المعايير المناسبة‬
‫الحقائق‬

‫درجة انتباه‬ ‫العبارات القوية‬


‫الخرين‬ ‫)‪(5‬‬ ‫الصادقة‬
‫قوة النطباع‬
‫الول والخير‬
‫مراعاة المستوي‬ ‫التركيز علي‬
‫المخاطب‬ ‫الولويات والفوائد‬

‫تحليل الفوائد‬ ‫لغة التفاهم‬


‫واليجابيات‬ ‫)‪(6‬‬ ‫المناسبة‬
‫البساطة‬
‫والوضوح‬
‫المؤثرات المرئية‬ ‫ترتييب الفكار‬
‫المناسبة‬ ‫وعدم التشتت‬

‫‪105‬‬
‫‪Negotiation Skills for Project Managers‬‬
106
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
‫المساعدة والنصيحة‬ ‫حدود القبول‬
‫)‪(7‬‬
‫تبادل الخذ‬
‫والعطاء‬
‫العرض والطلب‬ ‫التنازل المنطقي‬

‫اختيار نوعية‬
‫السئلة‬ ‫)‪(8‬‬ ‫التشجيع للهدف‬
‫التحفيز‬
‫والتوجيه‬
‫والتخويف‬ ‫التخويف من‬
‫توجيه النقاش‬
‫الخسائر‬

‫بساطة اللغة‬ ‫)‪(9‬‬ ‫التعهدات المكتوبة‬


‫التعهد‬
‫واللتزام‬
‫بالوعد‬
‫أولوية التعهدات‬ ‫التعهدات المعلنة‬
‫‪107‬‬
‫‪Negotiation Skills for Project Managers‬‬
108
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
‫الضغوط عند‬ ‫قوة التأثير‬
‫الضرورة‬ ‫)‪(10‬‬ ‫والتحفيز‬
‫السلطة‬
‫الفعالة‬
‫الستغلل السليم‬ ‫تشجيع المشاركة‬
‫للسلطة‬

‫تنشيط الجمهور‬
‫وجذب النتباه‬ ‫العمل الجماعي‬
‫)‪(11‬‬
‫تبني‬
‫الغلبية‬
‫التركيز والتأكيد‬
‫التأثير النفعالي‬ ‫علي الهدف العام‬

‫حل المشكلت‬
‫وعدم إصطياد‬ ‫التواضع‬
‫)‪(12‬‬
‫الخطاء‬ ‫المحبة‬
‫والصداقة‬
‫التوافق الجتماعي‬ ‫المقابلت الودية‬
‫‪109‬‬
‫‪Negotiation Skills for Project Managers‬‬
110
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
‫تحليل الحالة المزاجية‬ ‫تحليل الراء‬
‫ومدي النسجام‬ ‫)‪(13‬‬ ‫والفكار‬
‫تحليل وفهم‬
‫الخرين‬
‫تحليل طرق الخداع‬ ‫تحليل لغة الجسد‬
‫والكذب‬ ‫والكلمات والسلوك‬

‫التحية والتصافح‬ ‫)‪(14‬‬ ‫عدم النفعال‬


‫للجميع‬ ‫ضبط حركات‬
‫الجسد‬
‫والصوت‬
‫تجنب الضحك المبالغ‬ ‫ضبط لغة الجسد‬

‫الغراء والمودة‬
‫)‪(15‬‬ ‫النواحي النسانية‬
‫مخاطبة‬
‫العقل‬
‫الباطن‬
‫النوحي الجتماعية‬ ‫النواحي الدينية‬
‫‪111‬‬
‫‪Negotiation Skills for Project Managers‬‬
112
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
‫‪Chapter 6:‬‬
‫‪Negotiation Case Studies‬‬
‫‪for Project Engineers‬‬
‫‪Case #1:‬‬
‫‪Negotiation ِApproach for Salary Increased‬‬

‫مقدمة‪:‬‬

‫تم تعيين احدي المهندسين المتخصصين في مجال هندسة الصيانة علي‬ ‫•‬
‫عقد مشروع تابع لاحدي شركات الصيانة والمشاريع البترولية ‪ X‬في احدي‬
‫شركات البترول ‪Y‬‬

‫وطبقا لشروط العقد تم تحديد مرتب شهري ‪ 2000‬جنيه‪ ،‬بالضافة إلي‬ ‫•‬
‫نسب الحوافز المطبقة علي عاملين الموقع‪.‬‬

‫وبعد فترة ستة شهور من تنفيذ العقد‪ ،‬وبالضافة إلي إحساس المهندس‬ ‫•‬
‫بأهميته في الموقع‪ ،‬تبين لسيادته بان هناك بعض الزملء في نفس مستوي‬
‫الخبرة وسنة التخرج ونفس ظروف العمل والقامة‪ ،‬ومع ذلك فان مرتبهم‬
‫يتراوح بين ‪ 2500‬إلي ‪ 3000‬جنيه شهريا‪.‬‬

‫ويرغب المهندس في التفاوض مع مسئولي الشركة لزيادة مرتبه أسوة‬ ‫•‬


‫بزملئه‪.‬‬

‫وبناء علي ذلك‪ ،‬اتفق الطرفين علي ميعاد محدد للتفاوض‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫المطلوب‪:‬‬ ‫•‬
‫‪ -‬كيفية وضع منهجية متكاملة لدارة هذا التفاوض للوصول إلي أفضل حالة‬
‫للطرفين )‪.(Win / Win Approach‬‬
‫وما هي أسس التفاوض التي سوف يبني عليها هذا الحوار؟‬ ‫‪-‬‬

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‫‪Negotiation Skills for Project Managers‬‬
‫مشروع تسليم مفتاح بقيمة مليون جنيه ومن ضمن بنوده توريد وتركيب‬
‫وتشطيب ‪ 1000‬متر مربع سراميك‬

‫ومن ضمن شروط العقد تأمين سراميك الغرف بسعر المتر المربع ل‬
‫يزيد عن ‪ 25‬جنيه وإمكانية توريد ذلك من قبل المالك‪ ،‬وفي حالة توريدها‬
‫من قبل المالك تخصم من قيمة العقد‪.‬‬

‫وقد قام المالك بشراء وتوريد السراميك وكان سعر المتر ‪ 18‬جنيه‪.‬‬

‫ويطالب المالك بخصم ‪ 25000‬بينما يطالب المقاول بخصم ‪ 18000‬فقط‪.‬‬

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‫‪Negotiation Skills for Project Managers‬‬
‫‪Case #2:‬‬
‫‪Negotiation ِApproach for Salary Increased‬‬

‫مقدمة‪:‬‬

‫تم تعيين احدي المهندسين المتخصصين في مجال هندسة الصيانة علي‬ ‫•‬
‫عقد مشروع تابع لاحدي شركات الصيانة والمشاريع البترولية ‪ X‬في احدي‬
‫شركات البترول ‪Y‬‬

‫وطبقا لشروط العقد تم تحديد مرتب شهري ‪ 2000‬جنيه‪ ،‬بالضافة إلي‬ ‫•‬
‫نسب الحوافز المطبقة علي عاملين الموقع‪.‬‬

‫وبعد فترة ستة شهور من تنفيذ العقد‪ ،‬عرضت الشركة المالكة ‪ Y‬علي‬ ‫•‬
‫المهندس فرصة أفضل بمرتب شهري ‪ 4000‬جنيه‪.‬‬

‫وبالضافة إلي إحساس المهندس بأهميته في الشركة ‪ ، X‬وعلقاته‬ ‫•‬


‫الطيبة مع الزملء والمديرين‪،‬‬

‫ويرغب المهندس في التفاوض مع مسئولي الشركة لزيادة مرتبه أو‬ ‫•‬


‫موافقة الشركة علي العرض باستقالته وتعيينه في الشركة الخرى‪.‬‬

‫وبناء علي ذلك‪ ،‬اتفق الطرفين علي ميعاد محدد للتفاوض‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫المطلوب‪:‬‬ ‫•‬
‫‪ -‬كيفية وضع منهجية متكاملة لدارة هذا التفاوض للوصول إلي أفضل حالة‬
‫للطرفين )‪.(Win / Win Approach‬‬
‫وما هي أسس التفاوض التي سوف يبني عليها هذا الحوار؟‬ ‫‪-‬‬

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‫‪Case #3:‬‬
‫‪Negotiation ِApproach for Car Rent‬‬

‫مقدمة‪:‬‬

‫ترغب إحدي الشركات العاملة في مجال الخدمات البترولية ‪ X‬في‬ ‫•‬


‫تأجير عدد عشرة سيارات ملكي لخدمة المواقع والسفر من المقر الرئيس‬
‫بالقاهرة الي المواقع المختلفة )بورسعيد‪ ،‬دمياط الجديدة ‪ ،‬إسكندرية‪ ،‬غارب ‪،‬‬
‫جبل الزيت(‬
‫وقد طلبت الشركة بالمر المباشر التقدم بعرض من احدي الشركات‬ ‫•‬
‫المتخصصة ‪ Y‬في مجال تأجير السيارات وذات السمعة الطيبة وذات سابق‬
‫تعامل مع الجهة‪.‬‬
‫وطبقا لشروط العرض تم تحديد قيمة ‪ 5000‬جنيه شهريا للسيارة‬ ‫•‬
‫ماركت مرسيدس موديل ‪ 2004‬بالسائق ‪ ،‬بمعدل ‪ 200‬كم يوميا ‪ ،‬بالضافة‬
‫إلي نسب حوافز طبقا لعدد الكيلو متر اليومي بمعدل جنيه إضافي لكل كليو‬
‫إضافي‪ ،‬مع تحمل الشركة ‪ X‬كافة مصاريف المستهلكات )بنزين ‪ ،‬زيوت ‪،‬‬
‫وخلفه(‪.‬‬
‫وترغب الشركة ‪ X‬في تقليل القيمة وتحديد بعض الشروط التي تضمن‬ ‫•‬
‫سهولة وجودة وسلمة وموثوقية الخدمة‪.‬‬
‫كما ترغب الشركة ‪ Y‬في الحفاظ علي القيمة وتحديد بعض الشروط‬ ‫•‬
‫التي تضمن حسن استخدام السيارة والحفاظ عليها‪.‬‬
‫وبناء علي ذلك‪ ،‬اتفق الطرفين علي ميعاد محدد للتفاوض‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫المطلوب‪:‬‬ ‫•‬
‫‪ -‬كيفية وضع منهجية متكاملة لدارة هذا التفاوض للوصول إلي أفضل حالة‬
‫للطرفين )‪.(Win / Win Approach‬‬
‫وما هي أسس التفاوض التي سوف يبني عليها هذا الحوار؟‬ ‫‪-‬‬

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‫‪Negotiation Skills for Project Managers‬‬
‫‪Case #4:‬‬
‫‪Negotiation ِApproach‬‬
‫‪During Contract Implementation Phase‬‬

‫مقدمة‪:‬‬

‫تقوم احدي شركات الصيانة والمشاريع البترولية ‪ X‬بتنفيذ عقد سنوي‬ ‫•‬
‫للعمرات ‪ Shutdown‬لعدد من خطوط النتاج ‪trains‬في احدي شركات‬
‫البترول ‪Y‬‬
‫وكانت من ضمن بنود العقد ما يلي‪:‬‬ ‫•‬
‫‪Contract information:‬‬
‫•‬ ‫‪Total price = 0.5 M$/train‬‬
‫•‬ ‫‪Total duration = 21 day/train‬‬
‫•‬ ‫‪Total manpower = 15 Engineers‬‬

‫وبعد فترة أربعة شهور من تنفيذ العقد‪ ،‬قامت الشركة ‪ X‬بتحليل‬ ‫•‬
‫معلومات ما تم من عمرات‪ ،‬وتبين إمكانية ضغط )تقليل( ‪ Crashing‬فترة‬
‫عمرة الخط مع مراعاة دواعي ‪ HSE‬بالموقع ‪ ،‬وذلك بزيادة مختلف الموارد‬
‫)عمالة‪ ،‬أدوات‪ ،‬وخلفه(‪.‬‬
‫وقد قامت الشركة ‪ X‬بتحليل خسائر توقف الخط يومي ‪Down time‬‬ ‫•‬
‫‪ cost rate‬فوجدت أن خسائر انتاج خط يوم ل تقل عن خمسة مليون دولر‬
‫يوميا‬
‫وترغب الشركة ‪ X‬في التفاوض مع الشركة ‪ Y‬في كيفية تحفيز العمل‬ ‫•‬
‫وتدني فترة عمرة الخط إلي أدني حد ممكن‪ ،‬وذلك بالتفاق علس نسبة تحفيز‬
‫لكل يوم توفير‪.‬‬
‫وبناء علي ذلك‪ ،‬اتفق الطرفين علي ميعاد محدد للتفاوض‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫المطلوب‪:‬‬ ‫•‬
‫‪ -‬كيفية وضع منهجية متكاملة لدارة هذا التفاوض للوصول إلي أفضل حالة‬
‫للطرفين )‪.(Win / Win Approach‬‬
‫وما هي أسس التفاوض التي سوف يبني عليها هذا الحوار؟‬ ‫‪-‬‬

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Negotiation Main Steps
1. Introduction:
 XXX Oil Company & YYY Contractor

2. Scope of work:
 Complete shutdown planning for train 01 at xx site.

3. Field and Topics of negotiation:


 Field: Shutdown planning
 Topic: Time crashing

4. Formation of negotiation team:


 Owner: HSE manager - Site manager
 Contractor: Project manager - Maintenance manager

5. Normal / Standard conditions:


Contract information:
 Total price = 0.5 M$
 Total duration = 21 day
 Total manpower = 15 Engineers

6. Requirements / Needs:
 Owner: Minimize the shutdown duration
 Contractor: Maximize the bonus for each day saving

7. Constraints / Problems:
 Owner: Downtime cost rate = 1 M$/day
 Contractor: Manpower and Tools limitation

8. Available information:

WP Mob W01 W02 W03 W04 W05 DMO


Predecessors - Mob Mob Mob W01 W03 W04
W05
Day 1 8 5 6 8 10 1
Engineers 4 8 7 9 8 10 4

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
9. Accepted limits:
Owner:
 Downtime:
 Contract limit = 21 day
 Target limit = 14 day Maximum limit = 18 day
 Bonus:
 Maximum limit = 30,000 $/day

Contractor:
 Labor:
 Normal limit = 12 Maximum limit = 18 Engineer
 Bonus:
 Lower limit = 50,000 Maximum limit = 150,000 $/day

10. Strengths and weaknesses


Owner:
 Strengths:
 Weaknesses:

Contractor:
 Strengths:
 Weaknesses:

11. Possible / Best solutions / Best objectives:


 Policy I: ----------------- Requirements:
---------------
 Policy II: ----------------- Requirements:
---------------

12. Scenario and approach

13. Principles / Bases of negotiation:


 Quality requirements – HSE conditions – Resource
availability
 Penalty and Bonus rules
14. Recommendation / Agreement

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
 Policy xxx - Master plan - Manpower – Penalty/Bonus
rules
15. Performance Evaluation:
 Global KPI:

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
‫‪Case #5:‬‬
‫‪Negotiation ِApproach‬‬
‫‪During Contract Implementation Phase‬‬
‫مقدمة‪:‬‬
‫تقوم احدي شركات الصيانة والمشاريع البترولية ‪ X‬بتنفيذ عقد سنوي‬ ‫•‬
‫للعمرات ‪ Shutdown‬لعدد من خطوط النتاج ‪trains‬في احدي شركات‬
‫البترول ‪Y‬‬
‫وكانت من ضمن بنود العقد ما يلي‪:‬‬ ‫•‬
‫‪Contract information:‬‬
‫•‬ ‫‪Total price = 0.5 M$‬‬
‫•‬ ‫‪Total duration = 21 day‬‬
‫•‬ ‫‪Total manpower = 15 Engineers‬‬
‫وينص العقد‪ ،‬أن في حالة تجاوز العملية ‪ 21‬يوم يتم خصم ‪ %1‬عن‬ ‫•‬
‫كل يوم بحد أقص ‪ %10‬من قيمة العملية‪.‬‬
‫كما نص العقد علي أن تكون مسئولية توفير قطع الغيار ومستلزمات‬ ‫•‬
‫الصيانة علي الشركة المالكة ‪ ،Y‬وفي حالة توقف عملية الصيانة بسبب عدم‬
‫توفر قطع الغيار ومستلزمات الصيانة يتم صرف ‪ %40‬من قيمة العملية‪ ،‬مع‬
‫الحتفاظ الكامل بالهيكل التنظيمي للعمالة والدوات اللزمة لجراء عمليات‬
‫الصيانة‪ .‬ثم يتم صرف باقي قيمة العملية بعد وصل جميع قطع الفيار اللزمة‬
‫وتنفيذ العملية المطلوبة‪.‬‬
‫وبعد فترة أربعة شهور من تنفيذ العقد‪ ،‬تأخرت قطع الغيار اللزمة‬ ‫•‬
‫لعمرة أحدي المعدات لمدة تتجاوز الشهرين‪ ،‬ولم تصل بعد ولم يتم تحديد‬
‫موعد قاطع لتوفيرها‪.‬‬
‫مع العلم بان متوسط زمن توريد قطع الغيار المعتاد كان ل يتجاوز مدة‬ ‫•‬
‫أربعة أسابيع‪.‬‬
‫وترغب الشركة ‪ X‬في التفاوض من الشركة ‪ Y‬في كيفية تحفيز العمل‬ ‫•‬
‫وتعويض الخسائر المترتبة علي ذلك‪.‬‬
‫وبناء علي ذلك‪ ،‬اتفق الطرفين علي ميعاد محدد للتفاوض‪.‬‬ ‫•‬
‫المطلوب‪:‬‬ ‫•‬
‫‪ -‬كيفية وضع منهجية متكاملة لدارة هذا التفاوض للوصول إلي أفضل حالة‬
‫للطرفين )‪.(Win / Win Approach‬‬
‫وما هي أسس التفاوض التي سوف يبني عليها هذا الحوار؟‬ ‫‪-‬‬

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‫‪Case #6:‬‬
‫‪Negotiation ِApproach‬‬
‫‪Between Maintenance and Safety managers‬‬

‫مقدمة‪:‬‬

‫تقوم احدي شركات الصيانة والمشاريع البترولية ‪ X‬بتنفيذ عقد سنوي‬ ‫•‬
‫لصيانة لمعدات احدي شركات البترول ‪Y‬‬

‫وبدراسة وتحليل انتاجية العمالة‪ ،‬لحظ مدير الصيانة التابع للشركة ‪X‬‬ ‫•‬
‫أن انتاجية العامل منخفضة جدا اذ يتراوح معامل النتفاع ‪Utilization‬‬
‫‪ factor‬ما بين ‪ 25‬الي ‪ ،% 35‬وبتحليل هذا النسب تبين أن من أهم العوامل‬
‫التي أدت لذلك هي الوقت المستغرق في تصاريح العمل ‪Work permits‬‬

‫ويرغب مدير الصيانة التابع للشركة ‪ X‬في التفاوض مع مدير السلمة‬ ‫•‬
‫التابع للشركة ‪ Y‬في كيفية تقليل الوقت المستغرق في تصاريح العمل‪ ،‬مع‬
‫مراعاة كافة نواحي ومتطلبات ‪HSE‬‬

‫وبناء علي ذلك‪ ،‬اتفق الطرفين علي ميعاد محدد للتفاوض‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫المطلوب‪:‬‬ ‫•‬
‫‪ -‬كيفية وضع منهجية متكاملة لدارة هذا التفاوض للوصول إلي أفضل حالة‬
‫للطرفين )‪.(Win / Win Approach‬‬
‫وما هي أسس التفاوض التي سوف يبني عليها هذا الحوار؟‬ ‫‪-‬‬

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‫‪Case #7:‬‬
‫‪Project: Gas pipe line 120 Km‬‬

‫مقدمة‪:‬‬

‫تم اجراء عقد ‪ A‬بين احدي شركات الصيانة والمشاريع البترولية ‪X‬‬ ‫•‬
‫مع احدي شركات البترول ‪ ، Y‬وينص العقد ‪ A‬علي اجراء انشاء خط غاز‬
‫بطول ‪ 120‬كم من أسيوط الي سوهاج‪ ،‬ويتم استلم الخط خلل ستة شهور‬
‫من تاريخ توقيع العقد‪ ،‬وتم توقيع غرامة تأخير ‪ %2‬عن كل اسبوع بحد‬
‫أقصي ‪.%15‬‬

‫وقد تم توقيع العقد في ‪ ، 1/1/2006‬ولكن تم تأخير تسليم الدفعة‬ ‫•‬


‫المقدمة من المستحقات المالية ‪ Down payment‬لمدة شهرين‪ ،‬وبالتالي لم‬
‫يتم البدء في المشروع إل في ‪.1/3/2006‬‬

‫وبعد بدء المشروع لحظ مدير المشروع صعوبة النتهاء من المشروع‬ ‫•‬
‫في الوقت الحدد ‪،1/7/2006‬‬

‫ويرغب مدير المشروع في التفاوض مع جميع الطراف علي حل هذه‬ ‫•‬


‫الخلفات قبل فوات الوان‪.‬‬

‫وبناء علي ذلك‪ ،‬اتفق الطراف علي ميعاد محدد للتفاوض‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫المطلوب‪:‬‬ ‫•‬
‫‪ -‬كيفية وضع منهجية متكاملة لدارة هذا التفاوض للوصول إلي أفضل حالة‬
‫للطرفين )‪.(Win / Win Approach‬‬
‫وما هي أسس التفاوض التي سوف يبني عليها هذا الحوار؟‬ ‫‪-‬‬

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Scope of Work:
Gas Pipe Line 120 Km

ID Activity Description Performance Cost


rate Km/day 1000 L.E. / Km
E Excavation 2 5
S Stringing 4 400
W Welding 1 20
N NDT 2 10
C Coating & Wrapping 2 2
L Lowering 4 1
B Backfilling 4 3
T Hydrotest (3 days) 0.1

• Overhead cost rate = $ 1,000 /day


• Downtime cost rate = $ 2,000/day

What are the bases of negotiation?


Which policy would you choose?

• Policy 1 – What?…………………… Why? .……………

• Policy 2 – What?…………………… Why? .……………

• Policy 3 – What?…………………… Why? .……………

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
‫‪Case #8:‬‬
‫‪Negotiation ِApproach for Direct Contract‬‬

‫مقدمة‪:‬‬

‫تم اجراء عقد ‪ A‬بين احدي شركات الصيانة والمشاريع البترولية ‪X‬‬ ‫•‬
‫مع احدي شركات البترول ‪ ، Y‬وينص العقد ‪ A‬علي اجراء انشاء خط غاز‬
‫بطول ‪ 120‬كم من أسيوط الي سوهاج‪ ،‬ويتم استلم الخط خلل ستة شهور‬
‫من تاريخ توقيع العقد‪ ،‬وتم توقيع غرامة تأخير ‪ %2‬عن كل اسبوع بحد‬
‫أقصي ‪.%15‬‬

‫وطبقا للوائح الشركة ‪ X‬قامت بطرح مناقصة بين المورديين‬ ‫•‬


‫المعتمدين لتوريد جميع المواد والمستلزمات اللزمة‪ ،‬وقد تم ترسيت العقد ‪B‬‬
‫علي المورد ‪ ، Z‬حيث نص علي أن يتم استلم جميع المواد والمستلزمات‬
‫خلل شهرين من تاريخ توقيع العقد ‪ ،B‬وتم توقيع غرامة تأخير ‪ %3‬عن كل‬
‫اسبوع بحد أقصي ‪.%10‬‬

‫وبعد بدء المشروع لوحظ تأخر المورد عن التوريد لمدة شهر بسبب‬ ‫•‬
‫خلفه مع الشركة علي المستحقات المالية القديمة‪.‬‬

‫ويرغب مدير المشروع في التفاوض مع مسئولي الشركة والمورد علي‬ ‫•‬


‫حل هذه الخلفات قبل فوات الوان أو اسناد أمر مباشر للتوريد لحدي‬
‫المورديين‪ ،‬مع ملحظة ان ادارة العقود بالشركة تري رفض المر المباشر‬
‫للتوريد وطرح مناقصة جديدة للموردين‪.‬‬

‫وبناء علي ذلك‪ ،‬اتفق الطراف علي ميعاد محدد للتفاوض‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫المطلوب‪:‬‬ ‫•‬
‫‪ -‬كيفية وضع منهجية متكاملة لدارة هذا التفاوض للوصول إلي أفضل حالة‬
‫للطرفين )‪.(Win / Win Approach‬‬
‫وما هي أسس التفاوض التي سوف يبني عليها هذا الحوار؟‬ ‫‪-‬‬

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‫‪Negotiation Skills for Project Managers‬‬
‫‪Case #9:‬‬
‫مقدمة‪:‬‬

‫تم اجراء عقد بين احدي شركات المقاولت ‪ X‬مع احدي الهيئات‬ ‫•‬
‫الحكومية ‪ Y‬لمدة عام ويجدد لمدة ثلثة سنوات متتالية بنفس السعار المتفق‬
‫عليها‪ ،‬أن لم يخطر أحد الطرفين برغبته في فسخ العقد قبل إنتهاء العقد بوقت‬
‫كافي شهرين علي القل‪.‬‬

‫وكانت قيمة العقد ‪ 100,000‬جنيه شهريا لجراء صيانة شاملة‬ ‫•‬


‫والتشغيل والمن والحراسة والزراعة لبعض الميادين مع تحمل المقاول جميع‬
‫النفقات من مواد وعمالة وادوات ومستلزمات وتأمين وخلفه‪.‬‬

‫وكانت من ضمن بنود العقد‪ ،‬ثبات السعار خلل فترة المشروع‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫وبعد مرور ثمانية أشهر من بدء المشروع لوحظ زيادة أسعار المواد‬ ‫•‬
‫بنسبة أكثر من ‪ ، %40‬كما زادت أجور العاملين بنسبة أكثر من ‪ ،%20‬مما‬
‫يعني أن قيمة العقد أصبحت غير مناسبة للمقاول‪.‬‬

‫ويرغب المقاول في التفاوض مع مسئولي الهئية علي حل هذه المشاكل‬ ‫•‬


‫المستجدة أو فسخ العقد‪.‬‬

‫وبناء علي ذلك‪ ،‬اتفق الطراف علي ميعاد محدد للتفاوض‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫المطلوب‪:‬‬ ‫•‬
‫‪ -‬كيفية وضع منهجية متكاملة لدارة هذا التفاوض للوصول إلي أفضل حالة‬
‫للطرفين )‪.(Win / Win Approach‬‬
‫وما هي أسس التفاوض التي سوف يبني عليها هذا الحوار؟‬ ‫‪-‬‬

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‫‪Negotiation Skills for Project Managers‬‬
‫‪Case #10:‬‬
‫مقدمة‪:‬‬

‫تم اجراء عقد بين احدي شركات المقاولت ‪ X‬مع احدي الهيئات‬ ‫•‬
‫الحكومية ‪ Y‬لمدة عام ويجدد لمدة ثلثة سنوات متتالية بنفس السعار المتفق‬
‫عليها‪ ،‬أن لم يخطر أحد الطرفين برغبته في فسخ العقد قبل إنتهاء العقد بوقت‬
‫كافي شهرين علي القل‪.‬‬

‫وكانت قيمة العقد ‪ 100,000‬جنيه شهريا لجراء صيانة شاملة‬ ‫•‬


‫والتشغيل والمن والحراسة والزراعة لبعض الميادين مع تحمل المقاول جميع‬
‫النفقات من مواد وعمالة وادوات ومستلزمات وتأمين وخلفه‪ .‬وكانت قيمة‬
‫التأمين )الضمان( تقدر ‪ %5‬من قيمة العقد سواء بشيك أو نقدا‪.‬‬

‫وبعد مرور ثمانية أشهر من بدء المشروع ‪ ،‬عقدت الهيئة مع مقاول‬ ‫•‬
‫أخر ‪ Y‬عقد لتطوير هذه الميادين‪ ،‬مما أدي الي التأثير علي بنود العقد الخاص‬
‫بالمقاول ‪.X‬‬

‫ويرغب المقاول في التفاوض مع مسئولي الهئية علي حل هذه المشاكل‬ ‫•‬


‫المستجدة أو فسخ العقد‪.‬‬

‫وبناء علي ذلك‪ ،‬اتفق الطراف علي ميعاد محدد للتفاوض‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫المطلوب‪:‬‬ ‫•‬
‫‪ -‬كيفية وضع منهجية متكاملة لدارة هذا التفاوض للوصول إلي أفضل حالة‬
‫للطرفين )‪.(Win / Win Approach‬‬
‫وما هي أسس التفاوض التي سوف يبني عليها هذا الحوار؟‬ ‫‪-‬‬

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‫‪Negotiation Skills for Project Managers‬‬
‫‪Case #11:‬‬
‫مقدمة‪:‬‬

‫تم اجراء عقد بين احدي شركات المقاولت ‪ X‬مع احدي الهيئات ‪Y‬‬ ‫•‬
‫لنشاء محطة قوي كهربائية بطاقة ‪ 10MW‬بعقد قيمته ‪ 25‬مليون جنيه وفترة‬
‫تصميم وتوريد وانشاء لمدة عام تبدأ من تاريخ توقيع العقد واستلم الدفعة‬
‫المقدمة ‪ ،Down payment 20%‬وتم توقيع غرامة تأخير ‪ %5‬عن كل‬
‫شهر بحد أقصي ‪.%15‬‬

‫وقامت شركة المقاولت ‪ X‬بإبرام عقد توريد لجميع المواد‬ ‫•‬


‫والمستلزمات مع المورد ‪ ، Z‬علي أن تكون فترة التوريد شهرين للمحلي‬
‫وثلثة شهور للمستورد‪ ،‬ويتم صرف ‪ %25‬كدفعة مقدمة ثم ‪ %50‬بعد شهر‬
‫من الستلم‪ ،‬ثم ‪ %25‬بعد نهاية المشروع وبحد أقصي عام من تاريخ توقيع‬
‫عقد التوريد‪.‬‬

‫وبعد استلم جميع المواد والمستلزمات من المورد ‪ ، Z‬تأخرت الشركة‬ ‫•‬


‫‪ X‬في دفع مستخلص ‪ %50‬المتفق عليه لمدة ثلثة شهور وعدم التفاق علي‬
‫تاريخ محدد لدفع هذا المستخلص‪ ،‬نظرا لبعض المشاكل المالية بين المقاول‬
‫والهيئة‪.‬‬

‫ويرغب المورد في التفاوض مع المقاول‪ ،‬كما يرغب المقاول في‬ ‫•‬


‫التفاوض مع مسئولي الهئية علي حل هذه المشاكل المستجدة أو فسخ العقد‪.‬‬

‫وبناء علي ذلك‪ ،‬اتفق الطراف علي ميعاد محدد للتفاوض‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫المطلوب‪:‬‬ ‫•‬
‫‪ -‬كيفية وضع منهجية متكاملة لدارة هذا التفاوض للوصول إلي أفضل حالة‬
‫للطرفين )‪.(Win / Win Approach‬‬
‫وما هي أسس التفاوض التي سوف يبني عليها هذا الحوار؟‬ ‫‪-‬‬

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‫‪Negotiation Skills for Project Managers‬‬
‫‪Case #12:‬‬

‫مقدمة‪:‬‬

‫تقوم احدي شركات الصيانة والمشاريع البترولية ‪ X‬بتنفيذ عقد سنوي‬ ‫•‬
‫لصيانة لمعدات احدي شركات البترول ‪ Y‬في إحدي مواقع الشركة‬

‫وفي مرات عديدة‪ ،‬يتم التصال بين رئيس القطاع بالمكتب الرئيسي‬ ‫•‬
‫للشركة ‪ X‬في القاهرة مع مختلف مهندسي الموقع مباشرة دون الرجوع الي‬
‫مدير الموقع المباشر‪ ،‬مما أدي الي تضارب القرارت في كثير من الحوال‬
‫بالضافة الي ضعف العملية الدارية بالموقع‬

‫ويرغب مدير الصيانة بالموقع في التفاوض مع رئيس القطاع بالمكتب‬ ‫•‬


‫الرئيسي في كيفية تقليل هذه التجاوزات لتحسين العملية الدارية بالموقع‬
‫وبالتالي رف انتاجية العامل‪.‬‬

‫وبناء علي ذلك‪ ،‬اتفق الطرفين علي ميعاد محدد للتفاوض‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫المطلوب‪:‬‬ ‫•‬
‫‪ -‬كيفية وضع منهجية متكاملة لدارة هذا التفاوض للوصول إلي أفضل حالة‬
‫للطرفين )‪.(Win / Win Approach‬‬
‫وما هي أسس التفاوض التي سوف يبني عليها هذا الحوار؟‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪129‬‬
‫‪Negotiation Skills for Project Managers‬‬
Case #13: Select the best method:

Cost item Methods


A B C D E
- Direct cost:
 Materials 0 15 15 15 15
 Equipment 0 1 6 10 13
 Manpower 0 1 7 10 12
 Subcontractor 36 20 10 4 0
- Total direct cost 36 37 38 39 40
- Project overhead 1 2 3 4 4
- Total cost 37 39 41 43 44
- Price 50 50 50 50 50
What are the bases of negotiation?

Which method would you choose?

• Method 1 – Why? ………………………………………

• Method 2 – Why? ………………………………………

• Method 3 – Why? ………………………………………

• Method 4 – Why? ………………………………………

• Method 5 – Why? ………………………………………

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Case #14: Select the best payment terms:
Budget planning for annual project
Work package A B C D E
Predecessors - - - A C
Duration (week) 16 10 12 16 40
Budget $M 80 70 96 80 200
• Total Budget = $ 526 M
• Annual Cash Flow:
Owner: 526/6 = 87.67
Month 0 3 6 9 12 13
$M 88 88 88 88 88 86
Contractor:
Month 0 3 6 9 12 13
$M 150 125 100 75 50 26
What are the bases of negotiation?

Which policy would you choose?

• Policy 1 – What?…………………… Why? .……………

• Policy 2 – What?…………………… Why? .……………

• Policy 3 – What?…………………… Why? .……………

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Case #15: Select the best schedule:

Annual Project List:


Budget Duration Predecessors
Description ID
(M$) (month)
1 Project #1 P1 45 5 -
2 Project #2 P2 6 2 -
3 Project #3 P3 12 2 -
4 Project #4 P4 8 2 -
5 Project #5 P5 24 3 P2 & P4
6 Project #6 P6 14 2 P3
7 Project #7 P7 6 3 P6
8 Project #8 P8 3 3 P5 & P7
Direct cost 118
Overhead cost 2
Total cost 120
 Down time cost = $ 10 M/ month
 Budget or Payment Limitation: 120/12 = 10 M$ /month

What are the bases of negotiation?


Which policy would you choose?

• Policy 1 – What?…………………… Why? .……………

• Policy 2 – What?…………………… Why? .……………

• Policy 3 – What?…………………… Why? .……………

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Case #16: Select the best offer:

Scope of Work:

• Network between the office and site

Objective / Requirements / Needs:

• Number of users = 20
• Distance 500 km
• Speed ≥ 1 Mega/sec
• Availability ≥ 99.9 %
• Drop ≤ 15 min/year

Offers:
Offer 1 – UTB cable – 1 $/m
Offer 2 – Fibber cable – 5 $/m
Offer 3 – Wireless – 5000 $
Offer 4 – Phone lines + 2 Modems – 3000 $
Offer 5 – Main satellite at AUC – 2000 *2 = 4000 $

What are the bases of negotiation?


Which tender would you choose?

• Offer 1 - Why? ……………………………….

• Offer 2 – Why? ……………………………….

• Offer 3 – Why? ……………………………….


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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
• Offer 4 – Why? ……………………………….

• Offer 5 – Why? ……………………………….

• Go for a change in design criteria –

What? …………………………….…………………….

Why? …………………………….…………………….

How? ……………………..…….…………………….

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Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Case #17: Select the best offer:

Scope of Work:
• Case Study of Commonwealth Gov Tender

• The Design Criteria states that a backup line needs to be


provided for the ISDN serial link between office 1 and office 2
Tender 1. Tender 2
• $120,000 • $130,000
• Main Serial Line – Telstra • Main Serial Line – Telstra
ISDN line ISDN Line
• Back up Line – Dial- up • Back up line – ‘Line-of-
modem using PSTN sight’ microwave link
owned by business.

135
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
• Some common anxieties that evaluation should relieve
– Will it work?
– Will it meet the design criteria?
– How much is it going to cost?

Which tender would you choose?

• Offer 1 - Why? ……………………………….

Or

• Offer 2 – Why? ……………………………….

Or

• Go for a change in design criteria –

What? …………………………….…………………….

Why? …………………………….…………………….

How? ……………………..…….…………………….

136
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers
Case #18: KPI:
Target Performance:
Item Unit Value
Work Schedule:
 Excavation m3 3000
 Concrete m3 1500
 F-Concrete m3 1000
Budget Cost:
 Excavation LE/m3 5
 Concrete LE/m3 100
 F-Concrete LE/m3 800
Critical equipment:
 Excavator m3/day 200
 Concrete pump m3/day 100
Critical materials:
 Cement for concrete kg/m3 250
 Cement for F-concrete kg/m3 350
Actual Performance:
Item unit Value
Work Performed:
 Excavation m3 4000
 Concrete m3 2000
 F-Concrete m3 800
Actual Cost:
 Excavation LE 16,000
 Concrete LE 180,000
 F-Concrete LE 600,000
Critical materials:
 Available Cement ton 800
 Used Cement ton 800
What are the bases of negotiation?
Which KPI would you choose?
• Policy 1 – What? …………………… Why? .……………
• Policy 2 – What? …………………… Why? .……………
• Policy 3 – What? …………………… Why? .……………

137
Negotiation Skills for Project Managers