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Labutong, Fidel Ivan

Pastores, Janet Stephanie


Tagapan, John Paolo
Yeung, Angelyn
4ChE-A

1. To determine the efflux time needed to drain a


tank with a set of exit pipes with different
lengths and diameters
2. To derive mathematical correlation between the
efflux time and the pipe size and the tank
diameter

Pipe flows may be classified as laminar or turbulent.


Re 2,100

Re 4,000

In case where any of the two situations are not


strictly observed, flow is said to be transitional.

Flow of fluid inside the pipe depends on the


length and diameter of the pipe.

The boundary layer is a dynamic phenomenon. Its


thickness increases as the fluid moves downstream.
Boundary layer from the walls grow to such an extent
that they all merge on the centreline of the pipe.

Once this takes place, inviscid core terminates and the


flow is all viscous. The flow is now called a Fully
Developed Flow.
Le=0.06D ()
1
Le=4.4D() 6

Laminar flow
Turbulent flow

Efflux time
apparatus

Pail

Pipe

Viscosity and density of water was measured. Then 3.5


liters of water was prepared in a pail and slowly poured into
the tank while covering the orifice. After emptying the pail,
water was allowed to flow from the orifice and a second pail
was placed to catch the water falling. Time was recorded until
the tank was empty.

A pipe was then


attached to the orifice
of the tank and was
filled with water while
the exit pipe is being
covered.
Upon draining, the
time it takes for a
height interval of 12cm from level view
port was recorded until
the tank was empty.

First pipe was then removed and replaced with


another pipe and the same procedure was used.
Formation of vortex was also considered. Three trials
were done for each pipe.
After using all 10 pipes, 50% glycerol-water
mixture was used in place of water, following the
same process.

Table 1. Experimental Data for Water


Pipe Diameter( Length(
No. m)
m)

Height
Interval(c Velocity
m)
(m/s)

Reynold
Time(s) s No.
Le(m)
0.0941
98.95
313.76
3

0.005

0.75

1.00

0.0017

0.0075

0.77

1.00

0.0045

38.71

830.55

0.37

0.011

0.75

2.00

0.0092

14.19

1698.01

1.12

0.017

0.74

2.00

0.0228

8.23

4208.12

0.30

0.0185

0.74

2.00

0.0304

7.07

5610.83

0.34

0.013

0.58

2.00

0.0149

10.27

2750.05

2.15

0.0133

0.63

2.00

0.0154

9.78

2842.33

2.27

0.0134

0.88

2.00

0.0158

11.01

2916.16

2.34

0.0131

1.01

2.00

0.0148

13.49

2731.59

2.15

10

0.01312

1.14

2.00

0.0168

10.07

3100.72

2.44

Table 2. Theoretical Data for Water


Pipe No.

D/d

L/D

Velocity (m/s)

Time(s)

Reynolds
No.

Le (m)

33.74

4.47

0.0069

23.03

1282.24

0.38

22.49

4.54

0.0351

4.56

6480.71

2.92

15.34

4.46

0.1628

0.98

30041.36

0.27

9.92

4.40

1.4878

0.11

171627.02

0.56

9.12

4.38

2.0879

0.08

240848.68

0.64

12.98

3.46

0.3271

0.49

60372.99

0.36

12.68

3.74

0.3548

0.45

65492.45

0.37

12.59

5.23

0.3529

0.45

65136.30

0.37

12.88

5.98

0.3186

0.50

58811.06

0.36

10

12.86

6.75

0.3176

0.50

58620.53

0.36

Table 3. Experimental Data for Glycerol Solution


Pipe
No.

Diameter(
mm)

Length(
m)

Height
Interval(cm)

Velocity
(m/s)

Reynolds
No.

Le(m)

0.0013

Time(
s)
120.5
3

0.005

0.75

1.00

49.20

0.0147

0.0075

0.77

1.00

0.00

35.06

174.08

0.0783

0.011

0.75

2.00

0.01

15.15

488.17

0.3221

0.017

0.74

2.00

0.02

7.09

851.46

0.8684

0.0185

0.74

2.00

0.03

5.56

1067.16

1.1845

0.013

0.58

2.00

0.01

11.04

556.28

0.4339

0.0133

0.63

2.00

0.02

10.96

590.34

0.4710

0.0134

0.88

2.00

0.02

10.89

597.91

0.4807

0.0131

1.01

2.00

0.01

11.91

563.85

0.4431

10

0.01312

1.14

2.00

0.02

10.60

639.54

0.5034

Table 4. Theoretical Data for Glycerol Solution


Pipe No.

D/d

L/D

Velocity (m/s)

Time(s)

Reynolds No.

Le

33.74

4.47

0.00142443

112.33

53.90

0.02

22.49

4.54

0.007199378

22.22

272.44

0.12

15.34

4.46

0.033372758

4.79

1262.91

0.83

9.92

4.40

0.190659379

0.84

7215.03

7.36

9.12

4.38

0.267557279

0.60

10125.03

11.24

12.98

3.46

0.067067974

2.39

2538.02

1.98

12.68

3.74

0.072755152

2.20

2753.24

2.20

12.59

5.23

0.072359501

2.21

2738.26

2.20

12.88

5.98

0.06533283

2.45

2472.36

1.94

10

12.86

6.75

0.065121179

2.46

2464.35

1.94

Re = (Dtankv)/
Le = 0.06D(Re) for laminar
Le = 4.4D(Re)1/6 for turbulent
Efflux Time = 8LR2ln( 1+ H/L) *

for laminar

Efflux Time = 5LR2ln( 1+ H/L) * for turbulent

Using pipe 1:
Re =

(laminar)

Le = 0.06(0.005)( 313.76) = 0.09413m


Efflux Time
8(0.0009155)(0.754)(0.084352)ln(1+ *
Efflux Time = 23.03s
D/d = (0.08435)(2)/0.005 = 33.74
L/D = 0.75/(0.08435)(2) = 4.47

Using Pipe 4:
Re =

(turbulent)

Le = 4.4(0.017)( 4208.12)1/6 = 0.30m


Efflux Time =
5(0.0009155)(0.74)(0.084352)ln(1+
Efflux Time = 0.11s

Plot of Height Interval (cm) vs Time (s) for water


Height Interval (cm) vs Time (s)
16.00
Pipe 1

14.00

Pipe 2
12.00

Pipe 3
Pipe 4

10.00

Pipe 5
8.00

Pipe 6
Pipe 7

6.00

Pipe 8
4.00

Pipe 9
Pipe 10

2.00
0.00

0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

Plot of Height Interval (cm) vs Time (s) for glycerol solution


Height Interval (cm) vs Time (s)
16.00

Pipe 1
Pipe 2

14.00

Pipe 3
12.00

Pipe 4
Pipe 5

10.00

Pipe 6
8.00

Pipe 7
Pipe 8

6.00

Pipe 9

4.00

Pipe 10

2.00
0.00
0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

120.00

Plot of entry length vs Ratio of Diameters for Water and Glycerol Solution
Le (m) vs D/d

Le vsD/d

1.2

1.2

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0
0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

30.00

35.00

0
0.00

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

Plot of Entry Length vs Ratio of Length of Exit Pipe with Tank Diameter
for Water and Glycerol Solution

Le vs L/D

Le vs L/D

2.50

0.51

2.45

0.5

2.40

0.49

2.35

0.48

2.30

0.47

2.25

0.46

2.20

0.45

2.15

0.44

2.10
0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

0.43

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

Plot of Efflux Time vs Ratio of Diameters for Water and Glycerol Solution
Efflux Time (s) vs D/d

Efflux Time(s) vs D/d


140.00

120.00

120.00
100.00

y = 0.1287x2 - 1.778x + 12.586


R = 0.9983

80.00

100.00
Experimental

y = 0.199x2 - 4.0194x + 28.716


R = 0.9966

experimental

80.00

theoretical

60.00

60.00

Theoretical

40.00

40.00
20.00

20.00

0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

Plot of Efflux Time vs Ratio of Length of Exit Pipe with Tank Diameter
for Water and Glycerol Solution

Efflux Time(s) vs L/D

Efflux Time (s)vs L/D

120.00

140.00

100.00

120.00
Theoretical

80.00

y = -2.756x + 35.24
R = 0.009

60.00

100.00

Experimental 80.00

y = -3.6064x + 40.976
R = 0.0106

experimental
theoretical

60.00

40.00

40.00
20.00

20.00

0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00 12.00

1. Give practical applications of the principle of efflux time. What


areas of chemical engineering can we apply this concept.

The principle of efflux time can be applied for


the pipe connections that we can see everywhere.
For the industry, it can be used to measure the time
it takes for a fluid
to flow out of the pipe or vessels.
It is
important to know the time it takes to empty a
tank because it is the time to process a reactor
volume. For reactors, efflux time is a factor used to
determine down time.

Fluid mechanics is an area of chemical


engineering where we can apply the concept of efflux
time.

2. In cases where there is a desired efflux time,


what design consideration must be applied?
If you are given a desired efflux
time, the design of the container should
be in a way that diameter and length of
the container will be taken into account.

For water at pipe 1: % Difference =

at pipe 5: % Difference =

For glycerol at pipe 1: % Difference =


at pipe 5: % Difference =

The efflux time has been determined for a


tank with a set of exit pipes with varying lengths
and diameters. Efflux time was found to be
higher for longer pipes and lower for pipes with
larger diameter.
However, experimental results were not
matched with the theoretical values. This may
have resulted from the presence of vortex when
draining the tanks, surface roughness, dirt and
inaccurate gathering of data for recording the
time. From the calculated least and highest %
difference, it was observed that it both occurred
at pipe 1 and 5 for the two liquids used
respectively.

1.Pour the fluid slowly so that the tank will not


overflow.
2. Be alert when recording time.
3. Be observant, look for signs of vorticity.
4. Clean the area after the experiment.

5. DONT PLAY IN YOUR WORKPLACE.