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Hal Hagood

There are three locations for this small business that need to be interconnected. The bandwidth required between these sites is dependent on the amount of traffic. The 2811 router can be used as a dynamic firewall if the redundancy option is considered. and potential applications being used simultaneously between sites. along with a TFTP server. The reasoning behind this is that VLAN's can be isolated into different groups. EverGreen has purchased Cisco devices such as Cisco 2960 switches. These need to be set up. Within these three locations there may be multiple groups. The proposed routing devices for the various locations would be a 2811 series router with an internal T1 Wan Interface Card. Between the offices in Atlanta and San Francisco and the HQ office it is recommended for that a fractional Frame Relay be used.WAN NETWORK DEPLOYMENT PLAN 2 The first step in designing of the network for EverGreen will be to understand the various locations and a Wide Area Network overview of these locations. A sufficient firewall device must also be considered for the main site and a redundancy solution for each other site. and a wireless LAN controller. In this way only authorized personnel are able to access certain resources on the network. The company’s internet connectivity has been lacking with email transaction delays and download problems with various media on the internet. This is assuming that each has its own internet connectivity. This would be for connected directly to the home office. The recommended Frame Relay connection would be no less than 768Kbps or point to point T1 connections. The proposed switches are the 2960 series Cisco equipment that allows the use of VLAN's to separate different groups for added security. These may need to be separated with Virtual LAN's on switches to ensure logical separation of groups in different areas. . EverGreen Financial is a smaller company in New York with approximately 20-30 employees specializing in financial products and services and needs a basic Cisco network built for the local office and two satellite offices in Atlanta and San Francisco each with approximately 10 employees respectively. The proposed WAN has identified potential leased line between locations. Sites should have at least a single VLAN capable switch that can run 1Gbps link speeds. a 2811 router. A list of approximate users is also required to properly identify the bandwidth requirements. if needed. users.

The router at the home office building has the ability to support VPN connectivity. the customer site. firewalling. IPX. the public domain and the private domain. VINES Internetwork Protocol (VIP). That means that security at all levels must be considered. Consequently since all sites are running Cisco routers then the proposed routing protocol would be the same.WAN NETWORK DEPLOYMENT PLAN 3 For the home office location. . The suggested router would be the 3845 series Cisco router.Additionally Cisco devices can be utilized from data only networks to voice and data combined networks if need be. and multiple T1 connections. In the area of wide area networking there are two basic environments or domains. Examples of routable protocols: Internet Protocol (IP -IPv4 and IPv6). to be private however even this private line is carried in a public domain to some extent. If by chance there are any legacy networks or different vendors in the future the proposed routing protocol would be Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) rather than EIGRP (Cisco). Cisco's proprietary protocol EIGRP would be used. and the carrier. Most would consider the local connection between a private facility. This is mainly because of the lack of capability of protocol (almost all non-routable protocols are designed long back which will not fit well in current networks) and the addressing scheme the non-routable protocol is using. It is recommended that a single standard vender be used for all three sites to reduce overhead and cost of the WAN. AppleTalk. Reflection for the use public or private must be evaluated at all levels of networking. switches can be the same as the other locations using the Cisco 2960. Regarding the various protocols “a routable protocol is a network protocol which can carry data from one network and can pass through the router to reach another network and be delivered to a computer in that remote network. DECnet A non-routable protocol’s data cannot be passed through a router to reach a remote network. 2014). Non-routing protocols reachability limit is its own network and they are designed in such a way to think that all computers they communicate are on the same network as the source computer” (omnisecu.

DHCP strategy is an essential part of an organizations network and once implemented can go unnoticed. Once DHCP is implemented.WAN NETWORK DEPLOYMENT PLAN 4 Using public carrier network infrastructure can be more cost effective than using privately owned infrastructure. month after month. Since there is often a recurring cost to building a WAN. This redundancy could take the form of a primary private network that is backed up by the public Internet. What type of users and workstations will be used and what about mobile users and network devices? Large scale implementations requires a look at the network topology because it dictates where DCHP servers and relays must be placed. but this is all dependent upon the customer’s relationship with the carrier and what they already have negotiated and may currently be using. performance and span. A LAN is typically installed and the customer owns the wire and underlying switches. For the purposes of this paper a WAN is generally defined as a network created to connect two or more Local Area Networks (LANs). and maintaining the carrier infrastructure so that often times they are lower in cost to each customer using that infrastructure. WAN discussion could also include the interconnection between carriers” (HP. For example. In the most general sense. functioning behind the scenes day after day. . Also fault tolerance must be considered because DHCP is a critical service. As such there are steps can be taken to ensure that DHCP will be available at all times. The configuration could be such that the private network is the primary route and the public Internet is secondary. 2014). public and private. “Often times the two domains. public carrier networks allow many subscribers to share the costs of installing. managing. a customer may want to consider some redundancy between sites. There are several things to be considered when designing a DHCP infrastructure. it quickly becomes a service that the entire network is dependent on. are combined to gain the best of both. a Wide Area Network (WAN) is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network. In general. In a WAN you work with a vendor and pay them “rent”. There are several differences between LAN and Wan but in general WAN differs from a LAN in areas regarding reoccurring costs. the customer leases the lines and services required to get from point “A” to point “B”.

Another option for a mobile workforce is to utilize a DHCP User Class. a feature found in the Windows 2000 DHCP server. When the user is finished. It also diminishes name resolution errors resulting from incorrect DNS and WINS addresses. and default gateways. subnet masks. for a company with 500 mobile users and 200 valid IP addresses to allocate. It allows one to assign additional configuration data to a particular set of . such as email and file services. assigning static addresses to users with laptops would be both inefficient and foolish. whether or not he or she has technical training or experience with networking. The administrator configures the lease time for the mobile user’s scope to a short duration. he disconnects from the network. The very nature of mobile users dictates that they will be connecting to the corporate network intermittently. Smaller and larger organizations both benefit from standardized IP configurations. DHCP can also benefit organizations with a mobile workforce. The mobile user then proceeds to access network resources.WAN NETWORK DEPLOYMENT PLAN 5 EverGreens strategy is to use DHCP in two ways. By utilizing DHCP. Most small companies cannot afford a full time network administrator who knows the ins and outs of IP addressing. Using standardized configurations minimizes connectivity problems relating to incorrect IP addresses. By using DHCP. 2001). With valid IP addresses in short supply. the administrator can set up the DHCP server to allocate these 200 IP addresses to mobile users. The DHCP server then reclaims the IP address once the one-day lease period expires” (Oreilly. Typically they delegate network administration to the one person in the office who is the most computer-savvy. When a mobile user connects to the network. say one day. Thus they do not require the constant exclusive use of an IP address. 2001). an administrator can configure the DHCP server to reclaim these IP addresses after a short period of time. medium and even large sized companies can benefit from DHCP because of the lower administrative burden. “For example. the DHCP client on the user's laptop negotiates an IP address lease from the DHCP server. first by taking advantage of lower administrative costs and second by using standardized IP configurations throughout the entire enterprise. the day-to-day administration of IP addressing and associated configuration details is handled automatically without any intervention from office personnel” (Oreilly. “Small.

and DHCP client needs have been defined. one on each DHCP server. The user class would specify a lease period that is shorter in duration than the rest of the scope. reservations need to be created for each network device.64. Fault Tolerance: With DCHP being such a critical service it is important to make it fault tolerant. The address range is defined by the subnet the scope will be servicing. For example.95.0/11.64. if the subnet is 10.1 through 10. Once the IP addressing plan. The two scopes both service the same subnet.255. the valid range of IP addresses for this scope is 10. The address range will be used by the DHCP server to determine which IP address to assign to a DHCP client. but the range of addresses is divided. If a static IP address was not exempted. By splitting scopes. one for each DHCP server fault tolerance can be created. There are however ways to create fault tolerant configuration. By default DHCP does not have a built-in method of fault tolerance. the administrator could create a DHCP User Class for the mobile users. Appropriate DHCP addressing and routing architecture that includes IP addressing strategies for both servers and personal computers is of key importance.0. an IP address conflict could occur and cause connectivity problems for the two computers involved” (Oreilly. An exemption designates an IP address not to be assigned to a DHCP client.0. If the IP addressing plan calls for using manual address allocation. exemptions have to be created. the DHCP server may assign the IP address to a DHCP client. The administrator would then configure each laptop's DHCP client to specify that the laptop is a member of this user class. simply assign the address range to the scope.WAN NETWORK DEPLOYMENT PLAN 6 users.254. the remaining DHCP server . Instead of configuring a separate scope for the 200 IP addresses. If one DHCP server becomes unavailable. network topology. As a result. It is the process of creating two scopes. If the IP addressing plan calls for using dynamic address allocation for this subnet. Address Ranges: “When defining a scope. the most important information to define is the address range of the scope. 2001). it is time to start defining the various scopes. For any statically configured network devices on that subnet.

the 50/50 configuration provides both fault tolerance and load balancing for DHCP servers. The DHCP client then accepts the offer from the local DHCP server. 2001). and the remaining 50% is given to the other scope. For example. This allows each scope to fully service the number of DHCP clients requesting addresses in the event that one of the DHCP servers fails” (Oreilly. One DHCP server resides on the subnet the scope is servicing. The selected DHCP server allocates the address and sends the acknowledgement to the client.e. the first offer received). Typically this method is used when both DHCP servers are centrally located on the same subnet. This range is known as a scope. Finally the 80/20 method of splitting scopes provides fault tolerance in a submitted environment. The DHCP server. assigns an IP address in the range to DHCP clients upon request. 2001). When a DHCP client requests an IP address. In the 80/20 method. The downside of the 80/20 method is that the remote DHCP server. two DHCP servers are configured.WAN NETWORK DEPLOYMENT PLAN 7 continues to service DHCP client requests using its portion of the address range. In the event that the local DHCP server fails. in turn. will not be able to handle all DHCP requests from the subnet. “In this method. The client then accepts one of the offers (i. with only 20% of the available address space. So where is the address range split? That is determined by the needs of the network implementation. The other DHCP server is on another remote subnet. The 50/50 method of splitting scopes can only be implemented where the number of available IP addresses is plentiful. the client eventually receives a response from the remote DHCP server” (Oreilly. the local DHCP server responds first with an offer. the request is received by both servers and both respond with an offer. The administrator assigns a range of addresses to the DHCP server. if an administrator . “80% of the available address range is allocated to the local DHCP server.. 50% of the available address range is given to one scope. Another method. The router connecting the subnets is configured with a DHCP relay agent that will forward DHCP requests to the remote DHCP server. The remaining 20% is allocated to the remote DHCP server. The remote DHCP server's request arrives later since it needs to traverse the WAN. When a DHCP client on the local subnet sends out a DHCP request. Dynamic allocation uses DHCP as the mechanism to allocate IP addresses. EverGreens strategy for leasing addresses is one of Dynamic IP Addressing with Automatic allocation.

After the lease duration has expired.168. if needed. say 192. first when the lease duration is 50% complete and then again when the lease duration is 87.168. Setting the lease duration too short may cause excessive DHCP traffic on the network as DHCP clients attempt to renew their address leases. he creates a DHCP scope that consists of the IP addresses 192.168. These addresses may be network devices or hosts whose IP addresses should not change.168. is more than sufficient for most scopes. A lease duration is the amount of time that a DHCP client has exclusive use of an IP address. Setting the lease duration too long will cause IP addresses to be shown as allocated. A client no longer owns an address. Usually the default time period. Lease durations determine when the DHCP server can reclaim the allocated IP address. can also exempt certain addresses from the scope.1. When a DHCP client requests an address from the DHCP server.1. the server assigns one of these addresses.25.1.5% complete. thus unable to be reclaimed. the client has two opportunities to extend the lease. it can never assume that it has an address on a permanent basis.1. routers.1 through 192. The administrator.168. Another option for network devices such as these would be to configure a DHCP reservation. the DHCP server assigns an address between 192.168. network printers.1 through 192. Now when a DHCP client requests an IP address. The administrator can set aside a portion of the scope.254.1. It also must perform other activities over time to manage this lease and possibly terminate it. This means that when a client machine is set to use DHCP dynamic addressing. The administrator. including the clients’ usage patterns. the DHCP client must request a new lease from a DHCP server.0/24 subnet.1.1. for these devices. With DHCP. for example. network’s .WAN NETWORK DEPLOYMENT PLAN 8 has workstations on a network and wants to assign these workstations addresses in the 192. but rather leases it. also specifies the lease duration for any IP address assignments from the scope. it must engage in communications with a DHCP server to begin or confirm the lease of an address.254. 8 days.26 through 192. Each time it powers up. The use of dynamic address allocation in DHCP means a whole new way of thinking about addresses. There are some lease considerations. where the DHCP server allocates the same IP address to the device's MAC address.168. and servers. when defining a scope.

no DHCP-assigned address. For example. so you can keep using it. Typically. clients could acquire configuration changes at least once per day” (novell. . And if you decide. availability of servers and network (IP) addresses. This length of time could mean manually restarting every client or waiting the amount of time required for all leases to be renewed before the changes take effect. “The longest lease provided by a DHCP server determines the length of time you might have to wait before configuration changes can be propagated within a network. assuming you are happy with the place. it must stop using the network after the lease expires.WAN NETWORK DEPLOYMENT PLAN 9 goals. say. because a DHCP IP address lease is similar to a “real world” lease in a number of respects. 2014). “DHCP leases follow a similar lease “life cycle”. The DHCP Lease "Life Cycle": Calling dynamic address assignments leases is a good analogy. If a client loses access to its DHCP server before renewing its lease. you will probably lease a different apartment to ensure you have somewhere to live. and hence. If a client is turned on and connected to the network at the time of the outage. Another issue to consider concerns outages and access to the DHCP server. you may terminate the lease and not get another at all. If your site policy is to turn off workstation power at the end of the day. however. It acquires a lease through a process of allocation. when you rent an apartment. Then you use the apartment for a period of time. it is similar to the full allocation process but shorter. the lease does not expire. This is sometimes called reallocation. you will renew the lease before it expires. it will contact the DHCP server that granted it the lease to confirm the lease and acquire operating parameters. The longer the lease. which generally consists of the following phases: Allocation: A client begins with no active lease. Reallocation: If a client already has an address from an existing lease. Another important consideration is that clients attempt to renew their leases half-way through the lease duration. you sign the lease. then when it reboots or starts up after being shut down. to move out of the country. the longer it takes for client configuration changes to be registered with the DHCP server. If by the time you get near the end of the lease the owner of the apartment has not allowed you to renew it.

Of course. the server has been taken offline).WAN NETWORK DEPLOYMENT PLAN 10 Normal Operation: Once a lease is active. releasing the IP address. these are some must-have items on the checklist: “Is the server that is hosting the application healthy and performing well? Is the problem isolated to a user or group at a particular location. on a switch.or just one location -. router. for example. Like the apartment-renter moving out of the country. this may be done if a device is moving to a different network.affected? Are other applications affected or just one? If there is a local service to test (file sharing in a workgroup. does the problem follow him or her? Are users in multiple locations -. Isolating the root cause of the performance issue is critical. The client is said to be bound to the lease and the address. then the client will try to rebind to any active DHCP server. or human error. is that fast or slow? Does monitoring software show any WAN or LAN usage spikes that correspond to trouble times? And always. trying to extend its current lease with any server that will allow it to do so. including user PC (was it re-imaged)? . and may terminate the lease. Finally addressing Wan troubleshooting techniques when there’s any trouble the finger pointing usually starts. 2014). Renewal: After a certain portion of the lease time has expired. When trying to isolate a trouble ticket. the client will attempt to contact the server that initially granted the lease. to renew the lease so it can keep using its IP address. Rebinding: If renewal with the original leasing server fails (because. or other network device. the Meta question: Has anything changed recently in the infrastructure between app and user. and having the right tools or managed services in place is essential. no analogy is perfect” (tcpipguide. the client functions normally. landlords usually don't let you cancel a lease at your leisure. for example. Release: The client may decide at any time that it no longer wishes to use the IP address it was assigned. the carrier network infrastructure.). Those tools can help determine whether the root cause of the problem lies in the application. using its assigned IP address and other parameters during the “main part” of the lease. unlike DHCP servers. firewall. or is it affecting all users there? If an affected user sits at an unaffected user's desktop. but hey. etc.

Is malware/zombie machine flooding a local network segment. or is it putting too low a priority on critical traffic? Is there a legitimate WAN problem? Is there congestion from legitimate use of an application? Is it time (or past time) to upgrade circuits? Are security measures placing traffic in quarantine when they should not? Is someone sending unusually large chunks of data when you don't have QoS set properly to deal with it? Do you need bandwidth-optimization to address latency of real-time traffic?” (searchenterprisewan. along with system. help network managers isolate and resolve problems. or other areas. . Is there a malfunction in edge switch or intermediate distribution switch? This can cause problems with a group. floor. a router. so it can help isolate the cause of a performance issue. 2014).WAN NETWORK DEPLOYMENT PLAN 11 Also is there a NIC malfunction on a PC in question? Is spyware/malware choking a machine's performance? This tends to hit one machine but not others. or building. application. Is the bandwidth shaper misconfigured. WAN link. the carrier network. and device-specific products and carrier networkmanagement portals. or Internet connection? A well-configured network will contain the damage as much as possible. These tools. That makes it easier to determine whether a problem stems from the application.


Retrieved April 24.WAN NETWORK DEPLOYMENT PLAN 13 Reference Hewlett Packard.pdf 2014 from http://www. (2014). (2014).omnisecu. Retrieved April 24.tcpipguide.html Searchenterprise. Retrieved April 2014 from http://searchenterprisewan.htm .com/free/t_DHCPLeaseLifeCycleOverviewAllocationReallocationRe. Retrieved April 24. (2014). 2014 from http://www.novell. (2014). Retrieved April 2014 from http://www. 2014 from http://oreilly. 2014 from http://www. (2014).php Omnisecu. Retrieved April 24. (2001) Tcpipguide.