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Diseases of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems

(Prepared by: Mary Rose Genilla, Fervie Mae Cano, Mary Marden Buenaventura, Bianca Gomez
Jim Pianco)

Cardiovascular System - The cardiovascular/circulatory system is an organ system that

permits blood and lymph circulation to transport nutrients to and from cells in the body to nourish it
help to fight diseases, stabilize body temperature and pH, and to maintain homeostasis.
Lymphatic System - The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system, comprising a network
conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph directionally towards the hea

DISEASES

DESCRIPTION

Streptococc
al
septicemia

Septicemia is a general
expression for microbial
infection of the blood and blood
vessels. In previous
generations, this condition was
known as blood poisoning. A
common cause of streptococcal
septicemia is the Gram-positive
streptococcus named
Streptococcus pyogenes.
Endocarditis, a complication of
streptococcal septicemia is an
infection of the heart valves.
Plague is caused by the Gramnegative rod Yersinia
pestis. This organism is similar
to the agent of tularemia and is
transmitted by its rodent
reservoir, the rat flea. The
organism enters the lymphatic
system and causes swelling of
the lymph nodes called buboes.

Plague

SIGNS AND
SYMPTOMS

TREATMENT AND
PREVENTION

Septicemia can begin


with chills, high fever,
rapid breathing and
rapid heart rate. And
may quickly progress
to confusion or other
changes in mental
status, red spots on
the skin might also
appear.

You may be given antibiotics


treat the infection, fluids and
medicines by IV to maintain t
blood pressure, plasma or oth
blood products to correct any
clotting problems. For preven
The Haemophilus influenza
B (HIB) vaccine
and S.pneumoniae vaccine h
been proven to reduce the
number of septicemia cases
children.

The most infamous


symptom of bubonic
plague is an infection
of the lymph glands
(lymphadenitis), which
become swollen and
painful and are known
as buboes. Other
symptoms include
heavy breathing,
continuous vomiting of
blood (hematemesis),
aching limbs,
coughing, and extreme
pain. The pain is
usually caused by the
decay or
decomposition of the
skin while the person is
still alive.

People potentially infected w


the plague need immediate
treatment and should be give
antibiotics within 24 hours of
first symptoms to prevent de
Several classes of antibiotics
effective in treating bubonic
plague. These includes
aminoglycosides such
as streptomycin and gentam
and tetracyclines.

Yellow fever

Schistosomi
asis

Chagas
disease

Yellow fever is a viral disease of


the bloodstream transmitted by
the mosquito Aedes aegypti.
The virus is an RNA-containing
particle that is icosahedral.
After injection by the mosquito,
the virus spreads to the lymph
nodes and blood, where it
persists in the blood rich organs
such as the liver.
Schistosomiasis is caused by a
multicellular, parasitic flatworm
known as a fluke. The
responsible flukes
include Schistosoma
mansoni and other species. In
water, these parasites live
in snails, and they enter the
body through the skin of an
individual who walks or swims
in the infected water.

Chagas disease or American


trypanosomiasis, is
a tropical parasitic
disease caused by the flagellate
protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi
or T. cruzi is commonly
transmitted to humans and
other mammals by an
insect vector, Triatominae also
known as the "kissing bugs.
The symptomatic (determinate)
chronic stage affects
the nervous system, digestive
system and the heart. About
two-thirds of people with
chronic symptoms have cardiac
damage, including dilated
cardiomyopathy, which causes
heart rhythm abnormalities and
may result in sudden death.

Very high fever,


nausea, jaundice and
bleeding in the mouth,
eyes and
gastrointestinal tract
will cause vomit
containing blood.

As for other flavivirus infectio


there is no cure for yellow fev
Hospitalization is advisable a
intensive care may be necess
because of rapid deterioratio
some cases.

The parasites multiply


and live within the
bloodstream, where
they interfere with the
flow of blood and
lymph and cause local
tissue damage.
Symptoms includes
abdominal pain,
diarrhea, cough, fever,
fatigue and
hepatosplenomegaly
the enlargement of
both the liver and the
spleen.
During the chronic
phase, the infection
may remain silent for
decades or even for
life. However, some
people develop cardiac
complications, which
can include an
enlarged heart
(cardiomyopathy),
heart failure, altered
heart rate or rhythm,
and cardiac arrest.

Schistosomiasis is readily tre


using a single oral dose of th
drugpraziquantel
annually. As with other majo
parasitic diseases, there is
ongoing and extensive resea
into developing a schistosom
vaccine that will prevent the
parasite from completing its
cycle in humans.

Treatment with antiparasitic d


benznidazole and nifurtimox
inhibit T. cruzi parasites. The
no vaccine against Chagas
disease parasites for humans
many experts suggest that
elimination of primitive housi
and education may prevent m
cases of Chagas disease.

Toxoplasmo
sis

Toxoplasmosis is a protozoal
disease caused by the
sporozoan, Toxoplasma gondii.
This protozoan is transmitted
from domestic house cats,
usually by contact with their
urine or feces. In humans, the
protozoa multiply in the
bloodstream and undergo a
complex reproductive cycle.
Although toxoplasmosis can
affect any organ in the body,
the lymph nodes, skeletal and
heart muscles, and the brain
are most commonly involved.

Rheumatic
fever

Rheumatic fever is an immune


reaction taking place in the
heart tissues and is usually
stimulated by antigens derived
from Streptococcus pyogenes.
Inflammation of the heart
tissues is often accompanied by
inflammation and arthritis of
the joints, a condition
called rheumatoid arthritis.

Malaria

Malaria is a mosquito-borne
infectious disease of humans
and other animals caused by
parasitic protozoans (a type of
unicellular microorganism) of
the genus Plasmodium.
Commonly, the disease is
transmitted via a bite from an
infected female Anopheles
mosquito, which introduces the
organisms from its saliva into a
person's circulatory system.

Patients experience
fever, with other
constitutional
abnormalities, but
symptoms are
generally mild.
However, in a pregnant
woman, the protozoa
may pass to the
unborn fetus and
cause tissue
destruction. Also, in
AIDS patients,
toxoplasmosis can
result in seizures and
then brain
inflammation, and it
may be a cause of
death.
Symptoms may include
abdominal pains, nose
bleeding and may
cause Polyarthritis, a
temporary migrating
inflammation of the
large joints and
Carditis an
inflammation of the
heart muscle
(myocarditis) which
can manifest
as congestive heart
failure with shortness
of breath,
Malaria affects the
body through parasitic
infection. The parasites
travel through the
blood to the liver and
mature. They they reenter the blood stream
and infect red blood
cells. May include
headache, fever,
shivering, joint pain,
vomiting, haemolytic
anemia and convulsion

Treatment is often only


recommended for people wit
serious health problems, such
people with HIV whose CD4
counts are under 200, becau
the disease is most serious w
one's immune system is wea
Trimethoporin is the drug of
choice to prevent toxoplasmo
but not for treating.

Patients with positive culture


for Streptococcus
pyogenes should be treated w
penicillin as long as allergy is
present.

There are a number of drugs


can help prevent malaria whi
travelling in areas where it ex
Medicines usually can treat t
illness. But some malaria
parasites may survive becau
they are in your liver or they
are resistant to the medicine

Dengue
fever

Infectious
mononucleo
sis

Tularemia

Lyme
disease

Dengue fever is transmitted by


the Aedes
aegypti mosquito and caused
by an RNA virus. The viruses
enter the bloodstream, where
they cause fever and severe
muscle, bone, and joint pains,
leading to breakbone
fever. Successive exposures to
the virus may result in dengue
hemorrhagic fever, in which
extensive hemorrhaging occurs
in the blood-rich organs.
Infectious mononucleosis is
caused by a herpes virus
believed to be the Epstein-Barr
virus. This virus has DNA and
an envelope and the ability to
remain latent in the Blymphocytes Mono can be
spread through contact
with saliva, mucus from the
nose and throat, and
sometimes tears. Because the
virus can be spread through
kissing, it has earned the
nickname the "kissing disease."

Symptoms include as
severe joint and
muscle pain,
swollen lymph nodes,
headache, fever,
exhaustion, and rash.

Because dengue fever is cau


by a virus, there is no specifi
medicine or antibiotic to trea
For typical dengue fever, the
treatment is directed toward
of the symptoms (symptoma
treatment).

The most common


symptoms of mono are
a high fever, a
severe sore throat,
swollen
glands and tonsils, and
weakness and fatigue.
Symptoms usually
start 4 to 6 weeks after
you are exposed to the
virus. Mono can cause
the spleen to swell.
Severe pain in the
upper left part of your
belly may mean that
your spleen has burst.

Get plenty of rest. You


need bed rest, which could ke
you away from school or wor
a little while.

Tularemia is due to a Gramnegative rod called Francisella


tularensis. The bacteria enter
the body by contact, inhalation,
ingestion of contaminated
rabbit meat, and the bite of
ticks and other arthropods. The
course of disease involves the
spread of the organism to
multiple organ systems,
including the lungs, liver,
spleen, and lymphatic system.

The face and eyes


redden and become
inflamed. Inflammation
spreads to the lymph
nodes, which enlarge
and may suppurate
(mimicking bubonic
plague). Lymph node
involvement is
accompanied by a high
fever. Death occurs in
less than 1% of cases if
therapy is initiated
promptly.
The classic sign of
early local infection
with Lyme disease is a
circular, outwardly

Lyme disease is caused


by Borrelia burgdorferi. This
organism is a spirochete
transmitted by ticks of the

Gargle with salt water


use throat lozenges to soothe
your sore throat.

Take acetaminophen (
as Tylenol) or ibuprofen (such
Advil) to reduce fever and rel
a sore throat and headaches.
Avoid contact sports and hea
lifting. Your spleen may be
enlarged, and impact or strai
could cause it to burst.

.
The drug of choice for tularem
has historically
been streptomycin
or tetracycline-class drugs su
as doxycycline. Gentamicin m
also be used as it is easier to
obtain than streptomycin.
Preventive measures include
prompt removal of ticks, and
use of rubber gloves and eye
protection when handling
potentially infected wild anim

Lyme disease may be treated


a number of antibiotics, inclu
penicillin and tetracycline. A
vaccine is currently available

genus Ixodes. First observed in


Lyme, Connecticut, Lyme
disease is now found
throughout the United States.
Borrelia burgdorferi can spread
throughout the body during the
course of the disease, and has
been found in the skin, heart,
joint, peripheral nervous
system, and central nervous
system In addition, the heart is
affected and irregular heartbeat
may be observed.

Anthrax

Anthrax is due to the Grampositive, aerobic, sporeforming


rod Bacillus anthracis. Spores
from this organism are inhaled
from the air, or they are
acquired during contact with
contaminated soil or animals
such as sheep and cattle. In the
bloodstream, B.
anthracis causes severe
hemorrhaging, and the spleen,
kidneys, and other bloodrich
organs become engorged with
blood. The spores are then
picked up by scavenger cells
(macrophages) in the lungs and
are transported through small
vessels (lymphatics) to
the lymph nodes in the central
chest cavity (mediastinum).

expanding rash which


occurs at the site of
the tick bite three to
thirty days after the
tick bite. Classically,
the innermost portion
remains dark red and
becomes
indurated (is thicker
and firmer); the outer
edge remains red; and
the portion in between
clears, giving the
appearance of a bulls
eye.
Symptoms may include
fever and chills, chest
discomfort, shortness
of breath, confusion or
dizziness, cough,
nausea, vomiting, or
stomach pain,
headache, sweats
(often drenching),
extreme tiredness and
body aches

dogs. Diagnosis of the diseas


depends upon the observanc
symptoms and awareness of
exposure to ticks.

Treatment for anthrax infecti


and other bacterial
infections includes large dose
intravenous and
oral antibiotics,such
as fluoroquinolones (like
ciprofloxacin) doxycycline,
erythromycin, vancomycin,
or penicillin.