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in yellow.
44

2.61 Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Knowing

Statics of Particles

that the maximum allowable tension in each cable is 800 N, determine (a) the magnitude of the largest force P that can be applied
at C, (b) the corresponding value of a.
A

35

50

a
P

Fig. P2.61 and P2.62

2.62 Two cables tied together at C are loaded as shown. Knowing that

the maximum allowable tension is 1200 N in cable AC and 600 N

in cable BC, determine (a) the magnitude of the largest force P
that can be applied at C, (b) the corresponding value of a.

20 in.

frictionless horizontal rod. Determine the distance x for which the

collar is in equilibrium when P 5 48 lb.

frictionless horizontal rod. Determine the magnitude of the force

P required to maintain the equilibrium of the collar when (a) x 5
4.5 in., (b) x 5 15 in.

50 lb

shown. Knowing that b 5 20, determine the magnitude and direction of the force P that must be exerted on the free end of the
rope to maintain equilibrium. (Hint: The tension in the rope is the
same on each side of a simple pulley. This can be proved by the
methods of Chap. 4.)

2.66 A 160-kg load is supported by the rope-and-pulley arrangement

A

shown. Knowing that a 5 40, determine (a) the angle b, (b) the
magnitude of the force P that must be exerted on the free end of
the rope to maintain equilibrium. (See the hint for Prob. 2.65.)

ments as shown. Determine for each arrangement the tension in

the rope. (See the hint for Prob. 2.65.)

160 kg
Fig. P2.65 and P2.66
T

(a)
Fig. P2.67

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

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/ Vo lu m e s / 2 0 4 / MHDQ0 7 6 / wo rk%0 / in d d

REVIEW PROBLEMS
2.127 The direction of the 75-lb forces may vary, but the angle between

the forces is always 50. Determine the value of a for which the
resultant of the forces acting at A is directed horizontally to the
left.

2.128 A stake is being pulled out of the ground by means of two ropes

as shown. Knowing the magnitude and direction of the force

exerted on one rope, determine the magnitude and direction of
the force P that should be exerted on the other rope if the resultant of these two forces is to be a 40-lb vertical force.
30 lb

240 lb

30
!
75 lb

50
75 lb

Fig. P2.127

P
25

Fig. P2.128

40

line BD. Knowing that P must have a 240-lb vertical component,

determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its horizontal
component.

Fig. P2.129

2.130 Two cables are tied together at C and loaded as shown. Determine

the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in cable BC.

B

8.5 ft

9 ft

C
5 ft

12 ft

600 mm

396 lb
7.5 ft

Fig. P2.130

2.131 Two cables are tied together at C and loaded as shown. Knowing

P
C

that P 5 360 N, determine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in

cable BC.

2.132 Two cables are tied together at C and loaded as shown. Determine

250 mm

Q = 480 N
Fig. P2.131 and P2.132

67

90

Rigid Bodies: Equivalent Systems of Forces

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3.9 A winch puller AB is used to straighten a fence post. Knowing that

the tension in cable BC is 1040 N and length d is 1.90 m, determine the moment about D of the force exerted by the cable at C
by resolving that force into horizontal and vertical components
applied (a) at point C, (b) at point E.

required to straighten the fence post CD. If d 5 2.80 m, determine

the tension that must be developed in the cable of winch puller
AB to create the required moment about point D.
C

0.875 m

B
A
D
E
d

0.2 m

required to straighten the fence post CD. If the capacity of winch

puller AB is 2400 N, determine the minimum value of distance d
to create the specified moment about point D.

The tailgate of a car is supported by the hydraulic

lift BC. If the lift exerts a 125-lb force directed along its centerline
on the ball and socket at B, determine the moment of the force

15.3 in.

20.5 in.
4.38 in.

A
12.0 in.
C

7.62 in.

2.33 in.

17.2 in.

12.0 in.
Fig. P3.12

Fig. P3.13

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3.49 To lift a heavy crate, a man uses a block and tackle attached to the

Problems

bottom of an I-beam at hook B. Knowing that the moments about

the y and the z axes of the force exerted at B by portion AB of
the rope are, respectively, 120 N ? m and 460 N ? m, determine
the distance a.

y
a

3.50 To lift a heavy crate, a man uses a block and tackle attached to

the bottom of an I-beam at hook B. Knowing that the man applies

a 195-N force to end A of the rope and that the moment of that
force about the y axis is 132 N ? m, determine the distance a.

C
D

3.52 For the davit of Prob. 3.51, determine the largest allowable dis-

tance x when the tension in line ABAD is 60 lb.

4.8 m

3.51 A small boat hangs from two davits, one of which is shown in

the figure. It is known that the moment about the z axis of the
resultant force R A exerted on the davit at A must not exceed
279 lb ? ft in absolute value. Determine the largest allowable tension in line ABAD when x 5 6 ft.

105

O
1.6 m

2.2 m
x

y
3 ft

the handle of the valve. Knowing that u 5 25, Mx 5 261 lb ? ft,

and Mz 5 243 lb ? ft, determine f and d.

B
F
f

7.75 ft

q
A

z
Fig. P3.51

y
B

x
z
Fig. P3.53 and P3.54

3.54 When a force F is applied to the handle of the valve shown, its

moments about the x and z axes are, respectively, Mx 5 277 lb ? ft

and Mz 5 281 lb ? ft. For d 5 27 in., determine the moment My
of F about the y axis.

D
x

4 in.
11 in.

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3.99 A 46-lb force F and a 2120-lb in. couple M are applied to corner

3.17 Reduction of a System of Forces to

One Force and One Couple

A of the block shown. Replace the given force-couple system with

an equivalent force-couple system at corner H.

123

y
C

D
B

14 in.
H

18 in.

45 in.
F

y
x

25 in.

M1
A

3 in.
Fig. P3.99
B

3.100 The handpiece for a miniature industrial grinder weighs 0.6 lb,

and its center of gravity is located on the y axis. The head of the
handpiece is offset in the xz plane in such a way that line BC
forms an angle of 25 with the x direction. Show that the weight
of the handpiece and the two couples M1 and M2 can be replaced
with a single equivalent force. Further, assuming that M1 5 0.68
lb in. and M2 5 0.65 lb in., determine (a) the magnitude and
the direction of the equivalent force, (b) the point where its line
of action intersects the xz plane.

3.17

x
C

25
M2

Fig. P3.100

REDUCTION OF A SYSTEM OF FORCES TO ONE

FORCE AND ONE COUPLE

Consider a system of forces F1, F2, F3, . . . , acting on a rigid body at

the points A1, A2, A3, . . . , defined by the position vectors r1, r2, r3,
etc. (Fig. 3.41a). As seen in the preceding section, F1 can be moved
from A1 to a given point O if a couple of moment M1 equal to the
moment r1 3 F1 of F1 about O is added to the original system of
forces. Repeating this procedure with F2, F3, . . . , we obtain the
M3

F2

F1

M2

A2

A1
r1

O
r3

r2
A3

(a)
Fig. 3.41

F2

F3

R
R
MO

F3
F1

M1
(b)

(c)

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3.99 A 46-lb force F and a 2120-lb in. couple M are applied to corner

3.17 Reduction of a System of Forces to

One Force and One Couple

A of the block shown. Replace the given force-couple system with

an equivalent force-couple system at corner H.

123

y
C

D
B

14 in.
H

18 in.

45 in.
F

y
x

25 in.

M1
A

3 in.
Fig. P3.99
B

3.100 The handpiece for a miniature industrial grinder weighs 0.6 lb,

and its center of gravity is located on the y axis. The head of the
handpiece is offset in the xz plane in such a way that line BC
forms an angle of 25 with the x direction. Show that the weight
of the handpiece and the two couples M1 and M2 can be replaced
with a single equivalent force. Further, assuming that M1 5 0.68
lb in. and M2 5 0.65 lb in., determine (a) the magnitude and
the direction of the equivalent force, (b) the point where its line
of action intersects the xz plane.

3.17

x
C

25
M2

Fig. P3.100

REDUCTION OF A SYSTEM OF FORCES TO ONE

FORCE AND ONE COUPLE

Consider a system of forces F1, F2, F3, . . . , acting on a rigid body at

the points A1, A2, A3, . . . , defined by the position vectors r1, r2, r3,
etc. (Fig. 3.41a). As seen in the preceding section, F1 can be moved
from A1 to a given point O if a couple of moment M1 equal to the
moment r1 3 F1 of F1 about O is added to the original system of
forces. Repeating this procedure with F2, F3, . . . , we obtain the
M3

F2

F1

M2

A2

A1
r1

O
r3

r2
A3

(a)
Fig. 3.41

F2

F3

R
R
MO

F3
F1

M1
(b)

(c)

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3.109 A couple of magnitude M 5 54 lb ? in. and the three forces shown

10 lb

3.110 A couple M and the three forces shown are applied to an angle

bracket. Find the moment of the couple if the line of action of the
resultant of the force system is to pass through (a) point A, (b) point B,
(c) point C.

3.111 Four forces act on a 700 3 375-mm plate as shown. (a) Find the

resultant of these forces. (b) Locate the two points where the line
of action of the resultant intersects the edge of the plate.

3.112 Solve Prob. 3.111, assuming that the 760-N force is directed to the

139

Problems

are applied to an angle bracket. (a) Find the resultant of this system of forces. (b) Locate the points where the line of action of the
resultant intersects line AB and line BC.

30 lb

12 in.

60

B
8 in.

M
C

45 lb
Fig. P3.109 and P3.110
340 N

500 N

right.

force acting on the truss and the point of intersection of its line
of action with a line drawn through points A and G.
y

375 mm
C

4 ft

8 ft

500 mm

160 lb

240 lb
70

8 ft

300 lb

760 N

200 mm

600 N

40

Fig. P3.111
6 ft

G
x

C
8 ft

8 ft

8 ft

180 lb
Fig. P3.113

3.114 Pulleys A and B are mounted on bracket CDEF. The tension on

each side of the two belts is as shown. Replace the four forces with
a single equivalent force, and determine where its line of action
intersects the bottom edge of the bracket.
r = 2 in. r = 1 12 in.

2 in.
C

1 in.

D
A

F
6 in.
120 lb

B
6 in.

210 lb
25
150 lb
25

E
4 in.

160 lb

200 N
15

70

E
50 mm

120 N

240 mm

D
42 N m

80 N

520 mm

Fig. P3.114

The component is to be held in place by a single rivet that can resist

a force but not a couple. For P 5 0, determine the location of the
rivet hole if it is to be located (a) on line FG, (b) on line GH.

C
40 Nm
50 mm

G
640 mm

Fig. P3.115

180 mm
H

50 mm

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3.156 Four ropes are attached to a crate and exert the forces shown. If the

forces are to be replaced with a single equivalent force applied at a

point on line AB, determine (a) the equivalent force and the distance from A to the point of application of the force when a 5 30,
(b) the value of a so that the single equivalent force is applied at
point B.

3.157 A blade held in a brace is used to tighten a screw at A. (a) Determine

the forces exerted at B and C, knowing that these forces are equivalent to a force-couple system at A consisting of R 5 2(30 N)i 1
Ry j 1 R zk and MRA 5 2(12 N ? m)i. (b) Find the corresponding
values of Ry and Rz. (c) What is the orientation of the slot in the
head of the screw for which the blade is least likely to slip when
the brace is in the position shown?

y
200 mm
B 200 mm
B k
A

Czk
150 mm

Cx i
x

Cy j
Fig. P3.157

side 12 ft supports four column loads as shown. Determine the

magnitudes of the additional loads that must be applied at B and F
if the resultant of all six loads is to pass through the center of
the mat.

20 kips

15 kips

30 kips

10 kips
E

F
A

O
D
B

C
z

Fig. P3.158

12 ft

Review Problems

153

160 lb
100 lb

46 in.

a
A

B 25
400 lb
90 lb

36 in.
10 in. C

D
66 in.
Fig. P3.156

65

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174

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Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies

the reactions at A and B.

40 lb

4 in.

50 lb
40 lb

10 in.

4 in.

50 lb

10 in.
B

20 in.

30

20 in.

(a)

(b)

Fig. P4.23

40 lb

4 in.

50 lb

4 in.

40 lb

10 in.

50 lb

10 in.
B

30

20 in.

20 in.

(a)

(b)

Fig. P4.24
10 in.

10 in.

(c) a 5 30.

a
750 lb ! in.

12 in.

4.26 A rod AB, hinged at A and attached at B to cable BD, supports

the loads shown. Knowing that d 5 200 mm, determine (a) the
tension in cable BD, (b) the reaction at A.

Fig. P4.25

D
100 mm

250 mm
90 N

100 mm

30
500 N

250 mm

90 N

200 mm

100 mm

100 mm

4.27 A rod AB, hinged at A and attached at B to cable BD, supports

the loads shown. Knowing that d 5 150 mm, determine (a) the
tension in cable BD, (b) the reaction at A.

Fig. P4.28

the lever is subjected to a 500-N horizontal force at B, determine

(a) the tension in the cable, (b) the reaction at C.

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4.39 Two slots have been cut in plate DEF, and the plate has been

placed so that the slots fit two fixed, frictionless pins A and B.
Knowing that P 5 15 lb, determine (a) the force each pin exerts
on the plate, (b) the reaction at F.
4 in.

4 in.

7 in.

2 in.

F
B
P

3 in.

30

30 lb
Fig. P4.39

4.40 For the plate of Prob. 4.39 the reaction at F must be directed

downward, and its maximum allowable value is 20 lb. Neglecting

friction at the pins, determine the required range of values of P.

the rods shown. If the cord BE is vertical (a 5 0), determine the

tension in the cord and the reactions at A and C.

E
a

30

80 N

30

0.2 m

0.2 m

0.2 m

Fig. P4.41

4.42 Solve Prob. 4.41 if the cord BE is parallel to the rods (a 5 30).
4.43 An 8-kg mass can be supported in the three different ways shown.

Knowing that the pulleys have a 100-mm radius, determine the

reaction at A in each case.

1.6 m

1.6 m
B

1.6 m
B
A

8 kg
(a)
Fig. P4.43

8 kg
(b)

8 kg
(c)

Problems

177

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180

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4.55 A collar B of weight W can move freely along the vertical rod shown.

The constant of the spring is k, and the spring is unstretched when

u 5 0. (a) Derive an equation in u, W, k, and l that must be satisfied
when the collar is in equilibrium. (b) Knowing that W 5 300 N,
l 5 500 mm, and k 5 800 N/m, determine the value of u corresponding to equilibrium.

l
A
q

the spring is k, and the spring is unstretched when u 5 90.

(a) Neglecting the weight of the rod, express the angle u corresponding to equilibrium in terms of P, k, and l. (b) Determine the
value of u corresponding to equilibrium when P 5 14 kl.

A
Fig. P4.55
l
q
C
B
l
P
Fig. P4.56

4.57 Solve Sample Prob. 4.5, assuming that the spring is unstretched

when u 5 90.

move freely in the guides shown. The constant of the spring is k,

and the spring is unstretched when u 5 0. (a) Neglecting the weight
of the blocks, derive an equation in W, k, l, and u that must be
satisfied when the rod is in equilibrium. (b) Determine the value
of u when W 5 75 lb, l 5 30 in., and k 5 3 lb/in.

q
W
l

m 5 40 kg, are held in a vertical plane as shown. All connections

consist of frictionless pins, rollers, or short links. In each case,
determine whether (a) the plate is completely, partially, or improperly constrained, (b) the reactions are statically determinate or
indeterminate, (c) the equilibrium of the plate is maintained in the
position shown. Also, wherever possible, compute the reactions.

Fig. P4.58

D
A

C
1

5
Fig. P4.59

198

Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies

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4.94 Two transmission belts pass over sheaves welded to an axle supported

by bearings at B and D. The sheave at A has a radius of 2.5 in., and

the sheave at C has a radius of 2 in. Knowing that the system rotates
at a constant rate, determine (a) the tension T, (b) the reactions at B
and D. Assume that the bearing at D does not exert any axial thrust
and neglect the weights of the sheaves and axle.

8 in.

6 in.
B

24 lb

6 in.

18 lb

Fig. P4.94

30 lb

4.95 A 200-mm lever and a 240-mm-diameter pulley are welded to the

axle BE that is supported by bearings at C and D. If a 720-N vertical load is applied at A when the lever is horizontal, determine
(a) the tension in the cord, (b) the reactions at C and D. Assume
that the bearing at D does not exert any axial thrust.

y
40 mm

80 mm

120 mm

200 mm
T
D

120 mm

C
x
720 N

z
Fig. P4.95

4.96 Solve Prob. 4.95, assuming that the axle has been rotated clockwise

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REVIEW PROBLEMS
4.142 A hand truck is used to move two kegs, each of mass 40 kg.

Neglecting the mass of the hand truck, determine (a) the vertical
force P that should be applied to the handle to maintain equilibrium when a 5 35, (b) the corresponding reaction at each of the
two wheels.

500 mm

350 mm

80 mm

G2

P
a

G1

800 mm
C

B
300 mm
A

Fig. P4.142

200 mm

300 N

200 mm

300 N

Fig. P4.143

If the lever is subjected to a 75-lb vertical force at B, determine

(a) the tension in the cable, (b) the reaction at C.

15 in.
10 in.

20
75 lb

12 in.
D

Fig. P4.144

4.145 Neglecting friction and the radius of the pulley, determine (a) the

150 mm

120 N

80 mm 80 mm

C
200 mm

Fig. P4.145

213

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joint at A and by three cables. For the loading shown, determine

the tension in each cable and the reaction at A.

y
16 in.
J

16 in.
9 in.

H
O

24 lb
16 in.

24 lb

12 in.

8 in.

8 in.

8 in.
8 in.

Fig. P4.152

four different ways as shown. In each case, if possible, determine

the reactions at the supports.

P
a

P
a

C
45

C
B

a = 30
(a)

(b)

P
a

P
a

a
C

C
B

B
45

30
(c)

Fig. P4.153

(d)

Review Problems

215