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Design and Performance of the Buttress

Wall at Vehicular Security Center, World


Trade Center
New York City, NY
Sitotaw Y. Fantaye, P.E., Associate
Lixun Sun, PhD
T.C. Michael Law, PhD, P.E., Associate
Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers
14 Penn Plaza 225 West 34th Street
New York, NY 10122
917-339-9300

SitePhoto:TakenDecember2010

SitePlan: VehicleSecurityCenter
WorldTradeCenter
LibertyStreet
Cutoffwallphase1
OutlineofVSC
BasementWalls

CedarStreet

90West
(20Story
Historic
Building)

130Cedar
Street

AlbanyStreet

Acknowledgements:
Owner PortAuthorityofNYandNJ
Contractor EECruz/NicholsonJV
EngineerofRecord LibertySecurity
Partners/Mueser RutledgeConsulting
Engineers

Background: VehicleSecurityCenter
EssentialfacilityforthefunctionoftheWTC
Vehiclescreeningandtourbusparking
SouthernexpansionoftheWTC
Entirelybelowgradestructure
Planareaof200x400feet
60to100feetofexcavation
Groundwater10feetbelowgrade
Excavationsupportrequiredon3sides(West,SouthandEast)
ExistingoriginalWTCwallonNorth
Proposedwallalongsouthlocatedagainstthevaultofan
existinghistoric20storystructure 90West

SitePlan: VehicleSecurityCenter

GeologicProfile: SectionA A
B
310

130 Cedar
Street

90 West Street
Fill

300
290
280

Organic

270

Till

Sand

260
250

Rock

240

Elevation
(PA DATUM)

Decomposed
Rock

GeologicCrosssection: SectionB B
90 West St
20-Story Historic Building

Timber
Piles

Slurry
Wall

56Ft.Excavation

Fill

Organic
Sand
Till

Rock

DesignConceptI: SlurryWall
Construct slurry wall at VSC perimeter

Slurry Wall

VA U LT / S I D E WA L K

Existing high rise structures with


one basement level supported on piles

DesignConceptI: Standoffframe
Excavate and install stand-off frame using pin piles to allow installation of tieback
anchors below the tip elevation of the timber piles supporting the Historic 90 West
Building
Stand-Off Frame

VA U LT / S I D E WA L K

Existing high rise structures with


one basement level supported on piles

DesignConceptI: TiebackAnchors
Install tieback anchors

C
Tieback Anchors

DesignConceptI: SectionC C
1.

ConstructionSequence
1.GuideWall

DesignConceptI: SectionC C
ConstructionSequence
1. GuideWall
2. SlurryWall

2.

DesignConceptI: SectionC C
3.

ConstructionSequence
1. GuideWall
2. SlurryWall
3. PinPile

DesignConceptI: SectionC C

4.

ConstructionSequence
1. GuideWall
2. SlurryWall
3. PinPile
4. Excavate(stage1)

DesignConceptI: SectionC C

5.

5.

5.

ConstructionSequence
1. GuideWall
2. SlurryWall
3. PinPile
4. Excavate(stage1)
5. Wale/blocking/tieback
anchor

DesignConceptI: SectionC C
ConstructionSequence
1. GuideWall
2. SlurryWall
3. PinPile
4. Excavate(stage1)
5. Wale/blocking/tieback
anchor
6. Repeatsteps4&5/
Excavatetofinal
subgrade

6.
6.

6.

DesignConceptI: Whynotused?
1. Standoffframewouldinterfere
withthefuturestructure
2. 90Westdidnotallowtieback
anchorsbelowtheirbuilding

DesignConceptII: TPanels
Construct T-Panels/ first segment of
buttress wall with tiedownsleeves

Panel joint shear connection


Stem
Flange

Tiedown
Sleeves

VA U LT / S I D E WA L K

Existing high rise structures with


one Basement level supported on piles

DesignConceptII: SecondaryPanels
Construct Secondary panels
between T-Panels

Secondary panels

VA U LT / S I D E WA L K

Existing high rise structures with


one basement level supported on piles

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DesignConceptII: ButtressPanels
Construct Buttress Panels with Caissons Sleeves

Panel Joint Shear Connection


Caisson Sleeves

DesignConceptII: SectionD D
1.

ConstructionSequence
1.GuideWall

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DesignConceptII: SectionD D
ConstructionSequence
1. GuideWall
2. TPanel
2.

DesignConceptII: SectionD D

Permanent

3.

Temporary

ConstructionSequence
1. GuideWall
2. TPanel
3. ButtressPanel

12

DesignConceptII: SectionD D
ConstructionSequence
1. GuideWall
2. TPanel
3. ButtressPanel
4. TiedownAnchor

4.

HighTensionResistance

DesignConceptII: SectionD D
5.

ConstructionSequence
1. GuideWall
2. TPanel
3. ButtressPanel
4. TiedownAnchor
5. Caissons

HighShearResistance
HighCompressiveResistance

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DesignConceptII: SectionD D

6.

ConstructionSequence
1. GuideWall
2. TPanel
3. ButtressPanel
4. TiedownAnchor
5. Caissons
6. Excavate(stage1)

DesignConceptII: SectionD D

7.
7.

ConstructionSequence
1. GuideWall
2. TPanel
3. ButtressPanel
4. TiedownAnchor
5. Caissons
6. Excavate(stage1)
7. Wale/Raker

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DesignConceptII: 3D Wale&Raker

DesignConceptII: SectionD D

Embedded
PlateforTruss
Connection.

8.

ConstructionSequence
1. GuideWall
2. TPanel
3. ButtressPanel
4. TiedownAnchor
5. Caissons
6. Excavate(stage1)
7. Wale/Raker
8. Excavate(stage2)

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DesignConceptII: SectionD D
ConstructionSequence
1. GuideWall
2. TPanel
3. ButtressPanel
4. TiedownAnchor
5. Caissons
6. Excavate(stage1)
7. Wale/Raker
8. Excavate(stage2)
9. Trussbetween
buttresses

9.

DesignConceptII: SectionD D

Detail

10.

10.

ConstructionSequence
1. GuideWall
2. TPanel
3. ButtressPanel
4. TiedownAnchor
5. Caissons
6. Excavate(stage1)
7. Wale/Raker
8. Excavate(stage2)
9. Trussbetween
buttresses
10.Repeatsteps8and9/
Excavatetofinal
subgrade

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3DModel: Buttresssupportedslurrywall

DesignConceptII: SectionD D

Detail

10.

10.

ConstructionSequence
1. GuideWall
2. TPanel
3. ButtressPanel
4. TiedownAnchor
5. Caissons
6. Excavate(stage1)
7. Wale/Raker
8. Excavate(stage2)
9. Trussbetween
buttresses
10.Repeatsteps8and9/
Excavatetofinal
subgrade

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PanelJointContinuity: Shearacrossjoint
1.
Unexcavated

Excavatedslurryfilledtrench

ConstructionSequence
1. Trenching(Tpanel)

PanelJointContinuity: Shearacrossjoint
2.
WSection

Removablegate

Hookedwelded
reinforcingbars

ConstructionSequence
1. Trenching(Tpanel)
2. Paneljointconnector

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PanelJointContinuity: Shearacrossjoint
3.

ConstructionSequence
1. Trenching(Tpanel)
2. Paneljointconnector
3. ReinforcingCage

PanelJointContinuity: Shearacrossjoint

4.

ConstructionSequence
1. Trenching(Tpanel)
2. Paneljointconnector
3. ReinforcingCage
4. Tremie PourTpanel

19

PanelJointContinuity: Shearacrossjoint

5.

ConstructionSequence
1. Trenching(Tpanel)
2. Paneljointconnector
3. ReinforcingCage
4. Tremie PourTpanel
5. Trenching(Buttresspanel)

PanelJointContinuity: Shearacrossjoint

6.

ConstructionSequence
1. Trenching(Tpanel)
6.Liftgate
2. Paneljointconnector
3. ReinforcingCage
4. Tremie PourTpanel
5. Trenching(Buttresspanel)

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PanelJointContinuity: Shearacrossjoint
7.

ConstructionSequence
1. Trenching(Tpanel)
6.Liftgate
2. Paneljointconnector
7.ReinforcingCage
3. ReinforcingCage
4. Tremie PourTpanel
5. Trenching(Buttresspanel)

PanelJointContinuity: Shearacrossjoint

8.

ConstructionSequence
1. Trenching(Tpanel)
6.Liftgate
2. Paneljointconnector
7.ReinforcingCage
3. ReinforcingCage
8.Tremie Pour buttress
4. Tremie PourTpanel
5. Trenching(Buttresspanel)

21

3D: FiniteElementAnalysis Risa 3D

FiniteElementAnalysis: SoilParameters

TamaroandCermak(2004)

Backcalculatedfromobservedwalldeformations

22

3D: FiniteElementAnalysis Plaxis 3D

1.
2.
3.
4.

Plaxis 3DFoundation
15nodewedgeelement
Numberofelements:11904
SoilLayers:HardeningSoilModel

3D: FiniteElementAnalysis Plaxis 3D


1 in.
Original
Wall
Position

Tiedowns
Wale
Raker

Buttress
Truss

23

Performance: InstrumentationPlan

Inclinometerin
SlurryWall

Performance: InclinometerIPI11

24

Performance: InclinometerIPI11

3DFiniteElementAnalysis

Performance: InclinometerIPI14

25

Performance: InclinometerIPI14

3DFiniteElementAnalysis

Summary:
1.Conventionaltiebackanchorscouldnotbe
used.
2.Buttresswalls,aninnovativeearthretaining
solution,wereimplementedsuccessfully
withnodamagetotheadjacentstructures.
3.Theestimatedwalldeformationsmatchthe
fieldmeasureddata.Backcalculatedsoil
parameterswerethekeyforthereasonable
estimation.

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Photo:Looking East

Photo:Looking South

27

Photo:Looking South

Photo:Looking East

28

3DModel: Buttresssupportedslurrywall

Questions?

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