Sie sind auf Seite 1von 5

Communication

(from Latin commnicre, meaning "to share") is the activity of conveying information
through the exchange of ideas, feelings, intentions, attitudes, expectations,
perceptions or commands, as by speech, non-verbal gestures, writings, behavior and
possibly by other means such as electromagnetic, chemical or physical phenomena.
It is the meaningful exchange of information between two or more participants
(machines, organisms or their parts).
Communication requires a sender, a message, a medium and a recipient, although
the receiver does not have to be present or aware of the sender's intent to
communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across
vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating
parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is
complete once the receiver understands the sender's message.
Communicating with others involves three primary steps:
Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a concept,
idea, information, or feeling.
Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols.
Decoding: Lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or
information that a person can understand.
There are a variety of verbal and non-verbal forms of communication. These include
body language, eye contact, sign language, haptic communication, and chronemics.
Other examples are media content such as pictures, graphics, sound, and writing.
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities also defines the
communication to include the display of text, Braille, tactile communication, large
print, accessible multimedia, as well as written and plain language, human-reader,
augmentative and alternative modes, means and formats of communication,
including accessible information and communication technology. Feedback is a
critical component of effective communication.

Verbal Communication
Verbal or oral communication uses spoken words to communicate a message.
When most people think of verbal communication, they think of speaking, but
listening is an equally important skill for this type of communication to be
successful. Verbal communication is applicable to a wide range of situations,
ranging from informal office discussions to public speeches made to thousands of
people.( face-to-face, telephone, radio or television and other media.)
Non-Verbal Communication
Non-verbal communication includes body language, gestures, facial expressions,
and even posture. Non-verbal communication sets the tone of a conversation, and
can seriously undermine the message contained in your words if you are not
careful to control it. For example, slouching and shrinking back in your chair during
a business meeting can make you seem under-confident, which may lead people to
doubt the strength of your verbal contributions. In contrast, leaning over an
employees desk and invading his or her personal space can turn a friendly chat
into an aggressive confrontation that leaves the employee feeling victimized and
undervalued.( body language, gestures, how we dress or act - even our scent.)

The Communication Process


The goal of communication is to convey informationand the understanding of that
informationfrom one person or group to another person or group. This
communication process is divided into three basic components: A sender transmits a
message through a channel to the receiver. (Figure shows a more elaborate model.)
The sender first develops an idea, which is composed into a message and then
transmitted to the other party, who interprets the message and receives meaning.
Information theorists have added somewhat more complicated language. Developing
a message is known as encoding. Interpreting the message is referred to as
decoding.

The other important feature is the feedback cycle. When two people interact,
communication is rarely oneway only. When a person receives a message, she
responds to it by giving a reply. The feedback cycle is the same as the sender

receiver feedback noted in Figure. Otherwise, the sender can't know whether the
other parties properly interpreted the message or how they reacted to it. Feedback is
especially significant in management because a supervisor has to know how
subordinates respond to directives and plans. The manager also needs to know how
work is progressing and how employees feel about the general work situation.
The critical factor in measuring the effectiveness of communication is common
understanding. Understanding exists when all parties involved have a mutual
agreement as to not only the information, but also the meaning of the information.
Effective communication, therefore, occurs when the intended message of the
sender and the interpreted message of the receiver are one and the same. Although
this should be the goal in any communication, it is not always achieved.
The most efficient communication occurs at a minimum cost in terms of resources
expended. Time, in particular, is an important resource in the communication
process. For example, it would be virtually impossible for an instructor to take the
time to communicate individually with each student in a class about every specific
topic covered. Even if it were possible, it would be costly. This is why managers often
leave voice mail messages and interact by email rather than visit their subordinates
personally.
However, efficient timesaving communications are not always effective. A lowcost
approach such as an email note to a distribution list may save time, but it does not
always result in everyone getting the same meaning from the message. Without
opportunities to ask questions and clarify the message, erroneous interpretations are
possible. In addition to a poor choice of communication method, other barriers to
effective communication include noise and other physical distractions, language
problems, and failure to recognize nonverbal signals.
Sometimes communication is effective, but not efficient. A work team leader visiting
each team member individually to explain a new change in procedures may
guarantee that everyone truly understands the change, but this method may be very
costly on the leader's time. A team meeting would be more efficient. In these and
other ways, potential tradeoffs between effectiveness and efficiency occur.

Factors that people are unable to communicate :


Hearing Impairment- Full of partial hearing impairment may cause difficulty in
speech and language development. An assessment of hearing is one of the first
steps in the investigation of speech and language problems.
Physical Disability- Cleft lip and palate or malformations of the mouth or nose may
cause communication disorders. More involve disabilities such as severe cerebral
palsy, may preclude any speech at all and for these non-verbal children
augmentative communication must be used.
Developmental Disability- Some Children(not all) with a developmental disability or
Downs Syndrome maybe slower to learn to talk and need extra assistance.
Communication troubles can stem from childhood experiences, in which we may
learn to stuff our feelings, blame others, blow-up in anger, beat around the bush

instead of saying what we need, want, or feel, or otherwise experience--and imitate


counter productive communication habits. Sometimes, its difficult to know for
ourselves what we want to say; the act of saying it aloud can also be terrifying to
some people sometimes. A communication disorder is any disorder that affects
somebody's ability to communicate. The delays and disorders can range from simple
sound substitution to the inability to understand or use one's native language.
Some causes of communication disorders include hearing loss, neurological
disorders, brain injury, mental retardation, drug abuse, physical impairments such as
cleft lip or palate, emotional or psychiatric disorders, and developmental disorders.
Frequently, however, the cause is unknown. It is estimated that one in every 10
Americans, across all ages, races and genders, has experienced or lived with some
type of communication disorder (including speech, language and hearing disorders).
Nearly 6 million children under the age of 18 have a speech or language disorder.

The advantages of non-verbal communication are:


1) You can communicate with someone who is hard of hearing of deaf.
2) You can communicate at place where you are supposed to maintain silence.
3) You can communicate something which you don't want others to hear or listen to.
4) You can communicate if you are far away from a person. The person can see but
not hear you.
5) Non-verbal communication makes conversation short and brief.
6) You can save on time and use it as a tool to communicate with people who don't
understand your language.

The disadvantages of non-verbal communication are:


1) You can not have long conversation.
2) Can not discuss the particulars of your message
3) Difficult to understand and requires a lot of repetitions.
4) Can not be used as a public tool for communication.
6) Less influential and can not be used everywhere.
7) Not everybody prefers to communicate through non-verbal communication.
8) Can not create an impression upon people/listeners.
well non verbal communication is as important as verbal communication because
there is a famous proverb saying that " Actions SPeak Louder than woords", so your
gestures , postures , eye contact....each play a major role.

RESEARCH PAPER
IN
ENGLISH
Submitted to :
Mrs. Esther Nelli E. Hermosa
Submitted By :
Rhadiya J. Abdulkarim