Sie sind auf Seite 1von 30

Guide to the Investigation and

Remediation of Distress in
Flexible Pavements
Presentation for:

2004 Annual Meeting of the


Transportation Research Board

Based on Study Funded by:


California Dept. of Transportation

Authors
Mike Cook, P.E. (Caltrans)
Steve Seeds, P.E. (APTech)
Haiping Zhou, P.E., PhD. (MACTEC)
Gary Hicks, P.E., PhD. (MACTEC)

Why did we need this?


Caltrans

12 autonomous districts
Has lost a lot of experience
Staff amenable to new technology
Some practices have become outdated
Need for standardized approaches that

address typical flexible pavement


problems

Purpose of Presentation
Identify documentation
Review basic process
Highlight features
Share information

Documentation
Office Manual
Detailed reference
Limited production
Field Manual
Assumes familiarity with
Office Manual
Contains all primary tools
Assists field personnel

Overview of Guide
Introduction
Types of Flexible Pavements

Hot-Mix Asphalt
Surface Treatments
Composite (HMA over PCCP)
Factors Affecting Pavement Distress

and Performance

Environment
Environment
Traffic

Pavement Performance
Pavement
Materials
Subgrade
Soil

Overview of Guide
Introduction
Types of Flexible Pavements
Factors Affecting Pavement Distress

and Performance
Types of Pavement Distress and Their
Mechanisms

Pavement Distress Types


Typical distress types for both HMA

pavements and surface treatments


HMA
Cracking,

problems

Deformation, Deterioration, Mat

Surface Treatments
Seal

Coats, Slurry Seals/Microsurfacing

Distresses are consistent with Caltrans

Condition Survey Procedure

Distress Types Covered

Pavement Distress Mechanisms


Distress Type

Wheel
Load

Rutting

Fatigue Cracking

Thermal Cracking
Top Down Cracking

Climate
Temp. Moist.

Stripping
Reflection Cracking

Mtls.

Example Illustration of Distress


Mechanism (Rutting)

Overview of Guide
Introduction
Types of Flexible Pavements
Factors Affecting Pavement Distress

and Performance
Types of Pavement Distress and Their
Mechanisms
Investigation of Distress

Main Objective of Process:

Identify and address

the cause of the


problem, not just the
symptom.

Flowchart of Process
Overall Problem
Possible Investigation Requirements
Records
Review

Field
Distress
Survey

Structural
Evaluation

Field
Sampling
and
Testing

Data Analysis
Probable Cause(s)

Lab
Testing

Mat
Problems
Deterioration

Legend:
Distress Category

Low Asphalt Content

High Air Void Content


Improper Fines Content
Tender Mix
Segregated Mix

Improper Crack Sealing Techniques


Improper Compaction Techniques
Excess Moisture in Mix
Low HMA Thickness
Low Base/Subbase Thickness
Poor Subgrade Compaction
Poor Base/Subbase Compaction
Poor Base/Subbase Gradation
High Asphalt Binder Viscosity
Temp. Susceptible Asphalt Binder
Rapid Aging Asphalt Binder
Moisture Sensitive Mix

Poor Aggregate Cleanness


High Exposure to Moisture
Cool/Cold Prevailing Temperatures

Inadequate Pavement Structure


Poor Material Selection
Poor Drainage
Narrow or Non-Existent Shoulder
Narrow Lane Width

Longitudinal

Fatigue

Transverse

Reflective

Block

Edge

Rutting

Corrugation

Shoving

Depression

Potholes

Patching

Raveling

Stripping

Segregation
Pumping

Checking

Bleeding

Delamination

Common cause of distress

Overlay Bumps

Polished Aggr

Occasional cause of distress

Traffic

Excessive Horizontal Geometry

Exposure to Studded Tires/Chains

High ESAL Truck Volume

Climate

High Traffic Volume

Large Daily Temperature Cycles

Freeze-Thaw Cycling

Materials

Hot Prevailing Temperatures

Mix Design

Poor Aggregate Soundness

Construction

Poor Aggregate Durability

Overall Problem

Low Asphalt Binder Viscosity

Excess/Insufficient Prime/Tack

Poor Surface Preparation

Low Air Void Content

High Asphalt Content

Poor Mix Gradation

Cracking

Distress Type
Low-Strength or Low-Stability Mix

Deformation

Typical Distresses and Possible Causes


Possible Causes of Distress
Structural Geometric
Design
Design

Typical Distresses and Possible Causes

Common cause of distress

Occasional cause of distress

Segregated Mix

Tender Mix

High Air Void Content

Improper Fines Content

Low Air Void Content

High Asphalt Content

Low Asphalt Content

Poor Mix Gradation

Longitudinal
Fatigue
Transverse
Reflective
Block
Edge

Low-Strength or Low-Stability Mix

Distress Category

Distress Type

Cracking

Construction
Mix Design

Possible Data Review/Requirements

Typical test or data requirement

Resilient Modulus (Fine/Coarse Matls)

Modulus (Asphalt Mixtures)

Indirect Tensile (Bound Materials)

R-Value (Unbound Materials)

Moisture Sensitivity

Aggregate Soundness

Coarse Aggregate Abrasion

Aggregate Durability

Aggregate Gradation

Asphalt Binder Viscosity

Air Void Content

Asphalt Content

Asphalt Temperature Susceptibility

(Strength-Related)

Bound Materials

Density

Density

Moisture Content

Gradation

Soil Classification

Dynamic Cone/Standard Penetrometer

Test Pit (Trench)

Shelby (Push) Tube

Auger Base, Subbase and/or Subgrade

Laboratory Testing (General Material Characteristics)


Unbound Mat'ls

Coring

Field Sampling &


Testing Methods

Struct. Capacity Eval. (Backcalc.)

Struct. Capacity Eval. (Caltrans)

Evaluation of NDT Uniformity

Nondestructive Testing

Detailed Distress Survey

Windshield Survey

PMS Reports

Environmental/Climate Records

Survey

Traffic Data

Maintenance/Repair Histories

Past Surveys/NDT/Sampling Results

Lab Material Test Results

As-Built Drawings

Plans and Specifications

Mix Design

Construction
Materials
Climate
Traffic
Geometric Structural
Design
Design

Legend:

Low Strength or Low Stability Mix


Poor Mix Gradation
Low or High Asphalt Content
Low or High Air Void Content
Improper Fines Content
Tender Mix
Segregated Mix
Surface Prep./Excess/Lack Prime/Tack
Improper Crack Sealing Techniques
Improper Compaction Techniques
Excess Moisture In Mix
Low HMA Thickness
Low Base/Subbase Thickness
Poor Subgrade Compaction
Poor Base/Subbase Compaction
Poor Base/Subbase Gradation
Low or High Binder Viscosity
Temp. Susceptible Asphalt Binder
Rapid Aging Asphalt Binder
Moisture Sensitive Mix
Poor Aggregate Durability
Poor Aggregate Soundness
Poor Aggregate Cleanness
High Exposure to Moisture
Cool/Cold Prevailing Temperatures
Hot Prevailing Temperatures
Freeze-Thaw Cycling
Large Daily Temperature Cycles
High Traffic Volume
High ESAL Truck Volume
Exposure to Studded Tires/Chains
Inadequate Pavement Structure
Poor Material Selection
Poor Drainage
Narrow or Non-Existent Shoulders
Narrow Lane Width
Excessive Horizontal Geometry

QC/QA Records

Design Reports

Possible Causes of Distress

Structural
Evaluation

Distress

Records Review

Occasional test or data requirement

Possible Data Review/Requirements

Improper Fines Content


Tender Mix
Segregated Mix

Typical test or data requirement

Occasional test or data requirement

Struct. Capacity Evaluation

Evaluation of NDT Uniformity

Detailed Distress Survey

Maintenance/Repair Histories

Structural
Evaluation

Nondestructive Testing

As-Built Drawings

QC/QA Records

Past Surveys/NDT/Sampling Results

Low or High Air Void Content

Lab Material Test Results

Low or High Asphalt Content

Plans and Specifications

Poor Mix Gradation

Design Reports

Low Strength or Low Stability Mix

Construction

Mix Design

Possible Causes of
Distress

Windshield Survey

Distress
Survey

Records Review

Use of Selection Tables


Possible Causes
(by General
Category)
Overall Problem
(by Distress Category
and Type)
Possible Data
Requirements

Overview of Guide
Introduction
Types of Flexible Pavements
Factors Affecting Pavement Distress

and Performance
Types of Pavement Distress and Their
Mechanisms
Investigation of Distress
Remediation of Distress

Flowchart of Process
Probable Cause(s)
Repair/Rehabilitation Alternatives
Patch

Sealing
/MicroMilling

Surface
Level

Surface
Treatment

Over
-lay

Remove
and
Replace

Recon
-struct

Structural Section Design and/or Mix Design


Cost Analysis
Treatment Selection

Candidate Rehab & Repair Treatments

Checking

Bleeding

x
x
x

Candidate treatment
Marginal treatment. Product selection is critical
* Requires an overlay or other suitable surface treatment

Special product or technique required


No Caltrans Specification

SAMI*

Heater Scarify

Drainage Improvements

Virgin Materials

Full Depth Reclamation

Mill & Fill (Full Depth)

Hot Central Plant Recycle

Full Depth CIPR*

Partial Depth CIPR*

OGFC

Hot In-Place Recycle

Bonded Wearing Course

Inlay (PD Mill & Fill)

Scrub Seal

Thin Overlay ( 30 mm)

Microsurfacing

Sand Seal

Geogrid*

Pre-Treatments

Fabric*

Reconstruct

Remove & Replace


(HMA Surface)

HMA Overlay

Structural Overlay

Slurry Seal

Fog Seal

Surface Treatment

Chip Seal

Leveling Course

Saw and Seal*

Rout and Seal

Crack Sealing

Full Depth

Partial Depth
x

Rut Filler

Cold Milling (Partial Depth)

Distress Type

Longitudinal
Fatigue
Transverse
Reflective
Block
Edge
Rutting
Corrugation
Shoving
Depression
Overlay Bumps
Delamination
Potholes
Patching
Raveling
Stripping
Polished Aggr.
Pumping
Segregation

Surface
Leveling

Micro-Milling

Sealing/MicroMilling

CAPM ( 75 mm)

Mat
Problems

Deterioration

Deformation

Cracking

Distress Category

HMA
Patch

x
x

Candidate Rehab & Repair Treatments

x
x

Structural Overlay

CAPM ( 75 mm)

Thin Overlay ( 30 mm)

OGFC

Bonded Wearing Course

Microsurfacing

HMA Overlay

Slurry Seal

Chip Seal

Fog Seal

Full Depth

Longitudinal
Fatigue
Transverse
Reflective
Block
Edge

Surface Treatment

Partial Depth

Distress Category

Type

Cracking

HMA
Patch

Candidate treatment
Marginal treatment. Product selection is critical
x Special product or technique required

Distress Cause(s) Addressed

Micro-Milling
Cold Milling (P. Depth)

Fog Seal
Slurry Seal
Microsurfacing
Sand Seal
Scrub Seal

Bonded Wearing Course

x
x

x
x

OGFC

Thin Overlay ( 30 mm)


CAPM ( 75 mm)
Inlay (PD Mill & Fill)
Hot In-Place Recycle
Partial Depth CIPR*
Full-Depth CIPR*
Hot Central Plant Rec.
F.D. Reclamation
Virgin Materials

x
x
x

Drainage Improvements

Geogrid*

Candidate treatment

Poor Material Selection

Inadequate Pavement Structure

Exposure to Studded Tires/Chains

High ESAL Truck Volume

High Traffic Volume

Large Daily Temperature Cycles

Freeze-Thaw Cycling

Heater Scarify
Fabric*

Chip Seal

Rut Filler
Leveling Course

Hot Prevailing Temperatures

Cool/Cold Prevailing Temperatures

High Exposure to Moisture

Poor Aggregate Cleanness

Poor Aggregate Soundness

Poor Aggregate Durability

Moisture Sensitive Mix

Rapid Aging Asphalt Cement

Temp. Susceptible Asphalt Cement

Low Asphalt Cement Viscosity

High Asphalt Cement Viscosity

Poor Base/Subbase Gradation

Poor Base/Subbase Compaction

Poor Subgrade Compaction

Low Base/Subbase Thickness

Excess Moisture in Mix

Low HMA Thickness

Improper Compaction Techniques

Excessive Horizontal Geometry

Saw and Seal*

Narrow Lane Width

Crack Sealing
Rout and Seal

Improper Crack Sealing Techniques

Excess/Insufficient Prime or Tack

Segregated Mix

Tender Mix

Improper Fines Content

High Air Void Content

Low Air Void Content

High Asphalt Content

Low Asphalt Content

Poor Surface Preparation

Narrow or Non-Existent Shoulder

Remove and
Replace (HMA
Surface)

Poor Mix Gradation

Full Depth

Mill & Fill (Full Depth)


Recon-

Partial Depth

Structural Overlay

Pre-Treatments struct

Low-Strength or Low-Stability Mix

Candidate Treatments

Poor Drainage

HMA
Overlay

Surface Treatment

Surface Sealing/Micro- HMA


Milling
Leveling
Patch

Treatment Category

Causes of Pavement Distress Addressed by Rehabilitation and Repair Treatments

SAMI*

Marginal treatment

* Requires an overlay or other suitable surface treatment

x Special product or technique required

No Caltrans specification

HMA
Overlay

Surface
Treatment

HMA
Patch

Segregated Mix

Tender Mix

Improper Fines Content

High Air Void Content

Low Air Void Content

High Asphalt Content

Low Asphalt Content

Poor Mix Gradation

Candidate
Treatments

Low-Strength or Low-Stability Mix

Treatment Category

Distress Cause(s) Addressed

Partial Depth
Full Depth
Chip Seal

Fog Seal
Slurry Seal
Microsurfacing
BWC

OGFC
Thin Overlay ( 30 mm)
CAPM ( 75 mm)
Structural Overlay

Candidate treatment

Marginal treatment

Use of Treatment Selection


Tables

Candidate
Rehabilitation and
Repair Treatments

Overall Problem
(by Distress Category
and Type)
Causes of Pavement
Addressed by
R&R Treatments

Development Status
Method has been tested on several

projects
Review process complete
Manuals have been finalized and will
be produced for statewide distribution
One-day training course under
development

Acknowledgements
Terrie Bressette (Caltrans)
Rita Leahy (MACTEC)
David Peshkin (APTech)

Thank You!