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International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science (IRJES)

ISSN (Online) 2319-183X, (Print) 2319-1821


Volume 4, Issue 6 (June 2015), PP.72-84

HARMONIC ANALYSIS ASSOCIATED WITH A GENERALIZED


BESSEL-STRUVE OPERATOR ON THE REAL LINE

A. ABOUELAZ , A. ACHAK , R. DAHER , N. SAFOUANE

Abstract. In this paper we consider a generalized Bessel-Struve operator l,n on the real line,
which generalizes the Bessel-Struve operator l , we define the generalized Bessel-Struve intertwining
operator which turn out to be transmutation operator between l,n and the second derivative operator

d2
.
dx2

We build the generalized Weyl integral transform and we establish an inversion theorem

of the generalized Weyl integral transform. We exploit the generalized Bessel-Struve intertwining
operator and the generalized Weyl integral transform, firstly to develop a new harmonic analysis
on the real line corresponding to l,n , and secondly to introduce and study the generalized Sonine
n,m
n,m
integral transform S,
. We prove that S,
is a transmutation operator from l,n to l,n . As a

side result we prove Paley-Wiener theorem for the generalized Bessel-Struve transform associated
with the generalized Bessel-Struve operator.

I. Introduction
In this paper we consider the generalized Bessel-Struve oprator l,n , >
defined on R by

1
,
2

d2 u
2 + 1 du
4n( + n)
(2 + 4n + 1)
(1) l,n u(x) = 2 (x) +
(x)
u(x)
D(u)(0)
2
dx
x dx
x
x
d
where D = x2n dx
x2n and n = 0, 1, ... . For n = 0, we regain the Bessel-Struve
operator

(2)



d2 u
2 + 1 du
du
l u(x) = 2 (x) +
(x) (0) .
dx
x
dx
dx

Through this paper, we provide a new harmonic analysis on the real line corresponding to the generalized Bessel-Struve operator l,n .
The outline of the content of this paper is as follows.
Section 2 is dedicated to some properties and results concerning the Bessel-Struve
transform.
2010 Mathematics Subject Classifications: 42A38, 44A35, 34B30.
Key words and phrases: Bessel-Struve operator; transmutation operators; Harmonic Analysis;
Generalized Bessel-Struve Sonine Integral Transform.

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences An Chock, University of Hassan II, Casablanca


20100, Morocco.
achakachak@hotmail.fr.
.

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72 | page.

Harmonic Analysis Associated With A Generalized Bessel-Struve Operator On The Real Line

In section 3, we construct a pair of transmutation operators X,n and W,n , afterwards we exploit these transmutation operators to build a new harmonic analysis
on the real line corresponding to operator l,n .

II. Preliminaries
Throughout this paper assume > >

1
.
2

We denote by

E(R) the space of C functions on R, provided with the topology of compact


convergence for all derivatives. That is the topology defined by the seminorms
pa,m (f ) = supx[a,a] |f (k) (x)|, a > 0, m N, and 0 k m.
Da (R), the space of C functions on R, which are supported in [a, a],
equipped with the topology induced by E(R).
S
D(R) = a>0 Da (R), endowed with inductive limit topology.
Lp (R) the class of measurable functions f on R for which kf kp, < , where
 p1
Z
|f (x)|p |x|2+1 dx , if p < ,
kf kp, =
R

and kf k, = kf k = ess supx0 |f (x)|.


d
1 d
d

=
, where
is the first derivative operator.
2
dx
2x dx
dx
In this section we recall some facts about harmonic analysis related to the BesselStruve operator l . We cite here, as briefly as possible, only some properties. For
more details we refer to [2, 3].
For C, the differential equation:
(
l u(x) = 2 u(x)
0
(3)
u(0) = 1, u (0) = (+1)
(+ 3 )
2

possesses a unique solution denoted (x). This eigenfunction, called the BesselStruve kernel, is given by:
(x) = j (ix) ih (ix),

x R.

j and h are respectively the normalized Bessel and Struve functions of index
.These kernels are given as follows
2k
+
X
(1)k z2
j (z) = ( + 1)
k! (k + + 1)
k=0
and

2k+1
(1)k z2

.
h (z) = ( + 1)
k + 32 k + + 32
k=0
+
X

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Harmonic Analysis Associated With A Generalized Bessel-Struve Operator On The Real Line

The kernel possesses the following integral representation:


Z 1
1
2( + 1)
(4)
(x) =
(1 t2 ) 2 ext dt, x R,
1
( + 2 ) 0

C.

The Bessel-Struve intertwining operator on R denoted X introduced by L. Kamoun


and M. Sifi in [3], is defined by:
Z 1
(1 t2 )1 f (xt)dt , f E(R), x R,
(5)
X (f )(x) = a
0

where
2( + 1)
a =
.
( + 12 )

(6)

The Bessel-Struve kernel is related to the exponential function by


x R,

(7)

C,

(x) = X (e. )(x).

X is a transmutation operator from l into

d2
dx2

and verifies

d2
.
dx2
Theorem 1. The operator X , > 1
is topological isomorphism from E(R) onto
2
1
itself. The inverse operator X is given for all f E(R) by
l X = X

(8)

(i) if = r + k, k N, 1
< r < 12
2

Z x

d k+1
2
2
2 r 12
2+1
1
x(
)
(x t )
f (t)|t|
dt .
(9) X (f )(x) =
( + 1)( 21 r) dx2
0
(ii) if =
(10)

1
2

+ k, k N
X1 (f )(x)

d
22k+1 k!
=
x( 2 )k+1 (x2k+1 f (x)), x R.
(2k + 1)! dx

Definition 1. The Bessel-Struve transform is defined on L1 (R) by


Z

(11)
R, FB,S (f )() =
f (x) (ix)|x|2+1 dx.
R

Proposition 1. If f

L1 (R)

then

kFB,S
(f )k

kf k1, .

Theorem 2. (Paley-Wiener) Let a > 0 and f a function in Da (R) then FB,S


can

be extended to an analytic function on C that we denote again FB,S (f ) verifying

k N , |FB,S
(f )(z)| Cea|z| .

Definition 2. For f L1 (R) with bounded support, the integral transform W ,


given by
Z +
1
2( + 1)
(y 2 x2 ) 2 yf (sgn(x)y)dy, x R\{0}
(12) W (f )(x) =
1
( + 2 ) |x|
is called Weyl integral transform associated with Bessel-Struve operator.

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Harmonic Analysis Associated With A Generalized Bessel-Struve Operator On The Real Line

Proposition 2.
(i) W is a bounded operator from L1 (R) to L1 (R), where
L1 (R) is the space of lebesgue-integrable functions.
(ii) Let f be a function in E(R) and g a function in L (R) with bounded support,
the operators X and W are related by the following relation
Z
Z
2+1
X (f )(x)g(x)|x|
dx =
f (x)W (g)(x)dx.
(13)
R

L1 (R),

FB,S

= F W (f ) where F is the classical Fourier transform


(iii) f
1
defined on L (R) by
Z
F(g)() =
g(x)eix dx.
R

We designate by K0 the space of functions f infinitely differentiable on R with


bounded support verifying for all n N,
lim y n f (n) (y) and

y0

lim y n f (n) (y)

y0+

exist.
Definition 3. We define the operator V on K0 as follows
If = k + 21 , k N
V (f )(x) = (1)k+1

22k+1 k! d k+1
(
) (f (x)),
(2k + 1)! dx2

x R .

If = k + r, k N, 1
< r < 12 and f K0
2

Z

d k+1
(1)k+1 2
2
2 r 21
(y x )
( 2 ) f (sgn(x)y)ydy , x R .
V (f )(x) =
dy
( + 1)( 12 r) |x|
Proposition 3. Let f K0 and g E(R),
the operators V and X1 are related by the following relation
Z
Z
2+1
(14)
V (f )(x)g(x)|x|
dx =
f (x)X1 (g)(x)dx.
R

V and W are related by the following relation


(15)

V (W (f )) = W (V (f )) = f.

Definition 4. Let f be a continuous function on R. We define the Sonine integral


transform as in [4] by, for all x R
Z 1
(16)
S, (f )(x) = c(, )
(1 r2 )1 f (rx)r2+1 dr,
0

where
(17)

c(, ) =

2( + 1)
.
( + 1)( )

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Harmonic Analysis Associated With A Generalized Bessel-Struve Operator On The Real Line

Proposition 4.
follows

(i) The classical Sonine integral formula may be formulated as


Z
(x) = c(, )

(18)

(1 t2 )1 (tx)t2+1 dt.

(ii) The Sonine integral transform verifies


S, ( (.))(x) = (x),

(19)

x R.

(iii) For f a function of class C 2 on R, S, (f ) is a function of class C 2 on R


and
x R, l (S, (f ))(x) = S, (l (f ))(x).

(20)

(iv) The Sonine integral transform is a topological isomorphism from E(R) onto
itself. Furthermore, it verifies
S, = X X1 .

(21)
(v) The inverse operator is

1
S,
= X X1 .

(22)

Definition 5. For f continuous function on R, with compact support, we define the


Dual Sonine transform denoted t S, by
Z
t
S, (f )(x) = c(, )
(y 2 x2 )1 yf (sgn(x)y)dy, x R .
|x|

Theorem 3. The dual Sonine transform verifies the following relations


for all f D(R) and g E(R), we have
(i)
Z

2+1

S, (g)(x)f (x)|x|
R

dx =

S, (f )(x)g(x)|x|2+1 dx.

(ii)
t

S, (f ) = V (W (f )).

(iii)

FB,S
(f ) = FB,S
t S, (f ).

III. Harmonic analysis associated with l,n


Throughout this section assume > >

1
2

and n = 0, 1, 2, ... . We denoted by

Mn the map defined by Mn f (x) = x2n f (x).


En (R) (resp Dn (R)) stand for the subspace of E(R) (resp. D(R)) consisting
of functions f such that
f (0) = ... = f (2n1) (0) = 0.
Da,n (R) = Da (R) En (R) where a > 0.
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Harmonic Analysis Associated With A Generalized Bessel-Struve Operator On The Real Line

Lp,n (R) the class of measurable functions f on R for which


kf kp,,n = kM1
n f kp,+2n < .
i. Transmutation operators.
For C and x R, put
,,n (x) = x2n +2n (x)

(23)

where +2n is the Bessel-Struve kernel of index + 2n.


Lemma 1. (i) The map Mn is a topological isomorphism
from E(R) onto En (R).
from D(R) onto Dn (R).
(ii) For all f E(R)
(24)

l,n Mn (f ) = Mn l+2n (f ).

Proof. Assertion (i) is easily checked (see [1]).


By (1) and (2) we have for any f E(R),
2 + 1 2n 0 4n( + n) 2n
0
00
(x f )
(x f (x)) (2 + 4n + 1)x2n1 f (0)
l,n (x2n f )(x) = (x2n f ) +
2
x
x


2 + 4n + 1 0
0
00
2n
= x
(f (x) f (0))
f (x)
x
= x2n l+2n f (x).
which proves Assertion (ii).
Proposition 5. (i) ,,n satisfies the differential equation
l,n ,,n = 2 ,,n .
(ii) ,,n possesses the following integral representation:
2( + 2n + 1) 2n
,,n (x) =
x
( + 2n + 12 )

(1 t2 )+2n 2 ext dt,

x R,

C.

Proof.
By (23)
,,n = Mn (+2n (x)),
using (3) and (24) we obtain
l,n (,,n ) = l,n Mn (+2n (.))
= Mn l+2n (+2n (.))
= 2 ,,n ,
which proves (i). Statement (ii) follows from (4) and (23).
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Harmonic Analysis Associated With A Generalized Bessel-Struve Operator On The Real Line

Definition 6. For f E(R), we define the generalized Bessel-Struve intertwining


operator X,n by
Z 1
2n
(1 t2 )+2n1 f (xt)dt , f E(R), x R
X,n (f )(x) = a+2n x
0

where a+2n is given by (6).


Remark 1.
For n = 0, X,n reduces to the Bessel-Struve intertwining operator.
It is easily checked that
X,n = Mn X+2n .

(25)

Due to (7), (23) and (25) we have


,,n (x) = X,n (e. )(x).
Proposition 6. X,n is a transmutation operator from l,n into
l,n X,n = X,n

d2
dx2

and verifies

d2
.
dx2

Proof. It follows from (8), (25) and lemma 1 (ii) that


l,n X,n = l,n Mn X+2n
= Mn l+2n X+2n
d2
= Mn X+2n 2
dx
d2
= X,n 2 .
dx
Theorem 4. The operator X,n is an isomorphism from E(R) onto En (R). The
1
inverse operator X,n
is given for all f En (R) by
(i) if = r + k, k N, 1
< r < 12
2
Z x


d k+2n+1
2
2
2 r 12
2+2n+1
1
(x t )
x(
)
f (t)|t|
dt .
X,n f (x) =
( + 2n + 1)( 21 r) dx2
0
(ii) if =

1
2

+ k, k N

1
X,n
f (x) =

22k+4n+1 (k + 2n)!
d
x( 2 )k+2n+1 (x2k+2n+1 f (x)), x R.
(2k + 4n + 1)!
dx

Proof. A combination of (25), Lemma 1 and Theorem 1 shows that X,n is an


1
isomorphism from E(R) onto En (R). Let X,n
the inverse operator of X,n , we have
1
X,n
(f ) = (X,n (f ))1 .

Using (25) we can deduce that


1
X,n
(f ) = (Mn X+2n (f ))1

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Harmonic Analysis Associated With A Generalized Bessel-Struve Operator On The Real Line

1
1
X,n
(f ) = X+2n
M1
n (f ).

(26)

By (9) and (10) we obtain the desired result.

ii. The generalized Weyl integral transform.


Definition 7. For f L1,n (R) with bounded support, the integral transform W,n ,
given by
Z +
1
(y 2 x2 )+2n 2 y 12n f (sgn(x)y)dy, x R\{0}
W,n (f (x)) = a+2n
|x|

is called the generalized Weyl integral transform associated with Bessel-Struve operator.

By a change of variable, W,n f can be written


Z +
+2n 21 12n
2+2n+1
W,n f (x) = a+2n |x|
t2 1
t
f (tx) dt,
x R {0} .

Remark 2.

It is easily checked that


W,n = W+2n M1
n .

(27)

Proposition 7. W,n is a bounded operator from L1,n (R) to L1 (R), where L1 (R) is
the space of lebesgue-integrable.
Proof. Let f L1,n (R), by Proposition 2 (i) we can find a positif constant C such
that
kW+2n (Mn1 f )k1 CkM1
n f k1,+2n
kW,n (f )k1 Ckf k1,,n .
By (27) we obtain the desired result.
Proposition 8. Let f be a function in E(R) and g a function in L1,n (R) with
bounded support, the operators X,n and W,n are related by the following relation
Z
Z
2+1
X,n (f )(x)g(x)|x|
dx =
f (x)W,n (g)(x)dx.
R

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Harmonic Analysis Associated With A Generalized Bessel-Struve Operator On The Real Line

Proof. Using (25), (27) and Proposition 2 (ii) we obtain


Z
Z
2+1
X,n (f (x))g(x)|x|
dx =
Mn X+2n (f )(x)g(x)|x|2+1 dx
R
ZR
=
x2n X+2n (f )(x)g(x)|x|2+1 dx
ZR
g(x)
=
X+2n f (x) 2n |x|2+4n+1 dx
x
ZR
g(x)
f (x)W+2n ( 2n )dx
=
x
ZR
=
f (x)W,n (g)(x)dx.
R

Definition 8. We define the operator V,n on K0 as follows


If = k + 12 , k N and f K0
V,n f (x) = (1)k+1

22k+4n+1 (k + 2n)! 2n d k+2n+1


x ( 2)
(f (x)),
(2k + 4n + 1)!
dx

x R .

If = k + r, k N, 1
< r < 12
2
Z


d k+2n+1
(1)k+1 2
2n
2
2 r 12
x
(y x )
( 2)
V,n f (x) =
f (sgn(x)y)ydy , x R .
1
dy
( + 2n + 1)( 2 r)
|x|
Remark 3. It is easily checked that
V,n = Mn V+2n .

(28)

1
are related
Proposition 9. Let f K0 and g En (R), the operators V,n and X,n
by the following relation
Z
Z
2+1
1
V,n f (x)g(x)|x|
dx =
f (x)X,n
g(x)dx.
R

Proof. A combination of (14), (26) and (28) shows that


Z
Z
2+1
V,n (f (x))g(x)|x|
dx =
Mn V+2n (f (x))g(x)|x|2+1 dx
R
ZR
=
x2n V+2n f (x)g(x)|x|2+1 dx
ZR
g(x)
=
V+2n f (x) 2n |x|2+4n+1 dx
x
ZR
g(x)
1
=
f (x)X+2n
( 2n )dx
x
ZR
1
=
f (x)X,n
(g(x))dx.
R

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Harmonic Analysis Associated With A Generalized Bessel-Struve Operator On The Real Line

Theorem 5. Let f K0 , V,n and W,n are related by the following relation
V,n (W,n (f )) = W,n (V,n (f )) = f.
Proof. The result follows directly from Proposition 3.(15), (27) and (28).
iii. The generalized Sonine integral transform.
Definition 9. Let f Em (R). We define the generalized Sonine integral transform
by, for all x R
(29)
Z 1
n,m
2(nm)
(1 r2 )+2(nm)1 f (rx)r2+2m+1 dr,
S, (f )(x) = c( + 2n, + 2m)x
0
1
2

where > >


and m, n two non-negative integers such that n m. For
n,m
n = m = 0, S, reduces to the classical Sonine integral transform S, .
Remark 4. Due to (16) and (29)
(30)

n,m
S,
= Mn S+2n,+2n M1
m .

In the next Proposition, we establish an analogue of Sonine formula


Proposition 10. We have the following relation
(31)
Z 1
2(nm)
,,n (x) = c( + 2n, + 2m)x
(1 t2 )+2(nm)1 ,,m (tx)t2+2m+1 dt.
0

Proof. A combination of (18) and (23) leads to the desired result.


Remark 5. The following relation yields from relation (31)
n,m
S,
(,,m (.))(x) = ,,n (x).
n,m
Theorem 6. The generalized Sonine integral transform S,
(f ) is an isomorphism
from Em (R) onto En (R) satisfying the intertwining relation
n,m
n,m
l,n (S,
(f ))(x) = S,
(l,m (f ))(x).

Proof. An easily combination of (20), (24), (30), Lemma 1.(i) and Proposition 4
n,m
(f ) is an isomorphism from Em (R) onto En (R) and
(iv) yields S,
n,m
l,n (S,
(f ))(x) = l,n Mn S+2n,+2m M1
m (f )(x)

= Mn l+2n (S+2n,+2m ) M1
m (f )(x)
= Mn S+2n,+2m l+2m M1
m (f )(x)
= Mn S+2n,+2m M1
m l,m (f )(x)
n,m
= S,
(l,m (f ))(x).

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Harmonic Analysis Associated With A Generalized Bessel-Struve Operator On The Real Line

Theorem 7. The generalized Sonine transform is a topological isomorphism from


Em (R) onto En (R). Furthermore, it verifies
n,m
1
S,
= X,n X,m

the inverse operator is


n,m 1
1
(S,
) = X,m X,n
.

Proof. It follows from (25), (30), Lemma 1.(i) and Proposition 4 ((iv)-(v)) that
n,m
is a topological isomorphism from Em (R) onto En (R) and
S,
n,m
(f ) = Mn S+2n,+2m M1
S,
m (f )
1
= Mn X+2n X+2m
M1
m (f )
1
= X,n X,m
(f ).

For the inverse operator it is easily checked that


n,m 1
1
(S,
) = X,m X,n
.

Definition 10. For f Dn (R) we define the dual generalized Sonine transform
denoted t S, by
(32)
Z
t n,m
2m
S, (f )(x) = c( + 2n, + 2m)x
(y 2 x2 )+2(nm)1 y 12n f (sgn(x)y)dy,
|x|

where x R .
Remark 6. Due to (32) and Definition 5 we have
t

(33)

n,m
S,
= Mm t S+2n,+2m M1
n .

Proposition 11. The dual generalized Sonine transform verifies the following relation for all f Dn (R) and g Em (R),
Z
Z
n,m
2+1
t n,m
S, (f )(x)g(x)|x|2+1 dx.
S, g(x)f (x)|x|
dx =
R

Proof. A combination of (30), (33) and Theorem 3.(i) we get


Z
Z
n,m
2+1
2+1
dx
S, (g)(x)f (x)|x|
dx =
Mn S+2n,+2m M1
m (g)(x)f (x)|x|
R
R
Z
1
2(+2n)+1
dx
=
S+2n,+2m M1
m (g(x))Mn (f )(x)|x|
R
Z
t
1
2(+2m)+1
=
M1
dx
m (g(x)) S+2n,+2m Mn f (x)|x|
R
Z
2+1
=
Mm (g(x))t S+2n,+2m M1
dx
n (f )(x)|x|
R
Z
n,m
=
g(x)t S,
(f )(x)|x|2+1 dx.
R

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Harmonic Analysis Associated With A Generalized Bessel-Struve Operator On The Real Line

Theorem 8. For all f Dn (R), we have


t

n,m
S,
(f ) = V,m (W,n (f )).

Proof. By (27), (28), (33) and Theorem 3 (ii), we get


t

n,m
(f ) = Mm t S+2n,+2m M1
S,
n (f )

= Mm V+2m (W+2n M1
n )(f )
= V,m (W,n (f )).

iv. Generalized Bessel-Struve transform.


Definition 11. The Generalized Bessel-Struve transform is defined on L1,n (R) by
Z
,n
R, FB,S (f )() =
f (x)i,,n (x)|x|2+1 dx.
R

Remark 7.
It follows from (11), (23) and Definition 11 that
,n
+2n
+2n
FB,S = FB,S
M1
is the Bessel-Struve transform of order
n , where FB,S
+ 2n given by (11).
Proposition 12. If f L1,n (R) then
,n
(i) kFB,S
(f )k kf k1,,n .
,n
(ii) FB,S = F W,n .

Proof. (i) By Remark 7 and Proposition 1, we have for all f L1,n (R)
,n
+2n
kFB,S
(f )k = kFB,S
(M1
n f )k

kM1
n f k1,+2n
= kf k1,,n .
(ii) From (27), Remark 7 and Proposition 2.(iii), we have for all f L1,n (R)
,n
+2n
(f ) = FB,S
M1
FB,S
n (f )

= F W+2n (M1
n (f ))
= F W,n (f ).

Proposition 13. For all f Dn (R), we have the following decomposition


,n
,m
n,m
FB,S
(f ) = FB,S
t S,
(f ).

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83 | page

Harmonic Analysis Associated With A Generalized Bessel-Struve Operator On The Real Line

Proof. It follows from (33), Remark 7 and Theorem 3.(iii) that


,n
+2n
FB,S
(f ) = FB,S
M1
n (f )
+2m
= FB,S
t S+2n,+2m M1
n (f )
+2m
t
1
= FB,S
M1
m Mm S+2n,+2m Mn (f )
,m
n,m
= FB,S
t S,
(f ).

,n
Theorem 9. (Paley-Wiener) Let a > 0 and f a function in Da,n (R) then FB,S
can
,n
be extended to an analytic function on C that we denote again FB,S (f ) verifying
,n
k N , |FB,S
(f )(z)| Cea|z| .

Proof. The result follows directly from Remark 7, Lemma 1(i) and Theorem 2.
References
[1]

R. F. Al Subaie and M. A. Mourou, Transmutation Operators Associated with a Bessel Type


Operator on The Half Line and Certain of Their Applications, Tamsui Oxford Journal of
Information and Mathematical Sciences 29(3) (2013) 329-349.
[2] L. Kamoun, S. Negzaoui, Sonine Transform Associated to Bessel-Struve Operator,
arXiv:1011.5394v1.
[3] L. Kamoun and M. Sifi, Bessel-Struve Intertwining Operator and Generalized Taylor Series
on the Real Line, Integral Transforms and Special Functions, Vol.16, January 2005, 39-55.
[4] K. Trimche, Generalized Harmonic Analysis and Wavelets Packets, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 2001.
E-mail
E-mail
E-mail
E-mail

address:
address:
address:
address:

a.abouelaz@fsac.ac.ma
achakachak@hotmail.fr
r.daher@fsac.ac.ma
safouanenajat@gmail.com

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84 | page