Sie sind auf Seite 1von 54

Anatomy & physiology

Visual system
Maria Larasati, Ophthalmologist

Monday, April 29, 13

Learning Objectives
By the end of this presentation you will be able to:
1. Recognize major components of the eye
2. Have a basic understanding of how the eye works
3. Understand how eye disease affects the components of the
eye

Monday, April 29, 13

EMBRYOLOGY OF THE EYE


This highly specialized sensory organ is derived from neural
ectoderm, mesoderm and surface ectoderm.
The eye is essentially an outgrowth from the brain (neural
ectoderm).
Started as Optic vesicle connected to the forebrain by Optic
stalk.

Monday, April 29, 13

EMBRYOLOGY (cont.)
Invagination of both the
optic vesicle to form Optic
cup and the optic stalk to
form Choroidal fissure
inferiorly.
Surface ectoderm
invaginate to form the lens
vesicle.
Mesodermal tissues invade
the developing eye to
share in vascular, muscular
and supportive tissues of
the eye.
Monday, April 29, 13

Monday, April 29, 13

DEVELOPMENT OF THE EYE


AFTER BIRTH
At birth, the eye is relatively large in relation to the rest of the
body.
The eye reaches full size by the age of 8 years.
The lens continues to enlarge throughout the life.
The iris has a bluish color due to little or no pigment on the
anterior surface.
During early infant life, the cornea & sclera can be stretched by
raised IOP enlargement of the eye.

Monday, April 29, 13

Monday, April 29, 13

Figure by Snell & Lemp


Monday, April 29, 13

Monday, April 29, 13

Monday, April 29, 13

Lacrimal Apparatus
Tear secretion.
Layers of precorneal tear film.
Drainage of tear.

Monday, April 29, 13

Lacrimal Apparatus
Tear secretion.
Layers of precorneal tear film.
Drainage of tear.

Monday, April 29, 13

Lacrimal Apparatus
Tear secretion.
Layers of precorneal tear film.
Drainage of tear.

Monday, April 29, 13

Lacrimal Apparatus
Tear secretion.
Layers of precorneal tear film.
Drainage of tear.

Monday, April 29, 13

Quiz #1

Monday, April 29, 13

Quiz #1

Cornea

Monday, April 29, 13

Quiz #1

Lens
Cornea

Monday, April 29, 13

Quiz #1

Iris

Lens
Cornea

Monday, April 29, 13

Quiz #1

Iris

Lens
Cornea

Monday, April 29, 13

Sclera

Quiz #1

Iris

Macula

Lens
Cornea

Monday, April 29, 13

Sclera

Quiz #1

Macula

Papil

Iris

Lens
Cornea

Monday, April 29, 13

Sclera

Quiz #1

Macula
Retinal Artery
Papil

Iris

Lens
Cornea

Monday, April 29, 13

Sclera

Quiz #1

Macula
Retinal Artery
Papil

Vortex Vein

Iris

Lens
Cornea

Monday, April 29, 13

Sclera

Pop Quiz #2
a
e

c
d
Monday, April 29, 13

Pop Quiz #2
a

a: Lens

c
d
Monday, April 29, 13

Pop Quiz #2
a

a: Lens

b: Ciliary Body (Pars plicata)


b

c
d
Monday, April 29, 13

Pop Quiz #2
a

a: Lens

b: Ciliary Body (Pars plicata)


c: Pars Plana of ciliary body

c
d
Monday, April 29, 13

Pop Quiz #2
a

a: Lens

b: Ciliary Body (Pars plicata)


c: Pars Plana of ciliary body
d: Retina

c
d
Monday, April 29, 13

Pop Quiz #2
a

a: Lens

b: Ciliary Body (Pars plicata)


c: Pars Plana of ciliary body
d: Retina

e: Zonule or suspensory ligament


c
d
Monday, April 29, 13

UVEA
uveal layer is shown in red
It consists of the iris, ciliary body and choroid
Monday, April 29, 13

Extrinsic Eye Musculature

For moving eye within its socket


6 muscles per eyeball
Innervated by 3 cranial nerves
Monday, April 29, 13

Eye Movements
Yaw
gaze shifts L/R
Pitch
gaze shifts up/down
Roll
eye rotates around line of
gaze (torsion)
In each position of gaze, one muscle of each eye is the primary
mover of that eye, and is yoked to the primary mover of the
other eye
Monday, April 29, 13

YAW

Eye Movements
Yaw
gaze shifts L/R
Pitch
gaze shifts up/down
Roll
eye rotates around line of
gaze (torsion)

In each position of gaze, one muscle of each eye is the primary


mover of that eye, and is yoked to the primary mover of the
other eye
Monday, April 29, 13

Eye Movements

YAW

Yaw
gaze shifts L/R
Pitch
gaze shifts up/down

PITCH

Roll
eye rotates around line of
gaze (torsion)

In each position of gaze, one muscle of each eye is the primary


mover of that eye, and is yoked to the primary mover of the
other eye
Monday, April 29, 13

Eye Movements

YAW

Yaw
gaze shifts L/R
Pitch
gaze shifts up/down

PITCH
ROLL

Roll
eye rotates around line of
gaze (torsion)

In each position of gaze, one muscle of each eye is the primary


mover of that eye, and is yoked to the primary mover of the
other eye
Monday, April 29, 13

Oculomotor Muscle Actions


Muscle

Action

Sup. rectus

elevates & abducts eyeball

Sup. oblique

depresses & abducts eyeball

Nerve Supply
upper division of
oculomotor n. (III)
trochlear n. (IV)

Med. rectus

adducts the eyeball

lower division of
oculomotor n. (III)

Lat. rectus

abducts the eyeball

abducens n. (VI)

Inf. rectus
Inf. oblique
levator
palpebrae
superioris
Monday, April 29, 13

depresses & abducts eyeball

lower division of
oculomotor n. (III)

elevates & abducts eyeball

lower division of
oculomotor n. III)

raises the eyelid

upper division of
oculomotor n. (III)

Intrinsic Eye Muscles and their response to light

Monday, April 29, 13

Neuronal function

Monday, April 29, 13

Looking at the Retina


Macula- 3 by 5 mm area at the posterior pole of the eye
Fovea- in center of macula : free of blood vessels, contains only
cone cells

Monday, April 29, 13

Anatomy of Rods and Cones


Monday, April 29, 13

Rods
120 million
Light sensitive
Found in peripheral
Cones
7 million
Color sensitive
Found mostly in fovea

Histology of the Retina

Monday, April 29, 13

Physiology of Rods and Photopigments

Monday, April 29, 13

Photomicroscopic view of the Histology of the Eye


S
Sclera
C
Choroid coat
PE
Pigmented epithelium
P
Outer segments of rods and cones
O
Nuclei of rods and cones
OPL
Outer synaptic layer
I
Nuclei of bipolar neurons
PL
Inner synaptic layer
G
Ganglion cell layer
Monday, April 29, 13

Photomicroscopic view of the Histology of the Eye


showing the location of the central fovea

Monday, April 29, 13

Visual Pathway
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Cones
Bipolar neurons
Ganglion cells axon forms the optic nerve
Optic nerve to the Optic Chiasm
Optic tract
Lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus
Optic Radiations
Primary visual areas of the occipital lobes

Monday, April 29, 13

Binocular vision

Monday, April 29, 13

Visual Pathway

Monday, April 29, 13

Optics of the Eye


The eye is like a camera
Light must have a clearly pathway to be clearly focused on the
sensory receptors of the retina, i.e., clear cornea, anterior
chamber, lens and vitreous cavity

The refractive power of the eye is about 58


dioptres

Monday, April 29, 13

Monday, April 29, 13

Optics of the Eye (cont.)


The cornea is the major refracting element of the eye
a power of approximately 40 dioptres
If the curvature is greater in one meridian than the other Astigmatism

The refractive power of the lens is about 17 dioptres at rest


Accommodation able to change the power of the lens markedly
depends on age

Monday, April 29, 13

Abnormalities of The Eye

1.

Myopic
nearsighted

2.

Hypermetropic
Farsighted

3.

Presbyopia
age-related failure of
lens to accommodate

4.

Astigmatism
Distorted vision due to
irregular-shaped lens or
cornea

Monday, April 29, 13

Monday, April 29, 13

Accommodation of the Lens


Near Vision

Far Vision

1. Ciliary muscles contract

1. Ciliary muscles relaxes

2. Ciliary body pulls forward


and inward

2. Ciliary body returns to its


resting state, backward
and outward

3. Tension on suspensory
ligaments of lens is
decreased
4. Lens becomes thicker
(rounder) due to its
elasticity
5. Pupils constricts
Monday, April 29, 13

3. Tension on suspensory
ligaments of lens is
increased
4. Lens becomes thinner
(flatter) due to its elasticity
5. Pupils dilate

Thank you

Monday, April 29, 13