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3 PHASE

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3 PHASE CIRCUITS

SOLVED

SUMS ON WATTMETER

Q.1. Three coils having a resistance of 20 and reactance of

15 are connected in (i) star, and ii) delta, across a three-phase,

400 V, 50 HZ supply. Calculate in each case, the readings on two

wattmeters connected to measure the power input.

R= 20

Data :

XL= 15

VL= 400 V

=

400

3

= 230.94 V

= 20 + 15 = 2536.87

= 25

= 36.87

=

230.94

25

= 9.24

= = 9.24

1 = cos 30

= 400 9.24 30 36.87 = 3669.46

2 = cos 30 + = 400 9.24 cos 30 + 36.87 = 1451.8

3 POWER MEASUREMENT

3 PHASE CIRCUITS

SOLVED

= = 400

= 25

= 36.87

=

400

25

= 16

= 3 = 3 16 = 27.72

1 = cos 30

= 400 27.72 cos 30 36.87 = 11008.39

2 = cos 30 +

= 400 27.72 cos 30 + 36.87 = 4355.57

power is measured by the two wattmeter method. Find the reading of

each wattmeter when the (i) power factor is leading. and the (ii) power

factor is lagging.

Data :

= 0.342

S=10 kVA

= 3

10 103 = 3

= 5.77 k

cos = 0.342

= 72

2

3 PHASE CIRCUITS

3 POWER MEASUREMENT

SOLVED

1 = cos 30 +

= 5.77 cos 30 + 70 = 1 kW

2 = cos 30

= 5.77 cos 30 70 = 4.42 kW

ii) When the power factor is lagging,

1 = cos 30 = 4.42kw

2 = cos 30 + = 1kW

three-phase circuit indicate 2000 W and 500 W respectively. Find the

power factor of the circuit (i) when both readings are positive and(ii)

when the latter is obtained after reversing the connection to the current

coil of one instrument.

Data :

W1 = 2000 W

W2 = 500 W

W1 = 2000 W

W2 = 500 W

3

3 POWER MEASUREMENT

3 PHASE CIRCUITS

tan =

1 2

1 +2

= 3

2000 500

2000 +500

SOLVED

= 1.039

= 46.102

Power factor = cos = cos (46.102) = 0.693

ii) When the latter reading is obtained after reversing the connection to

the current coil of one instrument,

W1 = 2000W

W2 = -500W

tan = 3

= 3

1 2

1 +2

2000 +500

2000 500

= 2.887

= 70.89

Power factor = cos

= 70.89 = 0.33

connected to measure power in a three-phase balanced circuit with

(i) unity power factor, (ii) zero power factor, and (iii) power factor

= 0.5.

Data: (i) pf = 1

(ii) pf = 0

4

(iii) pf = 0.5

3 POWER MEASUREMENT

3 PHASE CIRCUITS

cos =1

=0

tan = tan 0 = 0

tan = 3

1 2

1 + 2

1 2

0= 3

1 + 2

W1 = W2

(ii) Power factor = 0

cos =0

= 90

tan = tan 90 =

tan = 3

1 2

1 + 2

W1 + W2 = 0

W1 = -W2

(iii) Power factor = 0.5

cos =60

tan = tan 60 = 1.732

tan = 3

1 2

1 + 2

1.732 = 3

1 2

1 + 2

W1 - W2 = W1 + W2

W2 = 0

5

SOLVED

3 POWER MEASUREMENT

3 PHASE CIRCUITS

SOLVED

balanced load. Find the power factor if(i) two readings are equal,

and (ii) two readings are equal and opposite.

Data: (i) Wl = W2

(ii) Wl = -W2

W1 = W2

tan = 3

1 2

1 + 2

tan = 3 (0) = 0

= 00

Power factor = cos

= cos 00 = 1

(ii) If two readings are equal and opposite,

W1 = W2

tan = 3

1 2

1 + 2

= 900

Power factor = cos = cos (90) = 0

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