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3 POWER MEASUREMENT

3 PHASE CIRCUITS

SOLVED

SUMS ON WATTMETER
Q.1. Three coils having a resistance of 20 and reactance of
15 are connected in (i) star, and ii) delta, across a three-phase,
400 V, 50 HZ supply. Calculate in each case, the readings on two
wattmeters connected to measure the power input.
R= 20

Data :

XL= 15

VL= 400 V

1) For a star-connected load,


=

400
3

= 230.94 V

= 20 + 15 = 2536.87
= 25
= 36.87
=

230.94
25

= 9.24

= = 9.24
1 = cos 30
= 400 9.24 30 36.87 = 3669.46
2 = cos 30 + = 400 9.24 cos 30 + 36.87 = 1451.8

3 POWER MEASUREMENT

3 PHASE CIRCUITS

SOLVED

ii) For a delta-connected load,


= = 400
= 25
= 36.87
=

400
25

= 16

= 3 = 3 16 = 27.72
1 = cos 30
= 400 27.72 cos 30 36.87 = 11008.39
2 = cos 30 +
= 400 27.72 cos 30 + 36.87 = 4355.57

Q.2 : - A three-phase, 10 kVA load has a power factor of 0.342. The


power is measured by the two wattmeter method. Find the reading of
each wattmeter when the (i) power factor is leading. and the (ii) power
factor is lagging.
Data :

= 0.342

S=10 kVA

= 3
10 103 = 3
= 5.77 k
cos = 0.342
= 72
2

3 PHASE CIRCUITS

3 POWER MEASUREMENT

SOLVED

i) When the power factor is leading,


1 = cos 30 +
= 5.77 cos 30 + 70 = 1 kW
2 = cos 30
= 5.77 cos 30 70 = 4.42 kW
ii) When the power factor is lagging,
1 = cos 30 = 4.42kw
2 = cos 30 + = 1kW

Q3: Two wattmeters connected to measure the input to a balanced,


three-phase circuit indicate 2000 W and 500 W respectively. Find the
power factor of the circuit (i) when both readings are positive and(ii)
when the latter is obtained after reversing the connection to the current
coil of one instrument.

Data :

W1 = 2000 W

W2 = 500 W

i) When both readings are positive,


W1 = 2000 W
W2 = 500 W
3

3 POWER MEASUREMENT

3 PHASE CIRCUITS

tan =

1 2
1 +2

= 3

2000 500
2000 +500

SOLVED

= 1.039

= 46.102
Power factor = cos = cos (46.102) = 0.693

ii) When the latter reading is obtained after reversing the connection to
the current coil of one instrument,
W1 = 2000W
W2 = -500W
tan = 3
= 3

1 2
1 +2
2000 +500
2000 500

= 2.887

= 70.89
Power factor = cos
= 70.89 = 0.33

Q.4 What will be the relation between readings on the wattmeter


connected to measure power in a three-phase balanced circuit with
(i) unity power factor, (ii) zero power factor, and (iii) power factor
= 0.5.
Data: (i) pf = 1

(ii) pf = 0

(i) Power factor =1


4

(iii) pf = 0.5

3 POWER MEASUREMENT

3 PHASE CIRCUITS

cos =1
=0
tan = tan 0 = 0
tan = 3

1 2
1 + 2
1 2

0= 3

1 + 2

W1 = W2
(ii) Power factor = 0
cos =0
= 90
tan = tan 90 =
tan = 3

1 2
1 + 2

W1 + W2 = 0
W1 = -W2
(iii) Power factor = 0.5
cos =60
tan = tan 60 = 1.732
tan = 3

1 2
1 + 2

1.732 = 3

1 2
1 + 2

W1 - W2 = W1 + W2
W2 = 0
5

SOLVED

3 POWER MEASUREMENT

3 PHASE CIRCUITS

SOLVED

Q.5 Two wattmeters are used to measure power in a three-phase


balanced load. Find the power factor if(i) two readings are equal,
and (ii) two readings are equal and opposite.
Data: (i) Wl = W2

(ii) Wl = -W2

(i) If two readings are equal,


W1 = W2
tan = 3

1 2
1 + 2

tan = 3 (0) = 0
= 00
Power factor = cos
= cos 00 = 1
(ii) If two readings are equal and opposite,
W1 = W2
tan = 3

1 2
1 + 2

= 900
Power factor = cos = cos (90) = 0