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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Most of Senior high school students speaking skills are still low.
Their lack of some speaking components such as: the use of right words, correct
grammatical

pattern,

correct

intonation

and

pronunciation,

fluency

and

comprehension has become the root of this problem. Time Token may be a rich
source and appropriate method in learning English. To know whether Time token
can improve students speaking ability or not, the writer would like to explain the
concepts as follows:
A. Speaking
1. The Definition of speaking
Language as means of communication deals with oral and written
communication. Written communication is represented by writing and oral
communication is represented by speech. Communication becomes important
because it is the way people express their ideas or feelings to other people. This
function of language is in line with what Kessler (1992:133) states that language is a
primary tool through which learners explore and come to understand ideas.
Communicating with others means that people make a relationship among
them and the world. Hardfield (1999:29) says that speaking is a kind of bridge for
learners in the classroom and the world outside. It means that speaking connects
people to others through sharing ideas. Speaking skill is seemed to be the most
visible skill. People usually see how well persons communicate to one another from
their speaking ability. In communicating with others, we do not only use spoken
words but also non-verbal symbols such as gestures, body language, and eye
contacts. Speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of
verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts (Chaney, 1998:13) in Kayi
(2006: Vol. XII No. 11).
Widdowson (1996:59) defines speaking into two. The first is that speaking is
simply the physical embodiment of abstract system in the manifestation of the
commit to system
user of language or both. It implies
phonological system or of the grammatical

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that speaking can contain the elements of pronunciation or grammatical features or


both of them. And the second is that speaking is active or productive and makes use
of aural mediums. It means that speaking is producing ideas through spoken
language. In short, Widdowsons speaking definition is that speaking is a productive
process involving pronunciation or grammatical features or both using aural medium.
Speaking is also a creative process where speakers are almost always in the
position of formulating what they are saying as a result of the behavior of their
listeners or as a result of added thoughts of their own (Underwood, 1996:11).
Underwood points out that speaking can be used to say speakers ideas or to reply
the listeners response in conversation.
Lewis and Hill (1993:54) say that speaking is a process that covers many
things in addition to the pronunciation of individual sounds. It also covers
pronunciation stress and intonation. While according to Nunan (1998:26), speaking
is a process consisting of short, often fragmentary utterances in a range of
pronunciation.
Bygate (1997:3) states, it is obvious that in order to be able to speak a foreign
language, it is necessary to know a certain amount of grammar and vocabulary.
Without knowing the vocabulary, people cannot say their ideas. Grammatical
features also plays important role in case that to know whether what speaker says
happen in the past, now or in the future. In line with Marsudi (1991:1), he suggests
that the study of grammar alone is not sufficient basis for learning how to
communicate in English. It will be teachers responsibility to introduce the skill to
the students. It requires not only having sufficient language knowledge such as
pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and discourse for English learners to be able to
speak.
From the explanation above, it can be concluded that speaking is an active
process of building and sharing meaning or ideas to others people through aural
medium as the manifestation of phonological system or of the grammatical features
or both that deals with the use amount of vocabulary in variety of context that
speakers have to adjust sentences they speak to the circumstances.
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2. The Components of Speaking Skill


According to Syakur (1990:5), speaking ability is a complex skill because at
least it is concerned with components of pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and
fluency.
a. Pronunciation
When teachers teach English, they need to be sure that their students can be
understood when they speak. Students need to be able to say what they want to
say.
b. Grammar
It is clearly necessary for the students when knowledge of grammar is essential
for competent users of a language. For example, they need to know what verbs in
the third person singular have an s ending in the presents simple (he swims,
she runs)
c. Vocabulary
Language students need to learn the lexis of the language. They need to learn
what words mean and how they are used.
d. Fluency
It is included the ease and speed of the flow of speech. While according to Byrne
(1997:9), speaking fluency is the ability to express oneself intelligibly,
reasonably accurately and without too much hesitation.
Brindley (1995:19) defines four areas for oral communication. They include
interactive communication for fluency or effect on listener, intelligibly for
pronunciation or prosodic features, appropriateness for pragmatic competence or
register, and accuracy for structure and vocabulary resources.
Widdowson (1996:59) says that speaking is an instance of use, therefore, is
part of reciprocal exchange in which both reception and production play part. In this
sense, the skill of speaking involves both receptive and productive participation.
Meanwhile, Brown (1994:254) defines distinction between accuracy and fluency.
Accurate means clear, articulate, grammatically and phonologically correct, while
fluency means flowing naturally. He also says that fluency may be an initial goal in
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language teaching but accuracy is gained to some extent by allowing learners to


focus on the elements of phonology, grammar and discourse in their spoken output.
Based on those definitions, it can be concluded that speaking ability is a complex
skill because it is concerned with components of fluency that means flowing
naturally and accuracy that covers pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary.

3. Speaking as a Skill
Widdowson (1996: 58 59) defines the term of speaking in two ways
according its sense which in the usage sense, involves the manifestation of the
phonological system or of the grammatical system of the language or both. With the
reference to usage, it is perfectly true that speaking is active, or productive, and
makes use of the aural medium. In other words he explains that speaking as an
instance of use is a part of reciprocal exchange in which both reception and
production play a part where in this perspective, the skill of speaking involves both
receptive and productive participation.
According to Brindley (1995: 19), oral skill can be identified with speaking
skill. His point of view about oral skill is to:
a. Express one of intelligibility
b. Convey intended meaning accurately with sufficient command of vocabulary
c. Use language appropriate to context
d. Interact with other speakers fluently
Brindley (1995: 23) shows that oral skill can be rated in four areas:
a. Interactive communication which covers fluency or effect on listener.
b. Intelligibility which cover pronunciation / prosodic features
c. Appropriateness consisting of pragmatic competence / register
d. Accuracy including structure and vocabulary resource
Bygate (in Nunan, 1998: 40) suggest that oral interactions can be
characterized in terms of routines, which are conventional (and therefore predictable)
ways of presenting information which can be either focus on information or
interaction. Information routines contain frequently recurring types of information
commit to
usernarrative, description, instruction,
structures, being either be expository
(e.g.

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comparison) or evaluative (e.g. explanation, justification, prediction, decision).


Interaction routines can be either service (e.g. job interview) or social (e.g. dinner
party).
According to Bygate, a further feature of oral interaction is that the
participants need constantly to negotiate meaning and generally manage the
interaction in the term of who is to say what, to whom, when, and about what. His
scheme is set out in the following figure:

Expository: (narrative, description,


instruction, comparison)
Information routines
Evaluative: explanation, justification,
Routines

predication, decision

Service: job interview


Interaction routines
Social: dinner party

Negation of meaning

Negotiation
Management of interaction

Figure 2.1 Characterizing Oral Interaction (Bygate 1987)

When people talk about something, it has several meaning. Speaking can be
many things it is thinking of what one wishes to say, choosing the right words from
our vocabulary, putting the words in the proper grammatical framework,
communicating the feelings we have and so on.
To most people mastering the art of speaking is the single most important
aspect of learning a second commit
language,
to and
usersuccess is measured in terms of the
ability to carry out a conversation in the language. (Nunan, 1998: 39)

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Widdowson (1996: 64) states that speaking is a kind of tactical maneuvering


that can be characterized as an overtly interactive manner of communicating that
means that talking is reciprocal because it takes the form of an exchange between
two or more participant with each participant taking turns to say something. Any
misunderstandings which arise can be cleared up in the process of the interactions of
the other interlocutors that means that they can afford to be imprecise and explicit
and clarify then modify their meanings as they go along according to how what they
say is received.
It can be concluded that speaking is the kind of tactical maneuvering of oral
interaction to express one of intelligibility which can either focus on information or
interaction involving both receptive and productive participation in interactive
communicative through components of speaking such the manifestation of
phonological and grammatical system of language then accurately with sufficient
vocabulary.
Heilkle (2008: 8) defines that skills are the practical application of knowledge
that require attention, experience and feedback, and are developed over time, through
practice.
According to Business Dictionary (2012) states that skill is an ability and
capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic and sustained effort to smoothly and
adaptively carry out complex activities or job function involving idea (cognitive
skill), things (technical skill) and people (interpersonal skill).
Besides, Richard (2002: 500) has other opinion to describe the definition of
skill that is an acquired ability to perform an activity that usually is made up of a
number of co-ordinate processes and actions.
It could be concluded that skill is an ability to apply the knowledge that
developed through practices co ordinate process that involving cognitive skill,
technical skill an interpersonal skill.
Many aspects of language learning are traditionally regarded as the learning
of skills, such as learning to speak, or read clearly. Listening, speaking, reading, and
writing are generally called the four language skills. Sometimes speaking and writing
commit
to user and listening, the passive/receptive
are called the active/productive skills
and reading

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skills. Often the skills are divided into sub skills, such as discriminating sounds in
connected speech, or understanding relations within a sentence.
Widdowson (1996: 59) explains that speaking as an instance of use therefore
is a part of reciprocal exchange in which both reception and production play a part.
In this sense, the skill of speaking involves both receptive and productive
participation.
We do not merely know how to assemble sentences in the abstract: we have
to produce them and adapt to the circumstances. This means making
decisions rapidly, implementing them smoothly, and adjusting conversation
as unexpected problems appear in our path. (Bygate, 1987: 3)
According to Villemic (2006: 11) Bygate writes that being able to decide
what to say on the spot, saying it clearly and being flexible during a conversation as
different situations come out is the ability to use the knowledge in action, which
creates the second aspect of speaking - the skill.
Brown (2001: 268) argues that the distinction an issue that persuades all of
language performances centers on the distinction between accuracy and fluency.
Bygate (in Villemic, 2006: 11) views the skill as comprising two
components: production skills and interaction skills, both of which can be affected
by two conditions: firstly, processing conditions, taking into consideration the fact
that a speech takes place under the pressure of time; secondly, reciprocity conditions
connected with a mutual relationship between the interlocutors.
Thornbury explains that speaking is an ability to manage turn taking on the
use of production strategies such as the filling pauses also contribute to fluency at the
same time as they are speaking as well as take the contribution others speakers are
making to talk both linguistic and paralinguistic (2005: 10).

4. The Language Functions


There is, on the one hand, written language and, on the other hand, spoken
language. Spoken language differs from written language primarily in the way
information is less densely packed in spoken language, which has implications both
for syntactic structure and for vocabulary
commit selection.
to user Brown and Yule (1983:23) said

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that the primary function of written language is transactional, to convey information


(though there are relatively major exceptions, like literature and relatively minor
interactional ones like love letters). Meanwhile the primary function of spoken
language is interactional, to establish and maintain social relations. However, an
important function of spoken language is primarily transactional - to convey
information. These functions could be represented in the following figure:

primarily transactional

primarily interactional

written language

spoken language

Figure 2.2 Functions of language

According to Brown (2007:223) Functions are essentially the purposes that


are accomplished with language, e.g., stating, requesting, responding, greeting,
parting, etc. Functions cannot be accomplished, of course, without the forms of
language: morphemes, words, grammar rules, discourse rules, and other
organizational competencies. While forms are the outward manifestation of
language, functions are the realization of those forms and sometimes directly related
to forms.
Halliday (1973) in Brown (2007:223) outlined seven different functions of
language:
1.

The instrumental function: serves to manipulate the environment, to cause


certain events to happen. Sentences like This court finds you guilty, On
your mark, get set, go! or Dont touch the stove have an instrumental
function: they are communicative acts that have a specific perlocutionary
force: they bring about a particular condition.
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2.

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The regulatory function of language: is the control of events. While such


control is sometimes difficult to distinguish from the instrumental function,
regulatory functions of language are not so much the unleashing of certain
power as the maintenance of control. I pronounce you guilty and sentence
you to three years in prison serves an instrumental function, but the sentence
Upon good behavior, you will be eligible for parole in 10 months serves
more of a regulatory function. The regulations of encounters among peopleapproval, disapproval, behavior control, setting laws and rules-are all
regulatory features of language.

3.

The representational function: is the use of language to make statements,


convey facts and knowledge, explain or report that is, to represent reality
as one sees it. The sun is hot. The president gave a speech last night, or
even The world is flat all serve representational functions, although the last
representation may be highly disputed.

4.

The interactional function of language: serves to ensure social maintenance.


Phatic communion, Malinowskis term referring to the communicative
contact between and among human beings that simply allows them to
establish social contact and to keep channels of communication open, is part
of the interactional function of language. Successful interactional
communication requires knowledge of slang, jargon, jokes, folklore, cultural
mores, politeness and formality expectations and other keys to social
exchange.

5.

The personal function: allows a speaker to express feelings, emotions,


personality, gut level reactions. A persons individuality is usually
characterized by his or her use of the personal function of communication. In
the personal nature of language, cognition, affect and culture all interact.

6.

The heuristic function: involves language used to acquire knowledge, to learn


about the environment. Heuristic functions are often conveyed in the form of
questions that will lead to answers. Children typically make good use of the
heuristic function in their incessant why questions about the world around
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them. Inquiry is a heuristic method of eliciting representations of reality from


others.
7.

The imaginative function: serves to create imaginary systems or ideas.


Telling fairy tales, joking or writing a novel are all uses of the imaginative
function. Poetry, tongue twisters, puns, and other instances of the pleasurable
uses of language also fall into the imaginative function. Through the
imaginative dimensions of language we are free to go beyond the real world
to soar to the heights of the beauty of language itself and through that
language to create impossible dreams if we so desire.
These seven different functions of language are neither discrete nor mutually

exclusive. A single sentence or conversation might incorporate many different


functions simultaneously. Yet it is the understanding of how to use linguistic forms
to achieve these functions of language that comprises the crux of second language
learning. A learner might acquire correct word order, syntax, and lexical items but
not understand how to achieve a desired and intended function through careful
selection of words, structure, intonation, nonverbal signals and astute perception of
the context of a particular stretch of discourse.
It can be concluded that the language functions refer to the purposes for
which speech or writing is being used. Both speaking and writing have the language
functions which are accomplished of course with the forms of language: morphemes,
words, grammar rules, discourse rules, and other organizational competencies.
Here, the writer conducted a study on Teaching Speaking using the material
hortatory exposition text. The language functions are presenting the hortatory
exposition text and then discussing the topic of the exposition which has been
presented.

5. The Macro and micro skills of Speaking


Mc Laughlin (in OMalley and Chamot, 1990:66) states that speaking is an
example of a complex cognitive skill that can be differentiated into various
hierarchical sub skills, some of which might require controlled processing while
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others could be processed automatically. It means that speaking involves several


micro skills.
The indicator of speaking could be formulated from taking at least two
sources; micro and macro skill of language skill and the government standard
competence. Moreover Brown (2004: 142 143) divides speaking skill in micro skill
and macro skill. He states that micro skills refer to producing the smaller chunk of
language such as phonemes, morphemes, words, collocation, and phrasal unit.
Meanwhile, macro-skills imply the speakers focus on the larger element: fluency,
discourse, function, style cohesion, non verbal communication and strategic option.
The macro and micro skills of speaking as an oral production are
There are eleven points of Micro skill that are described as follows:
a.

Produce different among English phonemes and allophonic variants.

b.

Produce chunk of language of different lengths.

c.

Produce English stress patterns, words in stressed and unstressed positions


rhythmic structure, and intonation contours.

d.

Produce reduced forms of words and phrases.

e.

Use an adequate number of lexical units (words) to accomplish pragmatic


purposes.

f.

Produce fluent speech at different rates of delivery.

g.

Monitor ones own oral production and use various strategic devices
pauses, filters, self correction, backtracking to enhance the clarity of the
message.

h.

Use grammatical words classes (noun, verbs, etc), system (e.g. tense,
agreement) word order, patterns, rules and elliptical forms.

i.

Produce speech in natural constituents: in appropriate phrases, pause groups,


breathe

groups, and sentences constituents.

j.

Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms.

k.

Use cohesive devices in spoken discourse.


Meanwhile macro skill of speaking skill Brown is categorized into five

points, they are:


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a.

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Appropriately accomplish communicative functions according to situations,


participants and goals.

b.

Use appropriate styles, register, redundancies, pragmatic, conventions,


conversation rules, floor keeping and yielding, interrupting, and other
sociolinguistic features in face to face conversations.

c.

Convey links and connection between two events and communicates such
relations as focal and peripheral ideas, event and feeling, new information
and given information, generalization and exemplification.

d.

Convey facial features, kinesics, body language and other nonverbal cues
along with verbal language.

e.

Develop and use a battery of speaking strategies such as emphasizing key


words,

rephrasing, providing a context for interpreting the meaning of

words, appealing for help, and accurately assessing how well your
interlocutor is understanding you.
From those definitions above, it can be concluded that speaking has two
necessary skills; they are macro-skill and micro-skill. Macro skill is the largest
element. It covers fluency, style cohesion, discourse, function, non verbal
communication and also strategic option. Meanwhile, micro-skill is the smallest
element of speaking. It covers phonemes, words, collocation, morphemes, and
phrasal unit.
Speaking skill is a process of expressing thought or negotiating idea by using
language orally in order to convey the message to the listeners and interaction
between the speakers beyond the speaking process which involves speaking
components such as: the use of right words, correct grammatical pattern, correct
intonation and pronunciation, fluency and comprehension.

6. The Characteristic of Successful Oral Communication


Nunan

(1998:32)

states

some

characteristics

of

successful

oral

communication. Successful oral communication involves developing of the


following:
commitfeatures
to userof the language comprehensibly.
a. The ability to articulate phonological

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b. Mastery of stress, rhythm, intonation patterns


c. An acceptable degree of fluency
d. Transactional and interpersonal skills
e. Skills in taking short and long speaking turns
f. Skills in the management of interaction
g. Skills in negotiating meaning
h. Conversational listening skills (successful conversations require good listeners as
well as good).
i. Skills in knowing about and negotiating purposes for conversations
j. Using appropriate conversational formulae and fillers.
Ur (1996:120) adds four characteristics of a successful speaking activity,
those are as follows:
a. Learners talk a lot
As much as possible of the period of time allotted to the activity is in fact
occupied by learner talk. This may seem obvious, but often most time is taken up
with teacher talk or pauses.
b. Participation is even
Classroom discussion is not dominated by a minority of talkative participants: all
get a chance to speak, and contributions are fairly evenly distributed.
c. Motivation is high
Learners are eager to speak: because they are interested in the topic and have
something new to say about it, or because they want to contribute to achieving a
task objective.
d. Language is of an acceptable level
Learners

express

themselves

in

utterances

that

are

relevant,

easily

comprehensible to each other, and of an acceptable level of language accuracy.


Meanwhile, Brown (2001: 268) argues that the distinction an issue that
persuades all of language performances centers on the distinction between accuracy
and fluency. On the other hand, Thornbury (2005: 127) defines that there are four
categories of speaking test: grammar and vocabulary, discourse management,
commit to user
pronunciation, and interactive communication.

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B. Teaching Speaking
1. The Definition of Teaching Speaking
What is meant by teaching speaking is to teach ESL learners to:
a. Produce the English speech sounds and sound patterns
b. Use word and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm of the second
language.
c. Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting,
audience, situation and subject matter.
d. Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence.
e. Use language as a means of expressing values and judgments.
f. Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses, which are
called as fluency (Nunan, 2003:56)

2. The Principles of Teaching Speaking


Brown (1994: 268-270) says that there are principles, which teachers must
know before deciding technique in teaching speaking, as follows:
a. Technique should cover the spectrum of learner needs, from language-based
focus on accuracy to massage-based focus on interaction, meaning, and fluency.
Teachers can use many kinds of attractive language teaching technique like a
jigsaw group technique, play a game, or discuss solutions to the environmental
crises. However, they should make sure that their tasks include techniques
designed to help students perceive and use the building blocks of language. At
the same time, they should not make their students bored by giving the
repetitious drills, but teachers should make any drilling as meaningful as
possible, so students will be interested to the activity.
b. Technique should be intrinsically motivating
Teacher should try at all times to appeal to students ultimate goals and interest,
to their need for knowledge, for status, for achieving competence, autonomy and
for being all that they can be.
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c. Technique should encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful


contexts. Teachers should provide authentic contexts and meaningful interaction
in the classroom creatively.
d. Provide appropriate feedback and correction
In most EFL situation, students are totally dependent on teachers feedback and
correction, because the feedback and correction, which are given by teachers,
will be useful for students development in learning language.
e. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening
Teachers should integrate these two skills because they can reinforce each other.
Skills in producing language are often initiated through comprehension.
f. Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication
Teachers should provide the conditions, which support to initiate oral
communication, for example: teachers ask questions, give directions, and provide
information. This technique is expected to be able to lead the students to increase
the oral communicative competence that includes the ability to initiate
conversation, to nominate topics, to ask questions, to control conversation and to
change the subject.
g. Encourage the development of speaking strategies.
The concept of strategic competence is one that few beginning language students
are aware of. Students can be aware of the oral communicative purposes by
practicing such strategies.

3. The Roles of Teachers


In speaking class, teachers assume playing several roles. According to Arnold
(1985:98), the roles of teachers are as motivator, informant, conductor, corrector and
encourager.
a. Motivator
As motivator in speaking class, teachers play important roles. However good at
language a teacher is, whatever technical virtues a teacher possesses, without
motivation, students will never learn. It is also stated by William and Burden
commit
user influence on learning. Teachers
(1997:111) that motivation is the
most to
powerful

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can encourage the development of speaking skill and enhance motivation, on the
understanding that each will contribute to the other. Teachers should provide
students interest in terms of topic, variety of language points, skill practiced,
interaction, humor and interesting task.
b. Informant
In this role, teachers must give clear explanations of the materials or instructions
and remind students of forgotten points. Teachers can give some keywords of the
topic being discussed so that in another day, they just need to give clues in
reminding students of forgotten points.
c. Conductor
As a conductor, a teacher is a person who conducts the lesson. This role is
concerned with the practical things a teacher needs to run the lesson well. A
teacher should prepare the lesson plan first as the map of the lesson journey.
Teacher is just like a bus driver that run a bus with full of students. Clearly, as
the conductor, the teacher is responsible in running the class to the right
direction.
d. Corrector
Dealing with this role, the teacher should correct the students mistakes. After
giving an evaluation, it is better for the teacher to give the correction in order the
students to get better understanding of the materials.
e. Encourager
Teacher must also encourage the students. The encouragement involves all
aspects of the teachers role. A sympathetic attitude, not demanding beyond the
students capabilities, not overcorrecting, and praising what has been well done,
are necessary to be done.

4. The Problems with Speaking Activities


Harmer (1998:86) states many teachers have come across students who do
not seem to want to talk in class. This is the biggest problem faced by teachers in
speaking class. Nolasco and Arthur (1987:39) say that some students find speaking
commit
to userthere is always an audience. Some
in the classroom situation as a threat,
because

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students prefer not to speak at all, and are consequently deny opportunities for
practice. This main problem is caused by some other problems; Ur (1996:121)
explains that there are some problems dealing with speaking activities, as follow:
a.

Inhibition
Unlike reading, writing and listening activities, speaking requires some
degree of real-time exposure to an audience. Learners are often inhibited
about trying to say things in a foreign language in the classroom: worried
about making mistakes, fearful of criticism or losing face, or simply shy of
the attention that their speech attracts.

b.

Nothing to say
Even if they are not inhibited, you often hear learners complain that they
cannot think of anything to say: they have no motive to express themselves
beyond the guilty feeling that they should be speaking.

c.

Low or uneven participation


Only one participant can talk at a time if he or she is to be heard, and in a
large group this means that each one will have only very little talking time.
This problem is compounded by the tendency of some learners to dominate,
while others speak very little or not at all.

d.

Mother-tongue use
In class where all, or a number of, the learners share the same mother tongue,
they may tend to use it: because it is easier, because it feels unnatural to
speak to one another in a foreign language, and because they feel lack
exposed if they are speaking with their mother tongue. If they are talking in
small groups it can be quite difficult to get some classes- particularly the less
disciplined or motivated ones-to keep to the target language.
According to Brown (1994: 256-257) characteristics of spoken language can

make speaking difficult in that the learner is now the producer, those are:
a.

Clustering
Fluent speech is phrasal, not word by word. Learners can organize their
output both cognitively and physically (in breath group) through such
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clustering.

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b.

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Redundancy
The speaker has opportunity to make meaning clearer through the redundancy
of language. Learners can capitalize on this feature of spoken language.

c.

Reduced form
Contractions, elisions, reduced vowels, etc. are all form special problem in
teaching spoken English. Students who do not learn colloquial contractions
can sometimes develop a stilted bookish quality of speaking that in turn
stigmatizes them.

d.

Performance variables
One of the advantages of spoken language is that the process of thinking as
you speak allows you to manifest a certain number of performance
hesitations, pauses, backtracking, and corrections. You can actually teach
learners how to pause and hesitate. For example, in English our thinking
time is not silent, but rather we insert fillers: uh, um, well, you know, I
mean, like, etc. One of the most salient differences between native and
nonnative speakers of a language is in their hesitation phenomena.

e.

Colloquial language
Make sure your students are reasonably well acquainted with the words,
idioms and phrases of colloquial language and those they get practice in
producing this form.

f.

Rate of delivery
Another salient characteristic of fluency is rate of delivery. One of your tasks
in teaching speaking English is to help learners to achieve an acceptable
speed along with other attributes of fluency.

g.

Stress, rhythm and intonation


This is the most important characteristic of English pronunciation. The stresstimed rhythm of spoken English and its intonation patterns convey important
messages.

h.

Interaction
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Learning to produce waves of language in vacuum-without interlocutorswould rob speaking skill of its richest component: the creativity of
conversational negotiation.
Moreover, Rivers (1968:102) adds that there are psychological factors in
communication which include:
a.

Desire to communicate
As well having something to say, the student must have the desire to
communicate the message to some person or group of persons. Some students
may not have interest in joining speaking activity for their teacher who does
not show sympathy and their classmates are uncongenial. Others may realize
that they have limitations in the new language and do not want to ridicule.

b.

Comprehension as well as expression


Students may have acquired skill in expressing themselves in the new
language code, but have had little practice in understanding the language
when it is spoken at a normal conversational situation.

c.

Personality factors
Some students are talkative, others are shy or embarrassed if found to be in
error. These characteristics affect students performance in speaking activity.

d.

Limitations of expression
Students may feel frustrated when they know that their choice of expression
is limited. They cannot demonstrate the maturity of their thought.

e.

Correction of errors
In several societies, people will keep their ideas if expressing them could
cause embarrassment for themselves or for the people with whom they are
conversing. Continual correction sometimes can be very irritating.

5. Methods in Language Teaching


Language teaching has been characterized by a search for more effective
ways of teaching second or foreign languages. In discussion within the teaching
profession have often centered on issues such as the role of grammar in the language
commit toand
userfluency in teaching, the choice of
curriculum, the development of accuracy

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syllabus frameworks in course design, the role of vocabulary in language learning,


teaching productive and receptive skills, learning theories and their application in
teaching, memorization and learning, motivating learners, effective learning
strategies, techniques for teaching the four skills, and the role of materials and
technology.
The teaching of any subject matter is usually based on an analysis of the
nature of the subject itself and the application of teaching and learning principles
drawn from research and theory in educational psychology. The approaches and
methods in language teaching proliferated throughout the long period. Some
achieved wide levels of acceptance and popularity at different times but were then
were replaced by methods based on newer or more appealing ideas and theories.
Examples of this kind include the Direct Method, Audio-lingual, and the
Situational Approach. Some, such as CLT, were adopted almost universally and
achieved the status of methodological orthodoxy. At the same time, alternatives to
mainstream approaches have always found some level of support within language
teaching, though often this has not led to wider acceptance or use. Methods in this
category include the Silent Way, Counseling-Learning, Suggestopedia, and Total
Physical Response, as well as more recent alternative methods and approaches such
as Multiple Intelligences, Neurolinguistic Programming, and Lexical Approach.
Approaches and methods in language teaching seeks to provide a
comprehensive and comprehensible account of major and minor trends in language
teaching methods from the beginning of the twentieth century to the present. To
highlight the similarities and differences between approaches and methods or
instructional model, the same descriptive framework is used throughout. Concerning
these methods, there are some types of learning and teaching activities as
storytelling, jigsaw, realia, dialogue, drill, sing, drama, imitation, role play, timetoken, etc.
Henry Sweet (in Richards and Rodgers, 2001: 9) argued that sound
methodological principles should be based on a scientific analysis of language and a
study of psychology. In his book The Practical Study of Language (1899), he set
to user
forth principles for the developmentcommit
of teaching
method. These included:

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1)

Careful selection of what is to be taught

2)

Imposing limits on what is to be taught

3)

Arranging what is to be taught in terms of the four skills of listening,


speaking,

4)

reading, and writing

Grading materials from simple to complex


Despite the changing status of approaches and methods in language teaching,

the study of past and present teaching methods continues to form a significant
component of teacher preparation programs. The reasons for this are the following:
1)

The study of approaches and methods provides teachers with a view of how
the field of language teaching has evolved

2)

Approaches and methods can be studied not as prescriptions for how to teach
but as a source of well-used practices, which teachers can adapt or implement
based on their own needs

3)

Experience in using different teaching approaches and methods can provide


teachers with basic teaching skills that they can later add to or supplement as
they develop teaching experience.
In order to understand the fundamental nature of methods in language

teaching, however, it is necessary to conceptualize the notion of approach and


method more systematically, Richards and Rodgers (2001:16)
Many linguistics and English teachers agree on that students learn to speak in
the second language by interacting. Cooperative learning serves best for this aim.
Cooperative instructional method is based on real-life situations that require
communication. Time-Token is one type of cooperative instructional model. By
using this method in the instructional process, students will have the opportunity of
communicating with each other in the target language. In brief, the English teachers
should create a classroom environment where students have real-life communication,
authentic activities, and meaningful tasks that promote oral language. This can occur
when students cooperate in groups to achieve a goal or to complete a task.
Selecting appropriate method or instructional model in speaking is not an
easy task for the teachers. They should consider some factors. The problems arisen in
to process
user should be regarded.
the class and the aim of the teachingcommit
learning

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C. Review on Time Token


1. The Definition of Instructional Model
Winataputra (in Sugiyanto, 2008) defines that the instructional model is a
conceptual framework that describes a systematic procedure in organizing learning
experiences to achieve specific learning objectives and serve as a guide for learning
crier and teachers in launching and implementing instructional activities.
Instructional models are characterized, in part, by their task structures, their
goal structures and their reward structures. Task structures involve the way
lessons are organized and the kind of work students carry out in the
classroom. They encompass whether the teacher is working with the whole
class or small groups, what students are expected to accomplish as well as the
cognitive and social demands placed on them as they work to accomplish
assigned learning tasks. Task structures differ according to the various
activities involved in particular teaching approaches. For example, some
lessons require students to sit passively while receiving information from a
teachers talk. Other lessons require that students complete worksheets, and
still others require discussion and debate.
A lessons goal structure refers to the amount of interdependence required of
students as they perform their work. Three types of goal structures have been
identified. Goal structures are individualistic if achievement of the
instructional goal requires no interaction with others and is unrelated to how
well others do. Competitive goal structures exist when students perceive they
can obtain their goals if the other students fail to obtain theirs. Cooperative
goal structures exist when students can obtain their goal only when other
students with whom they are linked can obtain theirs.
The reward structure for various instructional models can also vary. Just as
goal structures can be individualist, competitive or cooperative, so too can
reward structures. Individualistic reward structures exist when a reward can
be achieved independently from what anyone else does. The satisfaction of
running a 4-minute mile is an example of an individualistic reward structure.
Competitive reward structures are those for which rewards are obtained for
individual effort in comparison to others. Grading on a curve is an example of
a competitive reward structure, as is the way winners are defined in many
track and field events. In contrast, situations in which individual effort helps
others to be rewarded use cooperative reward structures. Most team sports,
such as football, have a cooperative reward system, even though teams may
compete with each other. Arends (1998:312)
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Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia states that instructional model is a common


pedagogical practice where an instructor acts out or conducts an exhibition of
proper skill performance, process execution, or cognitive processing (e.g. thinkaloud). Students refer to the instructors model and attempt to mimic or reproduce
what they observed. Repetition of instructor modeling and subsequent student
reproduction promotes automaticity of taught skills, procedures and cognition, which
improves student performance.

2. The Kinds of Instructional Model


Sugiyanto (2008) suggests that there are lots of instructional models
developed by experts in an effort to optimize student lea rning outcomes. Those
instructional models are comprised of:
a.

Contextual Instructional Model


Contextual instructional model is a learning concept that encourages teachers
to connect the material taught to students real-world situations. This
instructional model also encourage students to make connections between
their knowledge and its application in their daily lives. The knowledge and
skills of students are obtained from the students efforts to construct new
knowledge and skills by theirselves as they learn.

b.

Cooperative Instructional Model


Cooperative learning model is the instructional approach that focuses on the
use of small groups of students to cooperate in maximizing the learning
conditions to achieve learning objectives.

c.

Quantum Learning Model


Quantum Learning model is an assembly of various theories or views of
cognitive psychology and neurology programming that were already exist.

d.

Integrated Instructional Model


Integrated Instructional Model is a learning model that allows students either
individually or in groups actively seek, explore, and discover concepts and
principles in a holistic manner. This is an instructional model that tries to
integrate several subjects. commit to user

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e.

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Problem-Based Learning Model


Problem-based learning model (Problem Based Learning - PBL) is a learning
that takes cognitive psychology as theoretical support. It doesnot focus much
on what the student is doing but on what students think as long as they do it.
Teachers function themselves as mentors and facilitators so that students can
learn to think and solve their own problems.
Joyce and Weil (1996) describe four different categories of models of

instruction:
a.

Behavioral systems models


The focus of the methods associated with this category is on observable skills
and behaviors. Two major models in this category are: Direct Instruction
(Highly structured, teacher-directed; maximization of student learning time),
Mastery Learning (Given enough time and quality instruction, nearly all
students can master any set of objectives). These methods have generally
proved more likely to positively impact scores on standardized tests of basic
skills than models in other categories.

b.

Information processing models


The focus of the methods associated with information processing approaches
are more linked to concepts and principles developed in cognitive
psychology. Three major models in this category are: Concept Attainment
(categorizing information and concept formation); Inquiry Training/Inductive
Thinking (causal reasoning, interpretation of data, and formation of principles
and theories); Intellectual Development (the influence of maturity on thinking
and reasoning). Many of the tests used to measure school learning are being
modified so that they consider important mental processing skills that these
models are designed to address.

c.

Personal development models


The focus of these models is on those outcomes held in high regard by
humanistic educators: high self-concept and self-esteem; positive selfdirection and independence; creativity and curiosity; the development of
user in this category are: Facilitative
affect and emotions. Threecommit
major to
models

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teaching: Affective orientation; based on methods of Carl Rogers; Increasing


Personal Awareness; Focus is on developing an awareness and fulfillment of
individual potential; Synectics: Focus on the development and application of
creativity. While these models have not demonstrated an ability to impact
outcomes associated with traditional education, they do show promise in
impacting other outcomes important for the information age.
d.

Social interaction models


The models associated with the social interaction family are focused on
developing the concepts and skills needed to work in groups. Two major
models in this category are: (Cooperative Learning, Working in groups based
on the methods of Slavin and Johnson and Johnson); Role playing of Study
and development of social behavior and values. Cooperative learning has
demonstrated ability to impact standard achievement measures as well as
group interaction.

3. The Definition of Cooperative Instructional Model


Sugiyanto (2008) defines that cooperative instructional model is instructional
approach which focuses on the use of students small group to work together to
maximize learning conditions to achieve learning goal.
Arends (1998:337) states that cooperative learning is unique among the
models of teaching because it uses a different goal structure, task structure and
reward structure to promote student learning. Task structures involve the way lessons
are organized and the kind of work students carry out in the classroom. They
encompass whether the teacher is working with the whole class or small groups,
what students are expected to accomplish as well as the cognitive and social
demands placed on them as they work to accomplish assigned learning tasks. Task
structures differ according to the various activities involved in particular teaching
approaches. For example, some lessons require students to sit passively while
receiving information from a teachers talk. Other lessons require that students
complete worksheets, and still others require discussion and debate.
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A lessons goal structure refers to the amount of interdependence required of


students as they perform their work. Three types of goal structures have been
identified. Goal structures are individualistic if achievement of the instructional goal
requires no interaction with others and is unrelated to how well others do.
Competitive goal structures exist when students perceive they can obtain their goals
if the other students fail to obtain theirs. Cooperative goal structures exist when
students can obtain their goal only when other students with whom they are linked
can obtain theirs.
The reward structure for various instructional models can also vary. Just as
goal structures can be individualist, competitive or cooperative, so too can reward
structures. Individualistic reward structures exist when a reward can be achieved
independently from what anyone else does. The satisfaction of running a 4-minute
mile is an example of an individualistic reward structure. Competitive reward
structures are those for which rewards are obtained for individual effort in
comparison to others. Grading on a curve is an example of a competitive reward
structure, as is the way winners are defined in many track and field events. In
contrast, situations in which individual effort helps others to be rewarded use
cooperative reward structures. Most team sports, such as football, have a cooperative
reward system, even though teams may compete with each other.
Lesson organized around teacher-centered models are generally characterized
by task structures by which teachers work mainly with a whole class of students or
students work individually to master academic content. These goal and reward
structures are based on individual competition and effort. On the other hand, as its
name implies, the cooperative learning model is characterized by cooperative task,
goal and reward structures. Students in cooperative learning situations are
encouraged and/or required to work together on a common task, and they must
coordinate their efforts to complete the task. Similarly, in cooperative learning, two
or more individuals are interdependent for a reward they will share, if they are
successful as a group. Most cooperative learning lessons can be characterized by the
following features:
to user
a. Students work in teams to mastercommit
academic
materials.

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b. Teams are made up of high, average and low achievers.


c. Whenever possible teams include a racial, cultural and sexual mix of students.
d. Reward systems are group oriented rather than individually oriented.
The cooperative learning model aims at instructional goals beyond academic
learning, specifically intergroup acceptance, social and group skills and
cooperative behavior.
Roger and David Johnson (Lie, Anita, 2008:31) states that not all groupworks can be considered as cooperative learning groups. To achieve maximum
results, the five elements of mutual instructional model should be applied:
1.

Positive interdependence
The success of a work depends on the efforts of each member. To create an
effective working group, teachers will need to develop such tasks that each
member of the group has to finish the work themselves so that others can
achieve their goals.

2.

Individual responsibility
If the tasks and the system of assessment are made based on the procedure of
Cooperative Learning instructional model, each student would feel
responsible to do their best. Effective Teachers in Cooperative Learning
instructional model make preparations and arrange tasks so that each group
member must carry out their own responsibilities within the group so that the
next task can be implemented.

3.

Face to face
In Cooperative Learning instructional model, each group should be given the
opportunity to meet face to face and discuss. These interactive activities will
provide the learners to form strategies that benefit for all group members. The
essence of this synergy is to appreciate the difference, take advantage of this,
and fill the gap.

4.

Communication inter-personal
This element requires that the learners are equipped with a variety of
communication skills, as well as the success of the group depends on the
to each
user other and their ability to express
willingness of its memberscommit
to listen

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opinions. Communication skill in a group is also a long process. However,


this process is a process that is very beneficial and should be taken to enrich
the learning experience and build mental and emotional development of
students.
5.

Evaluation of the groups process


Teachers need to schedule a special time for the group to evaluate the groups
work process and outcomes so that they can work together more effectively
in the further cooperation.
Sanjaya, in Vienna (2010:241) argues that cooperative learning is an

instructional model using clustering model / small team, which is between four to six
people who have the different academic background, gender, race, or ethnicity
(heterogeneous). The scoring system is done to the group. Each group will receive an
award, if the group is able to demonstrate requisite achievement. Thus, each group
member will have a positive interdependence. This sort of interdependence would
further raise the individual responsibility to the group and interpersonal skills of each
group member. Each individual will help each other; they will have the motivation to
get the group success, so that each individual will have an equal opportunity to
contribute for the success of their group.
From those arguments, it is obvious that cooperative learning emphasizes the
students on acting together. That cooperation actually aims to help each other,
respect the others opinions, and work together to increase their knowledge.
Cooperative learning is unique among the models of teaching because it uses a
different goal structure, task structure and reward structure to promote student
learning. The cooperative learning task structure requires students to work together
on academic tasks in small groups. The goal and reward structures require
interdependent learning and recognize groups as well as individual effort.

4. The Types of Cooperative Instructional Model


The types of cooperative instructional model are highly varied as stated in
Suyatno book (2009) about Menjelajah Pembelajaran Inovatif. There are 96
commit to user
variations of the cooperative instructional
model, they are: Student Teams

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Achievement Division, Numbered Head Together, Jigsaw, Think Pairs Share, Teams
Games Tournament, Group Investigation, Contextual Teaching and Learning, Team
Assisted Individually, Problem Based Instruction, Realistic Mathematics Education,
Problem Posing, Open Ended, Probing-Prompting, Cycle Learning, Reciprocal,
Somatic Auditory Visualization Intellectually, Visualization Auditor Kinetic,
Auditory Intellectually Repetition, Means-Ends Analysis, Creative Problem Solving,
Think Talk Write, Two Stay-Two Stray, Connecting Organizing Reflecting
Extending, Survey Question Read Recite Review, Survey Question Read Reflect
Recite Review, Meaningful Instructional Design, certainly of Response Index,
Double Loop Problem Solving, Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition,
Inside Outside Circle, Discourses Multy Reprecentacy, KUASAI, Bamboo Dance,
Articulacy, Debate, Role Playing, Talking Stick, Student Facilitator and Explaining,
Course Review Hooray, Demonstration, Explicit Instruction, Scramble, Pair Check,
Make-a Match, Mind Mapping, Examples Non Examples, Direct Instruction, Picture
and Picture, Cooperative Script, Laps-Heuristic, Improve, Circuit Learning,
Complete Sentence, Concept Sentence, Kumon, Time-Token, Take and Give, Super
item, Hybrid, Trefinger, Inductive, Deductive, Interactive, Integrative, Generative,
Science Environment Technology & Society, Thematic, Fragmented, Connected,
Nested, Sequenced, Shared, webbed, Threaded, Integrated, Immersed, Networked,
Grammer, Read, Audio-lingual, Receptive, Productive, Communicative, Mind
Mapping, Game, Nature Learning, Dol Speak, Learning Together, Deep Dialogue,
Project Based Learning, Active Learning, Reflective Learning, Active-Reflective,
Inul Dance, Concept Song, Beyond Center, and Circle Time.

5. The Steps of Cooperative Instructional Model


Arends (1998:314) states that the steps of cooperative instructional model are
following:

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Table 2.1 The steps of cooperative instructional model


Phase

Teacher Behavior

Phase 1: Present goals and set

Teacher goes over objectives for the lesson and


establishes learning set.

Phase 2: Present information

Teacher presents information to students either


verbally or with text.

Phase 3: Organize students into


learning teams

Teacher explains to students how to form learning


teams and helps groups make efficient transition.

Phase 4: Assist team work and

Teacher assists learning teams as they do their work

study
Phase 5: Test on the materials

Teacher tests knowledge of learning materials, or


groups present results of their work.

Phase 6: Provide recognition

Teacher finds ways to recognize both individual and


group effort and achievement.

6. The Definition of Time Token


Arends (1998:331) defines Time Token is a kind of cooperative instructional
model that teaches participation skills, social skills, sharing skills, communication
skills and group skills.
a.

Participation Skills
Whereas some students dominate group activity, other students may be
unwilling or unable to participate. Sometimes students who avoid group work
are shy. Often shy students are very bright, and they may work well alone or
with one other person. However, they find it difficult to participate in a
group. The rejected student may also have difficulty participating in group
activity. Additionally, there is the otherwise normal student who chooses, for
whatever reason, to work alone and refuses to participate in cooperative
group endeavors. Making sure that shy or rejected students get into groups
with students who have good social skills is one way teachers can involve
these students. Structuring task interdependence, described previously, is
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another means to decrease the probability of students wanting to work alone.

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Using planning sheets where various group tasks are listed along with the
students responsible for completing each task is a third way to teach and
ensure balanced participation among group members. Time tokens and high
talker tap out are special activities that teach participation skills.
b.

Social skills
Teachers should not assume that students have the requisite social or group
skills to work cooperatively. Students may not know how to interact with one
another, how to develop cooperative plans of action, how to coordinate the
contributions of various group members, or how to assess group progress
toward particular goals. To make cooperative learning work, teachers must
teach needed social and group skills. Social skills are those behaviors that
promote successful social relationships and enable individuals to work
effectively with others. Children can learn social skills from many different
individuals: parents, childcare providers, neighbors and teachers. Ideally,
children progress from infants who possess few social skills to adults who
have a rich repertoire of skills. However, many children and youth do not
learn the requisite social skills to live and work together before they attend
school. Skills found lacking in many children and youth include sharing
skills, participation skills and communication skills. It is important that
teachers help students master these skills.

c.

Sharing Skills
Many students have difficulty sharing time and materials. This complication
can lead to serious management problems during a cooperative learning
lesson. Being bossy toward other students, talking incessantly, or doing all
the work for the group are examples of students inabilities to share.
Domineering students are often well intentioned and do not understand the
effects of their behavior on others or on their groups work. These students
need to learn the value of sharing and how to rein in their controlling
behaviors. Two examples of lessons teachers can use to teach sharing skill
are round robin and pair checks.
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d.

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Communication Skills
It is quite common to find both younger and older students (adults also)
lacking in important communication skills. We all have difficulty describing
our own ideas and feelings so they are accurately perceived by listeners, and
we have equal difficulty in accurately hearing and interpreting what others
say to us. Cooperative learning groups can not function very effectively if the
work of the group is characterized by miscommunication. The four
communication skills (paraphrasing, describing behavior, describing feelings
and checking impressions) are important and should be taught to students to
ease communication in group settings. Often during classroom interaction,
students are not listening to one another. Instead, they sit in the whole group
with their hand in the air waiting for their turn to speak or in small groups
they may be talking or interrupting incessantly. One way to promote active
listening is during some classroom discussions (those where the main
objective is learning to listen), insist that before a student can speak, he or she
must first paraphrase what was said by the student who just finished
speaking.

e.

Group Skills
Most people have had experiences working in groups in which individual
members were nice people and had good social skills. Yet the group as a
whole did not work well. Members may have been pulling in different
directions, and consequently, work was not getting done. Just as individuals
must learn social skills to interact successfully in group or community
settings, groups as an entity must also learn group skills and processes if they
are to be effective. Before students can work effectively in cooperative
learning groups they must also learn about one another and respect one
anothers differences.

7. Setting up Time Token


Arends (1998:331) says that if the teacher has cooperative learning groups in
to user and a few are shy and never say
which a few people dominate thecommit
conversation

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anything, time-tokens can help distribute participation more equitably. Each student
is given several tokens that are worth 10 or 15 seconds of talk time. A student
monitors interaction and asks talkers to give up a token whenever they have used up
the designated time. When a student uses up all of his or her tokens, then he or she
can say nothing more. This, of course, necessitates that those still holding tokens join
the discussion.
According to Department of National Education article about Effective
Instructional Models (2006:42) the steps of using Time-Token instructional model
are:
1. Condition the class to implement the discussion (Cooperative Learning).
2. Each student is given several coupons that are worth less than 30 seconds of talk
time. The coupons given are based on the time will be used for instructional
activities.
3. Having finished talk, the students give coupons to the teacher. One coupon is for
one talk.
4. Students who have used up all their coupons, he or she can talk nothing more. The
one who is still holding coupons should talk until their coupons have been used
up.

8. Advantages and Disadvantages of Time Token


In his book entitled Learning to teach (1998), Arends states implicitly the
advantages and disadvantages of Time-token method. The advantages of Time
Token method are:
a. Encourage students to increase initiative and participation
b. Students do not dominate the conversation or completely silent.
c. Students become active in the learning activities.
d. Improve students' ability to communicate (speaking aspect).
e. Train students to express their opinion.
f. Cultivate the habit for students to listen, to share, to provide input and openness to
criticism.
commit to
user
g. Teach students to respect other people's
opinions.

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h. Teachers can encourage students to contribute to finding solutions to the problems


encountered with.
i. It does not require a lot of learning media.
Meanwhile, the disadvantages of Arends Time Token method are:
a. It can only be used for certain subjects.
b. It can not be used on a class that consists of large number of students.
c. It requires a lot of time for preparation and teaching & learning process, because
all students must speak one by one according to the number of the coupons they
have.
d. Students who are active can not dominate in the learning activities.
e. Since the formation of a heterogeneous group, so every student has different
abilities, students who have more ability will be hampered by less-capable
students. It can interfere with the climate of cooperation within the group.

D. Motivation in Language Learning


Dornyei (1994:83) states that motivation in language-learning plays a vital
role. It is motivation that produces effective second-language communicators by
planting in them the seeds of self-confidence. It also successfully creates learners
who continuously engage themselves in learning even after they complete a targeted
goal. Therefore, motivation is often defined as the psychological quality that leads
people to achieve the goal. There are two main kinds of motivation: intrinsic and
extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is internal. It occurs when people are compelled to do
something out of pleasure, importance, or desire. Extrinsic motivation occurs when
external factors compel the person to do something.
A common place that we see the need to apply motivation is in the
workplace. In the work force, we can see motivation play a key role in leadership
success. A person unable to grasp motivation and apply it will not become or stay a
leader. Another place motivation plays a key role is in education. William and
Burden (1997:111) say that motivation has the most powerful influences on learning.
Teachers can encourage the development of speaking skill and enhance motivation,
to user
on the understanding that each willcommit
contribute
to the other. A teacher that implements

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motivational techniques will see an increased participation, effort, and higher grades.
Part of the teachers job is to provide an environment that is motivationally charged.
This environment accounts for students who lack their own internal motivation. One
of the first places people begin to set goals for themselves is in school.
According to Arends (1998:76) motivation is usually defined as the processes
within individuals that stimulate behavior or arouse us to take action. It is what
makes us act the way we do. Psychologists make the distinction between two major
types of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic. When behavior is sparked internally by
ones own interest or curiosity or just for the pure enjoyment of an experience, this is
called intrinsic motivation. Lingering to watch the sun go behind the horizon on a
beautiful evening is an example of intrinsic motivation. In contrast, extrinsic
motivation kicks in when individuals are influenced to action from external or
environmental factors, such as rewards, punishments, or social pressures. Intrinsic
and extrinsic motivations are both important in classrooms.
In fact, one characteristic of a successful speaking actually, according to Ur
(1996:120) is high motivation. Learners are eager to speak because they are
interested in the topic and have something new to say about it or because they want
to contribute in achieving a task objective. The teachers therefore are challenged to
develop various teaching techniques to raise students motivation.
Motivation is related to the psychological factor in communication. Rivers
(1968:76) states that desire to communicate is included to the psychological factors
in communication. As well having something to say, the student must have the desire
to communicate the message to some persons or group of persons. Some students
may not have interest in joining speaking activity for their teacher who does not
show sympathy and their classmates are uncongenial. Others may realize that they
have limitation in the new language and do not want to ridicule them.
From the explanations above, it can be concluded that motivation is the
processes within individuals that stimulate behavior or arouse people to take action,
which has the most powerful influences in language-learning. It is often defined as
the psychological quality that leads the learners to achieve the goal, which consists of
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intrinsic motivation that comes from
insidetoand
extrinsic motivation that comes from

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outside. When behavior is sparked internally by ones own interest or curiosity or


just for the pure enjoyment of an experience, this is called intrinsic motivation. It
occurs when the learners are compelled to do something out of pleasure and/or
desire. In contrast, extrinsic motivation kicks in when individuals are influenced to
action from external or environmental factors, such as rewards and/or the need to
pass the exam.

E. Rationale
Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning and teaching. Despite
its importance, for many years, teaching speaking has been undervalued and English
language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or
memorization of dialogues. However, todays world requires that the goal of
teaching speaking should improve students communication skills, because, only in
that way, students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and
cultural rules appropriate in each communicative circumstances.
In learning of foreign language, students may think that speaking is the most
difficult language skill to be practiced since it tends to attach more importance to
correctness of every kind (pronunciation, vocabulary, complexity of grammar
structure, stressing and intonation for example). Speaking may be a problem for
students when they study English subject. Some of their obstacles in speaking are
clustering, redundancy, reduced form, performance variables, colloquial language,
and stress, rhythm, intonation and interaction. In fact, there are several problems
related to speaking class faced by both students and teacher.
Based on the writers pre research observation done in the second grade XI
IPA3 of SMA Negeri 7 Surakarta, the writer found out some problems dealing with
students low speaking skill. The problems were divided into two indicators. They
lacked of language mastery and learning situation. The first indicator came from the
students lack of language mastery, such as the students less of vocabulary mastery.
When teaching new material, the English teacher drills vocabularies to the students.
It was used to help the students in comprehend the materials. Then the students
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mispronounce words. It was showed
whentothe
English teacher asked them to come

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forward to have a conversation, they often mispronounce many words. The other
students difficulty is in understanding grammar, it was showed when the teacher
asked them to make some questions in conversations; they made some mistakes and
had difficulty in making correct grammatical sentences. The last is the students
found it very hard to speak fluently in speaking class, it was showed when the
students are confused to start speaking and they seemed to have difficulties every
time they want to express their idea.
The second indicator came from the learning situation. Mostly students
became silent and passive when the English teacher taught speaking class, because
the students were insufficiently motivated to speak. The teacher did not use method
that can encourage students to speak. Only few students who are involved
themselves in speaking process. Many learners find it difficult to follow the other
speakers during the discussion class. When the English teacher asked them to discuss
in English, most of them spoke Indonesian language even Javanese. They seemed not
encouraged to practice speaking English.
The sources of the problem dealt with teaching and learning process of
speaking. They were indicated by three kinds of perspective. They were students,
teacher and media. First, the students were not enthusiastic and not interested in
joining the speaking activities. It was showed when the English teacher asked them
to speak in front of the class; only few students had great willingness to speak up
voluntarily. Most of them were passive; they wanted to speak up only if the teacher
pointed out them to speak. They sometimes liked to chat with their friends; made a
noise and did unnecessary activities during instructional process.
Secondly, the teacher used English in whole learning process. It was showed
when the researcher did pre-observation. As a result, most of students could not
catch the point of learning process. Then the teacher made the students bored in class
because the teacher did not check the students understanding and the way to teach
English is monotonous. There were no jokes during the instructional process; it
makes the classroom situation become boring. The teacher sat and explained the
material using laptop. The teacher merely used conventional presentation during
to user and motivated the students to
instructional process. It seemed notcommit
too encouraged

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fully pay attention. The last source of problem is the media in teaching and learning
process. The teachers media to teach English was still less because the English
teacher just used one source book to teach her students.
Meanwhile speaking is regarded as a measurement to the students who
master the language. Therefore, the English teacher should find and apply the way or
instructional model that makes the speaking activity run well. Speaking activity will
be easier for the students to be performed if the teacher focuses on the goal which is
enabling students to communicate in ways that are flexible and meaningful for them.
It means that the teacher should give chances to the students to communicate
something that is in accordance with their world.
In this case, the teacher should encourage students to be able to speak up
accurately and fluently. Therefore, the teacher will make the students accustomed to
speaking. One excellent way is Time tokens cooperative instructional model that can
help distribute participation more equitably. Time-token method is also used to
improve students low speaking skill. Time-token is rich source in teaching and
learning English. In particular, time-token can be used to improve many sub skills
such social skills, sharing skills, participation skill, and communication skill as well.
Moreover, time-token is motivating. Getting motivated in learning English is
important to encourage students in speaking. It is because of time-token is fun to be
applied in teaching and learning process. Thus the speaking ability of the students
can be improved.
From those explanations above, it can be assumed that the students speaking
skill can be improved by using Time-token cooperative instructional model.

F. Hypothesis
Considering carefully the theory underlying speaking ability and Time-token,
the hypothesis can be formulated as follow: Time-token cooperative instructional
model can improve speaking skill of the eleventh grade students of SMAN 7
Surakarta in the 2012/2013 academic year.
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