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OverviewofASM

Contents
Basics

Strain
Stress
ConstitutiveRelations
Energyrelations
FailureTheories

NonLinearity
LinearityandNonlinearity
Examples
Abaqus Model

Basics
Overviewofstress,strainandothertopics

Typesofstraindeformation
Largestraindeformation
Finitestrain
Obtainedbyexactmeasuresof
changesindimensionsorangles

Smallstraindeformation
Linearizedorinfinitesimalstrain
Obtainedbylinearizingafinitestrain
measurew.r.todisplacement
gradients

ImageSource:"DeformationOfRod plain"byBbanerje Ownwork.LicensedunderCCBYSA3.0viaWikimediaCommons


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:DeformationOfRod_plain.svg#/media/File:DeformationOfRod_plain.svg
"2Dgeometricstrain"by2D_geometric_strain.png:Sanpazderivative work:Mircalla22(talk) 2D_geometric_strain.png.LicensedunderPublicDomainviaWikimediaCommons
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2D_geometric_strain.svg#/media/File:2D_geometric_strain.svg

Typesofstrain
1Dimensionalstrain
Lagrangianstrain
Eulerianstrain

;
;

Lagrangianstrainsarepreferredinsolidandstructuralmechanics
Eulerianstrainsarepreferredinfluidmechanics
Forlargestrainsdifferencebetweenthemishuge
Forstrains 1%,differencebetweenthemisinsignificant

Strain
3DStrainDisplacementequations
;

;
StrainTransformationfromanaxis

;
to

Compatibilityconditions
Needstobesatisfiedbystrainfieldinordertoensuresinglevalued
continuousdisplacements
;

Principalstrainsandaxes
Strainatpointdependsonthepointandtheorientationofcoordinate
system
Thereexiststhreeorthogonaldirectionsalongwhich isextreme
Extremevaluesofnormalstrainareprincipalstrainsandareassociated
withprincipalaxes
;

Principalstrainsandaxes
, , areknownasstraininvariants
Twoidenticalstrainstatesmusthavesamesetofstrainvariants
1 isused
Todetermine uniquely

Definitions
Referenceconfiguration
Conditionofthebodyin3D
spacebeforeloadshavebeen
applied

Deformedconfiguration
Locationandshapeofthebody
afterloadshavebeenapplied

ImageSource:"Displacementofacontinuum"byDisplacement_of_a_continuum.png:Sanpazderivative work:Nicoguaro (talk) Displacement_of_a_continuum.png.LicensedunderCCBYSA3.0viaWikimediaCommons


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Displacement_of_a_continuum.svg#/media/File:Displacement_of_a_continuum.svg

Deformationgradient
Derivativeofeachcomponentofthedeformed vectorwithrespectto
eachcomponentofthereferencevector

Lagrangianstrain
Eulerianstrain

1
1

Stress
InfinitesimalStressidealizationatapoint
Stressonanarbitraryplane
x

T ( x i xy j xz k ) T ( yx i x j yz k )
n

T ( zx i zy j z k ) T Tx i Ty j Tz k
n

n T .n

n 2

n T n

ImageSource:
"Stressinacontinuum"bySanpaz Ownwork.LicensedunderCCBYSA3.0viaWikimediaCommons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stress_in_a_continuum.svg#/media/File
Stress_in_a_continuum.svg"Cauchy tetrahedron"bySanpaz Ownwork.LicensedunderCCBYSA3.0viaWikimediaCommons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cauchy_tetrahedron.svg#/media/File:Cauchy_tetrahedron.svg

StressTransformation

ImageSourceStresstransformation3D"bySanpaz Ownwork.LicensedunderCCBYSA3.0viaWikimediaCommons
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stress_transformation_3D.svg #/media/File:Stress_transformation_3D.svg

Principalstressesandplanes
Extremevaluesofnormalstressareprincipalstressesandareassociatedwith
principalplanes
;

;I
Todetermine uniquely

;
1 isused

Typesofstress
Cauchysstress
Kirchhoffstress
FirstPiolaKirchhoffstress(PK1)
SecondPiolaKirchhoffstress(PK2)
Planestress

CauchysStress
Usedforstressanalysisofbodiesexperiencingsmalldeformations
Measureofforceactingonanelementareaindeformedconfiguration
Secondordertensor,Ninestresscomponents,Symmetrictensor
Thetensorrelatesaunitlengthdirectionvectorntostressvector
acrossanimaginarysurfaceperpendicularton
.

ImageSource:"Componentsstresstensorcartesian"bySanpaz Ownwork.LicensedunderCCBYSA3.0viaWikimediaCommons
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Components_stress_tensor_cartesian.svg#/media/File:Components_stress_tensor_cartesian.svg

Kirchhoffstress
Widelyusedinnumericalalgorithmsinmetalplasticity
(Wherethereisnochangeinvolumeduringplasticdeformation)
Forlarge(finite)deformations,Kirchhoffstresstensorisrequired
Definedastheproductof and
Where

;alsoknownasjacobian





1st PKstress
Usedtomeasurelargedeformations
Relatestheforceinthedeformedconfigurationtoanorientedarea
vectorinthereferenceconfiguration
Stressinunsymmetricalandisatwopointtensor(?)
Doublevector Capitalindicesareoftenusedtoindicatereference
coordinatesandlowercaseforpresentcoordinates
=

2ndPKstress
Usedasameasureforfinitedeformations
Definedinthereferenceconfiguration

Planestress
Amaterialissaidtobeunderplanestressif ,
,
perpendicularto planeareassumedtobezero
Oftenstressanalysisofthinplatesisconsidered
asplanestresscase
Stressandstrainatsomepointinmaterialaregivenby
0
0
0
0 ;
0
0
0
0 0

ImageSource:"Planestress"bySanpaz Ownwork.LicensedunderCCBYSA3.0viaWikimediaCommons
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plane_stress.svg#/media/File:Plane_stress.svg

Planestrain
Amaterialissaidtobeunderplanestrainif
, ,
perpendicularto planeareassumedtobezero
Oneofthedimensionsismuchlargerthantheother
twosuchasthickplate,dam
Stressandstrainofthematerialaregivenby
0
0 ;
0

ImageSource:"Planestrain"bySanpaz Ownwork.LicensedunderCCBYSA3.0viaWikimediaCommons
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plane_strain.svg#/media/File:Plane_strain.svg

0
0
0

Materials
Metals
Alloys

Polymers Madefromlongchainmolecules

Metal
Composites

Polymer

Ceramics

Thermoplastics MaybereformedwithheatEg:PVC
Thermosettingplastics Onceformed,cannotbedeformedbyheat Eg:
Epoxy
Elastomers LongchainelasticmoleculesEg:NaturalRubber

Ceramics Madebyheatingtogethermaterialssuchassilica,chalk
andclays
Composites Mixturesofmaterialswhichgiveimprovedproperties

Typesofmaterials
Linearlyelastic:MaterialsatisfiesHookeslaw
Viscoelasticity:Timedependentresistivecontributionsarelargeand
certainlydonotsatisfyHookeslawEg:Rubbersandplastics
Plasticity:Appliedforceinducesnonlineardisplacementsinthe
material
Hyperelastic:Appliedforcesinducesdisplacementsinthematerial
whichfollowsastrainenergydensityfunction

ConstitutiveRelations
In3Dthereare15variables
Sixstresses
Sixstrains
Threedisplacements

In3Dnumberofavailableequations(6+3)
Sixgeometricrelations
Threeequilibriumequations
Sixmaterialconstraints(Constitutiverelations)

ConstitutiveRelations:LinearlyelasticMaterial
Generalstressstrainrelationship 81 materialconstants
; ,

1 3

Stressandstraintensoraresymmetric 36 materialconstants
Introductionofpotentialfunction 21 materialconstants
1
2

1
2

1
2

ConstitutiveRelations:LinearlyelasticMaterial

isknownasconstitutivematrix,inverseof
isknownas
compliancematrix
Foranorthotropicmaterial(threeplanesofelasticsymmetry) 9
materialconstants
1

x C11

y C12
z C13

xy 0
yz 0

zx 0

C12
C22

C13
C23

0
0

0
0

C23
0

C33
0

0
C44

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

C55
0

x

y
0 z

0 xy
0 yz

C66 zx
0
0

ConstitutiveRelations:Linearlyelastic
Material
Forhomogenousisotropiclinearlyelasticcontinuum 2 material
constants
x
1


y

z 1

xy E 0
0
yz

zx
0

1
0

0
0
0
2(1 )

0
0

0
0

0
0

x

y
z

xy
2(1 )
0 yz

0
2(1 ) zx
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

Energyrelations
Workdonebysurfaceandbodyforcesonanelasticsolidarestoredinside
thebodyintheformofstrainenergy
Strainenergydensityisgivenby
1
2
Strainenergycanbeexpressedintermsofstressorstrain
e
;
Strainenergycanbedecomposedintotwoparts
Volumetricchange
Distortionalenergychangeinshape

FailureTheories
Usedtodeterminethesafedimensionofacomponentsubjectedto
combinedstressesduetovariousloads
Varioustheories

Maximumprincipalstraintheory(St.Venants theory)
Maximumprincipalstresstheory(Rankines theory)
Maximumstrainenergytheory(Haightheory)
Maximumdistortionenergytheory(Vonmises theory)
Maximumshearstresstheory(Treskas theory)

FailureTheories
Asareaboundedbycurveincreases
Failurestressincreases
Dimensionsofpartdecreases
Safetyandcostdecreases

Imagesource:http://www.slideshare.net/MANMEET2591/theoriesoffailure

Linearity
Idealization

MaterialinthemodelshouldcomplywithHookeslaw
Induceddisplacementsduringloadingdonotcause
Geometricproperties
Materialproperties
Stiffness Extenttowhichitresistsdeformation
inresponsetoanappliedforce

Boundaryconditionsdonotchangeduringloading
Subsetofnonlinearanalysis

Obtainbendingmoment

Obtainstresstensor

Constitutiverelations

Applyfailuretheories

Comparematerials

Thank you

Nonlinearity
Examplesandmathematicalmodel

Nonlinearity
Geometricnonlinearities Effectoflargedisplacementonoverall
geometricconfigurationofthestructure
Materialnonlinearities Materialbehaviorisnonlinear
Nonlinearelastic Strainproducedisnotproportionalstress
Elastoplastic Hasbothelasticandplasticproperties
Viscoelastic Hasviscous(resistancetogradualsheardeformation)and
elasticproperties
Viscoplastic Deformationofthematerialdependsontherateatwhich
loadsareapplied

Boundarynonlinearities Displacementdependentboundary
conditions

Nonlinearity

Materialnonlinearity

Geometricnonlinearity

ImageSource:Typesofanalysis:Linearstatic,lineardynamicandnonlinearstatic PauloB.Loureno

Boundarynonlinearity

Consequencesofnonlinearity
Principleofsuperpositioncannotbeapplied
Onlyoneloadcasecanbehandledatatime
Sequenceofapplicationofloadsisimportant(Eg:Plasticdeformations)
Structuralbehaviorcanbemarkedlynonproportionaltoappliedload
Initialstateofstressmaybeimportant

Examples???
Fishingrodexhibitsgeometricnonlinearity

Abaqus Model