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MARTIN MATOVU

BSTE 06/U/5761/PSA 206006175

BSc. In Telecommunications Eng, Department of Electrical Engineering

Faculty of Technology, Makerere University

Kampala, Uganda

resulting physical realization of a communication

system are significantly affected by the choice of a For a sinusoid, Ac cos (2π fc t + φ0 ), where Ac is

modulation scheme. At the same time, the choice the (constant) amplitude, fc is the (constant)

of a scheme depends on the physical frequency in Hz and φ0 is the initial phase angle. Let

characteristics of the channel, required levels of the sinusoid be written as Ac cos[ θ(t) ] where θ(t)=

performance and target hardware trade-offs, 2π fct + φ0 . The condition that Ac is a function of the

therefore some schemes will prove a better fit message signal m(t), gives rise to amplitude

than others. Consideration must be given to the modulation. This is a technique used majorly in

required data rate, acceptable level of latency, electronic communication, most commonly for

available bandwidth, anticipated link budget and transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. In

target hardware cost, size and current AM, a quantity called modulation depth, indicates by

consumption. The objective of this paper is to how much the modulated variable varies around its

review the key characteristics and salient features 'original' level. For AM, it relates to the variations in

of the main analog and digital modulation the carrier amplitude and is defined as:

schemes used, including consideration of the Where M and A were introduced above. So if h =

receiver and transmitter requirements.

INTRODUCTION below its unmodulated level, and for h = 1.0 it varies

by 100%.

In telecommunications, modulation is the process

of conveying a message signal, for example a digital • Double-Sideband AM (DSB-AM)[2]

bit stream or an analog audio signal, inside another Since each sideband is equal in bandwidth to that of

signal that can be physically transmitted. [1] A device the modulating signal, Amplitude modulation that

that performs modulation is a modulator and a results in two sidebands and a carrier is often called

device that performs the inverse operation of double sideband amplitude modulation (DSB-AM).

modulation is a demodulator (also detector). A Amplitude modulation is inefficient in terms of

device that can do both operations is a modem (short power usage and much of it is wasted. At least two-

for "Modulator-Demodulator"). There are basically thirds of the power is concentrated in the carrier

two methods for modulating- Analog and Digital signal, which carries no useful information; the

techniques. remaining power is split between two identical

sidebands, though only one of these is needed since

they contain identical information.

ANALOG MODULATION

modulation applied in response to the analog

information signal. The aim of analog modulation is

to transfer an analog baseband signal, for example an

audio signal over an analog pass band channel. The

common analog modulation techniques are:

Amplitude and Angle Modulation.

Figure 1: The (2-sided) spectrum of an AM signal. [2]

To increase transmitter efficiency, the carrier can be Vestigial sideband (VSB) [2]

removed from the AM signal. This produces a A vestigial sideband is a sideband that has been only

double-sideband suppressed-carrier (DSBSC) partly cut off or suppressed. Television broadcasts

signal. A suppressed-carrier amplitude modulation use this method if the video is transmitted in AM,

scheme is three times more power-efficient than due to the large bandwidth used. It may also be used

traditional DSB-AM. If the carrier is only partially in digital transmission, the Milgo 4400/48 modem

suppressed, a double-sideband reduced-carrier (circa 1967) used vestigial sideband and phase-shift

(DSBRC) signal results. DSBSC and DSBRC keying to provide 4800-bit/s transmission over a

signals need their carrier to be regenerated to be 1600 Hz channel. To conserve bandwidth, SSB

demodulated using conventional techniques. would be desirable, but the video signal has

significant low frequency content (average

• Single-Sideband AM (SSB-AM)[2] brightness) and has rectangular synchronizing

This is a type of amplitude modulation that uses pulses. The engineering compromise is vestigial

electrical power and bandwidth more efficiently. sideband modulation since the full upper sideband of

SSB was also used over long distance telephone bandwidth W2 = 4 MHz is transmitted, but only W1

lines, as part of a technique known as frequency- = 1.25 MHz of the lower sideband is transmitted,

division multiplexing (FDM). This enabled many along with a carrier. This makes the system AM at

voice channels to be sent down a single physical low modulation frequencies and SSB at high

circuit, for example in L-carrier. SSB allowed modulation frequencies. The absence of the lower

channels to be spaced just 4,000 Hz apart, while sideband components at high frequencies must be

offering a speech bandwidth of nominally 300– compensated for, and this is done by the RF and IF

3,400 Hz. Most often, the carrier is reduced or filters.

removed entirely, being referred as single sideband

suppressed carrier (SSBSC). Quadrature AM (QAM) [2]

This is both an analog and a digital modulation

scheme. It conveys two analog message signals, or

two digital bit streams, by modulating the amplitudes

of two carrier waves, using the AM analog

modulation scheme or amplitude-shift keying (ASK)

digital modulation scheme. These two waves,

usually sinusoids, are out of phase with each other

by 90° and are thus called quadrature carriers or

components — hence the name of scheme. In the

digital QAM case, a finite number of at least two

phases and at least two amplitudes are used. PSK

modulators are often designed using the QAM

principle, but are not considered as QAM since the

amplitude of the modulated carrier signal is constant.

Analog QAM

When transmitting two signals by modulating them

with QAM, the transmitted signal will be of the

form:

is the carrier frequency. At the receiver, these two

modulating signals can be demodulated using a

coherent demodulator. Such a receiver multiplies the

Figure 2: The LSB spectrum is inverted compared to the received signal separately with both a cosine and

baseband. For example, a 2 kHz baseband signal modulated sine signal to produce the received estimates of I(t)

onto a 5 MHz carrier produces an SSB frequency of 5.002 MHz

if USB is used or 4.998 MHz if LSB is used. and Q(t) respectively. Because of the orthogonality

property of the carrier signals, it is possible to detect Frequency Modulation (FM) and Phase modulation

the modulating signals independently. (PM).

In the ideal case I(t) is demodulated by multiplying

the transmitted signal with a cosine signal: • FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM)

Consider the case where fi (t) is a function of m(t) ;

that is, fi(t) = fc+ kf m(t)

or

frequency modulated signal s(t) is described in the

time domain by

modulator with the units Hz/volt. As with other

modulation indices, this quantity indicates by how

much the modulated variable varies around its

unmodulated level. It relates to the variations in the

frequency of the carrier signal:

Figure 3: Analog QAM

Like all modulation schemes, QAM conveys data by

present in the modulating signal xm(t), and is the

changing some aspect of a carrier signal, in response

Peak frequency-deviation, i.e the maximum

to a data signal. In the case of QAM, the amplitude

deviation of the instantaneous frequency from the

of two waves, 90 degrees out-of-phase with each

carrier frequency. If , the modulation is

other (in quadrature) are changed (modulated or

called narrowband FM, and its bandwidth is

keyed) to represent the data signal. Amplitude

modulating two carriers in quadrature can be approximately . If , the modulation is

equivalently viewed as both amplitude modulating called wideband FM and its bandwidth is

and phase modulating a single carrier. Phase approximately . While wideband FM uses more

modulation (analog PM) and phase-shift keying bandwidth, it can improve signal-to-noise ratio

(digital PSK) can be regarded as a special case of significantly. With a tone-modulated FM wave, if the

QAM, where the magnitude of the modulating signal modulation frequency is held constant and the

is a constant, with only the phase varying. This can modulation index is increased, the bandwidth of the

also be extended to frequency modulation (FM) and FM signal increases, but the spacing between spectra

frequency-shift keying (FSK), for these can be stays the same. A rule of thumb, Carson's rule states

regarded as a special case of phase modulation. that nearly all (~98%) of the power of a frequency-

modulated signal lies within a bandwidth of

where ,as defined above,

B. ANGLE MODULATION [3] is the peak deviation of the instantaneous frequency

from the center carrier frequency .

Consider a sinusoid, Ac cos (2π fc t + φ0 ), where Ac is

the (constant) amplitude, fc is the (constant)

frequency in Hz and φ0 is the initial phase angle. Let • PHASE MODULATION (PM)

the sinusoid be written as Ac cos[ θ(t) ] where θ(t)= For PM, θi (t ) is given by

2π fct + φ0 . When Ac is a constant but θ(t), instead of The term 2πfct is the angle of the unmodulated

being equal to 2πfc t + φ0 , is a function of m(t) . This carrier and the constant kp is the phase sensitivity of

leads to what is known as the angle modulated the modulator with the units, radians per volt. the

signal. Two important cases of angle modulation are phase modulated wave s(t) can be written as

In digital modulation, an analog carrier signal is

modulated by a digital bit stream with the aim of

PM is not very widely used for radio transmissions transfering a bit over an analog pass band channel.

because it tends to require more complex receiving These are the most fundamental digital modulation

hardware thus presenting problems in determining techniques; PSK (uses a defined number of phases),

whether, for example, the signal has changed phase FSK (uses a finite number of frequencies), ASK (uses

by +180° or -180°. a defined number of amplitudes), QAM (uses finite

number of at least two phases, and at least two

amplitudes). Now the details-

be achieved simply by defining a relative phase shift

from the carrier, usually equi-distant for each

required state. The resulting signal will, probably,

Figure 4: An example of FM, showing the modulating, or not be constant amplitude and not be very spectrally

message, signal, xm(t), superimposed on the carrier wave, xc(t) efficient due to the rapid phase discontinuities.

Phase modulation requires coherent generation and

as such if an I-Q modulation technique is employed

this filtering can be performed at baseband. PSK can

be further classified as discussed below.

I. BINARY-PSK (BPSK)[5]

Figure 5(a): An example of phase modulation, diagram shows binary (two level) phase modulation, the carrier

the modulating signal superimposed on the carrier wave [4] phase has only two states, +/- π/2. The transition

from a one to a zero, or vice versa, will result in the

modulated signal crossing the origin of the

constellation diagram resulting in 100% AM. Figure

6(a) below shows the theoretical spectra of a 1 Mbits

BPSK signal with no additional filtering.

signal. [4]

phase of the carrier signal: where Δθ is the peak

phase deviation. For a single large sinusoidal signal,

PM is similar to FM, and its bandwidth Figure 6(a): Theoretical BPSK

is approximately where fM = ωm / 2π Several techniques are employed in real systems to

and h is the modulation index defined below. This is improve the spectral efficiency. One such method is

also known as Carson's Rule for PM. to employ Raised Cosine filtering. figure 6(b) below

DIGITAL MODULATION shows the improved spectral efficiency achieved by

applying a raised cosine filter with b=0.5 to the

baseband modulating signals.

Figure 8: Constellation points for QPSK.

• π/4–QPSK

This final variant of QPSK uses two identical

Figure 6(b): Raised Cosine BPSK β=0.5 constellations which are rotated by 45° (π / 4 rads)

with respect to one another. Usually, either, the even

One potentially undesirable feature of BPSK that the or odd symbols are used to select points from one of

application of a raised cosine filter will not improve the constellations and the other symbols select points

is the 100% AM. Further hybrid versions of BPSK from the other constellation. This reduces the phase-

are used in real systems that combine constant shifts from a maximum of 180°, but only to a

amplitude modulation with phase modulation. One maximum of 135° and so the amplitude fluctuations

such example would be Constant Amplitude ‘50%’ of π / 4–QPSK are between OQPSK and non-offset

BPSK, generated with shaped I and Q vectors QPSK. One property this modulation scheme

designed to rotate the phase around the unit circle possesses is that the modulated signal does not pass

between the two constellation points. For a 010 data through the origin. This lowers the dynamical range

sequence the trajectory spends 25% of the time of fluctuations in the signal which is desirable when

travelling from one point to other, 50% of the time at engineering communications signals. On the other

the required point and 25% of the time returning. hand, π / 4–QPSK lend itself to easy demodulation

and have been adopted for use in, for example,

TDMA cellular telephone systems.

Figure 9: Constellation points for π/4-QPSK.

• Offset-QPSK (OQPSK)

As previously discussed the potential for a 180o

below.

Figure 7: Constant Amplitude ‘50%’ BPSK.

equispaced around a circle. Higher order modulation

phase shift in QPSK results in the requirement for

schemes, such as QPSK, are often used in preference

better linearity in the Power Amplifiers (PA) and the

to BPSK when improved spectral efficiency is

potential for spectral re-growth due to the 100% AM.

required. QPSK utilizes four constellation points, as

O-QPSK reduces this tendency by adding a time

shown in figure 8 below, each representing two bits

delay of one bit period (half a symbol) in the Q-arm

of data. Again as with BPSK the use of trajectory

of the modulator. The result is that the phase of the

shaping (raised cosine, root raised cosine etc) will

carrier is modulated every bit (depending on the

yield an improved spectral efficiency, although one

data), not every other bit as for QPSK, hence the

of the principle disadvantages of QPSK, like BPSK,

phase trajectory never approaches the origin. The

is the potential to cross the origin, hence generating

ability of the modulated signal to demonstrate a

100% AM.

phase shift of 180o is thus removed. The shaping of This precludes its use in this basic form from cellular

the phase trajectory between constellation points is and even cordless systems.

typically implemented with a raised cosine filter to

improve the spectral efficiency. Due to the I. BINARY-FSK (BFSK) [6]

similarities between QPSK and O-QPSK similar

signal spectra and probability of error are achieved. The simplest FSK is binary FSK (BFSK). BFSK

O-QPSK is utilized in the North American IS-95 literally implies using a pair of discrete frequencies

CDMA cellular system for the link from the mobile to transmit binary (0s and 1s) information. With this

to the base station. scheme, the "1" is called the mark frequency and the

"0" is called the space frequency. The time domain

of an FSK modulated carrier is illustrated in the

figures to the right.

Figure 11: Binary (2 level) FSK modulation. [3]

II. MINIMUM SHIFT KEYEING (MSK)[5]

Minimum Shift Keying is FSK with a modulation index

of 0.5. Therefore the carrier phase of an MSK signal will

be advanced or retarded 900 over the course of each bit

period to represent either a one or a zero. Due to this

exact phase relationship MSK can be considered as either

phase or frequency modulation. The result of this exact

phase relationship is that MSK can’t practically be

generated with a voltage controlled oscillator and a digital

Figure 10(a): OQPSK, Signal doesn't cross zero, because only waveform. Instead an I-Q modulation technique, as for

one bit of the symbol is changed at a time PSK, is usually implemented.

• Gaussian Minimum Shift Keyed (GMSK)

A variant of MSK that is employed by some cellular

systems (including GSM) is Gaussian Minimum

Shift Keying. GMSK can also be viewed as either

frequency or phase modulation. The phase of the

carrier is advanced or retarded up to 90o over the

course of a bit period depending on the data pattern,

although the rate of change of phase is limited with a

Gaussian response. The result is the dependence on

the Bandwidth Time product (BT), the achieved

phase change over the bit may fall short of 90o. This

will obviously have an impact on the BER, although

the advantage of this scheme is the improved

bandwidth efficiency. The extent of this shaping can

clearly be seen from the 'eye' diagrams in figures

below for BT=0.3, BT=0.5 and BT=1.

Figure 10(b): Difference of the phase between QPSK and

OQPSK

Figure 12: Eye Diagrams for GMSK with BT=0.3 (up), BT=0.5

B. FREQUENCY MODULATION (FSK) (centre) and BT=1 (down).

A frequency modulation scheme in which digital III. AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING (ASK) [6]

information is transmitted through discrete frequency

changes of a carrier wave. FSK has the advantage of It is a form of modulation that represents digital data

being very simple to generate, simple to demodulate as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. Like

and due to the constant amplitude can utilize a non- AM, ASK is also linear and sensitive to atmospheric

linear PA. Significant disadvantages, however, are noise, distortions, propagation conditions on

the poor spectral efficiency and BER performance. different routes in PSTN, etc. Both ASK modulation

and demodulation processes are relatively

inexpensive. The ASK technique is also commonly

used to transmit digital data over optical fiber. For

LED transmitters, binary 1 is represented by a short

pulse of light and binary 0 by the absence of light.

• Binary-ASK (B-ASK) [7]

A binary amplitude-shift keying (BASK) signal can

be defined by equation (1)…......s(t) = A m(t)

cos(2πfct), 0 < t < T where A is a constant,

m(t) = 1 or 0, fc is the carrier frequency, and T is the

bit duration. It has a power

P = A2/2, so that A = √2P. Thus equation (1) can be

duration. If we take Φ1(t) = √2/T (cos(2pfc t))as the

orthonormal basis function, the applicable signal

space or constellation diagram of the BASK signals

An M-ary amplitude-shift keying (M-ASK) signal

can be defined by equation (2) below,

M > 4. Here, A is a constant; fc is the carrier

frequency, and T is the symbol duration. The signal

has a power , so that , Thus

equation (2) can be written as

symbol duration for i = 0, 1, ..., M - 1.

CONCLUSION

been analyzed with focus on their behavior,

advantages, and disadvantages with a follow up on

where they find suitable application. The objective

of this academic paper therefore has been achieved.

REFERENCES

1. http://www.wikipedia.com/ modulation

2. http://www.wikipedia.com/ Single-sideband_modulation.htm

3. Indian institute of Technology, Mandras- Principles of

Communication by Prof. V. Venkata Rao

4. http://www.wikipedia.com/Phase_modulation.htm

5. Introduction to Digital modulation schemes by Geoff Smithson

6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amplitude-shift_keying

7. http://www.elec.mq.edu.au/~cl/files_pdf/elec321/lect_mask.pdf

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