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CE326:Transportation

Planning
NonMotorizedTransportation

Urban/SuburbanDevelopment
Oldercities originallydevelopedfornonautomodes;
infrastructureupdatedforvehicletraffic

Newercities planningandzoningregulationsfavored
lowdensity,automobileorienteddevelopment

RegionalVariationsinModeChoice

Values in table are the % of trips by mode indicated.

Source: Pucher, J., and J.L. Renne, Socioeconomics of Urban Travel:


Evidence from the 2001 NHTS, Transportation Quarterly, vol. 57, no. 3, summer 2003.

RecentPolicyShift
ISTEA(1991)alloweduseofHTFallocationsfor
bike/pedestrianprojects

FHWAdesignguidance(2000)calledfortheroutine
inclusionofprovisionsforbicyclistsandpedestrianson
allfederallyfundedsurfacetransportationprojects

CompleteStreetspoliciesadoptedatcityandstatelevel

PlanningTrends

Dense/mixedcommercialandresidentialdesign
Networkconnectivity
Roadwaydesignthatfavorslowerspeeds
CompleteStreets
SafeRoutestoSchools/SafeRoutesforSeniorsprograms

BenefitsofWalkingandCycling

Environment

Zerofuelconsumption
Limitednoise

Health

Zeroemissions

Physicalactivity=bettercardiohealth,lessobesity
Improvedairquality=respiratoryimprovement

Accessibilitytobusinesses

BicycleCommuting

http://www.bikeleague.org/news/acs2010.php

FactorsInfluencingWalking/Biking
Decisions

Distance/time
Attitude/culture
Tripanddestinationbarriers
Multimodalconnectivity
Safety(realorperceived)

2001NationalHouseholdTransportation
SurveyData
Transit, 1.5%
School bus, 1.5%

Morethanhalfoftrips<3miles

Other, 1.7%
Walk, 8.6%

Personal vehicle,
multiple occupant,
48.9%
Personal vehicle,
single occupant,
37.6%

City
State Population
UnitedStates
309,349,689
LargestCitiesbyPopulation
NewYorkCity
NY
8,184,899
LosAngeles
CA
3,797,144
Chicago
IL
2,698,831
Houston
TX
2,107,208
Philadelphia
PA
1,528,306
Phoenix
AZ
1,449,481
SanAntonio
TX
1,334,359
SanDiego
CA
1,311,886
Dallas
TX
1,202,797
SanJose
CA
949,197
TopCitiesbyCommuterShare
Davis
CA
65,740
Boulder
CO
97,585
Eugene
OR
156,299
Berkeley
CA
112,824
Cambridge
MA
105,337
SantaBarbara
CA
88,579
Portland
OR
585,429
Madison
WI
233,777
Gainesville
FL
124,433
IowaCity
IA
68,027

PercentCommuters
0.53%

PercentFemale
26%

0.80%
0.90%
1.30%
0.50%
1.80%
0.60%
0.20%
1.00%
0.20%
0.60%

21%
22%
28%
19%
42%
10%
23%
31%
8%
16%

22.10%
9.90%
8.30%
8.00%
6.80%
6.40%
6.00%
6.00%
6.00%
5.60%

40%
29%
33%
26%
29%
29%
35%
37%
44%
28%

CyclinginNewYorkCity

2006 2009:installedmorethan200lanemiles
By2030:planstoinstall1,800lanemiles
AccordingtoNYCDOTcounts,between2003and2009,
bicyclecommutingincreasedby154%

TripBarriers

SafetyConcerns

PedestrianFriendlyInfrastructure

http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/201205_safeseniors_washington
heights_cb12.pdf

Sharrows

StandardLane

ProtectedLane

CycleTrack

IntersectionTreatments(BikeBox)

DestinationBarriers

MultimodalConnectivity

BikeShare

BicyclePerformanceMeasurement
Limiteddatapreviouslyavailable
Recently,GPSapplicationshaveallowed
betterdatacollection

CycleTracks App

DevelopedbySanFranciscoCounty
TransportationAuthority

Implementedinmanycities
Providesdatatoplanningagency
Providesusefultoolforuser

http://www.sfcta.org/modelingandtravelforecasting/cycletracks
iphoneandandroid

BicycleSafetyMeasurement
Accidentsdifficulttomeasure
(oftenunreported)

Particularlybikepedestrian
accidents

Othertypesofconflicts

Laneobstructions
Dooring

References
PartiallyadaptedfromFHWAUniversityCourseon
BicycleandPedestrianTransportation PublicationNo.
FHWAHRT05088

NYCStreetDesignManual,2nd Edition(NYCDOT,2013)
NACTOUrbanBikewayDesignGuide