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SEMICONDUCTOR

CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS & HOLE AND EFFECTIVE MASS

THEORY

CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS:

The solids have a characteristics of electrical conductivity on which they are


classified as CONDUCTORS, SEMICONDUCTORS, INSULATORS.

BAND STRUCTURE IN SLOID

SEMICONDUCTOR

CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS & HOLE AND EFFECTIVE MASS

THEORY

INSULATORS:

Valence band is full to its maximum capacity and the


conduction band is completely empty.

The width for the for-bidden gap is large


(of sevral ev).

At the room temperature the thermal energy or low


electric filed cannot promote enough number of electrons
into the conduction band and electrical conduction in
such solids is insignificant.

Example Diamond
(Eg = 5.47 eV at room temperature)

SEMICONDUCTOR:

Valence band is full and conduction band has few electrons.

SEMICONDUCTOR

CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS & HOLE AND EFFECTIVE MASS

The width of for-bidden gap is small (i.e Eg

THEORY

1ev).

In semiconductors the thermal energy can promote sufficient


number of electrons from valence band. And these free
electrons can moved or accelerate about under the influence
of small applied filed and cause current flow.

(Example: 1. Si Eg = 1.12 eV
2. Ge Eg = 0.72 eV)

CONDUCTORS:

Valence band is usually filled and conduction band is usually


empty are overlapping.

The amount of current which flows in a conductor is simply a


flow of electrons.

SEMICONDUCTOR

CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS & HOLE AND EFFECTIVE MASS

THEORY

There is large number of electrons available with the supply


of negligible amount of the supply of energy.

Hence, the solids have the highest value of conductivity and


as a result they called as conductors.

Example Lithium, Berellium.

CONCEPT OF HOLES:

In a completely filled energy band there is no flow of


electron. But if some number of electrons from the filled
band gets excited into higher band, the remaining
electrons in it can contribute to the current.
The properties of a vacant state in almost full band are
exactly those of particles with a positive chare in an
otherwise empty band. This quasi-particle is known as
hole.
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SEMICONDUCTOR

CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS & HOLE AND EFFECTIVE MASS

THEORY

The hole have a positive charge, it will moves in a direction


opposite to that in which an electron moves in the influence
of an external filed when applied on it.

The motion or movement of electrons in the valence band


may be considered as to be equivalent to the motion of the
holes in the opposite directions.

Therefore, in a semiconductor the electric currents consist


of two components one due the motion of electrons in the
conduction band and the other due to holes in the valence
band.

To assign a mass to a particle we need to detailed approach


to it.
And this mass was arrived from the band theory of solids.
The motion of electron in the solid is subjected to the
electric flied and it is give buy the

SEMICONDUCTOR

CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS & HOLE AND EFFECTIVE MASS

THEORY

Formula.

= me * a

The mass (me ) which is used in the equation is mass other


than rest mass.

The mass is called as the effective mass and it is denoted by


me.

In case to remove the negative mass in band theory.


Electron was withdrawn from the band theory of solids and
it was replaced by a particle of positive effective mass.

SEMICOUNDCTOR

CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS & HOLES AND EFFECTIVE MASS

THEORY