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# SEMICONDUCTOR

## CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS & HOLE AND EFFECTIVE MASS

THEORY

CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS:

## The solids have a characteristics of electrical conductivity on which they are

classified as CONDUCTORS, SEMICONDUCTORS, INSULATORS.

SEMICONDUCTOR

THEORY

INSULATORS:

## Valence band is full to its maximum capacity and the

conduction band is completely empty.

(of sevral ev).

## At the room temperature the thermal energy or low

electric filed cannot promote enough number of electrons
into the conduction band and electrical conduction in
such solids is insignificant.

Example Diamond
(Eg = 5.47 eV at room temperature)

SEMICONDUCTOR:

SEMICONDUCTOR

THEORY

1ev).

## In semiconductors the thermal energy can promote sufficient

number of electrons from valence band. And these free
electrons can moved or accelerate about under the influence
of small applied filed and cause current flow.

(Example: 1. Si Eg = 1.12 eV
2. Ge Eg = 0.72 eV)

CONDUCTORS:

## Valence band is usually filled and conduction band is usually

empty are overlapping.

## The amount of current which flows in a conductor is simply a

flow of electrons.

SEMICONDUCTOR

THEORY

## There is large number of electrons available with the supply

of negligible amount of the supply of energy.

## Hence, the solids have the highest value of conductivity and

as a result they called as conductors.

## Example Lithium, Berellium.

CONCEPT OF HOLES:

## In a completely filled energy band there is no flow of

electron. But if some number of electrons from the filled
band gets excited into higher band, the remaining
electrons in it can contribute to the current.
The properties of a vacant state in almost full band are
exactly those of particles with a positive chare in an
otherwise empty band. This quasi-particle is known as
hole.
4

SEMICONDUCTOR

THEORY

## The hole have a positive charge, it will moves in a direction

opposite to that in which an electron moves in the influence
of an external filed when applied on it.

## The motion or movement of electrons in the valence band

may be considered as to be equivalent to the motion of the
holes in the opposite directions.

## Therefore, in a semiconductor the electric currents consist

of two components one due the motion of electrons in the
conduction band and the other due to holes in the valence
band.

## To assign a mass to a particle we need to detailed approach

to it.
And this mass was arrived from the band theory of solids.
The motion of electron in the solid is subjected to the
electric flied and it is give buy the

SEMICONDUCTOR

THEORY

Formula.

= me * a

than rest mass.

me.

## In case to remove the negative mass in band theory.

Electron was withdrawn from the band theory of solids and
it was replaced by a particle of positive effective mass.

SEMICOUNDCTOR

THEORY