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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
Language is a tool of communication that is done by one person to the other
person in their social life. By language we can talk to our friends, express our ideas,
emotion or feelings and belief that is suited with the communication takes places.
Every day in our life we use language which can be delivered by sound, gesture,
written symbol, or marks having understood meanings,
Sapir (1921:8) says that language is purely human and not instinctive method
of communication ideas, emotion and desires by means of a system of voluntarily
produced symbols. These symbols are in the first sentence, auditory and they are
produced by the so-called organ speech. From the definition above, it is true that
language is from human and it is acquired through learning. Implementation in from
sound, that produced by human organ of speech in sentence realities. In everyday life
we use language to communicate with other. Speakers and their addresses make a
number of assumption about how language can be used and what inferences are
licences under particular circumstances. Speakers tend to take for granted that in
communicating they are conveying their intentions to their addreses and the addreses
take for granted that they are in business of trying to discern what the speakerss
intentions are. All these take a lot of skills. But inferring the speakers intentions is
central to communicate.

Therefore, language plays a critical role in childrens acquisition of meaning


(Selinker, 2008:1). At first sight, the meaning of the term second language acquisition
of meaning seems transparent but in fact it requires carefully explanation. In this
context, that second can refer to any language that is learned subsequent to mother
tongue (Ellis 1997:3). The second language here means English. So, the language can
be spoken or written even in classroom activities.
Speaking is a key for communication. By considering what good speakers do,
what speaking tasks can be used in class, and what specific needs learners report,
teachers can help learners improve their speaking and overall oral competency. Many
kinds of speaking that can be done on the classroom such as dialogue, conversation,
retelling, interview, debate and making speech. All of that are used to test the
students capability in speaking.
According to Kline (1989:2) in his book speaking effectively, there are
three types of speaking. They are briefing, teaching lecture, and speech. Besides,
speaking deals with time, space, cause/effect, problem/solution, pro/con, topical and
combining pattern.
In this case, the writer wants to focus on speech. According to the department
of Labor (Fletcher:1985:1), speech is essential for about 8 out of 10 jobs. Off the
job, speech is even more important. Speech can be done in many situations. By
speech, the speaker can communicate with other people at one time. The speaker can
convey his ideas, facts and feelings to other people. So, speech is one of the important
things to be used in communication.

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Speech is the vocalized form of human communication and a learned skill. It
means that people should know about the set of vowel and consonant speech units
differ (Wong and Gordon: 1958). They should be able to create the existence of many
thousands of different types of mutually unintelligible human languages. Besides, the
speaker can deliver the speech well to the different people by using the good topic
and vocabulary.
According to James (1998:130), most students do some spoken errors in
delivering their speech. They are mispronunciation errors, text errors and discourse
errors. From that, we can conclude that most people that practice speech will face
some errors in spoken language. It shows that errors cannot be separated from human
being. Besides, errors will not be realized by speaker when he practices speech. So,
errors can make the different understanding between speaker and listeners.
Nowadays, most of the people make mistake or errors when they are
delivering the speech. It is same with the students in the classroom when they are
having speaking class and when they are delivering the speech. It can occur because
of nervous, the student do not have preparation, and they have low capability in
speaking, tired, anxious or intoxicated. Because of that, the students usually make
errors in spoken language.
According to the writers experience, most of the students do not know how to
speak well because of many factors. The first factor is they do not have many
vocabularies. Vocabularies are the most important thing in speaking. If the students
do not cover many vocabularies, it means that they cannot speak well. Besides, they

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will be very difficult to express their opinion or ideas about something. Thats the
reason why the students usually make errors when they practice speech.
The second factor is they are nervous when they are talking with other. Some
student will not be able to express their opinion when they are talking in front of
many people. It will influence their opinion or statement when they are talking in
front of many people. It will influence their performance and their ability when they
are nervous. Besides, the students will forget the topic that he wants to speech when
they are in front. So, the second factor that can make error in students performance is
nervous.
The third factor that make the students do not know how to speak well is
about structure. Most of the students do not know about the structure in English. The
students will be very difficult to use the tenses in their sentence. I addition to that, the
student do not know when they will use a word properly. Thus, that factor can
influence the students ability in speaking.
Because of the factors above, most of the students are lazy to study English.
Some of the students do not know what to say and even they are not able to speak.
Most of the students think that speaking is very difficult because they are afraid if
they make any wrongness in speaking. The students will think that it is very bored
and difficult work to do. Because of this reason, the students will have some errors
when the teacher asks them to speak English and even when they are asked to make
speech.

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According to the writers experience in her teaching practice (PPL), most of
the students make errors in practicing speech. The students are better in writing than
in speaking. The writer had ever tested them in writing to write an argumentative text
and fortunately they could do it. Almost all the students were true in using the tenses
used. But when the writer asked them to make a speech to be performed in front,
most of them were not able. They were afraid when they were in front. So, their
achievement is not suitable with hope. The students got under the target score that is
not more than 70.
In practicing the speech, the students made many errors. The first is they
forget the content of the topic. Besides, most of the students do not have self
confident. In addition to that, they do not know how to practice their speech properly.
And even most of them were still wrong in using the grammar. Most of the using of
grammar is wrong. Because of those reasons, the students usually make errors or
mistakes when they talk in front of the class.
In this research, the writer wants to know the errors that the students make in
practicing the speech. The writer wants to know whether the students of eleventh
grade have many errors when they are asked to practice the speech. The writer wants
to focus on eleventh grade of SMA Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar because she had
experience that most of the students could not speak properly. And as we know that
nowadays speech is usually performed in many competitions. So, the students are
needed to know how to make a speech and the way to perform it.

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Nowadays, some school has made English as their daily communication. It
shows that the students should understand about English. English is not only daily
communication, but even many organizations making the competition in English. The
students are asked to follow the completion such as speech, poetry, debate, and etc. it
can be the fact that English is really important in all areas in this world.
In this research the writer also focuses to analyze the spoken errors made by
the students of eleventh grade in SMA Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar. Most of the
students are still lack in delivering their speech. The writer got more detail data that
can be used by the teacher to minimize the students errors in practicing speech. The
difficulties are made by the students are usual in pronunciation, stress and intonation.
Beside that the teacher must improve the students speaking skill, especially in
practicing the speech.
Therefore, the writer is interested to know the spoken errors made by the
students of eleventh grade in SMA Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar because the writer
wants to improve and develop students to be better. The writer has an experience
when she was taking teaching practice (PPL) in SMA Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar. The
writer finds that most of the students are very difficult to speak because of many
reasons. When the writer asks the students to perform their task in front of the class,
they will ask much time to memorize it.
Beside of the writers experience in practice teaching in that school, the writer
also had experience when she was senior high school. The students will be very
difficult to speak because they do not know how to speak and they do not have many

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vocabularies. Besides, the students will feel tremble and do not have self confidence
in taking in front of many people. So, every class performing, the teacher will directly
continue the next lesson if the students do not want to perform it.
Because of the reasons above, the writer is very interested in doing this
research. The writer wants to know whether the students in SMA Negeri 2
Pematangsiantar nowadays still do the same thing with the writers experience. The
writer will try to find the real errors why most of the students have the same problem.
So, the writer will try to find the way to develop the students knowledge in speaking
skill especially in practicing the speech.

1.2 The Problem of Research


Based on the background stated above, the writer formulates the problem of
the research are:
1. What are the discourse errors made by the students in witten speech at the
eleventh grade of SMA Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar?
2. What are the methods or techniques to overcome the discourse errors made by
the students in written speech at the eleventh grade of SMA Negeri 2
Pematangsiantar?

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1.3 The Purpose of Research
Based on the problem stated above, the purpose of this research is to find out:
1. The discourse errors made by the students in written speech at the eleventh
grade of SMA Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar.
2. The methods or techniques to overcome the discourse errors made by the
students in speech at the eleventh grade of SMA Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar.
1.4 The Scope of Research
The writer only focuses on discourse errors made by the students of the
eleventh grade in SMA Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar especially in written speech
because as the researchers experience in teaching, the students make many errors in
speaking especially in writing the speech. The errors that the writer analyzes in
studentss speech is discourse errors. In addition to that, the writer limits her research
only on manuscript speech and just takes 10 speeches as the data.

1.5 The significance of Research


By writing this research, the writer hopes that this research is useful for the
writer herself, the English teachers, the English learners and other researchers as
information (Feedback) in ordering to speak well especially in practicing their
speech, and it can be the reference for the next researchers to continue this research.

1.6 Theoretical Framework

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In her research, the writer uses some theories to analyze the data. They are
James (1998), Corder (1981), Richards (1974), Brown (2007) and Fletcher (1985). In
field research, the writer takes and collects the data from the students when they
practice the speech based on the topic given then she selects, classifies and analyzes
the data.

1.7 Key Terms


The writer tries to define some terms in order to avoid the ambiguity in
meaning, they are:
1. Analysis is the study of something by examining its parts and their relationship;
a statement of the result.
2. Error is systematic and consistent deviations from the accepted system of the
target language and the learners are not aware of these because they do not know
how to use the system correctly or they make their own idiosyncratic system.
3. Error Analysis in this study is the study of errors made by the students in speech
at the eleventh grade of SMA Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar.
4. Speaking is a key for communication.
5. Students are the group of person who are learning about speech and the subjects
that deliver their speech in front of their friends.
6. Speech is the written out word and delivered by reading the script to the
audience.
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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The literature review is a critical look at the existing research that is
significant to the work that we are carrying out. Obviously, at this point we are not
likely to have read everything related to our research questions, but we should still be
able to identify the key texts with which we will be in conversation as we write the
dissertation. Literature reviews often include both the theoretical approaches to our
topic and research (empirical or analytical) on the topic.

2.1 Speaking skill


It is needed to understand obviously that speaking is a skill which is different
from other skill such as writing, reading, and listening. One of the reasons that make
speaking is a different skill from other skill because it is a productive language skill
in spoken. It is a skill of a speaker to communicate information to a listener or a
group of listener. His skill is realized by his ability to apply the rules of the language
he is speaking to transfer the information he has in his mind to his listener effectively.
The ability he has included all the correct grammatical aspects of the language is
speaking, the types of the information, and the rhetoric he is conducting in a
communicative event (Siahaan, 2010:2).
Besides, spoken language is very different from written language. One of the
differences is that people apparently do not follow rigid syntactic and morphological
constraints in their utterances. This lack of written language formality in spontaneous
spoken language makes linguistic analysis by machine both more difficult than, and
different from, analysis of written language. The corresponding, added difficulties

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involved in the generation of spoken language are less pronounced, if only because
human interlocutors are much more capable of decoding the machines spoken
messages. The language layer includes two types of elements: user (input) utterances
and system (output) utterances.
So, based on the explanation above we can conclude that speaking is an
interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving and
processing. The form and meaning depend on the context in which it occurs,
including the participants themselves, their collective experiences, the physical
environment, and the purposes for speaking. It is often spontaneous, open-ended, and
evolving.

2.1.1 Types of Speaking


According to Kline (1989:2), there are several types of speaking common in
the air force. Although most of the same general principles and techniques apply to all
types, there are some differences. They are briefing, teaching lecture, speech.

2.1.1.1 Briefing
According to Kline (1989:2), the best military briefing is concise and factual.
Their major purpose is to inform or tell about a mission, operation, or concept. At
time they also direct enable listeners to perform a procedure or carry out instructions.
At other times they advocate or persuade to support a certain solution and lead
listeners to accept that solution. Every good briefing has a virtue of accuracy, brevity

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and clarity. Accuracy and clarity characterize all good speaking, but brevity
distinguishes the briefing from other types of speaking. By definition, a briefing is a
brief, concise, and direct.
2.1.1.2 Teaching Lecture
Much speaking in the Air Force is directed toward teaching. The lecture is the
method of instruction most often used. As the name implies, the primary purpose of a
teaching lecture is to teach or to inform students about a given subject. For
convenience, teaching lectures can be divided into the following types: (1) formal
lectures, where the communication is generally one sided with no verbal participation
by the students, and (2) informal lectures, usually presented to smaller audiences and
allowing for verbal interaction between the instructor and students (Kline, 1989:2)
2.1.1.3 Speech
A speech generally has one of three basic purposes: to inform, to persuade, or
to entertain. The informative speech is a narration concerning a specific topic but
does not involve a sustained effort to teach. Speeches to civic clubs, orientation talks,
and presentation at commanders calls are example of speeches to inform. The
persuasive speech is designed to move an audience to believe or action on some topic,
product or other matter. Recruiting speeches to high school graduating classes, budget
defenses, and court martial summations are all primarily speeches to persuade. The
entertaining speech is gives enjoyment to the audience. The speaker often relies on

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humor and vivid language as a primary means of entertaining the listeners. A speech
at a dining out may be a speech to entertain.

2.2 Speech
According to Horton (2005:1), a good speech can move the audience where a
speaker wants it to go. Style is not important nor the length nor the parts of the
speech, but the results. In oxford university dictionary, speech is the expression of the
ability to express thoughts and feelings by articulate sounds, a persons style of
speaking, a formal address or discourse delivered to an audience or a sequence of
lines written for one character in a play.
According to Random House Websters college dictionary, speech is the
faculty or power of speaking, ability to express ones thought and emotions by speech
sounds, the act of speaking, something that is spoken (an utterance), a form of
communication in spoken language, made by a speaker before an audience.
According to Sapir (1921:4), speech is a human activity that varies without
assignable limit as we pass from social group to social group, because it is purely
historical heritage of the group, the product of long-continued social usage. It varies
as all creative effort varies not as consciously, perhaps but none the less as truly as do
the religion, beliefs, customs, and the arts of different people. Speech is a noninstinctive acquired, cultural function.
Based on the explanation above, we can conclude that speech is one of the
lessons that can be spoken. It is one of the way to express the idea, opinion, feeling

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and though to other people in many ways. Speech is the expression of an idea,
though, feeling, and opinion in circumstances where it is likely that the message
would be understood. And even, speech can give something development of things to
other people. So, by delivering the speech we can persuade other to do or agree on
our opinion, idea, and thought.
2.2.1 Types of Speech
According to Fletcher (1985:35-38) there are four types of speeches. They are
classified on the basis of the situation in which they are given, the style or mode of
delivery, and the preparation required. The four types of speeches are:
2.2.1.1 Impromptu Speech
Fletcher (1985:36) says that you are an impromptu speech when you are
called on to speak on the spur of the moment, when you did not know ahead of time
that youd be asked to talk.
For example:
(1) You are at a meeting of your colleges student government as they consider
sending a representative to a national conference on political action. In this case,
the speaker pointed will present about the political action.
(2) You recently attended a local seminar on the same subject. The chairman might
well ask you to say a few words about your ideas on the value o such seminars.
From the two examples above, we can conclude that impromptu speech is
delivered when the speaker does not know that he/she will be asked. Since you did

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not know before the meeting that youd be asked to speak, youd have to give an
impromptu speech. The topic of the speech should be based on the chairman offered.
But does not mean youd speak without preparation. Your preparation for an
impromptu speech comes mainly from your existing knowledge, experience, feeling
and opinion. In our example, just by attending the seminar you probably developed
some opinions about the value of political action, and so youd of course base your
remarks on those views.
There are two advantages of the impromptu speech. The main advantage is
that by giving an impromptu speech, you can present your ideas, make an appeal or
disseminate information at a time when it may be most appropriate or most needed by
your listeners. Consequently, what you say may have greater value and impact.
Another advantage is that a good impromptu speech can often raise your stock,
improve your imagine in the mind of your audiences.
But there are two important disadvantages to the impromptu speech. First, it is
easy to do poorly. When asked to talk on the spur of the moment, many speakers feel
they must get up and speak even though they have nothing to say. So they often
ramble, wander, and hem and haw, wasting their time and the audiences. The second
disadvantage is that many of us worry about having to give an impromptu speech. We
realize the situation may not come up often, but we are still concerned we might not
do a good job if called on.
2.2.1.2 Extemporaneous Speech

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An extemporaneous speech is given when you have had an opportunity to
prepare. You deliver this speech either by referring occasionally to brief notes or by
recalling from memory the points, ideas and specifics but you do not write your
speech out or memorize.
This is type of speech appropriate for most speaking situations. It is the type
of delivery most speakers use most frequently. This the speech you usually hear as the
typical college lecture, presentation by visiting authorities, reports to governmental
agencies, informational speeches to civic organizations and clubs, talks about trip, a
study, a hobby, an event, fund raising and informal campaign speeches. In brief, most
of the speeches you hear are extemporaneous speech (Fletcher, 1985:36).
The example of extemporaneous speech:
(3) Good morning everybody
Now, Im going to deliver my speech about my hobby. When I was a child, I
had a hobby to play a guitar. When I asked my mother to buy a guitar, at first she was
angry but fortunately she bought it. I was very happy and said thanks to my mom.
Everyday, I played guitar and my sister would sing with me. We were very happy
because we both sang together. My mother was happy too to see us. So, because of
that hobby, I can be like this. Many people want to hear my voice and see me to play
guitar. I think thats all my speech about my hobby. Thanks for your attention.
It is the example of an extemporaneous speech because it recalls from the
memory the points, ideas, and specifics. In this case, the speech will not be
memorized or written because it has been set in the memory that had happened. It is
the writers memory about her hobby. So, it is a simple speech that happened in the
past.

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2.2.1.3 Manuscript Speech
Fletcher (1985:37) says that a manuscript speech is presented when very exact
wording is required, such as presenting policies, contracts, and scientific reports. The
speech is written out word for word and delivered by reading the script to the
audience.
Preparation for the manuscript speech follows the same four steps process
used for the extemporaneous speech. They are to establish purpose, gather data,
organize, and practice. It then involves a fifth step writing the full script.
Example of manuscript speech:
(4) President Barack Obamas speech
The President: Hello everyone hows everybody doing today? Im here with
students at Wakefield High School in Arlington, Virginia. And weve got students
tuning in from all across America, kindergarten through twelfth grade. Im glad you
all could join us today.
I know that for many of you, today is the first day of school. And for those of
you in kindergarten, or starting middle or high school, its your first day in a new
school, so its understandable if youre a little nervous. I imagine there are some
seniors out there who are feeling pretty good right now, with just one more years to
go. And no matter what grade youre in, some of you are probably wishing it were
still summer and you couldve stayed in bed just a little longer this morning. I know
that feeling. When I was young, my family lived in Indonesia for a few years, and my
mother didnt have the money to send me where all the American kids went to school.
So she decided to teach me extra lessons herself, Monday through Friday at 4:30 in
the morning.
Now Ive given a lot of speeches about education. And Ive talked a lot about
responsibility. Ive talked about your teachers responsibility for inspiring you, and
pushing you to learn. Ive talked about your parents responsibility for making sure
you stay on track, and get your homework done, and dont spend every waking hour
in front of the TV or with that Xbox. Ive talked a lot about your governments
responsibility for setting high standards, supporting teachers and principals, and
turning around schools that arent working where students arent getting the
opportunities they deserve.

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But at the end of the day, we can have the most dedicated teachers, the most
supportive parents, and the best schools in the world and none of it will matter
unless all of you fulfill your responsibilities. Unless you show up to those schools;
pay attention to those teachers; listen to your parents, grandparents and other adults;
and put in the hard work it takes to succeed. And thats what I want to focus on today:
the responsibility each of you has for your education. I want to start with the
responsibility you have to yourself. Every single one of you has something youre
good at. Every single one of you has something to offer. And you have a
responsibility to yourself to discover what that is. Thats the opportunity an education
can provide.
And no matter what you want to do with your life I guarantee that youll
need an education to do it. You want to be a doctor, or a teacher, or a police officer?
You want to be a nurse or an architect, a lawyer or a member of our military? Youre
going to need a good education for every single one of those careers. You cant drop
out of school and just drop into a good job. Youve got to work for it and train for it
and learn for it. And this isnt just important for your own life and your own future.
What you make of your education will decide nothing less than the future of this
country. What youre learning in school today will determine whether we as a nation
can meet our greatest challenges in the future.
Youll need the knowledge and problem-solving skills you learn in science
and math to cure diseases like cancer and AIDS, and to develop new energy
technologies and protect our environment. Youll need the insights and critical
thinking skills you gain in history and social studies to fight poverty and
homelessness, crime and discrimination, and make our nation more fair and more
free. Youll need the creativity and ingenuity you develop in all your classes to build
new companies that will create new jobs and boost our economy.
We need every single one of you to develop your talents, skills and intellect so
you can help solve our most difficult problems. If you dont do that if you quit on
school youre not just quitting on yourself, youre quitting on your country. Now I
know its not always easy to do well in school. I know a lot of you have challenges in
your lives right now that can make it hard to focus on your schoolwork. I get it. I
know what thats like. My father left my family when I was two years old, and I was
raised by a single mother who struggled at times to pay the bills and wasnt always
able to give us things the other kids had. There were times when I missed having a
father in my life. There were times when I was lonely and felt like I didnt fit in.
So I wasnt always as focused as I should have been. I did some things Im
not proud of, and got in more trouble than I should have. And my life could have
easily taken a turn for the worse. But I was fortunate. I got a lot of second chances
and had the opportunity to go to college, and law school, and follow my dreams. My
wife, our First Lady Michelle Obama, has a similar story. Neither of her parents had
gone to college, and they didnt have much. But they worked hard, and she worked
hard, so that she could go to the best schools in this country.

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Some of you might not have those advantages. Maybe you dont have adults
in your life who give you the support that you need. Maybe someone in your family
has lost their job, and theres not enough money to go around. Maybe you live in a
neighborhood where you dont feel safe, or have friends who are pressuring you to do
things you know arent right.
Thats why today, Im calling on each of you to set your own goals for your
education and to do everything you can to meet them. Your goal can be something
as simple as doing all your homework, paying attention in class, or spending time
each day reading a book. Maybe youll decide to get involved in an extracurricular
activity, or volunteer in your community. Maybe youll decide to stand up for kids
who are being teased or bullied because of who they are or how they look, because
you believe, like I do, that all kids deserve a safe environment to study and learn.
Maybe youll decide to take better care of yourself so you can be more ready to learn.
And along those lines, I hope youll all wash your hands a lot, and stay home from
school when you dont feel well, so we can keep people from getting the flu this fall
and winter.
Whatever you resolve to do, I want you to commit to it. I want you to really
work at it. I know that sometimes, you get the sense from TV that you can be rich and
successful without any hard work -- that your ticket to success is through rapping or
basketball or being a reality TV star, when chances are, youre not going to be any of
those things. But the truth is, being successful is hard. You wont love every subject
you study. You wont click with every teacher. Not every homework assignment will
seem completely relevant to your life right this minute. And you wont necessarily
succeed at everything the first time you try. Thats OK. Some of the most successful
people in the world are the ones whove had the most failures. JK Rowlings first
Harry Potter book was rejected twelve times before it was finally published. Michael
Jordan was cut from his high school basketball team, and he lost hundreds of games
and missed thousands of shots during his career. But he once said, "I have failed over
and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed."
And even when youre struggling, even when youre discouraged, and you
feel like other people have given up on you dont ever give up on yourself. Because
when you give up on yourself, you give up on your country. The story of America
isnt about people who quit when things got tough. Its about people who kept going,
who tried harder, and who loved their country too much to do anything less than their
best. Its the story of students, who sat where you sit 250 years ago, and went on to
wage a revolution and found this nation. Students who sat where you sit 75 years ago
who overcame a Depression and won a world war; who fought for civil rights and put
a man on the moon. Students who sat where you sit 20 years ago who founded
Google, Twitter and Face book and changed the way we communicate with each
other.
So today, I want to ask you, whats your contribution going to be? What
problems are you going to solve? What discoveries will you make? What will a

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president who comes here in twenty or fifty or one hundred years say about what all
of you did for this country?
Your families, your teachers, and I are doing everything we can to make sure
you have the education you need to answer these questions. Im working hard to fix
up your classrooms and get you the books, equipment and computers you need to
learn. But youve got to do your part too. So I expect you to get serious this year. I
expect you to put your best effort into everything you do. I expect great things from
each of you. So dont let us down dont let your family or your country or yourself
down. Make us all proud. I know you can do it.
Thank you, God bless you, and God bless America.(http://obamaspeeches.com/).
It is the example of manuscript speech because it must be read by the reader.
President Obama read the speech in front of students at Wakefield High School in
Arlington, Virginia. The speech was delivered by reading the script to the audience
because it was a very long speech. It is called as manuscript speech because the
speaker should read the whole sentences in the speech.
2.2.1.4 Memorized Speech
Fletcher (1985:38) states that the memorized speech is used when exact
wording is required, but reading from a script is inappropriate. Therefore, the speech
is committed to memory. There are few speaking situations today in which this
speech is appropriate. It may be used at presentation of high level awards, welcomes
to very important visiting dignitaries and such. It is often used in contest speaking
and oratorical competitions such as those sponsored by various civic and fraternal
organizations.
A memorized speech is written word by word and should be memorized by
the speaker. The speaker should write the speech before memorizing it to be
delivered. Before delivering the speech, the speaker should follow 4 steps. They are

21
establishing a purpose, gathering data, organizing and practicing. Thats the reason
why it is called as memorized speech.
The advantage of memorized speech is you can plot out ahead of time the best
word and the most dramatic phrase throughout the speech. And the disadvantage is it
is difficult to deliver with a feeling of sincerity and spontaneity. In addition, there is a
hazard of possibly forgetting what you were to say. So, it is not used in the real world.
Example of memorized speech:
(5) Long Distance Education
Education is a step to know get the knowledge in many ways. We can get
knowledge by studying so it cn make us know something. Without education, human
life does not operate. Education teaches the lesson of humanity. Education can not
only get in childhood. But it is regular and continues process. A human being gets
education. Education comprises good thoughts in human being.
In my opinion, there are some advantages to follow long distance education. By
having long distance education we can be better in the future and we can be easy to
follow the globalization. In the other side we can manage our time because the usual
credit for those who follow the globalization. In the other side we can manage our
time because the usual credit for those who follow long distance education course
only five credits. Besides, we can stand alone to decide something for our life, they
enable students to engage in practical exercises and class style teaching that are
designed to achieve specific learning outcomes.
But in contrary, long distance education has disadvantages. The disadvantages
are we do not want to gather with another people in sharing the knowledge; it must be
for the rich people, it must for those who have big willing in it.
So, I think that long distance education cannot be reached by many people
especially in Indonesia. It caused by the willing of the person, the attendance of the
technology. Besides, it can increase our knowledge outside of our lesson from school.
And it can motivate us to be able to make decision in our life.

22
It is a memorized speech because it is written word by word and should be
memorized by the speaker. The speaker should write the speech before memorizing it
to be delivered.

2.3 Error
In daily life, people recognize error and mistake as two words that have a
synonym or equal meaning. In language teaching they are differentiated based on the
language usage. So, to know the two words more obviously, it should be better to
define them by quoting from some experts opinion.
2.3.1. Definition of Error and Mistake
According to Brown (2007:257-258), in order to analyze learner language in
an appropriate perspective, it is crucial to make a distinction between mistakes and
errors, technically two very different phenomena. A mistake refers to a performance
error that is either a random guess or a slip, in that it is a failure to utilize a known
system correctly. All people make mistakes, in both native and second language
situations. Native speakers are normally capable of recognizing and correcting such
lapses or mistakes, which are not the result of a deficiency in competence but the
result of some sort of temporary breakdown or imperfection in the process of
producing speech. These hesitations, slips of the tongue, random ungrammaticalities,
and other performance lapses in native-speaker production also occur in second
language speech. Mistakes, when attention is called to them, can be self-corrected.

23
Mistakes must be carefully distinguished from errors of a second language
learner, idiosyncrasies in the language of the learner that are direct manifestations of a
system within which a learner is operating at the time. An error, a noticeable
deviation from the adult grammar of a native speaker, reflects the competence of the
learner. Learners of English who ask Does John can sing? are in all likelihood
reflecting a competence level in which all verbs require a pre-posed do auxiliary for
question formation. As such, it is an error, most likely not a mistake, and an error that
reveals a portion of the learners competence in the target language.
An error cannot be self-corrected, according to James (1998:83), while
mistakes can be self-corrected if the deviation is pointed out to the speaker. But the
learners capacity for self-correction is objectively observable only if the learner
actually self-corrects. Therefore, if no such self-correction occurs, we are still left
with no means to identify error and mistakes. So, can we turn to frequency of a
deviant form as a criterion?
Sometimes, if on one or two occasions, an English learner says John cans
sing. But on other occasions says John can sing, it is difficult to determine
whether cans is a mistake or an error. If, however, further examination of the
learners speech consistently reveals such utterances as John wills go, John mays
come, and so forth, with very few instances of correct third-person singular usage of
modal auxiliaries, you might safely conclude that cans, mays, and other such
forms are errors indicating that the learner has not distinguished modals from other
verbs. But it is possible, because of the few correct instances of production of this

24
form that the learner is on the verge of making the necessary differentiation between
the two types of verbs.

2.3.2. Types of Errors


In this research, the writer wants to analyze the data by using James theory
about written errors. According to James (1998:130), there are three kinds of spoken
errors. They are: mispronunciation errors, text errors, discourse errors, but the writer
want to analyze it just based on discourse errors.
2.3.2.1. Mispronunciations Errors
First, there were those mispronunciations errors that were in a sense
committed before pen met paper. They are the result of the mispronunciations of the
English as second language target sound. We therefore call them mispronunciations.
They are of two types reflecting whether the bilingual a first language substitute
phoneme or substituted a phonetically close English second language sound. As a
result of mispronouncing the target sound, the children access a grapheme which they
wrongly think represents the target sound.

25
The three examples above are mispronunciation errors. Mispronunciation
error usually happens when the speaker is wrong to pronounce the real word. It often
happens in vowel and consonant. The speaker does not know the real pronunciation
about the word so it can result the error. Therefore, the listener will be confused to get
the idea of the talking.
2.3.2.2 Text Errors
According to James (1998:141) the term text is sometimes used to refer
exclusively to a unit of written language larger than the sentence for which paragraph
might be a suitable term. In this case, one wonders what its spoken counterpart might
be. As Widdowson puts it: Texts can come in all shapes and sizes; they can
correspond in extent with any linguistic unit such as letter, sound, word, sentence, and
combination of sentences. Halliday and Hasan make it clear that text may be spoken
or written and is not limited to the larger units. The word text is used in linguistics to
refer to any passage, spoken or written.
Text errors arise from ignorance and misapplication of the lexico-grammatical
rules of the language, including how these rules are exploited to achieve texture. It
would be convenient to be able to make general and valid statement about how a
unified system called lexico-grammar operates in language. In this case, text errors in
spoken language are called misspeaking and mishearing.

26
The example of text errors that called as misspeaking:
(9) I was born at 02nd of January 1990
Based on the example above, most of the people make errors in telling the
number. Some people will be wrong when they say 1990.itt is usually said ninety
nineteen. It can cause the different understanding between the speaker and the
listener.
(10) I have now been in fifty-seven states. I think one left to go. One left to go
Alaska and Hawaii, I was not allowed to go even thorough I really wanted to
visit, ut my staff would not justify it. (Sorrensen, 2011:6).
Based on the example above, most of the people make errors in telling the
number. Some people will be wrong when they say fifty-seven. The speaker intends
to say forty-seven. Besides, he will say fifteen seven. Therefore, the listener does not
know the real total from what the speaker says.
2.3.2.3 Discourse Errors
James (1998:161) states that the types of discourse errors are coherence,
pragmatic errors and receptive errors. The errors in formulating spoken discourse are
called misrepresenting. The speaker does not deliver something based o the paragraph
order. It does not have coherence. Coherence is needed for the speaker and writer so
that the listener can catch the meaning in that sentence.
It is tempting to describe exclusively text and discourse production process
while neglecting the more exclusive receptive errors. The temptation is greater on the
levels of the text and discourse than that of substance, where failure is visible and

27
leads to an immediate breakdown of communication. The former we call as
misunderstanding. Most of the speakers deliver something in a right way, but the
listener will have misinterpretation for it that can cause errors. The example of
misinterpretation:
(11) Marriages have been endangered by the possible development or failure
to develop of husband and wives.
The question arises why the reader refuses to interpret endangered as made
dangerous, even though he was able to access this meaning. His explanation is lucid:
Ive always assumed that equality and emancipation contribute to happiness, better
human relations. Therefore I associate womans education with better marriage. Thus,
it is discourse error because the listener is wrong to interpret the meaning of the
sentence.

2.4 Error Analysis


Human learning is fundamentally a process that involves the making of
mistakes. Mistakes, misjudgments, miscalculation and erroneous form are an
important aspect of learning virtually any skill or acquiring information.
Error analysis is the study of the errors which are made by foreign language
students and intended to the errors of difficulties in learning a new language. It
overlooks many errors that the learner seems to make notwithstanding his language
background (Richards, 1974:189). Error analysis is needed to analyze the similarities
and differences between two or more language to carry out the feedback from the

28
error occur. The analysis of error is important to the learners knowledge in language
to get the error feedback. In other words that error analysis carry out in order to find
out how well someone knows language and how people learn language. In this thesis,
the writer just takes some excerpt as the representative from all the data that had been
analyzed.
2.5 Some Methods or Technique to Overcome Discourse Error
To reduce the discourse error, the student needs some technique to practice their
ability in ordering words become coherence with the context. They are:
1. Scrambled Sentences
The students are given a passage or text in which the sentences are in
scrambled order and containing some sentences that are not coherence with the topic
of passage that the student want to arrange in a good order. This may be a passage
they have worked with or one they have not seen before. They are told to unscramble
the sentences so that the sentences are restored to their original order.
2. Picture Strip Story
Many activities can be done with picture strip stories. Here, one student in
small group was given a strip story. She/he showed the first picture of the story to the
other members of group and asked them to predict what the second picture would
look like. An information gap existed the students in the groups did not know what
the picture contained. They received feedback, not on the form but on the content of
the prediction, by being able to view the picture and compare it with their prediction.

29
CHAPTER III
THE METHOD OF THE RESEARCH
In this chapter will be discussed about: the research design, the subject of
research, the object of research, the technique of collecting data, the technique of
analyzing data and validity.
3.1 The Research Design

In this research, the writer follows the methodology in descriptive qualitative.


It is descriptive because it makes the description of event or occurrence and this
method has an intention to accumulate the basic data. Qualitative designs produce
information only on the particular cases studied, and any more general conclusions. A
qualitative research refers to the meanings, concept, definitions, characteristics,
metaphors, symbol, and description of things (Berg, 1989:2). Qualitative research is
often used to gain a general sense of phenomena and to form theories that can be
tested using further quantitative research. For instance, in the social sciences
qualitative research methods are often used to gain better understanding of such
things as intentionality.
The research design used is qualitative, it is used to identify and describe the
errors made by the students in speech. And it is qualitative because in terms of what
extend teacher under observation explicate the communicative approach in teaching
English as the foreign languages. For this research, qualitative design in suitable
because it attempts to review the women condition at the time and it is concerned

30
with developing explanations of social phenomena. That is to say, it aims to help us to
understand the world in which we live and why things are the way they are (Hancock,
1998:2).

3.2 The Subject of Research


The subject of this research is the students who studied at SMA Negeri 2
Pematangsiantar. In this school there are 11 classes of the eleventh grade. They are
social department and science department. But in this research, the writer will not
make all the students as the samples. The writer only focuses on science department
student even not all. The writer takes 10 students speech as the samples.

3.3 The Object of Research


The object of this research is the discourse error made by the students in
speech in classroom activities. Not overall of the data that the writers had been
collected will be transcribed, the writer just takes 10 speeches from the data that
contain discourse errors and going to analyzed. Besides, the writer will collect the
students paper in the form of paragraph about the speechs content.

3.4 The Technique of Collecting Data


The writer in this research collects the data by applying both library and field
research. In collecting the acquired data, the writer will apply the library research that

31
means the writer frequently visits library consults the adequate volumes of related
references. Any information that is not obtainable in the other text books.
In the field research, the writer will collect the data and analyze the speech
that is taken as representative from overall the spoken error of students speech. They
are hoped to deliver the speech in a good way without any mistakes or errors.
Really, there are many techniques in collecting the data such as three
techniques as realization of participant observation they are as follows; observation,
recorder, and interview. But, the writer chooses to visit the library. The process of the
research is aimed to prove the data as valid data. This is important to the writer to see
the data realities before going on the field.

3.5 The Technique of Analyzing Data


The data is divided into two categories. They are mass data which is taken
from the reality classroom activities. And will be identified into primary data which
will be used to show if the process communicative or not by using parameter of
instructional.
The writer also includes the steps of analyzing data and there are 3 steps of
analyzing data, it can be seen below:
a. The writer takes 10 speeches as the samples.
b. The writer searches the discourse errors based on James theory.
c. The writer identifies the position of discourse errors based on James
theory.
3.6 Validity

32
To maintain the data validity, the writer will collect the written speech as the
data. After collect the data, the writer always reads the written speech to find the
discourse analysis. Based on the repeated reading, the writer will be easy to and
analyze the data. If the writer is difficult to get the meaning of their speech, she will
directly ask the speaker about the content of the speech. So, for the validity of the
data, the researcher applies the two steps: repeated reading, and analyzing the data.

33
CHAPTER IV
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDING
4.1 Data and Data Analysis
In all kinds of researches, data are very important to prove the truth of the
theory. That is the reason why the valid data are very useful to support the result of
the study.
This research data are taken from Senior High School students on eleventh
grade in SMA Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar. It is taken as long as 2 (two days) in two
weeks. The writer takes data 10 speeches for her research.
In analyzing the data, the writer collected all the speech first and then she
records the students performance. After that, the writer reads the recording many
times to get the valid and true data. After reading the data many times, the writer will
analyzed the data based on the discourse errors

found in the students speech. In

analyzing the data, the writer takes the sentences from the data that contain discourse
error.
4.1.1 Discourse Errors
Data 1
Good morning everybody.
(1) Now, Im standing here I want to present my speech. (2) The first of all we
say thanks for God because for his blessing, so that we can gather here in this class.
(3) And the second we say thanks to our teacher because she is still give me an
opportunity to present my speech and for all of you my friend. But before it, I want to
introduce myself. (4) My name is Lidya Octavia Tarigan. (5)I am the second class in
senior high school.

34
(6) Okay everybody, now I will present my speech. (7) The title of my speech
is the effect of television for children. (8) Many children in the world very like
watching television especially if they look their favorite film. (9) But for watching
television, there are many negative effects for the children. (10) They are difficult to
study, their behavior will follow what there is in the television even to order bathe
and to eat very difficult. (11) Their parents until to be a loss how to teach their child.
(12) Their parents should be angry and forbid their children to watch television. (13)
Watching television is not to forbid, because with watching television children can
expand brain and imaginative especially for a new grow child.
(14) Okay everybody, thats all my speech. (16) If there my mistake Im sorry.
(17) For your good attention I say thank you very much.
By: Lidya Octavia Tarigan
Analysis
1. After analyzing data 1, the writer finds that discourse errors. Based on the
James theory, that discourse error happens when the speaker does not use
the good order of the sentence. It does not have coherence. So, the writer
finds that the (12th) sentence in excerpt above does not have coherence
with the (13th) sentence.
Data 2
Assalamuualaikum Wr. Wb
Ladies and Gentlemen
Let us say Alhamdulillahirabbilalamin to the almighty ALLAH SWT, let us
send our salam and shalawat to our beloved prophet Muhammad SAW (1).
Before I deliver my speech, I would like to say thank you very much for Miss
Yenni who has given me chance to participate in your observation (2). Before I begin,
I would like to limit speech problem which I will present in my speech today. Which
include the influence of television in terms of positive and negative (4).
In present day television becomes one of important thing of a family life.
Every family almost has this magic box at their home (5). And we know that
Indonesian television program now presents many adult programs than for kids (6).
On prime time when the kids still up (7). There are bunch of improper program that
kids shouldnt watch (8).

35
Television effect on children is considered quite worrisome and needs to get
serious attention from parents, because beside of reducing the hours of sleep that
result in psychological disturbance also affects mental health of children (9).
There are several ways that parents can do to reduce the impact of television
on children. (10) Giving a limited time for watching television (11). Putting the
television in the room that is rarely used (12). Asking the children to study (13).
Thats all of my speech, I hope it is useful for us and I apologize if found
many mistake from my speech (14). Thanks for your nice attention and the last I say
Assalamuualaikum Wr. Wb (15).
By: Silva Fauziah Nasution
Analysis
2. The writer also finds in the other spoken error that is discourse error. The
writer finds that the (4th) sentence in data 2 above does not have coherence
with the next content, because he wrote that he limits the influence of
television in terms of positive and negative. But in fact, the next content
just discussed about the negative effect. That is why that (4 th) sentence is
called discourse error.
Data 3
(1)Honorable our teachers and all of my dearest friends.
(2) The first, lets say thanks to or God. (3) Because Gods blessing today and
God always give us health so, we can together in this moment. (4) And I hope, God
always protect us when and wherever we are.
(5) Good day everybody!
(6)Let me introduce myself. (7) My name is Ayu Anggreni Siregar. (8) And I
stand here to tell you about my dreams for the future to our country.
(9) Talking about dreams, I believe everybody has a dream. (10) In this time, I
will talk about two topics. (11) There are education and health of our country. (12)
The first, education, according to me education in Indonesia is not too good. (13)
Many students stop schooling, because some of them have to help their parents to
earn money. (14) And how pity they are. (15) I dont think so! (16) My hope, the
government will help them to give free education and give scholarships for smart
students. (17) So that the young generations can make considerable contribution to
our countrys development.

36
(18) The second topic about healthy problem in our country. (19) We often
hear that nutrition in Indonesia is bad. (20) Everybody is busy with their business.
(21) Many babies passed away because they get less nutrition. (22) In my opinion, the
government has done something to handle this problem. (23) But not seriously,
maybe they are too busy with their job. (24) So, I promise, if I will have been a
doctor I will help them, take more care, and I do my best, so that the children will
grow up well. (25) Remember, if the young generations will grow up well. Its the big
possibility that knowledge in our country will be good too. (26) Health is able to
direction the concentration and come prosperity.
(26) Okay my friends, I think until here. (27) I say thanks very much for your
good attention. (28) Please forgive my mistake. (29) We believe that nothing happens
without Gods blessing. (30) So, always pray to our God so that our effort will be
blessed. (31) One more, we have to know that there s no impossible, because
impossible is nothing.
The last, assalamualaikum Wr.Wb.
By: Ayu Anggreni Siregar
Analysis
3. In the (15th) sentence data 3, the writer finds that it is discourse errors, because
the (15th) sentence is not coherence with the previous sentence and the next
sentence. The student wrote, I dont think so. But the true one is I dont hope
so! So that it can be coherence to the (14th) sentence and (16th) sentence.
4. In the (20th) and (21th) sentence in data 3, the writer finds discourse errors.
(20) We often hear that nutrition in Indonesia is bad. (21) everybody is busy
with their business. The (7th) sentence discussed about nutrition, but in the
next sentence does not support with the sentence before, because it discussed
about the bustle of business.

37
Data 4
Good afternoon
(1) First of all, let us praise and thank to the presence of God where we can
gather here in this place in good health. (2) Before I give a few words, let me
introduce myself first. (3) My name is Audrey Dominique. (4) I come from eleventh
grade. (5) Theme of my speech is the effect of television for children.
(6) So many effects from the electronic things and also from the television for
children that make parents afraid. (7) Bad learning are found in every place and
environment make children can easily learn this or that. (8) The first point give
children channel that able for their age like cartoon, kids music or drama that have
parents teach label. (9) The second points keep in eye the children because children
always try to find freedom. (10) The third point is talk with your children how many
movies that form by moral value, bad or good. (11) Say that the bad habitually is a
most factor that never be following by them. (12) Keep in eye the children so that
they can save from the bad effect of television.
(13) Its all about my speech, if I have many mistake please forgive me. (14)
Thank you for your attention and see you later.
By: Audrey Dominique
Analysis
5. In the (5th) sentence data 4, the writer finds that it is discourse errors,
because the (5th) sentence is not coherence with the next paragraph. The
student wrote, the effect of television for children, but the next paragraph
just discussed about the bad effect, meanwhile the word of effect can be
refer to positive and negative. Its better if the student wrote the bad effect
of television for children. So that it can be coherence to the next
paragraph.
Data 5
Good afternoon everybody
(1) First of all let us say praise and gratitude to Tuhan yang Maha Esa which
until now we give in health so that we can gather here. (2) Thanks to our teacher and
all my friends who have given time and opportunity for me. (3) Before, I would
introduce myself. (4) My name Anggi Tricindi Chaniago and I come from class XI

38
PMIA 6. (5) Here, I will speech with the theme of the effects of television for
children.
(6) As we know, watching television constantly very dangerous especially
with kids. (7) Many children is interesting to watch television because they favor
some idol or cartoon in television. (8) following securities that caused the television
for kids. (9) The first, child will imitate what they see and hear her. (10) The second,
television is able to direction the concentration and interest in children. (11) And the
last eye health will be easily distracted. (12) The conclusion is very dangerous for a
child with its multitude from child.
(13) So my speech more and less I apologize, for he attention I say thank you.
By: Anggi Tricindi Chaniago
Analysis
6. The writer also finds in the other spoken error that is discourse error. The
writer finds that the (6th ) sentence and (7th) sentence in data 5 above does
not have coherence with the next sentence. In the previous sentence (6)
the speaker said that watching television is dangerous, but in the next
sentence (7) the speaker said the reason why the children like to watch
television. Both of the sentences do not have correlation, so it is called
discourse error.
Data 6
Good day everybody
With respect me to the teacher and my beloved all the friend. The first I say
thanks to Almighty God. Television is a medium to find information. Where we can
see, listening and know to news from various sources example: political news,
economic, social cultural and much more news that we get from television. But
television also result in losses. Example: watching television for too long can damage
the eyes. So for those of you who watch TV too often avoid.
Until here my speech, maybe useful to other my friends. Thanks
By: Elysa Rebecca Purba

39
Analysis
7. The writer finds discourse error from that excerpt. The writer finds that the
(2nd) sentence in excerpt 18 above does not have coherence with the next
sentence. In the previous sentence the speaker open her speech by giving
thanks to God, but in the next sentence the speaker directly said that
television is a medium to find information without said what the topic that
she want to deliver in her speech.
Data 7
Assalamualaikum Wrb.
(1) Respectable all my teachers and my friends whom I love, good morning
all.
(2) First, thanks to our God who has been giving bus some mercies and
blessings so, we can attend and gather in this place in this good condition. (3)
Secondly, I dont forget to say thanks so much to teacher and my friends who has
given me time to speak in front of you all.
(4) A lot of positive things that can be taken from any media such as the
television, information regarding, the latest new broaden ourselves to the private
individual, entertainment which serves to reduce the feeling of fatigues or boredom
on each student in the teen age years or in periods impact, of course, the television
media has a negative impact, including the following: lazy are most often occurs
when a student has been affected by the fun of watching television, so that he forgot
that his main task to learn, we can see the personality of the students. (5) Themselves
will change and possibility detrimental to all parties including himself.
(6) Bad learning are found in every place and environment make the children
can easily learn this or that. (7) The first point gives the children a channel that able
for their age like cartoon, kids music or drama that have parents teach label.
(8) The conclusion is, that everything that exists in this world must have rules
and different views good and bad, as well as with the television media, which should
be used for good things, but still it has an impact that is not good for some people.
(9) Thats all about my speech, I hope it can be useful for our life. (10) If you
found many mistake in my speech, please forgive me, and I dont forget to say thanks
so much for you.
(11) The last I say wassalamualaikum Wrb.
By: Rida Izzatul

40
Analysis
8. The writer finds discourse error from that data above. The writer finds that
the (6th) sentence in data 7 above does not have coherence with the next
sentence. In the previous sentence (6) the speaker said that bad learning
can be found in every place and every environment, but in the next
sentence the speaker said that the children must give a channel that is
suitable with kids. The writer does not see any correlation from both of the
sentences because in the previous sentence does not discuss about bad
learning from television.
Data 8
(1) Good morning everybody.
(2) My name is Johannes. (3) Let in this occasion we praise and gratitude to
Allah swt. (4)The opportunity to do this speech about the effect of television against
children. (5) Before I begin, I would like to limit speech problem which I will present
in my speech today.
(6) Which include influence of television in terms of positive and negative?
When we look at the general effect of television for children, its looks very full and
meaningful. (7) Lazy is the most often occurs when a child has been affected through
of watching television. (8) So, forget about learning and this is very detrimental to the
children themselves. (9) As with lazy, he will not get anything and what he aspire in
life. (10) Watching television very dangerous because it can make human mature
before maturity.
(11) The last I say thank you for your attention.
By: Johannes Ambarita
Analysis
9. The writer finds discourse error from the data above. The writer finds that
the (7th) sentence in data 8 above does not have coherence with the next
sentence. In the previous sentence (6) the speaker said the over plus from
television, but in the next sentence the speaker talked about the bad

41
influence that can caused if a child has been affected through of watching
television. Both of the sentences do not have any correlation.
Data 9
Good afternoon everybody
First of all, let us pray toward praise and thanksgiving to almighty God who has
given us the grace to all so that we can gather in this place.
This time I want to deliver a speech on the influence of television in general,
television is very useful for the delivery of information most effective and efficient,
effective and efficient delivery of information in terms of price to obtain such
information.
Lazy is one of the diseases that arise disease most often occurs when a child is
effected by watching television so much is engrossed in television viewing as cartoon
Spongebob, hes hard to be called or ordered to carry out the activities of others.
Thus it would be helpful to limit the time watching television and filter out
impressions that fit the needs. Thats what I say may be helpful to us, I say accepted
the final word love. The last I say thanks.
By: Sri Mora Ulita Sitio
Analysis
9. The writer finds discourse error from all the data above. The writer finds
that the sentences are errors in discourse because all the sentences do not
have good coherence one another. Besides, the listener will be very
difficult to get the meaning because the speech delivered was not logically
ordered.
Data 10
Good afternoon everybody
I will tell my speech with the title The effect of television for children
praise and thanks giving prayed to God the almighty. For Gods till glory we all health
until this noon so we can gather in this classroom to listen to his speech.
Television or TV is an extremely easy stuffy we find in every home. Do not
stop there but TV has many that we have made in the room of our children and in

42
various public places. . Need to be caution when we see our kids like to watch TV
Starting from the house in urban areas to rural homes even in remote control It should
be understood that not every program or TV show is good for us our children. In fact
most are very bad for our children, although there are positive aspects gains from
there, But only a little and not worth the negative impact that they get. Need to be
caution when we see our kids like to watch TV. With the variety of adverse for our
children should make us more vigilant and vary of TV .The bad effects of watching
TV for our children include: first effect of brain development, second is reduced
creativity, the third is including the concentration of, the fourth reduced motivation,
the fifth is encourage children to be consumptive, next practicing for the lazy and
reluctant, then establishing a practical mindset, after that sexually mature faster and
the last is not good for the health.. Until there my speech, I say thank you make his
attention.
By: Reja Leonardo Tampubolon
Analysis
10. The writer finds discourse error from the (2nd) paragraph where all the
sentences in that paragraph is not coherence. The reader will be difficult to
understand the speech because it does not have good order.
4.3 Research Finding
After analyzing the data, the finding could be concluded as follows:
The errors which the students made in speech is written errors namely
discourse error. The example of discourse error In the (5 th) sentence data 4, the writer
finds that it is discourse errors, because the (5 th) sentence is not coherence with the
next paragraph. The student wrote, the effect of television for children, but the next
paragraph just discussed about the bad effect, meanwhile the word of effect can be
refer to positive and negative. Its better if the student wrote the bad effect of
television for children. So that it can be coherence to the next paragraph.
1. The discourse errors which are found in data 1 is 1 error

43
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

The discourse errors which are found in data 2 is 1 error


The discourse errors which are found in data 3 is 2 errors
The discourse errors which are found in data 4 is 1 error
The discourse errors which are found in data 5 is 1 error
The discourse errors which are found in data 6 is 1 error
The discourse errors which are found in data 7 is 1 error
The discourse errors which are found in data 8 is 1 error
The discourse errors which are found in data 9 is 1 error
The discourse errors which are found in data 10 is 1 error

4.4 Discussion
After having analyzed the data, the writer can discuss that the students still
have the discourse error in the students written speech. According to James (1998),
the errors made by the students in written errors is discourse. The writer found that all
the speech have discourse errors. But the writer finds more discourse error in data 8.
Discourse error occurs when the learners do not use the coherence when they
are delivering their speech. The learners jump the topic or opinion about something
when he is talking. After analyzing the data above, the writer can discuss that the
students do not focus about topic that they want to develop. The student inserts some
sentences that do not have correlation with the topic. So, their speeches are developed
irregularly.
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
5.1 Conclusions

44
After having analyzed all the data, then the writer describes some conclusions
from the twenty speeches presented by the students of eleventh grade in SMA Negeri
2 Pematangsiantar.
1. The errors which the students made in speech is written error namely
discourse error as local errors and global errors. The writer makes the other
example in discourse error in the seventh sentence and the eight sentence of
data 1. It does not have coherence they are, We often hear that nutrition in
Indonesia is bad (7). Everybody is busy with their business (8). The seventh
sentence discussed about nutrition, but in the next sentence does not support
with the sentence before, because it discussed about the bustle of business.
2. The most discourse errors found in the students speech in data 1.
3. The students of eleventh grade in SMA Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar is lack in
writing.
4. The students of eleventh grade in SMA Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar are still
wrong in writing the speech. The students have errors in using of sentence
connector and in making the good speech as the native speakers made.

45
5.2 Suggestions
Based on the conclusions above, the writer would like giving suggestions deal
with the students problem in writing speech. They are:
1. The writer suggests to the English teachers of SMA Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar
must take the main role in guiding the students in making the speech.
2. It is expected to the English teachers of SMA Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar to be
more oriented in teaching the good writing and the verb order to the students
3. The writer suggests to the English teachers of SMA Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar
to ask the students to be usual with English. The teachers can invite them to
write the kinds of text, developing a main topic become a text.
4. The writer hopes to the students to be more diligent to study and use English
as they can to improve their ability.

46
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