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Geological Sciences

University of Leeds
Leeds
United Kingdom
LS2 1HE

SOEE3073: INDEPENDENT MAPPING


PROJECT

Geology of the Coniston area

Student: Joe Rogers - 200697491


Supervisor: Dr Crispin Little
January 22nd 2015
Word Count:8249

Joe Rogers

200697491

Student ID

University of Leeds

Joe Rogers

200697491

University of Leeds

School of Earth &


Environment
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Abstract
Module Code

Deadline Date
Date Submitted

this to
work
Yes
The
mapping area covers a 10km2 Isarea
thelate?
west of Torver
and No
Module
Name
Coniston. The northern section is made
of have
~2km
Doup
you
anpyro/volcanoclastic
extension? Yes
Module
No of sedimentary rocks.
deposits uncomfortably overlaying ~2km
Declaration
Deposition

of

the

volcanics

came Isfrom
arc-volcanism,
producing
this group
work?
Yes
explosive pyroclastic flows, volcanic bombs and
No ash fall deposits. This is
due to the closure of the Iapetus Ocean between the Mid-Late
Ordovician.

This

was

followed

by

period

of

sedimentation,

commencing in the Late Ordovician through to the End Silurian (~450-

the University and that it is my responsibility to be aware of the Universitys regulations on plagiarism. I re-confrm my consent to t

420Ma). It began by filling the accommodation space created by

migrating fore-arc basin. Marine transgression into the basin provided


the marine conditions for sediments to be reworked, fauna to thrive
and density currents to flow. Thermal contraction of the Lake District
batholith produced extensive fault systems. Terrane docking during the
Caledonian orogeny (~490-390Ma) as Avalonia collided with Laurentia
created the regional structure. Cleavage
propagated in both the
Degree
Programme
volcanics and sediments, overprinting existing
fabric. This too produced

the major fold through the district, the Westmoorland Monocline. Late
Devensian glaciation and lesser glacial periods beforehand eroded the
Full Name
topography to present day geomorphology. This left behind an
Put added
your fullto
name
the box.superficial
abundance of glacial till, which was
by in
further
deposits in the Holocene.

DO NOT FOLD OR FASTEN DOWN


THE CORNER!

Office staff will staple this down for anonymity


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down yourself, this record will not be made.

Joe Rogers

200697491

University of Leeds

Table of Contents
1. Introduction..................................................................................1
2. Methodology.................................................................................3
3. Mappable Units.............................................................................4
3.1. Back Quarry Formation--------------------------------------------------------------4
3.2. Bursting Stone Formation-----------------------------------------------------------5
3.3. Twin Crags Formation----------------------------------------------------------------6
3.4. Booth How Formation----------------------------------------------------------------7
3.5. Timley Formation----------------------------------------------------------------------8
3.6. Three Gills Formation----------------------------------------------------------------9
3.7. Tranearth Formation----------------------------------------------------------------11
3.8. New Intake Formation--------------------------------------------------------------11
3.9. Wide Close Formation--------------------------------------------------------------13
3.10. Bleathwaite Formation-----------------------------------------------------------15
4. Structure....................................................................................18
4.1. Stereonet Data-----------------------------------------------------------------------18
4.1. Faulting---------------------------------------------------------------------------------22
4.2. Folding----------------------------------------------------------------------------------23
5. Quaternary Geology.....................................................................25
5.1. Superficial Deposits-----------------------------------------------------------------25
5.2. Glaciation------------------------------------------------------------------------------25
5.3. Applied Geology----------------------------------------------------------------------27
6. Discussion ..................................................................................29
7. Conclusion..................................................................................34
Bibliography...................................................................................35
Appendices.....................................................................................41

Joe Rogers

200697491

University of Leeds

1.
Introduction
The Lake District National Park is a mountainous region located in Cumbria,
North West England (fgure 1.1). The geology and landscape was shaped by the
closure of the Iapetus palaeo-ocean, which existed from end Neoproterozoic to
early Paleozoic times (600-400 Ma). Then it was situated in the southern
hemisphere between the palaeocontinents of Laurentia, Baltica and Avalonia.
Eventual ocean closure came about from the Acadian, Taconic and, most
influentially, the Caledonian orogenies.
During the Ordovician (460 Ma), the Laurentian continental plate which held
Laurentia began subducting beneath Avalonia, creating arc volcanism from
Eastern Ireland through to Belgium (Pharaoh et al., 2009). As a consequence
large amounts of explosive volcanism caused pyroclastic and magma flows in
sub-aerial, sub-marine and lacustrine settings (Branney, 1988). As the Iapetus
oceanic crust continued to subduct, magmatism continued, producing up to 8 km
of deposits (Ortega et al., 2010). Calderas formed, and some (like the Scafell
Caldera)

were

important in producing

depositional

environments

for pyroclastics (Millward, 2004). Finally, a large granite body was emplaced
under the Scafell and Haweswater calderas (Branney & Soper, 1988). These
volcanics comprise the Borrowdale Volcanic Group, approximately 450Ma in age.
Immense mass created by crustal thickening associated with the evolution of a
mountain belt from the Taconic Orogeny, caused lithospheric flexure and thus
created accommodation space. This also forced the eastern edge of Laurentia to
fold gradually downward and be heavily faulted as it collided with the island arc.
Over time the basin deepened due to thermal contraction from the cooling of the
batholith feeding the arc volcanism. This isostatic decrease is shown in the
biostratigraphy. These marine conditions engulfed the foreland basin, migrating
southward across the Lake District during the fnal stages in the closure of the
Iapetus Ocean (Kneller, 1991; Hughes et al., 1993). This basin was flled between
~450 400Ma, creating the Windermere Supergroup.
In more recent geological time, ice ages that spread to latitudes which would
have covered the Lake District region in glacial ice have carved away at the

Joe Rogers

200697491

University of Leeds

landscape leaving behind characteristic geomorphology. The harder volcanic rock


is left proud; the softer sedimentary eroded and flattened. This will then have
been reworked by fluvial processes leaving behind many streams and bogs as a
consequence. Today, humans have utilized the geology in the extensive Coniston
copper mines.

Figure 1.1. Location of the field area relative to the United Kingdom
(Google Inc., 2014).

Joe Rogers

200697491

University of Leeds

2.
Methodology
The aims of the mapping project were to produce a geologic map of a region
12km West of Coniston, North-West England, thus determining a geological
history of the area. During a period of 42 days from the 25 th May - 5th July 2014,
research was undertaken over a 10km 2 study area by using mapping skills
acquired from previous feld training exercises. Geological mapping with fled
equipment

helped

identify

observations,

followed

by

justifed

personal

interpretation. This can then be discussed with published literature.


In order to successfully map the area, the lithologies which comprise such
must frst be determined. To do so, analysis of hand specimen samples showing
variation in colour, grain size and shape, mineralogy, texture, as well as many
other diagnostic features (which will be highlighted in the detailed descriptions)
indicative to a rock type will help distinguish between. On a broader scale,
outcrop colour, size and shape, primary features, exposure and weathering
pattern will provide more information to what it may be. Mappable units are
classifed using this method. The names are presented in section 3. and used in
the map; cross-section and stratigraphic column (see Appendix).
The feld mapping was undertaken on Ordinance Survey base maps produced
using Digimap, an EDINA supplied service (2014). Different mapping techniques
were used where appropriate. Where outcrop is abundant, exposure mapping can
be this was predominantly used through the volcanic members. Most commonly,
traverse mapping was adopted where rock exposures are heavily restricted to
areas such as streams. This method was implemented across the sediment
formations where boggy areas, vegetation and superfcial deposits cover a
majority of bedrock exposure. In these areas of poor exposure, other methods
such as topographic and vegetation mapping are implemented to hypothesise
where a contact probably lies.

Once the area had been mapped, notebook information and data coupled with
feld slip maps were taken away to produce this report and a fair copy map of the

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200697491

University of Leeds

Coniston area. ArcGIS software (Esri, 2013) was used when producing the map,
CorelDRAW (Corel Corporation, 2011) for diagrams and the VisibleGeology app
(MATLAB, 2014) for structural readings.

3.
Mappable Units
3.1.
Back Quarry Formation
The outcrop seen at grid reference NC: 3277 4981 was a 10m
x 15m block. The average size for this unit is unmeasurable,
but exceptionally large. There is a possible outcrop pattern,
jagged and broken almost cleaved. At outcrop scale, the
colour is weathered grey. Beds are 10s of cm in scale.

Figure 3.1. Hand Specimen of


Back Quarry Formation.
Hand specimen

colour is a light green with medium grained sized crystals

~0.5-2mm, phaneritic. The whole rock is porphyritic. These crystals act as a


groundmass which supports the lithic fragments. The groundmass is made up of
quartz, feldspar and amphibole. The fragments are <6cm making them lapilli.
The phenocrysts are made of orthoclase feldspar. The lithic fragments are
smaller in this unit than that of the Booth How Formation. It is also lighter in
colour, distinguishing between the two.
The primary minerals of the Back Quarry Formation are plagioclase feldspar
and quartz. The crystal component is mainly plagioclase. Accessory minerals are
orthoclase feldspar and amphibole. The orthoclase is restricted to sparse
phenocrysts. From this mineral assemblage and proportions, the rock has been
interpreted as being igneous and dacitic. Tephra fragments in the rock are
remnants of a volcanic eruption and as the size of these particles are between 264mm in diameter, it is classifed as lapilli. The high silica content hints at
explosive volcanism. Fiamme are only locally abundant enough to give a eustatic
texture, but most are flattened or sheared which occurs when the rock was

Joe Rogers

200697491

University of Leeds

deposited conditions were sufficiently hot enough to weld the tephra together.
The consolidated volcanic ash from eruption makes it a tuff. The eustatic texture
suggests that the rock is extrusive, with the famme advocating a pyroclastic
flow deposit.
From this information, the rock is translated as a dacitic lapilli-tuff. The
environment of deposition is portrayed as an explosive volcanic eruption, leading
to a pyroclastic flow into a sub-aerial setting. According to published literature
this is known as the Lag Bank Formation, formally the Lag Bank Tuffs of Mitchell
(1956b) interpreted as an ignimbrite.

3.2
Bursting Stone Formation
The outcrop seen at grid reference NC: 3277 4976 was
of a 3m x 3m standing proud from the landscape. The
average

size

for

this

unit

is

unmeasurable,

but

exceptionally large. There is no pattern of outcrop it


protrudes out commonly.

At outcrop scale, the colour is

weathered grey. Beds are 10s of cm in scale. The contact is conformable with the
Figure 3.2. Hand Specimen of Back
Quarry Formation.

Back Quarry Formation (3.1) and seen contacts can be


mapped in the quarried areas which have exposed the
contact.

Hand specimen colour is a light green with medium sand to silt sized grains.
The grains are a mixture of subrounded and angular. It is moderately sorted, with
very tight packing giving low porosity. The mineralogy of the rock is made up of
reworked grains from the volcanics, Quartz, amphibole, feldspar, lithic and
pyroclastic fragments. An abundance of sedimentary structures are seen,
particularly at the contact with the Booth How Formation. Some of these consist
of dropstones, antidunes, flame structures where it has injected into the
sediment above as well as other soft sediment deformation.

Joe Rogers

200697491

University of Leeds

Figure 3.3. Sedimentary log through the


Bursting Stone Formation at NC: 3276
4969.

There are no rocks in the mapping area which would be defned as


metamorphic; however there is evidence of metamorphism in certain aspects of
the feld. When looking at the Bursting Stone Formation in thin section, the
mineral chlorite can be identifed from its weak green pleochroism and low relief.
It is likely that this mineral is present other of the volcanic rock members, as
they too have that green tinge likely to be causes by chlorite.

Chlorite
altered from
Amphibole

Figure 3.31. Thin section in PPL of Bursting Stone Formation


showing chlorite.

The primary minerals of the Bursting Stone Formation are plagioclase and
quartz. Accessory minerals are probably orthoclase and some amphibole,
however it is difficult to ascertain as erosion has worn away the minerals leaving
only the hardest behind. From this mineral assemblage and proportions, the rock
has been interpreted as being sedimentary and volcaniclastic. The abundance
and varying sedimentary structures such as dropstone features and soft
sediment

deformation

suggest

that

deposition

occurred

in

an

aqueous

environment. This is further justifed by the size and shape of the clasts, which
appear to have been reworked by fluid action.
From this information, the rock is translated as a volcanoclastic sandstone.
The environment of deposition is portrayed as sub-aqueously deposited volcanic
sediment, reworked from existing pyroclastic rocks. According to published

Joe Rogers

200697491

University of Leeds

literature this is known as the Seathwaite Fell Formation, formally the Seathwaite
Fell Tuffs of Oliver (1961) interpreted as a volcaniclastic sandstone and siltstone,
with intercalations of pyroclastic lithofacies and penecontemporaneous sills
(Millward et al., 2000).

3.3
Twin Crag Formation
The outcrop seen at grid reference NC: 3283 4981 was
~25m x 25m standing proud from the landscape. The average
size outcrop for this unit cannot be measured as rather than
being many small outcrops it is one large exposed crag. The
pattern of outcrop is just the shape of the crag. At outcrop
scale, the colour is weathered light green/grey. There are no
Figure 3.4. Hand Specimen of the
Twin Crag Formation.

individual beds, instead columnar jointing. This


unit is intrudes the Bursting Stone Formation
and the contact is inferred as none of the

latter units outcrop is in close vicinity.


The light colour of the rock proposes an abundance of plagioclase, with the
green tinge potentially coming from amphibole (seen in other local igneous
rocks). The hardness of the rock suggests high quartz content. This mineralogy is
consistent of an intermediate igneous rock. There is columnar jointing - shallow
intrusion, cooled quickly. This is further justifed by the aphanitic texture as it is
so fne grained, making it a subvolcanic rock. This is interpreted as an andesite
due to the intermediate composition and proximity to the surface. It is more
likely to be a sill than a dyke, as it is only exposed in one layer of the
stratigraphy.
From this information, the rock is translated as an andesitic sill. The
environment of deposition is portrayed as an igneous intrusion fed from a
magma chamber. According to publish literature this is part of an extensive
Borrowdale Sill Suite (Millward et al., 2000).

3.4
Booth How Formation

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200697491

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The outcrop seen at grid reference NC: 3283 4971 was a 4m x 2m block. The
average size for this unit is unmeasurable, but exceptionally large. There is no
pattern of outcrop it protrudes out commonly. At outcrop scale, the colour is
weathered grey. Beds are 10s of cm in scale. The contact is conformable with the
Bursting Stone (3.2) and seen contacts can be mapped along the boundary in
higher topography but inferred in the low lying bog areas.
Figure 3.5. Hand Specimen of the
Booth How Formation.

Hand specimen colour is a deep green-grey with fne


grained sized crystals ~0.5-2mm, phaneritic. The whole

rock is porphyritic. These crystals act as a groundmass which supports lithic


fragments and phenocryst fragments. The groundmass is made up of quartz,
feldspar and amphibole. The fragments are <6cm making them lapilli. The
phenocrysts are made of orthoclase feldspar. There are pyroclastic fragments all
~2mm, made up of famme.
The primary minerals of the Booth How Formation are orthoclase feldspar and
quartz. The crystal component is mainly orthoclase. Accessory minerals are
plagioclase feldspar and amphibole. The orthoclase composes various large
phenocrysts. From this mineral assemblage and proportions, the rock has been
interpreted as being igneous and rhyolitic. Tephra fragments in the rock are
remnants of a volcanic eruption and as the size of these particles are between 264mm in diameter, it is classifed as lapilli. The very high silica content hints at
explosive volcanism. Fiamme are only locally abundant enough to give a eustatic
texture but are more difficult to identify than in the Back Quarry Formation due
to the darker nature of the rock. The consolidated volcanic ash from eruption
makes it a tuff. The eustatic texture suggests that the rock is extrusive, with the
famme advocating a pyroclastic flow deposit. Flames of sand are injected into
the base of the unit. This indicates that the underlying sediments had not been
lithifed before the emplacement of pyroclastic rocks (Millward et al., 2000).
From this information, the rock is translated as a rhyolitic lapilli-tuff. The
environment of deposition is portrayed as an explosive volcanic eruption, leading
to a pyroclastic flow into a sub-aerial and sub-aqueous setting. According to
published literature this is known as the Lincomb Tarns Formation (Oliver, 1954),
previously referred to as felsic and basic tuffs (Hartley, 1925) interpreted as a
dacitic lapilli-tuff.

3.5
8

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200697491

University of Leeds

Timley Formation
The outcrop seen at grid reference NC: 3284 4971 was of a 5m x
3m block weathered out Timley Knott about 1.5m. This is roughly
the average size outcrop for this unit. The pattern of outcrop is pitted ridges
running with strike downdip. At outcrop scale, the colour is brown. Beds are ~
20cm. The contact is unconformable with the Booth How (3.4) and many seen
contacts can be mapped due to the close proximity of individual outcrops.

Figure 3.6. Hand Specimen of


the Timley Formation.

Hand specimen colour is matt grey in some beds but dirty brown in others. It is

interbedded, with the grey beds clastic rock with a silt grain size. The dirty brown
beds contain carbonates. Grains are subangular with low sphericity. It is poorly
sorted, with tight packing giving it low porosity. The mineralogy of the rock is
composed of quartz, feldspar and other rock and lithic fragments, with the
carbonate fragments making up the rest. No sedimentary structures are seen.
The pitted weathering pattern in some layers suggests limestone erosion. The
dominate grain size in others is silt making it a siltstone. Crinoid columnals and
disarticulated brachiopods suggest a marine environment. The overall carbonate
content hints a carbonate platform shallow marine, warm conditions. The
interbedded layers show times of organic life separated by clastic input.
From this information, the rock is translated as an interbedded limestone and
siltstone. The environment of deposition is portrayed as an equatorial, shallow
marine, shelf environment. According to published literature this is known as the
Kirkley Bank Formation (Scott & Kneller, 1990), interpreted as a calcareous
siltstone and mudstone.

3.6
Three Gills Formation
The outcrop seen at grid reference NC: 3277 4962 was of a
10m x 3m block weathered out of the hillside along Torver Beck
by about 0.5m. The average size for this unit cannot be
determined as outcrop size varies greatly. The pattern of
outcrop is generally mounds weathered out of the landscape.
At outcrop scale, the colour is light grey. Beds are ~ 15cm. The
9

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200697491

University of Leeds

contact is conformable with the Timley Formation (3.5) although at no point


could be mapped as seen, so this is inferred from the patterns seen previously of
facies change and structural data. Bedding is shown by calcareous covering.
Nodules of pyrite are present in middle of the unit.
Hand specimen colour is matt grey, clastic rock with silt-mud grain size. These
grains very small, but those that can be seen are subangular with medium
sphericity. It is moderately sorted, with relatively tight packing giving it low
porosity. There are plentiful fossils within the rock, in
Figure 3.7. Hand Specimen of the
Three Gills Formation.

particular brachiopod fauna. Fossils seen are; Plaesiomys,


Orthid and Strophomenida Brachiopod (see fgures 3.61-

3.63) and a potential tentaculite (see fgure 3.64). No sedimentary structures


are seen due to bioturbation.
The average grain size throughout the rock is silt making it a siltstone. The
lack of bioturbation suggests an anoxic, deep marine setting. The abundance of
fossils shows a period of thriving fauna.
From this information, the rock is translated as a homogenous siltstone. The
environment of deposition is portrayed as a shallow marine environment,
deepening with time to more anoxic deep marine. According to published
literature this is known as three separate units: the Ashgill, Skelgill and Browgill
Formations (Marr, 1892; Marr & Nicholson, 1888) interpreted as (calcareous)
siltstone and mudstone. For the beneft of the mapping exercise, these units
were lumped into one due to the severe lack of exposure between the separate
formations, despite seeing evidence for all three in isolated areas.

Figure 3.61. Sketch of


Plaesiomys brachiopod fossil.

Figure 3.62. Sketch of Orthhid


brachiopod fossil.

10

Joe Rogers

200697491

Figure 3.63. Sketch of


Strophomenida brachiopod
fossil.

University of Leeds

Figure 3.64. Sketch of Tentaculite


fossil.

3.7
Tranearth Formation
The outcrop seen at grid reference NC: 3281 4959 was of a 7m x
1.5m block weathered out of the hillside by about 1m. The average
size for this unit is difficult to determine, as general weathered
outcrops are ~8m x 1m x 1m, however much of the exposure can
be seen in the quarried areas. The pattern of outcrop is that most
of the area this unit covers is covered in quaternary deposits, but
exposure is seen where streams cut through the
Figure 3.8. Hand Specimen
of the Tranearth Formation.

landscape. At outcrop scale, the colour is light grey.


Beds are ~ 30cm. The contact is conformable with

the Three Gills Formation (3.6) although at no point could be mapped as seen, so
this is inferred from the patterns seen previously of facies change and structural
data.
Hand specimen colour is blue-grey, clastic rock with grain size variations from
a fne sand to silt. In some areas it is very fne grained, like clay. These grains are
subangular with low sphericity. It is poorly sorted, with tight packing giving it low
porosity. There are no fossils within the rock. There are an abundance of
sedimentary structures in this unit, such as millimetre scale planar laminations,
cross bedding, asymmetrical ripples, herringbone cross stratifcation, load casts,
convolute bedding and antidunes.

11

Joe Rogers

200697491

University of Leeds

The average grain size throughout the rock is silt making it a siltstone. The
layers of coarser grains show laminations. These laminations are possible lowdensity turbidity currents. The lack of bioturbation suggests an anoxic, deep
marine setting.
From this information, the rock is translated as a laminated siltstone. The
environment of deposition is portrayed as a deep, shelf environment with
sediment input from minor turbidity currents. According to published literature
this is known as the Brathay Formation (Kneller, 1990a) interpreted as graptolitic
laminated siltstone. Although literature discusses graptolite fauna extensively,
particularly monograptus parultimus, none were witnessed in the study area
despite signifcant excavation.

3.8
New Intake Formation
The outcrop seen at grid reference NC: 3286 4962 was of
a 12m x 2.5m block standing proud by about 2m from the
ground. This is the average size and shape for most of the
outcrops seen in this unit. This has the most consistent, very
regular outcrop pattern of proud - but smoothed - sandstone ridges parallel to
strike, all dipping down topography. There is a
Figure 3.9. Hand Specimen of the
New Intake Formation.

large amount of exposure, the most out of the


rock units in the mapping area running through

Long Haws, New Intake and Little Arrow intake down to Torver Beck. After this,
the trend continues but on a smaller scale. At outcrop scale, the colour is light
brown. Beds fne upwards: ranging in size from 10cm to 2m. The contact is
conformable with the Tranearth Formation (3.7) although at no point could be
mapped as seen, so this is inferred from the patterns seen previously of facies
change and structural data.
Hand specimen colour is blue-grey, clastic rock with grain size variations from
a medium sand to silt. In some areas it is very fne grained, like clay. These
grains are subangular with low sphericity. It is poorly sorted, with tight packing
giving it low porosity. The mineralogy of the rock is composed of Quartz, Feldspar
and other rock and lithic fragments. The modal percentage of each component is
30% Lithics, 50% Quartz, 10% Feldspar and 10% unidentifable rock fragments.

12

Joe Rogers

200697491

University of Leeds

There are no fossils within the rock. There are an abundance of sedimentary
structures in this unit, such as millimetre scale planar laminations, cross bedding,
asymmetrical ripples, herringbone cross stratifcation, load casts, convolute
bedding and antidunes.
Using a QFL diagram shows that this rock is a litharenite. The environment of
deposition is shown by a sedimentary log taken at NC: 3285, 4960 shows the
different layers of the Bouma sequence seen in this unit. It shows the Bouma
layers A-B-C. A represents a high energy environment. This is shown by the
graded bedding. B displays the upper flow regime, hence the tool marks. C
shows the lower flow regime .This is seen due to the presence of climbing
ripples. Soft sediment deformation in the form of slump and dish and pillar
structures hint that dewatering was occurred on a steep slope with fast
sedimentation rates.
The environment of deposition is portrayed as a turbidity current at its proximal
stage. According to published literature this is known as the Birk Riggs Formation
(Kneller, 1990a) interpreted as sandstone, siltstone and mudstone turbidites.

Figure 3.10. QFL diagram showing the position of the New Intake
Formation.

13
Figure 3.?. Sedimentary log through the New Intake formation at NC: 3285
4960.

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3.9

200697491

University of Leeds

Figure 3.11. Sedimentary log through the New Intake Formation at NC:
3285 4960.

Wide Close Formation

14

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200697491

University of Leeds

The outcrop seen at grid reference NC: 3289 4958


was of a 6m x 1m block weathered out of the hillside
by about 1m. The average size and shape of this unit is
very small, many too small to be mapped at 3m x 1m x
1m. The shape is weathered and heavily vegetated due
to it protruding out of the landscape. The outcrop
pattern is scarce, with exposure limited. However there are valleys in the
Figure 3.12. Hand Specimen of the
Wide Close Formation.

mapping area which the outcrop can be


seen in the valley sides, for example, at NC
3281 4952 the unit is exposed all along.

Bedding and cleavage is difficult to measure due to the poor nature of the
outcrop. This pattern follows the strike of the valleys. Outcrop colour is a heavily
weathered grey and beds are ~15cm in size. The contact is conformable with the
New Intake Formation (3.8), but not seen. It is at its clearest in the valley areas
where one side is New Intake whereas the other is Wide Close and this follows
the structural readings for both units. The unit is almost identical to the
Tranearth Formation (3.7) but can be distinguished between by the size and
abundance of planar laminations which is greater in the latter. No other units are
of this colour with laminations.
Hand specimen colour is tarnished grey, clastic rock with silt grain size. These
grains are subangular with low sphericity. It is poorly sorted, with tight packing
giving it low porosity. There are no fossils seen within the rock, clearly no
bioturbation. Sedimentary structures are seen, mainly millimetre scale planar
laminations being the distinctive feature in this unit as well as the kinked
cleavage.
The average grain size throughout the rock is silt making it a siltstone. The
layers of coarser grains show laminations. These laminations are possible lowdensity turbidity currents. The lack of bioturbation suggests an anoxic, deep
marine setting. Kinked bands suggest sandstone-shale sequences, similar to
cyclic sequences seen in the turbidite sequences, siltstone beds are banded
across the landscape then where there are spaces between outcrops down dip,
this could be where the mud layers have eroded away.
From this information, the rock is translated as a laminated siltstone. The
environment of deposition is portrayed as a deep, shelf environment with
sediment input from minor turbidity currents. According to published literature
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Joe Rogers

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this is known as the Wray Castle Formation (Kneller, 1990b) interpreted as


laminated siltstone, with subordinate thin graded beds of mudstone, siltstone
and, rarely, fne-grained sandstone. Similarly to the Brathay Formation, literature
discusses graptolite fauna this is crucial in determining the relative ages and
thus differentiating between the units.

3.10
Bleathwaite Formation
The outcrop as seen at grid reference NC: 3290 4954 was
of a 10m x 2m block standing proud by about 1.5m from
the ground. This is the average size and shape for most of
the outcrops seen in this unit. There is a regular outcrop
pattern of proud - but smoothed - sandstone ridges parallel
to strike, all dipping down topography. At outcrop scale, the colour is dark brown.
Figure 3.13. Hand Specimen of the
Bleathwaite Formation.

Beds range in size from 20cm to >1m. The


contact is conformable with the Wide Close
Formation 3.9) although at no point could be

mapped as seen, so this is inferred from the patterns seen previously of facies
change and structural data. The unit is very similar to that of the New Intake
Formation (3.7) but can be distinguished by the smaller grain size. All other units
are different in colour and therefore easy to tell apart.
Hand specimen colour is metallic grey, clastic rock with grain size variations
from a fne sand to silt. In some areas it is very fne grained, like clay. These
grains are subangular with low sphericity. It is poorly sorted, with tight packing
giving it low porosity. The mineralogy of the rock is composed of quartz, feldspar,
and other rock and lithic fragments. There are no fossils within the rock. Few
sedimentary structures are seen, but millimetre scale planar laminations, groove
marks and what could be ripple marks at the base of some beds are present.
Using a QFL diagram shows that this rock is a sublitharenite. The environment
of deposition is shown by a sedimentary log taken at NC: 3294 4955 shows the
different layers of the Bouma sequence seen in this unit. It shows the Bouma
layers A-B.
From this information, the rock is translated as a turbidite sequence. The
environment of deposition is portrayed as a high density turbidity current at its
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proximal stage. According to published literature this is known as the Gawthwaite


Formation (Lawrence et al., 1986) interpreted as thin to medium bedded
sandstone with many intercalated thin beds of graded siltstone and mudstone.

Figure 3.14. QFL diagram showing the position of the Bleathwaite


Formation.

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Figure 3.15. Sedimentary log through the Bleathwaite Formation at NC:


3294 4955.

Figure 3.16. Ripple marks at NC: 3289, 4964, looking


140 determining paleocurrent direction in the New
Intake Formation.

Figure 3.17. Rose diagram showing reconstructed paleocurrent direction


(~163).

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4.
Structure
The Lower Palaeozoic rocks of the Lake District record the Early Palaeozoic
history of the northern margin of Eastern Avalonia. This microcontinent rifted
from Gondwana and drifted north from the high southerly latitudes during the
Ordovician and early Silurian (about 60S to 30S; Torsvik & Trench, 1991).
Structures now preserved in the region record events at the continental margin
during that migration (Millward et al., 2000).

Stereonet Data

Figure 4.1. Stereonet showing the principal bedding direction of the Back Quarry
Formation: 056/55 SE.

Figure 4.2. Stereonet showing the principal bedding direction of the Bursting Stone
Formation: 052/63 SE.
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Figure 4.3. Stereonet showing the principal bedding direction of the Booth How
Formation: 050/46 SE.

Figure 4.4. Stereonet showing the principal bedding direction of the Timley
Formation: 042/45 SE.

Figure 4.5. Stereonet showing the principal bedding direction of the Three Gills
Formation: 043/44 SE.
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Figure 4.6. Stereonet showing the principal bedding direction of the Tranearth
Formation: 041/41 SE.

Figure 4.7. Stereonet showing the principal bedding direction of the New Intake
Formation: 049/45 SE.

Figure 4.8. Stereonet showing the principal bedding direction of the Wide Close
Formation: 051/51 SE.

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Figure 4.9. Stereonet showing the principal bedding direction of the Bleathwaite
Formation: 055/54 SE.

Figure 4.10. Stereonet showing the relationship between principal bedding


direction of each of the volcanic formations, and the 3-D projection into the earth
to show real dip.

Figure 4.11. Stereonet showing the relationship between principal bedding


direction
of each
of the sediment
formations,
and
thethe
3-Dvolcanic
projection
the earth
Above are
stereonets
showing bedding
from
both
andinto
sediment
to show real dip.
formations. All beds (excluding intrusions) are dipping approximately south-east.
The volcanic members are difficult to measure, as good bedding is sparse.
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Measurable bedding is mainly located on the boundary between the contacts.


The sediment units on the other hand are abundant in good bedding surfaces.
Cleavage is clear in both the volcanic and sediment formations. Although not
enough data was acquired to create average stereonets, it is noted that a
majority of the beds cleave in a south-east direction; however the cleavage is
that steep that it is occasionally difficult to determine which direction exactly.
Consequently, some of the volcanic units measure a north-westerly cleavage,
despite this a majority follow the trend of the sediments a dip south-east.

4.2
Faulting
The complex fault pattern of the Lake District has a polyphase evolution
involving reactivation of some volcanotectonic faults, Acadian deformation and
later, Late Palaeozoic extensional tectonism (Millward et al., 2000).
The faults in the northern part of the mapping area are a consequence of the
thermal contraction of the Lake District batholith (Branney & Soper, 1988). Most
of these measured the study area downthrow to the west - corresponding with
the location of the batholith. In the north-east part of the mapping area there is
an extensive section of faulting. These faults run through from the Bursting
Stone Formation, down stratigraphy before ending in the Three Gills Formation.
These faults run directly through gullies carved by streams, which hint at a point
of weakness. The average strike of these faults was ~325. The throw on the
faults averages at 50m, leaving the stratigraphy - particularly in the Timley
Formation - severely distorted. Some appear to have formed conjugate faults, for
example at NC: 3285 4971. Others have joined into other faults to make a
complex fault web. Some faults in this area then continue on up stratigraphy into
the largest fault mapped in the area, frst seen at NC 3280 4978. This fault runs
at ~25 through a large proportion of rock units, seen from the Bursting Stone
Formation down into the Three Gills Formation. Further up dip, at NC: 3276 4972
another fault runs parallel along the same strike as before, like a sister fault.
The density of faults over the mapping area varies, with the large proportion
situated in the northern section around the volcanic units, whereas in the

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sedimentary faulting is far sparser. It is only seen in some areas dotted across
the unit boundaries.
The fault system appears to be normal, with some oblique motion which is to
be expected as real faults do not coincide exactly to models created in the
classroom.
It is difficult to infer relative movement on the faults in certain parts of the
mapping area, as there is signifcant erosion in both the siltstone dominated
beds such as the Three Gills and Wide Close Formations, as well as the limestone
interbedded Timley Formation.
Quartz veins, which are identifable by their white colour with strong vitreous
lustre, coupled with the ability to scratch a hand lens - are seen in areas of
structural extension. This fluid fll occupies accommodated space, particularly in
areas of faulting. For example, at NC: 3285 4972, quartz veins are abundant
within 5-10m of a mapped fault, lying parallel to the fold axis.
Literature states the presence of the Park Gill Thrust. A thrust fault which
gently ramps down-sequence, lying close to the Coniston Group (Millward et al.,
2000). Despite this, in the feld no evidence was seen of such fault. Some quartz
veins were witnessed but not enough to justify a fault. This is not surprising, as it
is stated that this thrust rarely produces any stratigraphical offset.

4.3
Folding
Although no folds were seen intra-unit, there is evidence
for large scale folding across a regional scale. Within the
Bursting Stone formation, there are evidence of minor
folds (see fgure 4.12.) These folds show vergence,
suggesting that the unit is located on the south-east facing
limb of a fold. The limbs of the minor fold are parasitic (see
fgure 4.13.), short wavelength folds formed within a larger
wavelength fold structure - normally associated with
differences in bed thickness.

24

Figure
4.31.
Photograph of minor
fold verging NW at
NC:3264
4951,
looking 176.

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University of Leeds

Figure 4.32. Sketch of a parasitic minor fold at NC: 3272 4976. This shows a vergence
direction to the NW.

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5.
Quaternary Geology
5.1
Superficial Deposits
Superfcial deposits have too been mapped along with bedrock geology. These
unconsolidated sediments overlay signifcant proportions of the study area.
Till is widely distributed over the mapping
area. It is extremely poorly sorted and contains
some very large clasts, which can be traced to
other units in the mapping area. It makes up a
majority of the bogs found in the central area,
where the steep mountainous north has a break
in slope before flattening out. Peat is only found
in one area at NC: 3284 4966 in the boggy flat
central region. The lack of exposure limits an
approximation

of

peat

land

coverage;

this

outcrop is 10m x 0.5m. Alluvium forms present


day floodplains around the extensive network of
rivers, particularly in the low lying areas of
Torver beck NC: 3280 4942.

26

Figure
5.1.
Photograph
of
exposed section of glacial till,
note the unsorted randomly
sized clasts at NC:3285 4978,
looking 354.

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University of Leeds

5.2
Glaciation
Over time the Lake District has been heavily glaciated in various Ice Ages
producing a characteristic geomorphology of wide U-shaped valleys, steep ridges
with Englands highest mountain and deepest and longest lakes.

Evidence for glaciation in the mapping area can be seen in


glacial striations, NC: 3285 4960 (see fgure 5.2). This gives a
direction of ice travel, where glacier movement carves into the
unit below by dragging rock fragments using them as a cutting
tool. From the striations seen, the general ice movement has
Figure
Photograph
straiations.

been calculated at 212.

5.2.
of

Glaciation is also visible from rouche moutonne, present at


NR: 3287 4963 (see fgure 5.3). The passage of glacial ice over
underlying bedrock can result in ripple like asymmetrical
erosional formations. Like a ripple, abrasion on the stoss (up-dip)
side of the rock and plucking on the lee (down-dip) gives rise to
its geomorphology. All the sides and edges have been smoothed
and eroded in the direction that the glacier passed over it. From
Figure
5.3. the rouche moutonne seen, the general ice movement has
Photograph
of at 231.
been calculated
rouche moutonne.

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More signs of glacial activity are shown by the


presence of glacial erratics (see fgure 5.4). These
pieces of rock differ in type to that mapped at the
site

they are

situated

on. They have

been

transported most probably by glacier flow - and


deposited away from their source. They are found
in various locations across the mapping area, all
down-dip from the steep topography seen on the
northern horizon. The location of the boulder
cannot determine ice movement as it has just
been deposited without a trail, although it does

Figure 5.4. Photograph of glacial


erratic with possible source and
flow direction in background at NC:
3275 4957, looking 303.

help give a sense of where it may have come


from by picturing it relative to the terrain up-dip.
This leads onto how the topography of the
study area helps to predict how the landscape was sculpted by ice movement. By
looking at the mapping area as a whole and then by studying the landforms the
progression of ice can be determined.

Figure 5.5. Photograph of updip topography. Glacial cirque with


headwall shows the geomorphology left by previous glaciation at
NC:3274 4958, looking 311.
Figure 5.5. Photograph looking 311 from NC: 3274 4958 of the steep
northern topography from low lying ground in the south.
Looking at fgure 5.6 of the entire area, it is noticeable that in the north there
is a high mountainous zone, with each peak separated by U-shaped valleys.
Centrally there is flat terrain before reaching large rolling hills in the south. A
view of the north from the low lying central region is shown in fgure 5.5.

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Figure 5.6. Satellite image of the eastern mapping area it shows the
steep glaciated topography in the background down into the smooth low
lying foreland (Google Inc., 2014).

5.3
Applied Geology
There is ample evidence of economic geological activity in the study area.
Disused quarries are scattered across the map in many of the units - both
volcanic and sediment. The largest of which is Bursting Stone Quarry located at
NC: 3279 4973. Green, fne-grained slate of the Bursting Stone Formation is
quarried along its cleavage. Slate was formed across wide areas of the Coniston
district during the Acadian orogeny, when an intense cleavage was imposed on
many of the rocks (Millward et al., 2000). Other slates of blue-grey colour are
found within the Windermere Supergroup units (see fgure 5.7. for quarry
locations). Even and regular cleavage occurs in the fne grained and lithologically
uniform sediments and is quarried at: NC: 3269 4955 and NC: 3272 4958 in the
Three Gills Formation; NC: 3289 4969; NC: 3279 4960 and NR: 3280 4961 in the
Tranearth Formation; NC: 3283 4952 in the Wide Close Formation; NC: 3293 4955
in the Bleathwaite Formation.
Old mining equipment such as cables and tracks are found along the eastern
footpath to the summit of The Old Man. There is also a cave further along this
path leading into the northern side at NC: 3275 4980, which is likely to be
attributed to the former Coniston copper mines. Other minerals were too
extracted by various companies over the years; the primary minerals found at
Coniston are: arsenopyrite; chalcopyrite; iron pyrites; malachite; tennantite and
tetrahedrite (Mineexplorer, 2011).

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Figure 5.7. Location a prominent slate quarries and metalliferous mining


in the Ambleside district (Millward et al., 2000).

6.
Discussion
The Lake District lies immediately south of the line of closure of the Iapetus
Ocean. In Ordovician times, this separated the continents of Laurentia to the
north from Avalonia-Gondwana to the south. This closure (seen in fgure 6.1)
started the formation of the lithologies and structure of the mapping area by,
frstly, subducting oceanic crust forming a major volcanic province of arc
volcanism. Regional uplift from a deep oceanic to subaerial environment took
place prior to building of the frst volcanoes. Uplift may have been the inevitable

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consequence of the generation of large volumes of magma that preceded


volcanism at the continental margin (Cooper & Hughes, 1993).

Figure 6.1. Schematic of the closure of the


Iapetus Ocean over time with the relative
positions of each continent (Stone, 2012).

This volcanic arc erupted magma of intermediate/felsic composition creating


the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (Mitchell, 1956). This is shown in the mapping
area by mineralogy of the volcanic members. Large orthoclase phenocrysts are
common in both the tuff units (Back Quarry & Booth How Formations). This
magmatism was explosive (Branney, 1991). Proof in the feld comes from the
presence of famme, which occur in in pyroclastic fall deposits and ignimbrites.
These make up of the volcanic units in the mapping area.
The volcanic arc was situated in a back-arc basin (see fgure 6.2), the Duddon
Basin. It formed from the backward motion of the subduction zone relative to the
motion of the plate which is being subducted. As the subduction zone and its
associated trench pulled backward, the overriding plate stretched, thinning the
crust which is manifest in the back-arc basin. This subsided area flled with
water, becoming a lacustrine environment. This is shown in the study area
volcanics by the structures seen. In particular the Bursting Stone Formation,
which acts as a sediment, contains a vast number of sedimentary structures.
More so, at the boundary between the Bursting Stone Formation and the Booth
How Formation, the contact has too undergone soft sediment deformation. The
overlying unit has sunk into the former, leaving flame like structures protruding

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in. A log (fgure 3.3.) through the Booth How Formation proves a subaqueous
pyroclastic flow deposit, which is further strengthened by dropstone features.

Figure 6.2. Cross-section through atypical of arc system


(Dickenson, 2006).
In the late Ordovician, decreasing volcanic activity due to thermal cooling of
the Lake District Batholith (Branney & Soper, 1988) created (or increased) an
extensive fault system (see fgure 6.3). This fault system is found within the
northern section of the mapping area at ~NC: 3280 4970. It begins in the
volcanic members,

working through

the stratigraphy into the sediment

formations.
Subsidence associated with eruptions in the Duddon Basin produced a
widespread basin in which fluvial and lacustrine sedimentation dominated.
Contemporaneous volcanic activity continued in a reduced form, with the influx
of eruption-generated gravity flows, and beds of ash fall tuff (Millward et al.,
2000). This is shown in the mapping area by the Back Quarry & Booth How
Formations which are both tuffs, with the fnal unit, the Bursting Stone Formation,

32
Figure 6.3. Synoptic structural map of the Ambleside district.
Centre of field area marked by star (Millward et al., 2000).

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being a volcaniclastic sediment was deposited and reworked in a marine


environment.
Sills of basaltic andesite and andesite were emplaced into the unconsolidated,
wet sediments and some of the sills may have broken surface to become
extrusive locally (Millward et al., 2000). These sills are exposed in the study are
at Stubthwaite and Colt Crag, NC: 3282 4980. This is within the Bursting Stone
Formation a unit that originally deposited was reworked marine sediment,
proving a strong correlation.
The fnal products of the volcanic episode are not preserved, probably because
emplacement of laccolithic elements of the Lake District Batholith gave rise to
greater uplift in the west of the district resulting in erosion to form the southwestward overstepping relationship seen at the unconformable base of the
overlying Windermere Supergroup (Millward et al., 2000). The discordant
relationships at the unconformity are inferred as a marine transgression across a
subsiding, subaerial volcanic feld (Branney & Soper 1988).

Figure 6.4. Schematic of fore-arc basin formation (Decelles &


Giles, 1996).
The Windermere basin was formed by the evolving Iapetus Ocean system.
Prior to its formation, the Southern Uplands accretionary prism, flanking the edge
of the Laurentian continent, was advancing towards Avalonia. The load of the
mountains formed during this collision weighed down the Avalonian plate,
causing the development of accommodation space from lithospheric flexure (see
fgure 6.4). As magmatism waned, thermal contraction too allowed marine
conditions to become established across the eroded and thermally subsiding
volcanic pile (Millward et al., 2000). A marked increase in subsidence and the
corresponding increase in sedimentation rate is associated with the foreland

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basin migrating southward across the Lake District during the fnal stages of the
closure of the Iapetus Ocean (Kneller, 1991; King, 1992).
With late Ordovician cessation of volcanism and deformation of the Acadian
Orogeny, (Soper et al., 1987) came deposition within the Windermere Basin.
Sedimentation began in the Caradoc, ~455 Ma and lasted until the Pridoli, ~ 419
Ma, terminated by erosion. The rate of sediment accumulation accelerated with
time due to the increasing proximity of the Avalon mountain belt. This
sedimentation formed the Windermere Supergroup, a sequence of folded and
cleaved, predominantly marine sedimentary rocks, which unconformably overlies
the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (Millward et al. 2000). In the initial shallow
waters, carbonate facies developed creating the Dent Group (a subgroup of the
Windermere Supergroup). This primary carbonate facies is represented in the
study area by the Timley Formation. This was followed by deepening water
deposits represented by the Stockdale group, a series of mud and siltstones,
which display a sedimentation rate high enough to preserve annual variation.
This variation is seen in the laminations of the Tranearth, New Intake and Wide
Close Formations. Finally, a series of sediment gravity currents flowed into the
basin swamping the siltstones beneath. This created a series of sandy turbidites
known as the Coniston Group. The turbidite sequence is just seen in the mapping
area at the southern edge as the youngest unit, the Bleathwaite Formation.
The variation in graptolite fauna is pragmatic in distinguishing between
separate units within the Dent and Stockdale groups. The abundance of different
species can be used to split rock units into graptolite zones. However, it the feld
area no graptolite fossils were recovered only a large array of brachiopods.
About two million years ago, the Lake District was a mountain massif broken
by river valleys radiating outwards from the centre. A period of climatic
oscillations led to a series of ice ages during which the ice flowed out from the
central core, following the river valleys, deepening and widening them, and
depositing streamlined till and other depositional features on the lower land
(Royal Geographical Society, 2014) (see fgure 6.5 for ice movement direction).
The last glacial period in Britain and Ireland was the Devensian glaciation;
~110,000 - 12,000 years ago (Clayton, 2006). This shaped the glacial
geomorphology and features glaciation features such as striations and U-shaped
valleys seen in the feld area.

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The dominant deposit resulting from the Late Devensian glaciation is till, now
forming extensive, featureless spreads (British Geological Survey, 1998; Chapter
12). These spreads are mapped extensively as superfcial deposits covering the
sediment members in the study area.

Figure 6.5. Movement of ice in the Ambleside district.


Calculated ice direction is shown by arrow (222), similar to
literature direction (Millward et al., 2000).
The mapping area lies on a south-facing monocline, the Westmorland
Monocline, the steep limb of which incorporates the north-western margin of the
Windermere Supergroup (Kneller & Bell, 1993). The Bannisdale Syncline is the
major, asymmetric synclinorial structure that bounds the monocline on its southeast side (Millward et al., 2000). Evidence for the Bannisdale Syncline comes
from minor folds in volcanic members at NC: 3263 4956 and NC: 3275 4975.
They display a north-westerly vergence showing that the mapping area is
situated on the southern limb of the syncline (see fgure 6.6). Cleavage too
developed in the Early Devonian (Soper et al., 1987). Cleavage is steeply
inclined, trending 060 to 070 (Millward et al., 2000), witnessed in the mapping
area with an average of 74.

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University of Leeds

Figure 6.6. Cross-section through Ambleside district showing


the location of the mapping area relative to regional
structure (Treagus, 1992).

Conclusion
The bedrock geology of the Coniston mapping area is dominated by two
distinct lithological groups. The northern area is primarily made up of volcanic
formations of both ignimbrite and volcaniclastic rocks. The latter is intruded by
other igneous provinces in the far north-east. The southern area is comprised of
sediment members ranging from mudstone to sandstone, with the presence of
turbidite sequences in the extreme south. The two groups are separated by an
angular unconformity below the Booth How Formation.
The volcanic group was deposited in a mixture of sub-aqueous, sub-aerial and
lacustrine environments as pyroclastic flow and ash fall deposits, with some
reworked into volcaniclastics before being deformed to a shallow dip. The
sediment formations were initially deposited in a shallow marine, shelf
environment as calcareous siltstone before marine transgression and regression
led to variations in depth of marine depositional environments, varying from
mudstone, siltstone to sandstone. High-density, sediment laden currents flowing
down dip into deep marine abyssal settings resulted in the turbidite sequences.
Sedimentation is continuous; however the fluctuating rate of clastic influx from
source affects what and how much can be deposited in these environments.
Regional deformation occurred in two separate phases. The initial developed
post deposition of the volcanic group.
The major fault system which trends NW/SE was created either due to thermal
contraction of the cooling Lake District Batholith, continuing fore-arc subduction
or plate collision of the Acadian Orogeny. The direction of motion of the faults is
an oblique-slip movement.
The geomorphology of the area was shaped by preceding glacial events, but
predominantly by the late Devensian ice age. It has shaped the landscape into
characteristic U-shaped valleys with associated cirques and hanging valleys.

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The superfcial geology of the mapping area covers a majority of the sediment
group and signifcant parts of the volcanic in lower topography areas. Glacial till,
a remnant of previous glaciation, is stricken over the low lying sediments in the
southern areas and covers the volcaniclastics in the west. Localised peat and
alluvium at river banks is too seen.

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Latterbarrow and Redmain sandstones, Lake District, England. Geological
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Dickenson, W. (2006) Phanerozoic palinspastic reconstructions of Great Basin


geotectonics (Nevada-Utah, USA). Geosphere. 9: 1884-1396.

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Hartley, J.J. (1925) The succession and structure of the Borrowdale Volcanic
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late Ordovician and Silurian rocks (Windermere Group) in the area around
Kentmere and Crook. Report of the British Geological Survey. 18, No. 5.
Marr, J.E. (1982) On the Wenlock and Ludlow Strata of the Lake District.
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Marr, J.E. & Nicholson, H.A. (1988) The Stockdale Shales. Quarterly Journal of
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Millward, D.; Johnson, E. W.; Beddoe-Stephens, B.; Young, B.; Kneller, B. C.; Lee,
M. K.; Fortey, N. J.; Allen, P. M.; Branney, M. J.; Cooper, D. C.; Hirons, S.; Kokelaar,
B. P.; Marks, R. J.; McConnell, B. J.; Merritt, J. W.; Molyneux, S. G.; Petterson, M. G.;
Roberts, B.; Rundle, C. C.; Rushton, A. W. A.; Scott, R. W.; Soper, N. J. & Stone, P.
(2000) Geology of the Ambleside district. Memoir of the British Geological
Survey, England and Wales, Sheet 38.

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Millward, D. (2004) The Caradoc Volcanoes of the English Lake District.


Yorkshire Geological Society. 55(2): 73-105.
Mitchell, G.H. (1956) The geological history of the Lake District. Proceedings of
the Yorkshire Geological Society. 30: 407-463.
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http://www.mineexplorer.org.uk/coniston.htm . (Accessed 24th November 2014).
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petrographic study. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society. 52: 243254.
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District, with a note on similar rocks in Wales. Geological Magazine. 91: 473483.
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area, English Lake District. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of
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J.M.; Rodas, M. & Clarke, M. (2010) The Graphite Deposit at Borrowdale (UK) : a
Catastrophic

Mineralizing

Event

Associated

with

Ordovician

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Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 74: 24292449.


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Scott, R.W. & Kneller, B.C. (1990) A report on the lithostratigraphy of the Ashgill
and Llandovery age rocks on Sheet 38 (Ambleside). British Geological Survey
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Valley. Geological Conservation Review Series. 3: 177.
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Software Used
Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Visible Geology Stereonet, Sedilog, ArcGIS,
CorelDraw, Google Earth.

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TUTORIAL REPORT FORM: FINAL YEAR PROJECTS


Student Name: Joe Rogers
Advisor name: Dr Crispin Little
Tutorial 1. Date: 10/10/2014
ABSENT

Tutorial 2. Date: 31/10/2014


- Finalise dissertation structure, write up introduction and title pages
- First draft of lithological descriptions
- Begin layout of structure section

Tutorial 3. Date: 14/11/2014


ABSENT

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Joe Rogers

200697491

Tutorial 4. Date: 28/11/2014


- First draft of structure
- Begin layout of discussion
- Amend lithological descriptions

Tutorial 5. Date: 12/12/2014


- Amend structure
- Finalise discussion
- Plan for hand in and fnishing report

Other meetings: N/A


Advisor's comments on project.

Advisor's signature: ______________


Student's signature: ______________

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University of Leeds

Joe Rogers

200697491

University of Leeds

Appendix
Map, Cross-section, Stratigraphic Column, Field Slips
Documents kept separate.

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